WorldWideScience

Sample records for knowledge representation standards

  1. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  2. Knowledge Representation and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Stephan

    Knowledge representation and reasoning aims at designing computer systems that reason about a machine-interpretable representation of the world. Knowledge-based systems have a computational model of some domain of interest in which symbols serve as surrogates for real world domain artefacts, such as physical objects, events, relationships, etc. [1]. The domain of interest can cover any part of the real world or any hypothetical system about which one desires to represent knowledge for com-putational purposes. A knowledge-based system maintains a knowledge base, which stores the symbols of the computational model in the form of statements about the domain, and it performs reasoning by manipulating these symbols. Applications can base their decisions on answers to domain-relevant questions posed to a knowledge base.

  3. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  4. Knowledge Representation: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews different structures and techniques of knowledge representation: structure of database records and files, data structures in computer programming, syntatic and semantic structure of natural language, knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, and models of human memory. A prototype expert system that makes use of some of these…

  5. Knowledge representation and use. II. Representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriere, J L

    1982-03-01

    The use of computers is less and less restricted to numerical and data processing. On the other hand, current software mostly contains algorithms on universes with complete information. The paper discusses a different family of programs: expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. This part is mainly a reflection and a debate about the various modes of acquisition and representation of human knowledge. 32 references.

  6. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...... of the relationships between several existing knowledge representation formalisms, providing a basis from which more expressive models can be later developed....

  7. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  8. Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html

  9. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldager, Steen Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    One of the main areas in knowledge representation and logic-based artificial intelligence concerns logical formalisms that can be used for representing and reasoning with concepts. For almost 30 years, since research in this area began, the issue of intensionality has had a special status...

  10. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  11. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  12. Standardization of beam line representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, David C.

    1998-01-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed

  13. Standardization of beam line representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed

  14. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  15. development of ontological knowledge representation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents the development of an ontological knowledge organization and .... intelligence in order to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse of acquired knowledge (15). Soon, ..... Water Chemistry, AJCE, 1(2), 50-58. 25.

  16. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  17. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  18. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  19. Accounting Knowledge Representation in PROLOG Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some original techniques for implementing accounting knowledge in PROLOG language. We will represent rules of operation of accounts, the texts of accounting operations, and how to compute the depreciation.Keywords: accounting, knowledge representation, PROLOG, depreciation, natural language processing

  20. Systematic Representation of Biology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletti, Joseph

    A major goal of science education is to turn novices (students) into experts (scientists or science literates) with a minimum amount of pain, effort, and time. However, transfer of biology knowledge from instructor to student usually results in a loss of the rich interconnections that an expert has. The papers in this set describe efforts to…

  1. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  2. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  3. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital......’s views are brought to light within the design interactions. A new digital reality is created at the periphery of the situated knowledge through continuous negotiations and joint meaning making....

  4. Some Problems and Proposals for Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    BROTHER(BiI, AI ) and FATHER( AI ,John) According to Woods, these both denote the fact that Bill is the uncle of John. However, we now must have two...34knowledge representation language being developed at the Berkeley Artificial Inteligience Research Project. KODIAK is an attempt to redress the above

  5. Software GOLUCA: Knowledge Representation in Mental Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Garcia, Luis M.; Luengo-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Godinho-Lopes, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    We present a new software, called Goluca (Godinho, Luengo, and Casas, 2007), based on the technique of Pathfinder Associative Networks (Schvaneveldt, 1989), which produces graphical representations of the cognitive structure of individuals in a given field knowledge. In this case, we studied the strategies used by teachers and its relationship…

  6. Paired fuzzy sets as a basic structure for knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an unifying approach to a number of fuzzy models that share the existence of two opposite concepts. In particular, we stress that standard structures for knowledge representation are being built from a family of related concepts, paired concepts in case we simply consider...

  7. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  8. Data Representation, Coding, and Communication Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Milon; Dhir, Rajiv

    2015-06-01

    The immense volume of cases signed out by surgical pathologists on a daily basis gives little time to think about exactly how data are stored. An understanding of the basics of data representation has implications that affect a pathologist's daily practice. This article covers the basics of data representation and its importance in the design of electronic medical record systems. Coding in surgical pathology is also discussed. Finally, a summary of communication standards in surgical pathology is presented, including suggested resources that establish standards for select aspects of pathology reporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation, Use, and Refinement of Knowledge Representations through Acquisition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Generative approaches to language have long recognized the natural link between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition. The basic idea is that the knowledge representations provided by Universal Grammar enable children to acquire language as reliably as they do because these representations highlight the…

  10. Knowledge representation for decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlie, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book is organized into three sections in accordance with the structure of the conference program. First section contains four major papers which were commissioned by the Programme Committee to set the tone for the conference and to provide a structured source of relevant material from contributing disciplines. The second section contains specific papers submitted to the conference, and concerned with the following topics of specific interest: epistemological issues for decision support systems (DSS), capturing organizational knowledge for DSS, complementarity between human and formal DSS, and representations for adaption. The third section contains the short papers on any topic of relevance to the theme of the conference. It is hoped that the two working conferences organized by WG 8.3 will contribute to the development of a coherent knowledge and understanding of the class of computerized information systems called Decision Support Systems. (Auth.)

  11. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available

  12. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2015-05-15

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available.

  13. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  14. Knowledge Representation in the Context of E-business Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena Varlan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the theoretical principles of knowledge representation. The paper also tries to show how to represent knowledge in the context of e-business applications creating atagging platform for economic knowledge using SKOS language.

  15. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  16. Do Knowledge-Component Models Need to Incorporate Representational Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina Angela

    2017-01-01

    Traditional knowledge-component models describe students' content knowledge (e.g., their ability to carry out problem-solving procedures or their ability to reason about a concept). In many STEM domains, instruction uses multiple visual representations such as graphs, figures, and diagrams. The use of visual representations implies a…

  17. Grasp Representations Depend on Knowledge and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Seeing pictures of objects activates the motor cortex and can have an influence on subsequent grasping actions. However, the exact nature of the motor representations evoked by these pictures is unclear. For example, action plans engaged by pictures could be most affected by direct visual input and computed online based on object shape.…

  18. Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

    2008-11-06

    PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration.

  19. An Ontology for Knowledge Representation and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nhon Do

    2008-01-01

    Ontology is a terminology which is used in artificial intelligence with different meanings. Ontology researching has an important role in computer science and practical applications, especially distributed knowledge systems. In this paper we present an ontology which is called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology. It has been used in designing some knowledge base systems for solving problems such as the system that supports studying knowledge and solving analytic ...

  20. Knowledge Representation and Management, It's Time to Integrate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhombres, F; Charlet, J

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To select, present, and summarize the best papers published in 2016 in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods: A comprehensive and standardized review of the medical informatics literature was performed based on a PubMed query. Results: Among the 1,421 retrieved papers, the review process resulted in the selection of four best papers focused on the integration of heterogeneous data via the development and the alignment of terminological resources. In the first article, the authors provide a curated and standardized version of the publicly available US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Such a resource will improve the quality of the underlying data, and enable standardized analyses using common vocabularies. The second article describes a project developed in order to facilitate heterogeneous data integration in the i2b2 framework. The originality is to allow users integrate the data described in different terminologies and to build a new repository, with a unique model able to support the representation of the various data. The third paper is dedicated to model the association between multiple phenotypic traits described within the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the corresponding genotype in the specific context of rare diseases (rare variants). Finally, the fourth paper presents solutions to annotation-ontology mapping in genome-scale data. Of particular interest in this work is the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) and its generic association model, the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN). Conclusion: Ontologies have started to show their efficiency to integrate medical data for various tasks in medical informatics: electronic health records data management, clinical research, and knowledge-based systems development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  1. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ramesh S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  2. Knowledge representation in a world with vague concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresp, C. [Aachen Technical Univ. (Germany); Becks, A.; Klinkenberg, R.; Hiltner, J. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the foundation of a knowledge representation system is introduced. It deals with fuzzy concepts and uncertain relationships. The problem we finally wish to solve, lays in the fact that on the one hand most actual methods of knowledge representation are not able to deal with vague knowledge. On the other hand, those few methods that care for vagueness lack well-defined semantics and therefore do not have a implementation-independent behavior. The proposed method is designed to model vague knowledge with well-defined semantics. Besides the language definition, basic patterns of reasoning are introduced.

  3. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  4. A Structural Knowledge Representation Approach in Emergency Knowledge Reorganization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qingquan; Rong, Lili

    2007-01-01

    Facing complicate problems in emergency responses, decision makers should acquire sufficient background knowledge for efficient decision-making. Emergency knowledge acquired can be a kind of special product that is transferred among emergency decision makers and functional departments. The processing of knowledge product motivates the emergency knowledge decomposition and event-oriented knowledge integration, i.e. knowledge reorganization. Supported by the semantic power of category theory, t...

  5. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to represent knowledge is often considered essential to build systems with reasoning capabilities. In computer science, a good solution often depends on a good representation. The first step in development of most computer applications is selection of a representation for the input, output, and intermediate results that the program will operate upon. For applications in artificial intelligence, this initial choice of representation is especially important. This is because the possible representational paradigms are diverse and the forcing criteria for the choice are usually not clear in the beginning. Yet, the consequences of an inadequate choice can be devastating in the later state of a project if it is discovered that critical information cannot be encoded within the chosen representational paradigm. Problems arise when designing representational systems to support any kind of Knowledge-Base System, that is a computer system that uses knowledge to perform some task. The general case of knowledge-based systems can be thought of as reasoning agents applying knowledge to achieve goals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) research involves building computer systems to perform tasks of perception and reasoning, as well as storage and retrieval of data. The problem of automatically perceiving large patterns in data is a perceptual task that begins to be important for many expert systems applications. Most of AI research assumes that what needs to be represented is known a priori; an AI researcher's job is just figuring out how to encode the information in the system's data structure and procedures. 10 refs

  6. Frame as representation of knowledge in the cognitive aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Ивашкевич

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of representation of different types of knowledge in cognitive linguistics. The author makes a special emphasis on the presentation of frame which is considered to be one of the cognitive structures of knowledge within the meaning of words.

  7. Qualitative Knowledge Representations for Intelligent Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoungho; Huh, Young H.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative Physics(QP) has systematically been approached to qualitative modeling of physical systems for recent two decades. Designing intelligent systems for NPP requires an efficient representation of qualitative knowledge about the behavior and structure of NPP or its components. A novel representation of qualitative knowledge also enables intelligent systems to derive meaningful conclusions from incomplete or uncertain knowledge of a plant behavior. We look mainly into representative QP works on nuclear applications and the representation of qualitative knowledge for the diagnostic model, the qualitative simulation of a mental model of NPP operator, and the qualitative interpretation of the measured raw data from NPP. We present the challenging areas for QP applications in nuclear industry. QP technology will make NPP more intelligent

  8. Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    processing large volumes of unstructured information such as natural language documents, email, audio , images and video [Ferrucci et al. 2006]. Using this...information we hope to obtain improved es- timation and prediction, data-mining, social network analysis, and semantic search and visualisation . Knowledge

  9. Knowledge representation and use. I. Expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriere, J L

    1982-01-01

    Expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. The paper describes their design and several implementations. 105 references.

  10. Consultation system with knowledge representation by decision rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne, E L.F.; Simoni, P O

    1982-04-01

    The use of decision rules in the representation of empirical knowledge supplied by application domain experts is discussed. Based on this representation, a system is described which employs artificial intelligence techniques to yield inferences within a specific domain. Three modules composing the system are described: the acquisition one, that allows the insertion of new rules; the diagnostic one, that uses rules in the inference process; and the explanation one, that exhibits reasons for each system action.

  11. Semantic Network and Frame Knowledge Representation Formalisms in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Pshtiwan Qader

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Choosing a suitable method to represent the knowledge concerning the real world is one of the major issues involved in Artificial Intelligence. The purpose of this research is to consider the important beneficial roles of semantic network and frame formalisms for knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence. The basic properties of the above methods for appropriate structuring and arranging the knowledge are presented. Some types of relationships, the conceptual graph...

  12. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Chen; Yang Gong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our desig...

  13. Knowledge representation within information systems in manufacturing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Amir M

    2004-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Representing knowledge as information content alone is insufficient in providing us with an understanding of the world around us. A combination of context as well as reasoning of the information content is fundamental to representing knowledge in an information system. Knowledge Representation is typically concerned with providing structures and theories that are used as a basis for intellige...

  14. Computer simulation as representation of knowledge in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krekic, Valerija Pinter; Namestovski, Zolt

    2009-01-01

    According to Aebli's operative method (1963) and Bruner's (1974) theory of representation the development of the process of thinking in teaching has the following phases - levels of abstraction: manipulation with specific things (specific phase), iconic representation (figural phase), symbolic representation (symbolic phase). Modern information technology has contributed to the enrichment of teaching and learning processes, especially in the fields of natural sciences and mathematics and those of production and technology. Simulation appears as a new possibility in the representation of knowledge. According to Guetzkow (1972) simulation is an operative representation of reality from a relevant aspect. It is about a model of an objective system, which is dynamic in itself. If that model is material it is a simple simulation, if it is abstract it is a reflective experiment, that is a computer simulation. This present work deals with the systematization and classification of simulation methods in the teaching of natural sciences and mathematics and of production and technology with special retrospective view on computer simulations and exemplar representation of the place and the role of this modern method of cognition. Key words: Representation of knowledge, modeling, simulation, education

  15. A schema for knowledge representation and its implementation in a computer-aided design and manufacturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamir, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modularity in the design and implementation of expert systems relies upon cooperation among the expert systems and communication of knowledge between them. A prerequisite for an effective modular approach is some standard for knowledge representation to be used by the developers of the different modules. In this work the author presents a schema for knowledge representation, and apply this schema in the design of a rule-based expert system. He also implements a cooperative expert system using the proposed knowledge representation method. A knowledge representation schema is a formal specification of the internal, conceptual, and external components of a knowledge base, each specified in a separate schema. The internal schema defines the structure of a knowledge base, the conceptual schema defines the concepts, and the external schema formalizes the pragmatics of a knowledge base. The schema is the basis for standardizing knowledge representation systems and it is used in the various phases of design and specification of the knowledge base. A new model of knowledge representation based on a pattern recognition interpretation of implications is developed. This model implements the concept of linguistic variables and can, therefore, emulate human reasoning with linguistic imprecision. The test case for the proposed schema of knowledge representation is a system is a cooperative expert system composed of two expert systems. This system applies a pattern recognition interpretation of a generalized one-variable implication with linguistic variables.

  16. Knowledge Representation Of CT Scans Of The Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laurens V.; Burke, M. W.; Rada, Roy

    1984-06-01

    We have been investigating diagnostic knowledge models which assist in the automatic classification of medical images by combining information extracted from each image with knowledge specific to that class of images. In a more general sense we are trying to integrate verbal and pictorial descriptions of disease via representations of knowledge, study automatic hypothesis generation as related to clinical medicine, evolve new mathematical image measures while integrating them into the total diagnostic process, and investigate ways to augment the knowledge of the physician. Specifically, we have constructed an artificial intelligence knowledge model using the technique of a production system blending pictorial and verbal knowledge about the respective CT scan and patient history. It is an attempt to tie together different sources of knowledge representation, picture feature extraction and hypothesis generation. Our knowledge reasoning and representation system (KRRS) works with data at the conscious reasoning level of the practicing physician while at the visual perceptional level we are building another production system, the picture parameter extractor (PPE). This paper describes KRRS and its relationship to PPE.

  17. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  18. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene......Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  19. EMR-based medical knowledge representation and inference via Markov random fields and distributed representation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Jiang, Jingchi; Guan, Yi; Guo, Xitong; He, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) contain medical knowledge that can be used for clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to develop a general system that can extract and represent knowledge contained in EMRs to support three CDS tasks-test recommendation, initial diagnosis, and treatment plan recommendation-given the condition of a patient. We extracted four kinds of medical entities from records and constructed an EMR-based medical knowledge network (EMKN), in which nodes are entities and edges reflect their co-occurrence in a record. Three bipartite subgraphs (bigraphs) were extracted from the EMKN, one to support each task. One part of the bigraph was the given condition (e.g., symptoms), and the other was the condition to be inferred (e.g., diseases). Each bigraph was regarded as a Markov random field (MRF) to support the inference. We proposed three graph-based energy functions and three likelihood-based energy functions. Two of these functions are based on knowledge representation learning and can provide distributed representations of medical entities. Two EMR datasets and three metrics were utilized to evaluate the performance. As a whole, the evaluation results indicate that the proposed system outperformed the baseline methods. The distributed representation of medical entities does reflect similarity relationships with respect to knowledge level. Combining EMKN and MRF is an effective approach for general medical knowledge representation and inference. Different tasks, however, require individually designed energy functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  1. The epistemic representation: visual production and communication of scientific knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Cantos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its great influence on the History of Science, visual representations have attracted marginal interest until very recently and have often been regarded as a simple aid for mere illustration or scientific demonstration. However, it has been shown that visualization is an integral element of reasoning and a highly effective and common heuristic strategy in the scientific community and that the study of the conditions of visual production and communication are essential in the development of scientific knowledge. In this paper we deal with the nature of the various forms of visual representation of knowledge that have been happening throughout the history of science, taking as its starting point the illustrated monumental works and three-dimensional models that begin to develop within the scientific community around the fifteenth century. The main thesis of this paper is that any scientific visual representations have common elements that allow us to approach them from epistemic nature, heuristic and communicative dimension.

  2. A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Fikes, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...

  3. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene...

  4. Disciplinary Representation on Institutional Websites: Changing Knowledge, Changing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate; Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses shifts in the representation of history and physics as named organisational units on Australian university websites over the last 15 years in the context of broader questions about the production of knowledge in contemporary times. It derives from a broader project concerned with disciplinarity, changing university contexts and…

  5. Enhancing Conceptual Knowledge of Energy in Biology with Incorrect Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernecke, Ulrike; Schütte, Kerstin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Harms, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Energy is an important concept in all natural sciences, and a challenging one for school science education. Students' conceptual knowledge of energy is often low, and they entertain misconceptions. Educational research in science and mathematics suggests that learning through depictive representations and learning from errors, based on the theory…

  6. Representation mutations from standard genetic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisah, I.; Suyudi, M.; Carnia, E.; Suhendi; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Graph is widely used in everyday life especially to describe model problem and describe it concretely and clearly. In addition graph is also used to facilitate solve various kinds of problems that are difficult to be solved by calculation. In Biology, graph can be used to describe the process of protein synthesis in DNA. Protein has an important role for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid). Proteins are composed of amino acids. In this study, amino acids are related to genetics, especially the genetic code. The genetic code is also known as the triplet or codon code which is a three-letter arrangement of DNA nitrogen base. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). While on RNA thymine (T) is replaced with Urasil (U). The set of all Nitrogen bases in RNA is denoted by N = {C U, A, G}. This codon works at the time of protein synthesis inside the cell. This codon also encodes the stop signal as a sign of the stop of protein synthesis process. This paper will examine the process of protein synthesis through mathematical studies and present it in three-dimensional space or graph. The study begins by analysing the set of all codons denoted by NNN such that to obtain geometric representations. At this stage there is a matching between the sets of all nitrogen bases N with Z 2 × Z 2; C=(\\overline{0},\\overline{0}),{{U}}=(\\overline{0},\\overline{1}),{{A}}=(\\overline{1},\\overline{0}),{{G}}=(\\overline{1},\\overline{1}). By matching the algebraic structure will be obtained such as group, group Klein-4,Quotien group etc. With the help of Geogebra software, the set of all codons denoted by NNN can be presented in a three-dimensional space as a multicube NNN and also can be represented as a graph, so that can easily see relationship between the codon.

  7. Logical knowledge representation of regulatory relations in biomedical pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on regulatory relations, in for example regulatory pathways in biology, is used widely in experiment design by biomedical researchers and in systems biology. The knowledge has typically either been represented through simple graphs or through very expressive differential equation...... simulations of smaller parts of a pathway. In this work we suggest a knowledge representation of the most basic relations in regulatory processes regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates in logics based on a semantic analysis. We discuss the usage of these relations in biology and in articial...... intelligence for hypothesis development in drug discovery....

  8. On knowledge representation for high energy physics control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huuskonen, P.; Kaarela, K.; Meri, M.; Le Goff, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A framework for knowledge representation in the domain of high energy physics control systems is presented. Models of process equipment, controls, documents, information systems, functional dependencies, physical interconnections, and design decisions are necessary to allow for automated reasoning about such systems. A number of support systems can use these models: alarm processing, fault diagnosis, sensor validation, preventive maintenance, action analysis, information abstraction, intelligent help systems, and on-line documentation. Our aim is to achieve representations that would be understood by end users, could be constructed by domain experts, and would be powerful enough to function as a basis for these support systems. It is proposed to base these models on means-end-analysis, implemented through an entity-relationship type of representation and extended with the notion of contribution. The paper outlines class hierarchies and relation types to form a vocabulary for talking about this specific domain. A number of implementation concerns are raised and some examples of how these representations can be used in real cases are offered. The representations are likely to prove most useful for support systems that function in the user assisting mode, as opposed to fully autonomous systems. Intelligent help and information abstraction applications, in particular, are expected to benefit. The main focus of the work is that of the control information system concepts based on encapsulated real- time objects (CICERO) project at CERN, experiment controls, but the results are usable for accelerator control systems and for industrial control systems in general. (author). 37 refs., 7 figs

  9. Knowledge Representation and Management: a Linked Data Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, M; Couto, F M

    2016-11-10

    Biomedical research is increasingly becoming a data-intensive science in several areas, where prodigious amounts of data is being generated that has to be stored, integrated, shared and analyzed. In an effort to improve the accessibility of data and knowledge, the Linked Data initiative proposed a well-defined set of recommendations for exposing, sharing and integrating data, information and knowledge, using semantic web technologies. The main goal of this paper is to identify the current status and future trends of knowledge representation and management in Life and Health Sciences, mostly with regard to linked data technologies. We selected three prominent linked data studies, namely Bio2RDF, Open PHACTS and EBI RDF platform, and selected 14 studies published after 2014 (inclusive) that cited any of the three studies. We manually analyzed these 14 papers in relation to how they use linked data techniques. The analyses show a tendency to use linked data techniques in Life and Health Sciences, and even if some studies do not follow all of the recommendations, many of them already represent and manage their knowledge using RDF and biomedical ontologies. These insights from RDF and biomedical ontologies are having a strong impact on how knowledge is generated from biomedical data, by making data elements increasingly connected and by providing a better description of their semantics. As health institutes become more data centric, we believe that the adoption of linked data techniques will continue to grow and be an effective solution to knowledge representation and management.

  10. Towards Ontology as Knowledge Representation for Intellectual Capital Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadjabbari, B.; Wongthongtham, P.; Dillon, T. S.

    For many years, physical asset indicators were the main evidence of an organization’s successful performance. However, the situation has changed after information technology revolution in the knowledge-based economy. Since 1980’s business performance has not been limited only to physical assets instead intellectual capital are increasingly playing a major role in business performance. In this paper, we utilize ontology as a tool for knowledge representation in the domain of intellectual capital measurement. The ontology classifies ways of intangible capital measurement.

  11. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of Semantic Web based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics. https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl. robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-04-21

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge.We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of SemanticWeb based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics.https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl.robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our design, implementation, and evaluation of the ontology at its initial stage. Findings: We describe the design and initial outcomes of the ontology implementation. The evaluation results demonstrate the clinical validity of the ontology by a self-developed survey measurement. Research limitations: The proposed ontology was developed and evaluated using a small number of information sources. Presently, US data are used, but they are not essential for the ultimate structure of the ontology. Practical implications: The goal of improving patient safety can be aided through investigating patient safety reports and providing actionable knowledge to clinical practitioners. As such, constructing a domain specific ontology for patient safety reports serves as a cornerstone in information collection and text mining methods. Originality/value: The use of ontologies provides abstracted representation of semantic information and enables a wealth of applications in a reporting system. Therefore, constructing such a knowledge base is recognized as a high priority in health care.

  14. Representation and Use of Knowledge in Automatic Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendeford, Tor S.

    1996-01-01

    The report relates activities performed within the ongoing project on Integrated Diagnosis Systems (IDS). A unifying aspect of the activities is representation of knowledge applied in diagnosis. New ways of representing such knowledge can improve the diagnoses, enable reuse, and facilitate consistent integration with other operator support systems. The tasks of the diagnostic process, and the roles of domain knowledge, are discussed in relation to different methods of diagnosis. Two primary methods of diagnosis are recognised in the report, model-based and association-based. Distinct differences of these two methods are identified as focus for integration. A methodology for specifying the design of diagnosis systems is reviewed. This methodology seems to provide a good theoretical basis for understanding problems of fault diagnosis. Qualitative and functional modelling methods are studied by application to a common example domain. The two specific techniques are found to be promising in relation to diagnosis. A software setup for simulated diagnosis is presented. This setup is to be used in the activity on knowledge representation, where a blackboard system is the central module of the setup. Presentations of process domain knowledge show the capabilities of the blackboard architecture and suggest schemes for integrated use of the information. The object-oriented architecture is also shown to serve the needs for presentation of diagnostic reasoning, which is a vital aspect when integrating different diagnosis methods. (author)

  15. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear

  16. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyato, N., E-mail: miyato.naoaki@jaea.go.jp; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-116 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.

  17. Representation and management of temporal and uncertain knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of uncertain temporal knowledge representation and management, especially for process verification and supervisor systems design. The evolution of process behaviour is time dependent and information describing this temporal evolution is uncertain/imprecise. In Artificial Intelligence, time and uncertainty have been, since long-time, considered as two of the most difficult research fields. Furthermore, these two fields, even different, may be present in an interactive way. We now try to deal with this special kind of uncertainty: temporal uncertainty. Integrating time and uncertainty brings out study issues of temporal information representation, events ordering and temporal reasoning under uncertainty. The investigation of these problems has been guided by preserving the intrinsic properties of time. The main contribution of this thesis can be summarised as follows: (1) unified representation of uncertainty and imprecision over temporal information; (2) formal structuring of time under uncertainty; (3) formalising fuzzy temporal reasoning system; (4) modelling temporal evolution of process, providing associated reasoning mechanism to verify the process evolution, modelling fuzzy temporal Petri nets; (5) design and implementation of SURTEL, a programming tool for dealing with uncertain temporal information and knowledge. (author) [fr

  18. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Beecham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  19. Hierarchical representation and utilization of plant constitution knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Y.; Asami, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method to represent and utilize plant constitution knowledge is described. A plant system is divided into many subsystems and hierarchically represented using frames. The frames include the slots of an upper-system, lower-systems and components' connections. Connections are divided into subsystems external connections and internal connections. This knowledge representation allows top-down analysis of the plant constitution and components' connectivities. The data are edited by drawing plant diagrams on a CRT and converting them into frames. The frame data area verified by checking upper-lower relationships and components' connectivities. As an example of knowledge utilization a method to find a components' connection route is described. This method prevents the combinatorial explosion of components' connections by finding rough routes in advance of detailed route analysis

  20. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  1. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  2. Knowledge Representation and Management. From Ontology to Annotation. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Knowledge Representation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, J; Darmoni, S J

    2015-08-13

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A comprehensive review of medical informatics literature was performed to select some of the most interesting papers of KRM published in 2014. Four articles were selected, two focused on annotation and information retrieval using an ontology. The two others focused mainly on ontologies, one dealing with the usage of a temporal ontology in order to analyze the content of narrative document, one describing a methodology for building multilingual ontologies. Semantic models began to show their efficiency, coupled with annotation tools.

  3. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  4. Guideline Formalization and Knowledge Representation for Clinical Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago OLIVEIRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} The prevalence of situations of medical error and defensive medicine in healthcare institutions is a great concern of the medical community. Clinical Practice Guidelines are regarded by most researchers as a way to mitigate theseoccurrences; however, there is a need to make them interactive, easier to update and to deploy. This paper provides a model for Computer-Interpretable Guidelines based on the generic tasks of the clinical process, devised to be included in the framework of a Clinical Decision Support System. Aiming to represent medical recommendations in a simple and intuitive way. Hence, this work proposes a knowledge representation formalism that uses an Extension to Logic Programming to handle incomplete information. This model is used to represent different cases of missing, conflicting and inexact information with the aid of a method to quantify its quality. The integration of the guideline model with the knowledge representation formalism yields a clinical decision model that relies on the development of multiple information scenarios and the exploration of different clinical hypotheses.

  5. Guideline Formalization and Knowledge Representation for Clinical Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo NOVAIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} The prevalence of situations of medical error and defensive medicine in healthcare institutions is a great concern of the medical community. Clinical Practice Guidelines are regarded by most researchers as a way to mitigate these occurrences; however, there is a need to make them interactive, easier to update and to deploy. This paper provides a model for Computer-Interpretable Guidelines based on the generic tasks of the clinical process, devised to be included in the framework of a Clinical Decision Support System. Aiming to represent medical recommendations in a simple and intuitive way. Hence, this work proposes a knowledge representation formalism that uses an Extension to Logic Programming to handle incomplete information. This model is used to represent different cases of missing, conflicting and inexact information with the aid of a method to quantify its quality. The integration of the guideline model with the knowledge representation formalism yields a clinical decision model that relies on the development of multiple information scenarios and the exploration of different clinical hypotheses.

  6. Standardized Representation of Clinical Study Data Dictionaries with CIMI Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak K; Solbrig, Harold R; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Pathak, Jyotishman; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a tabular format to describe and represent clinical study data. The lack of standardization of data dictionary's metadata elements presents challenges for their harmonization for similar studies and impedes interoperability outside the local context. We propose that representing data dictionaries in the form of standardized archetypes can help to overcome this problem. The Archetype Modeling Language (AML) as developed by the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) can serve as a common format for the representation of data dictionary models. We mapped three different data dictionaries (identified from dbGAP, PheKB and TCGA) onto AML archetypes by aligning dictionary variable definitions with the AML archetype elements. The near complete alignment of data dictionaries helped map them into valid AML models that captured all data dictionary model metadata. The outcome of the work would help subject matter experts harmonize data models for quality, semantic interoperability and better downstream data integration.

  7. What Does Knowledge Look Like? Drawing as a Means of Knowledge Representation and Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Tracey; Evans, M. Max

    2015-01-01

    The most common tools individuals use to articulate complex and abstract concepts are writing and spoken language, long privileged as primary forms of communication. However, our, explanations of these concepts may be more aptly communicated through visual means, such as drawings. Interpreting and analyzing abstract graphic representations is…

  8. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  9. Nuclear Knowledge Capture and IEC Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: An International Standard is a document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. As such, it is a mechanism for sharing knowledge in a particular field. The consensus process used to approve the content of standards ensures that the content is essentially peer-reviewed. This presentation will explain how International Standards are developed and used and their importance in the dissemination of scientific and engineering information. It will also explain the role of the IEC in ensuring that the process for developing standards meets the core principles of the Code of Good Practice of the WTO TBT agreement: transparency, openness, impartiality and consensus, effectiveness and relevance, coherence, and addressing the concerns of developing countries. (author

  10. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    as in the private sector. The theoretical background is the establishment of a representational system, which ontologically comprises a representation of notions in the "real world" and notions which include the representation of these. Thus, the thesis leans towards a traditional division between modeling...... of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...

  11. A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

  12. LPS: a rule-based, schema-oriented knowledge representation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Y; Mitsuya, Y; Nakajima, S; Ura, S

    1981-01-01

    A new knowledge representation system called LPS is presented. The global control structure of LPS is rule-based, but the local representational structure is schema-oriented. The present version of LPS was designed to increase the understandability of representation while keeping time efficiency reasonable. Pattern matching through slot-networks and meta-actions from among the implemented facilities of LPS, are especially described in detail. 7 references.

  13. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammed Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Nú ria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph

  14. Representability in DL-Lite_R knowledge base exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge base exchange can be considered as a generalization of data exchange in which the aim is to exchange between a source and a target connected through mappings, not only explicit knowledge, i.e., data, but also implicit knowledge in the form of axioms. Such problem has been investigated

  15. Interleaved Practice with Multiple Representations: Analyses with Knowledge Tracing Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.; Pardos, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use Knowledge Tracing to augment the results obtained from an experiment that investigated the effects of practice schedules using an intelligent tutoring system for fractions. Specifically, this experiment compared different practice schedules of multiple representations of fractions: representations were presented to…

  16. Conceptualizations of Representation Forms and Knowledge Organization of High School Teachers in Finland: "Magnetostatics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Sharareh; Emden, Markus

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge refers to their use of representation forms. In a similar vein, organizing concepts logically and meaningfully is an essential element of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Since subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge of teachers are tightly connected as categories…

  17. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems : A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available

  18. A knowledge representation view on biomedical structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo

    2002-01-01

    In biomedical ontologies, structural and functional considerations are of outstanding importance, and concepts which belong to these two categories are highly interdependent. At the representational level both axes must be clearly kept separate in order to support disciplined ontology engineering. Furthermore, the biaxial organization of physical structure (both by a taxonomic and partonomic order) entails intricate patterns of inference. We here propose a layered encoding of taxonomic, partonomic and functional aspects of biomedical concepts using description logics. PMID:12463912

  19. Practice cannot be reduced to theory: Knowledge, representations, and change in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancey, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Changing views of the nature of human knowledge change how we design organizations, facilities, and technology to promote learning: Learning is not transfer; using a plan is not executing a program; explanation is not reciting rules from memory. Such rationalist views of knowledge inhibit change and stifle innovate uses of technology. Representations of work (plans, policies, procedures) and their meaning develop in work itself. Representations guide, but do not strictly control human behavio...

  20. Using Structured Knowledge Representation for Context-Sensitive Probabilistic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakhanenko, Nikita A; Luger, George F

    2008-01-01

    We propose a context-sensitive probabilistic modeling system (COSMOS) that reasons about a complex, dynamic environment through a series of applications of smaller, knowledge-focused models representing contextually relevant information...

  1. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  2. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    , document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead...

  3. Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    and manual processing must be replaced by automated processing wherever it makes sense and is possible. Clearly, given the data and cognitive...knowledge-centric view to situation analysis and decision-making as previously discussed, has lead to the development of several automated processing components...for use in sensemaking support systems [6-11]. In turn, automated processing has required the development of appropriate knowledge

  4. Representation and Non-representation of Knowledge Mediation in Legal Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    takes place in different ways. A survey among lawyers (Larsen 2009) showed that, concerning legal contracts, mediation of knowledge is largely performed by legal experts, i.e. lawyers, to their clients during personal consultations before the contract is signed. Many lawyers prefer to explain difficult......In this paper, focus is on mediation of legal knowledge between expert and layman in connection with German legal contracts. Focus is not, however, on the role of a classical mediator (e.g. a translator), but on knowledge mediation performed by the expert himself. This mediation of legal knowledge...... for the layman. Some legal experts, however, take these problems into account and mediate the legal knowledge that the layman is expected to be lacking in the wording of the legal contract. Using methods of text analysis, this paper explores the ways in which this is done. On the one hand, it is seen...

  5. Comparative analysis of knowledge representation and reasoning requirements across a range of life sciences textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Vinay K; Elenius, Daniel; Goldenkranz, Andrew; Gong, Allison; Martone, Maryann E; Webb, William; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Using knowledge representation for biomedical projects is now commonplace. In previous work, we represented the knowledge found in a college-level biology textbook in a fashion useful for answering questions. We showed that embedding the knowledge representation and question-answering abilities in an electronic textbook helped to engage student interest and improve learning. A natural question that arises from this success, and this paper's primary focus, is whether a similar approach is applicable across a range of life science textbooks. To answer that question, we considered four different textbooks, ranging from a below-introductory college biology text to an advanced, graduate-level neuroscience textbook. For these textbooks, we investigated the following questions: (1) To what extent is knowledge shared between the different textbooks? (2) To what extent can the same upper ontology be used to represent the knowledge found in different textbooks? (3) To what extent can the questions of interest for a range of textbooks be answered by using the same reasoning mechanisms? Our existing modeling and reasoning methods apply especially well both to a textbook that is comparable in level to the text studied in our previous work (i.e., an introductory-level text) and to a textbook at a lower level, suggesting potential for a high degree of portability. Even for the overlapping knowledge found across the textbooks, the level of detail covered in each textbook was different, which requires that the representations must be customized for each textbook. We also found that for advanced textbooks, representing models and scientific reasoning processes was particularly important. With some additional work, our representation methodology would be applicable to a range of textbooks. The requirements for knowledge representation are common across textbooks, suggesting that a shared semantic infrastructure for the life sciences is feasible. Because our representation overlaps

  6. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  7. Using/designing Digital Technologies Of Representation In Aboriginal Australian Knowledge Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Verran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians are often keen to use digital technologies in their struggle to develop sustainable livelihoods on their own lands. This paper tells of gradually coming to recognize how an Aboriginal Australian elder struggled against the grain of digital technologies designed to represent, in using them in Aboriginal Australian knowledge practices where knowledge is always actively performative rather than representional. The performance of Aboriginal knowledge must express the remaking of an ancestral reality. At the same time, this man exploited possibilities the technologies offered for representation in achieving political ends in dealing with representatives of mainstream Australia.

  8. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  9. Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available represent stimuli of interest, and rich feature sets which increase the dimensionality of the space and thus the difficulty of the learning problem. We focus on a multitask reinforcement learning setting, where the agent is learning domain knowledge...

  10. A knowledge representation of local pandemic influenza planning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Runa; Brandeau, Margaret L; Das, Amar K

    2007-10-11

    Planning for pandemic flu outbreak at the small-government level can be aided through the use of mathematical policy models. Formulating and analyzing policy models, however, can be a time- and expertise-expensive process. We believe that a knowledge-based system for facilitating the instantiation of locale- and problem-specific policy models can reduce some of these costs. In this work, we present the ontology we have developed for pandemic influenza policy models.

  11. Standards for Education Reporters: Skills, Knowledge, Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Experienced school reporters know plenty about standards. The struggle to set standards that define what students should know and be able to do at various stages of their education has been at the heart of school reform since the late 1980s. So if journalists are going to understand the value of standards, it will be those covering schools. It is…

  12. Wissensstrukturierung im Unterricht: Neuere Forschung zur Wissensreprasentation und ihre Anwendung in der Didaktik (Knowledge Structuring in Instruction: Recent Research on Knowledge Representation and Its Application in the Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedler, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Asks whether theories of knowledge representation provide a basis for the development of theories of knowledge structuring in instruction. Discusses codes of knowledge, surface versus deep structures, semantic networks, and multiple memory systems. Reviews research on teaching, external representation of cognitive structures, hierarchical…

  13. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  14. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jairo A; Dartnell, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c) we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  15. Integration of object-oriented knowledge representation with the CLIPS rule based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, David S.; Kamil, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a portion of the work aimed at developing an integrated, knowledge based environment for the development of engineering-oriented applications. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented in C++ which is used to build and modify an object-oriented knowledge base. The ORL was designed in such a way so as to be easily integrated with other representation schemes that could effectively reason with the object base. Specifically, the integration of the ORL with the rule based system C Language Production Systems (CLIPS), developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will be discussed. The object-oriented knowledge representation provides a natural means of representing problem data as a collection of related objects. Objects are comprised of descriptive properties and interrelationships. The object-oriented model promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects. Data is inherited through an object network via the relationship links. Together, the two schemes complement each other in that the object-oriented approach efficiently handles problem data while the rule based knowledge is used to simulate the reasoning process. Alone, the object based knowledge is little more than an object-oriented data storage scheme; however, the CLIPS inference engine adds the mechanism to directly and automatically reason with that knowledge. In this hybrid scheme, the expert system dynamically queries for data and can modify the object base with complete access to all the functionality of the ORL from rules.

  16. Effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of representations in a mobile learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.-C. Liu (Tzu-Chien); Y.-C. Lin (Yi-Chun); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments examined the effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of multiple representations in a mobile learning environment on plant leaf morphology for primary school students. Experiment 1 compared the learning effects of a mobile learning environment

  17. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  18. "BioONT": Improving Knowledge Organization and Representation in the Domain of Biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerle, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores some of the fundamental challenges facing the information assurance community as it relates to knowledge categorization, organization and representation within the field of information security and more specifically within the domain of biometric authentication. A primary objective of this research is the development of…

  19. Representations of the Nature of Scientific Knowledge in Turkish Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Considering the impact of textbooks on learning, this study set out to assess representations of the nature of scientific knowledge in Turkish 9th grade biology textbooks. To this end, the ten most commonly used 9th grade biology textbooks were analyzed. A qualitative research approach was utilized and the textbooks were analyzed using…

  20. Learning spaces as representational scaffolds for learning conceptual knowledge of system behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Liem, J.; Beek, W.; Salles, P.; Linnebank, F.; Wolpers, M.; Kirschner, P.A.; Scheffel, M.; Lindstaedt, S.; Dimitrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolding is a well-known approach to bridge the gap between novice and expert capabilities in a discovery-oriented learning environment. This paper discusses a set of knowledge representations referred to as Learning Spaces (LSs) that can be used to support learners in acquiring conceptual

  1. Towards Standardization in Terminal Ballistics Testing: Velocity Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    the above probabilities to equal one-half for e a 0, in whinh case vk would be equivalent to what has elsewhere been termed "v5 0s, the concept of which...of concepts needs to be formalized and an appropriate experiment designed. At issue, briefly, is the prescription of standard procedures for...Penetration d’un Projectile dans un Materiau Plastique ). Translation from the Army Foreign Service and Tech- nology Center, Charlottesville, Virginia

  2. Knowledge management for assuring high standards in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary incentives for introducing knowledge management in organisations active in the nuclear field are the impending loss of knowledge due to an ageing workforce and the necessity to transfer knowledge to the next generation. However, knowledge management may reach much further, and it is shown that ultimately, the goals of knowledge management are congruent with establishing, maintaining and further developing high standards of safety. Knowledge-based activities to reach these goals are discussed, and examples given for producing, utilising and sharing knowledge in organisations and in national and international networks. (author)

  3. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanna, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…

  4. Representation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    ...). The reason this is so is due to hierarchies that we take for granted. By hierarchies I mean that there is a layer of representation of us as individuals, as military professional, as members of a military unit and as citizens of an entire nation...

  5. Dynamic knowledge representation using agent-based modeling: ontology instantiation and verification of conceptual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The sheer volume of biomedical research threatens to overwhelm the capacity of individuals to effectively process this information. Adding to this challenge is the multiscale nature of both biological systems and the research community as a whole. Given this volume and rate of generation of biomedical information, the research community must develop methods for robust representation of knowledge in order for individuals, and the community as a whole, to "know what they know." Despite increasing emphasis on "data-driven" research, the fact remains that researchers guide their research using intuitively constructed conceptual models derived from knowledge extracted from publications, knowledge that is generally qualitatively expressed using natural language. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational modeling method that is suited to translating the knowledge expressed in biomedical texts into dynamic representations of the conceptual models generated by researchers. The hierarchical object-class orientation of ABM maps well to biomedical ontological structures, facilitating the translation of ontologies into instantiated models. Furthermore, ABM is suited to producing the nonintuitive behaviors that often "break" conceptual models. Verification in this context is focused at determining the plausibility of a particular conceptual model, and qualitative knowledge representation is often sufficient for this goal. Thus, utilized in this fashion, ABM can provide a powerful adjunct to other computational methods within the research process, as well as providing a metamodeling framework to enhance the evolution of biomedical ontologies.

  6. Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    two weeks to arrive. Source: http://beergame.mit.edu/ Permission Granted – MIT Supply Chain Forum 2005 Professor Sterman –Sloan School of...Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html Rules of Engagement The MIT Beer Game Simulation 04-04 Slide Number 10 Professor...Sterman –Sloan School of Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html What is the Significance of Representation

  7. Knowledge Representation and Inference for Analysis and Design of Database and Tabular Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ligeza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rulebased systems constitute a powerful tool for specification of knowledge in design and implementation of knowledge based systems. They provide also a universal programming paradigm for domains such as intelligent control, decision support, situation classification and operational knowledge encoding. In order to assure safe and reliable performance, such system should satisfy certain formal requirements, including completeness and consistency. This paper addresses the issue of analysis and verification of selected properties of a class of such system in a systematic way. A uniform, tabular scheme of single-level rule-based systems is considered. Such systems can be applied as a generalized form of databases for specification of data pattern (unconditional knowledge, or can be used for defining attributive decision tables (conditional knowledge in form of rules. They can also serve as lower-level components of a hierarchical multi-level control and decision support knowledge-based systems. An algebraic knowledge representation paradigm using extended tabular representation, similar to relational database tables is presented and algebraic bases for system analysis, verification and design support are outlined.

  8. Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed. (paper)

  9. Knowledge representation and communication with concept maps in teacher training of science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Pedrajas, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an educational innovation that we have made in the context of initial teacher training for secondary education of science and technology. In this educational experience computing resources and concept maps are used to develop teaching skills related to knowledge representation, oral communication, teamwork and practical use of ICT in the classroom. Initial results indicate that future teachers value positively the use of concept maps and computer resources as useful tools for teacher training.

  10. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) used...... to evaluate the verification of the former. We study this issue by means of the consideration of different paired structures at each level. We also pay attention at how different types of fuzziness may be introduced in these paired structures to model imprecision and lack of knowledge. As a consequence, we...

  11.   Representations at Work: A national Standard for Electronic Health Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

      Representations are at work in IT technology. As plans of and for work, they enable cooperation, coordination, accountability and control, which have to be balanced off against each other. The article describes a standard developed for electronic health records (EHR) and the results of a test...

  12. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  13. Vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in Spanish-speaking low-and middle-SES preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in 80 Spanish-speaking preschool children from middle- and low-SES families. Significant social class differences were obtained on all tasks except syllable matching. Regression analyses were carried out to test the predictive power of vocabulary knowledge and accuracy of phonological representations on the phonological sensitivity measures. Receptive vocabulary predicted rhyme identification. Syllable matching was predicted by a task tapping accuracy of phonological representations. The fact that rhyme identification was predicted by vocabulary knowledge but syllable matching was predicted by a measure tapping accuracy of phonological representations in both groups suggests that early lexical development sets the stage for the development of the lower levels of phonological sensitivity but identification of smaller units requires more accurate and segmented phonological representations.

  14. Right-Linear Languages Generated in Systems of Knowledge Representation based on LSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danciulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tudor (Preda (2010 a method for formal languages generation based on labeled stratified graph representations is sketched. The author proves that the considered method can generate regular languages and context-sensitive languages by considering an exemplification of the proposed method for a particular regular language and another one for a particular contextsensitive language. At the end of the study, the author highlights some open problems for future research among which we remind: (1 The study of the language families that can be generated by means of these structures; (2 The study of the infiniteness of the languages that can be represented in stratified graphs. In this paper, we extend the method presented in Tudor (Preda(2010, by considering the stratified graph formalism in a system of knowledge representation and reasoning. More precisely, we propose a method that can be applied for generating any Right Linear Language construction. Our method is proved and exemplified in several cases.

  15. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge—as an ontological and/or aesthetic category—has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world. PMID:26290654

  16. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  17. The Effects of Idealized and Grounded Materials on Learning, Transfer, and Interest: An Organizing Framework for Categorizing External Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Schalk, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Research in both cognitive and educational psychology has explored the effect of different types of external knowledge representations (e.g., manipulatives, graphical/pictorial representations, texts) on a variety of important outcome measures. We place this large and multifaceted research literature into an organizing framework, classifying three…

  18. Acquisition and representation of knowledge related to crack formation in power plant components - practical implementation in a knowledge-based system (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Kautz, H.R.; Raepke, H.; Witte, M. de

    1992-01-01

    The damage analysis in general and analysis of crack formation in particular, must rely on a careful balance of generic principles (e.g. generic knowledge about damage mechanisms) and information regarding the analyzed component (e.g. operating history, manufacturing data or construction records). Use of non-standard and/or advanced approaches (for damage parameters, monitoring techniques, etc.) can, on the one hand, enhance the solution by making it more comprehensive, but, on the other hand, it can also make the final decision more complex. In both cases, at the current state of practice, only heuristic knowledge can assure that all the important factors be properly considered. The examples shown in the paper illustrate the feasibility of obtaining useful interim results, which, through a continued long-term effort invested in knowledge acquisition and representation, and its integration into a knowledge-based system allow to achieve progressively the goals formulated at the beginning of the expert system for remaining life assessment project. (orig./DG)

  19. A Standard of Knowledge for the Professional Practice of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulla, Janis E; Kinter, Lewis B; Kelman, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    Employers, courts, and the general public judge the credibility of professionals based on credentials such as academic degrees, publications, memberships in professional organizations, board certifications, and professional registrations. However, the relevance and merit of these credentials can be difficult to determine objectively. Board certification can be a reliable indicator of proficiency if the certifying organization demonstrates, through regularly scheduled independent review, that its processes meet established standards and when a certificate holder is required to periodically demonstrate command of a body of knowledge that is essential to current professional practice. We report herein a current Standard of Knowledge in general toxicology compiled from the experience and opinions of 889 certified practicing professional toxicologists. An examination is the most commonly used instrument for testing a certification candidate's command of the body of knowledge. However, an examination-based certification is only creditable when the body of knowledge, to which a certification examination tests, is representative of the current knowledge, skills, and capabilities needed to effectively practice at the professional level. Thus, that body of knowledge must be the current "Standard of Knowledge" for the profession, compiled in a transparent fashion from current practitioners of the profession. This work was conducted toward ensuring the scientific integrity of the products produced by professional toxicologists.

  20. The genius and the new forms of cinematic representation of the subject of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Godoy Del Picchia Zanoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at questioning new forms of cinematic representation of the genius, this article, in the wake of Foucault's theories, seeks to extend the understanding of the effects, operatting in contemporarily, of the social circulation of new figures of the subject of knowledge, emphasizing, thus, the silent assumptions that have come to inform the way in which viewers can and should imagine themselves and others as subjects capable of producing specific modalities of know-how. Therefore, this article relies on an empirical platform consisting of four films: My left foot (1989, Good Will Hunting (1997, Billy Elliot (2000 and Finding Forrester (2000.

  1. Top-down attention based on object representation and incremental memory for knowledge building and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2013-10-01

    Humans can efficiently perceive arbitrary visual objects based on an incremental learning mechanism with selective attention. This paper proposes a new task specific top-down attention model to locate a target object based on its form and color representation along with a bottom-up saliency based on relativity of primitive visual features and some memory modules. In the proposed model top-down bias signals corresponding to the target form and color features are generated, which draw the preferential attention to the desired object by the proposed selective attention model in concomitance with the bottom-up saliency process. The object form and color representation and memory modules have an incremental learning mechanism together with a proper object feature representation scheme. The proposed model includes a Growing Fuzzy Topology Adaptive Resonance Theory (GFTART) network which plays two important roles in object color and form biased attention; one is to incrementally learn and memorize color and form features of various objects, and the other is to generate a top-down bias signal to localize a target object by focusing on the candidate local areas. Moreover, the GFTART network can be utilized for knowledge inference which enables the perception of new unknown objects on the basis of the object form and color features stored in the memory during training. Experimental results show that the proposed model is successful in focusing on the specified target objects, in addition to the incremental representation and memorization of various objects in natural scenes. In addition, the proposed model properly infers new unknown objects based on the form and color features of previously trained objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A knowledge representation model for the optimisation of electricity generation mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee Tahir, Aidid; Bañares-Alcántara, René

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prototype energy model which uses semantic representation (ontologies). ► Model accepts both quantitative and qualitative based energy policy goals. ► Uses logic inference to formulate equations for linear optimisation. ► Proposes electricity generation mix based on energy policy goals. -- Abstract: Energy models such as MARKAL, MESSAGE and DNE-21 are optimisation tools which aid in the formulation of energy policies. The strength of these models lie in their solid theoretical foundations built on rigorous mathematical equations designed to process numerical (quantitative) data related to economics and the environment. Nevertheless, a complete consideration of energy policy issues also requires the consideration of the political and social aspects of energy. These political and social issues are often associated with non-numerical (qualitative) information. To enable the evaluation of these aspects in a computer model, we hypothesise that a different approach to energy model optimisation design is required. A prototype energy model that is based on a semantic representation using ontologies and is integrated to engineering models implemented in Java has been developed. The model provides both quantitative and qualitative evaluation capabilities through the use of logical inference. The semantic representation of energy policy goals is used (i) to translate a set of energy policy goals into a set of logic queries which is then used to determine the preferred electricity generation mix and (ii) to assist in the formulation of a set of equations which is then solved in order to obtain a proposed electricity generation mix. Scenario case studies have been developed and tested on the prototype energy model to determine its capabilities. Knowledge queries were made on the semantic representation to determine an electricity generation mix which fulfilled a set of energy policy goals (e.g. CO 2 emissions reduction, water conservation, energy supply

  3. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  4. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  5. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  6. Pupils' Visual Representations in Standard and Problematic Problem Solving in Mathematics: Their Role in the Breach of the Didactical Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Monoyiou, Annita; Elia, Iliada; Georgiou, Chryso; Zannettou, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the modes of representations generated by kindergarteners and first graders while solving standard and problematic problems in mathematics. Furthermore, it examined the influence of pupils' visual representations on the breach of the didactical contract rules in problem solving. The sample of the study consisted of 38…

  7. Knowledge representation and management: towards an integration of a semantic web in daily health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, N; Charlet, J; Darmoni, Sj

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A synopsis of the four selected articles for the IMIA Yearbook 2013 KRM section is provided, as well as highlights of current KRM trends, in particular, of the semantic web in daily health practice. The manual selection was performed in three stages: first a set of 3,106 articles, then a second set of 86 articles followed by a third set of 15 articles, and finally the last set of four chosen articles. Among the four selected articles (see Table 1), one focuses on knowledge engineering to prevent adverse drug events; the objective of the second is to propose mappings between clinical archetypes and SNOMED CT in the context of clinical practice; the third presents an ontology to create a question-answering system; the fourth describes a biomonitoring network based on semantic web technologies. These four articles clearly indicate that the health semantic web has become a part of daily practice of health professionals since 2012. In the review of the second set of 86 articles, the same topics included in the previous IMIA yearbook remain active research fields: Knowledge extraction, automatic indexing, information retrieval, natural language processing, management of health terminologies and ontologies.

  8. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants’ investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. PMID:23141075

  9. Investigating Years 7 to 12 students' knowledge of linear relationships through different contexts and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Ayalon, Michal

    2018-02-01

    A foundational component of developing algebraic thinking for meaningful calculus learning is the idea of "function" that focuses on the relationship between varying quantities. Students have demonstrated widespread difficulties in learning calculus, particularly interpreting and modeling dynamic events, when they have a poor understanding of relationships between variables. Yet, there are differing views on how to develop students' functional thinking over time. In the Australian curriculum context, linear relationships are introduced to lower secondary students with content that reflects a hybrid of traditional and reform algebra pedagogy. This article discusses an investigation into Australian secondary students' understanding of linear functional relationships from Years 7 to 12 (approximately 12 to 18 years old; n = 215) in their approaches to three tasks (finding rate of change, pattern generalisation and interpretation of gradient) involving four different representations (table, geometric growing pattern, equation and graph). From the findings, it appears that these students' knowledge of linear functions remains context-specific rather than becoming connected over time.

  10. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    evaluations of task-surface heights in elderly people’s homes. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 109-119. Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative social research sozialforschung (FQS), Open Journal Systems, vol 7, No1. Kozey, J.W. & Das, B. (2004...... accessibility aspects such as either reach, seat height or space requirements • Targeted primarily industrial workstation design and only wheelchair/scooter users • Addressed positions (standing/seated) and sex difference with respect to reach • Was generated in lab-like environments, using methods...... of the validity of housing standards. Therefore, it is reasonable to question what type of knowledge that provides the most valid standards addressing accessibility and explore the consequences of using an alternative approach. The idea was thus to examine the validity of a set of housing standards using a so...

  11. A community standard format for the representation of protein affinity reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Orchard, Sandra; Bertinetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Protein affinity reagents (PARs), most commonly antibodies, are essential reagents for protein characterization in basic research, biotechnology, and diagnostics as well as the fastest growing class of therapeutics. Large numbers of PARs are available commercially; however, their quality is often...... that facilitates easy comparison of their cost and quality. However, in contrast to, for example, nucleotide databases among which data are synchronized between the major data providers, current PAR producers, quality control centers, and commercial companies all use incompatible formats, hindering data exchange....... Here we propose Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI)-PAR as a global community standard format for the representation and exchange of protein affinity reagent data. The PSI-PAR format is maintained by the Human Proteome Organisation PSI and was developed within the context of Proteome...

  12. Visual representation of knowledge in the field of Library and Information Science of IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Sabetpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present research has been done to visual representation of knowledge and determination vacuum and density points of scientific trends of faculty members of state universities of IRAN in Library & Information Science field. Method: Curriculum Vitae of each faculty member with census method were collected and its content analyzed. Then using a checklist, the rate scientific tendencies were extracted. NodeXL software was deployed to map out the levels. Results: The results showed that the trends are concentrated in Scientometrics, Research method in Library & Information Science, information organization, information resources, psychology, Education, Management, the Web, Knowledge management, Academic Libraries, Information services, Information Theories and collection management. Apparently, the Library & Information Science community of experts pays little or no attention to the Library & Information Science applications in the fields of chemistry, Cartography, museum, law, art, school libraries as well as to independent subject clusters such as minorities in library, information architecture, mentoring in library science, library automation, preservation, oral history, cybernetics, copyright, information marketing and information economy. Lack of efforts on these areas is remarkable.

  13. A knowledge representation approach using fuzzy cognitive maps for better navigation support in an adaptive learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysafiadi, Konstantina; Virvou, Maria

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a knowledge representation approach of an adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system is presented. The domain knowledge should be represented in a more realistic way in order to allow the adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system to deliver the learning material to each individual learner dynamically taking into account her/his learning needs and her/his different learning pace. To succeed this, the domain knowledge representation has to depict the possible increase or decrease of the learner's knowledge. Considering that the domain concepts that constitute the learning material are not independent from each other, the knowledge representation approach has to allow the system to recognize either the domain concepts that are already partly or completely known for a learner, or the domain concepts that s/he has forgotten, taking into account the learner's knowledge level of the related concepts. In other words, the system should be informed about the knowledge dependencies that exist among the domain concepts of the learning material, as well as the strength on impact of each domain concept on others. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) seem to be an ideal way for representing graphically this kind of information. The suggested knowledge representation approach has been implemented in an e-learning adaptive system for teaching computer programming. The particular system was used by the students of a postgraduate program in the field of Informatics in the University of Piraeus and was compared with a corresponding system, in which the domain knowledge was represented using the most common used technique of network of concepts. The results of the evaluation were very encouraging.

  14. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  15. Exploring the Progression in Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Representations: The Case of "Behavior of Gases"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adadan, Emine; Oner, Diler

    2014-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how two preservice chemistry teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) representations of behavior of gases progressed in the context of a semester-long chemistry teaching methods course. The change in the participants' PCK components was interpreted with respect to the theoretical PCK learning…

  16. The development of human behavior analysis techniques - A study on knowledge representation methods for operator cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Tack [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The main objective of this project is modeling of human operator in a main control room of Nuclear Power Plant. For this purpose, we carried out research on knowledge representation and inference method based on Rasmussen`s decision ladder structure. And we have developed SACOM(Simulation= Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) using G2 shell on Sun workstations. SACOM consists of Operator Model, Interaction Analyzer, Situation Generator. Cognitive model aims to build a more detailed model of human operators in an effective way. SACOM is designed to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators more easily. The followings are main research topics carried out this year. First, in order to model knowledge-based behavior of human operators, more detailed scenarios are constructed. And, knowledge representation and inference methods are developed to support the scenarios. Second, meta knowledge structures are studied to support human operators 4 types of diagnoses. This work includes a study on meta and scheduler knowledge structures for generate-and-test, topographic, decision tree and case-based approaches. Third, domain knowledge structure are improved to support meta knowledge. Especially, domain knowledge structures are developed to model topographic diagnosis model. Fourth, more applicable interaction analyzer and situation generator are designed and implemented. The new version is implemented in G2 on Sun workstations. 35 refs., 49 figs. (author)

  17. Representation and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the representations of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…

  18. Logical and Geometrical Distance in Polyhedral Aristotelian Diagrams in Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Demey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aristotelian diagrams visualize the logical relations among a finite set of objects. These diagrams originated in philosophy, but recently, they have also been used extensively in artificial intelligence, in order to study (connections between various knowledge representation formalisms. In this paper, we develop the idea that Aristotelian diagrams can be fruitfully studied as geometrical entities. In particular, we focus on four polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams for the Boolean algebra B 4 , viz. the rhombic dodecahedron, the tetrakis hexahedron, the tetraicosahedron and the nested tetrahedron. After an in-depth investigation of the geometrical properties and interrelationships of these polyhedral diagrams, we analyze the correlation (or lack thereof between logical (Hamming and geometrical (Euclidean distance in each of these diagrams. The outcome of this analysis is that the Aristotelian rhombic dodecahedron and tetrakis hexahedron exhibit the strongest degree of correlation between logical and geometrical distance; the tetraicosahedron performs worse; and the nested tetrahedron has the lowest degree of correlation. Finally, these results are used to shed new light on the relative strengths and weaknesses of these polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams, by appealing to the congruence principle from cognitive research on diagram design.

  19. Hologram representation of design data in an expert system knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.; Klon, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel representational scheme for design object descriptions is presented. An abstract notion of modules and signals is developed as a conceptual foundation for the scheme. This abstraction relates the objects to the meaning of system descriptions. Anchored on this abstraction, a representational model which incorporates dynamic semantics for these objects is presented. This representational model is called a hologram scheme since it represents dual level information, namely, structural and semantic. The benefits of this scheme are presented.

  20. An Inventory for Measuring Student Teachers' Knowledge of Chemical Representations: Design, Validation, and Psychometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, V.; Bernholt, S.; Parchmann, I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical representations play an important role in helping learners to understand chemical contents. Thus, dealing with chemical representations is a necessity for learning chemistry, but at the same time, it presents a great challenge to learners. Due to this great challenge, it is not surprising that numerous national and international studies…

  1. SimpleTimeseries: Towards a Standard Representation of Astronomical Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, John Michael; Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D.

    2010-01-01

    Centuries of astrophysical data will soon be eclipsed by the unprecedented number of novel events regularly captured by large scale synoptic surveys. In the past, a stately accumulation of data could await inclusion in catalogs. More recently, digital catalogs have been placed on websites, or forwarded in e-mails. Fully exploiting the science opportunities of this new era will require much more rapid and standardized data exchange. With abundant novel sources to choose from, the limited followup resources available will need regularized data formats to help in decision making, whether the ultimate decisions lie with a human or a machine. The Berkeley Transients Classification Pipeline (TCP) has developed an XML based time-series format to exchange data within the context of the Palomar Transients Factory (PTF). The benefit of a standard time-series representation lies in promulgating it beyond just one collaboration and so we are publicly releasing the format, SimpleTimeseries. It is also slated to describe time-series within the the Virtual Observatory's upcoming VOEvent 2.0 specification. An XML based format allows easy processing by both machines and humans. We have put together examples and documentation which show the flexibilty of SimpleTimeseries on dotastro.org, where you can also find the XML schema, and public light curves in the new format.

  2. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  3. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  4. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  5. Nanotechnology Standardization Activities – Support of U.S. Representation on ISO/TC 229 Nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benko, Heather [American National Standards Inst. (ANSI), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-14

    In carrying out its responsibilities on behalf of the United States, ANSI provides comprehensive, administrative support and expertise on international protocols and procedures to: (1) the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) Technical Committee (TC) 229 Nanotechnologies, and (2) the corresponding U.S. TAG Working Groups tasked with formulating U.S. positions on topics relevant to nanotechnology standardization. Additionally, secretariat and procedural support is provided for the ISO/TC 229 WG 3 on health, safety and environment, for which the United States was assigned leadership by the participating national body members of ISO/TC 229. As the official entity that serves as the U.S. representative to ISO, ANSI provides not only expert coordination of U.S. positions and representation at ISO but also strategic direction, advice and procedural expertise to facilitate navigation of international issues to promote U.S. positions for incorporation into the ISO/TC 229 program of work necessary to support U.S. objectives.

  6. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  7. A semantic representation of the knowledge management enablers domain: The aKMEOnt ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri, M.; Odeh, M. ed; Saad, M. ed

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge management is a significant driver for any enterprise development and evolution as it is engaged with planning, implementing, controlling, monitoring and improving enterprise’s processes and systems. However, organisations are still at a disadvantage when applying knowledge management in a real environment. A resourced-based view of knowledge management stimulates the consideration of knowledge management enablers (KMEs) as factors that should be employed during the development and ...

  8. On the constraints of encapsulated knowledge : Clinical case representations by medical experts and subexperts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy MJP; Schmidt, Henk G; Boshuizen, Henny PA

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of so-called encapsulated knowledge and biomedical knowledge in the process of diagnosing clinical cases within and outside the medical specialist's domain of expertise. Based on the theory of knowledge encapsulation, we predicted that subexperts (i.e.,

  9. Making Connections among Multiple Visual Representations: How Do Sense-Making Skills and Perceptual Fluency Relate to Learning of Chemistry Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.

    2018-01-01

    To learn content knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and math domains, students need to make connections among visual representations. This article considers two kinds of connection-making skills: (1) "sense-making skills" that allow students to verbally explain mappings among representations and (2) "perceptual…

  10. How to Make a Good Animation: A Grounded Cognition Model of How Visual Representation Design Affects the Construction of Abstract Physics Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition,…

  11. A Non-Cognitive Formal Approach to Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    example, Duda and others translated production rules into a partitioned semantic network (73). Representations were also translated into production...153. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982. 38. Blikle, Andrzej . "Equational Languages," Information and Control, 21: 134-147 (September 1972). 285 39. Ezawa...Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI-75. 115-121. William Kaufmann, Inc., Los Altos CA, 1975. 73. Duda , Richard 0. and others. "Semantic

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions by Health-Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... SPs are the minimum infection prevention practices that apply to all patients regardless ... Nonavailability of materials, limited organizational support, and lack of knowledge regarding infection control practices among HCWs ...

  13. Detailed qualitative dynamic knowledge representation using a BioNetGen model of TLR-4 signaling and preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary C; Faeder, James R

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular signaling/synthetic pathways are being increasingly extensively characterized. However, while these pathways can be displayed in static diagrams, in reality they exist with a degree of dynamic complexity that is responsible for heterogeneous cellular behavior. Multiple parallel pathways exist and interact concurrently, limiting the ability to integrate the various identified mechanisms into a cohesive whole. Computational methods have been suggested as a means of concatenating this knowledge to aid in the understanding of overall system dynamics. Since the eventual goal of biomedical research is the identification and development of therapeutic modalities, computational representation must have sufficient detail to facilitate this 'engineering' process. Adding to the challenge, this type of representation must occur in a perpetual state of incomplete knowledge. We present a modeling approach to address this challenge that is both detailed and qualitative. This approach is termed 'dynamic knowledge representation,' and is intended to be an integrated component of the iterative cycle of scientific discovery. BioNetGen (BNG), a software platform for modeling intracellular signaling pathways, was used to model the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signal transduction cascade. The informational basis of the model was a series of reference papers on modulation of (TLR-4) signaling, and some specific primary research papers to aid in the characterization of specific mechanistic steps in the pathway. This model was detailed with respect to the components of the pathway represented, but qualitative with respect to the specific reaction coefficients utilized to execute the reactions. Responsiveness to simulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration was measured by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. Simulation runs included evaluation of initial dose-dependent response to LPS administration at 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000, and a subsequent examination of

  14. An Object-Oriented Approach to Knowledge Representation in a Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, M.; Paton, R.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Rada, R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented approach has been applied to the different stages involved in developing a knowledge base about insulin metabolism. At an early stage the separation of terminological and assertional knowledge was made. The terminological component was developed by medical experts and represented

  15. "Eating at Us": Representations of Knowledge in the Activist Documentary Film "Food, Inc."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Rick; Swan, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Writing on social movement learning and environmental adult education invokes particular views on knowledge that need further examination and development in relation to food social movements. Although food social movements take different forms, the paper argues that the politics of food knowledge is at the centre of many of these movements.…

  16. A flexible representation of omic knowledge for thorough analysis of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demura Taku

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand microarray data reasonably in the context of other existing biological knowledge, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the data utilizing every aspect of available omic knowledge libraries. So far, a number of bioinformatics tools have been developed. However, each of them is restricted to deal with one type of omic knowledge, e.g., pathways, interactions or gene ontology. Now that the varieties of omic knowledge are expanding, analysis tools need a way to deal with any type of omic knowledge. Hence, we have designed the Omic Space Markup Language (OSML that can represent a wide range of omic knowledge, and also, we have developed a tool named GSCope3, which can statistically analyze microarray data in comparison with the OSML-formatted omic knowledge data. Results In order to test the applicability of OSML to represent a variety of omic knowledge specifically useful for analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, we have constructed a Biological Knowledge Library (BiKLi by converting eight different types of omic knowledge into OSML-formatted datasets. We applied GSCope3 and BiKLi to previously reported A. thaliana microarray data, so as to extract any additional insights from the data. As a result, we have discovered a new insight that lignin formation resists drought stress and activates transcription of many water channel genes to oppose drought stress; and most of the 20S proteasome subunit genes show similar expression profiles under drought stress. In addition to this novel discovery, similar findings previously reported were also quickly confirmed using GSCope3 and BiKLi. Conclusion GSCope3 can statistically analyze microarray data in the context of any OSML-represented omic knowledge. OSML is not restricted to a specific data type structure, but it can represent a wide range of omic knowledge. It allows us to convert new types of omic knowledge into datasets that can be

  17. Generic process model structures: towards a standard notation for abstract representations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available in the case of objects, or repositories in the case of process models. The creation of the MIT Process Handbook was a step in this direction. However, although the authors used object-oriented concepts in the abstract representations, they did not rigorously...

  18. An Integral Representation of Standard Automorphic L Functions for Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let F be a number field, G a quasi-split unitary group of rank n. We show that given an irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation π of G(A, its (partial L function LS(s,π,σ can be represented by a Rankin-Selberg-type integral involving cusp forms of π, Eisenstein series, and theta series.

  19. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  20. Standard precaution knowledge and adherence: Do Doctors differ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    document that health workers often fail to practice standard precautions ... and laboratory services have remained a major health issue .... Similarly, Safe injection practices were ..... Enablers: Situations which make the worker comply with SP.

  1. The role of encapsulated knowledge in clinical case representations of medical students and family doctors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy MJP; Loyens, Sofie MM; Schmidt, Henk G

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the development of medical expertise, predominantly using measures of free recall and pathophysiological explanations, have shown ambiguous results concerning the relationship between expertise level and encapsulated knowledge. PURPOSE: To investigate differences in

  2. II. The Standard Model in the Isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen Representation without Higgs Bosons in the Fermion Sector. Spontaneous Breaking of Parity and "Dark Matter" Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Neznamov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model with massive fermions is formulated in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. SU(2)xU(1) - invariance of the theory in this representation is independent of whether fermions possess mass or not, and, consequently, it is not necessary to introduce interactions between Higgs bosons and fermions. The study discusses a possible relation between spontaneous breaking of parity in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation and the composition of elementary particles of "d...

  3. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS DEL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAZILIAN NURSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Éder Dias da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One is a documentary investigation whose objective to characterize the social representations on the gynecological cancer gifts in theses and dissertations of the Brazilian infirmary in the period from 2001 to 2007. The investigation source was the Bank of Thesis and Dissertations of the Brazilian Association of Infirmary. 51 studies had been identified. The analysis of the dices originated the following thematic categories: Imaginary the Social one of Women in front of the Gynecological Cancer; The daily one of the mastectomizada woman; The gynecological cancer and its treatment; Prevention of the gynecological cancer in the vision of the infirmary. The studies caused to apprehend the aspects of the psycho-social context, so important and necessary in the sense more atenciosamente to watch the welfare practice of the infirmary.

  4. From Content Knowledge to Community Change: A Review of Representations of Environmental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen M.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental health literacy (EHL) is a relatively new framework for conceptualizing how people understand and use information about potentially harmful environmental exposures and their influence on health. As such, information on the characterization and measurement of EHL is limited. This review provides an overview of EHL as presented in peer-reviewed literature and aggregates studies based on whether they represent individual level EHL or community level EHL or both. A range of assessment tools has been used to measure EHL, with many studies relying on pre-/post-assessment; however, a broader suite of assessment tools may be needed to capture community-wide outcomes. This review also suggests that the definition of EHL should explicitly include community change or collective action as an important longer-term outcome and proposes a refinement of previous representations of EHL as a theoretical framework, to include self-efficacy. PMID:29518955

  5. Iteratively re-weighted bi-cubic spline representation of corneal topography and its comparison to the standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongxia; Janunts, Edgar; Eppig, Timo; Sauer, Tomas; Langenbucher, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to represent the corneal anterior surface by utilizing radius and height data extracted from a TMS-2N topographic system with three different mathematical approaches and to simulate the visual performance. An iteratively re-weighted bi-cubic spline method is introduced for the local representation of the corneal surface. For comparison, two standard mathematical global representation approaches are used: the general quadratic function and the higher order Taylor polynomial approach. First, these methods were applied in simulations using three corneal models. Then, two real eye examples were investigated: one eye with regular astigmatism, and one eye which had undergone refractive surgery. A ray-tracing program was developed to evaluate the imaging performance of these examples with each surface representation strategy at the best focus plane. A 6 mm pupil size was chosen for the simulation. The fitting error (deviation) of the presented methods was compared. It was found that the accuracy of the topography representation was worst using the quadratic function and best with bicubic spline. The quadratic function cannot precisely describe the irregular corneal shape. In order to achieve a sub-micron fitting precision, the Taylor polynomial's order selection behaves adaptive to the corneal shape. The bi-cubic spline shows more stable performance. Considering the visual performance, the more precise the cornea representation is, the worse the visual performance is. The re-weighted bi-cubic spline method is a reasonable and stable method for representing the anterior corneal surface in measurements using a Placido-ring-pattern-based corneal topographer. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. The impact of embedding multiple modes of representation on student construction of chemistry knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mark Andrew

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of embedding multiple modes of representing science information on student conceptual understanding in science. Multiple representations refer to utilizing charts, graphs, diagrams, and other types of representations to communicate scientific information. This study investigated the impact of encouraging students to embed or integrate the multiple modes with text in end of unit writing-to-learn activities. A quasi-experimental design with four separate sites consisting of intact chemistry classes taught by different teachers at each site was utilized. At each site, approximately half of the classes were designated treatment classes and students in these classes participated in activities designed to encourage strategies to embed multiple modes within text in student writing. The control classes did not participate in these activities. All classes participated in identical end of unit writing tasks in which they were required to use at least one mode other than text, followed by identical end of unit assessments. This progression was then repeated for a second consecutive unit of study. Analysis of quantitative data indicated that in several cases, treatment classes significantly outperformed control classes both on measures of embeddedness in writing and on end of unit assessment measures. In addition, analysis at the level of individual students indicated significant positive correlations in many cases between measures of student embeddedness in writing and student performance on end of unit assessments. Three factors emerged as critical in increasing the likelihood of benefit for students from these types of activities. First, the level of teacher implementation and emphasis on the embeddedness lessons was linked to the possibility of conceptual benefit. Secondly, students participating in two consecutive lessons appeared to receive greater benefit during the second unit, inferring a cumulative benefit. Finally

  7. Development of operators' mental model acquisition system (2). Integration of knowledge representation about normal and abnormal plant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1999-03-01

    This report discusses a representation scheme of device failures anticipated in nuclear power plant, to describe related knowledge in a computer software. Coping ability covering a wide range of physical events is desired in plant operators and maintenance staffs, but it is impractical to give them a set of experience to cover the all possible events in the education/training curriculum. However, in case that their knowledge of plant design and of generally-known physical principles are enforced, their ability of cause identification and of appropriate responding actions against inexperienced events are expected to be enhanced, by combining the basic engineering and physical knowledge. Most of the anomalies anticipated in nuclear power plants are initiated as an incipient failure in some auxiliary equipment initially affecting only within the relative subsystem and hiding from the central control room, and then are propagated to deviate process parameters in the main subsystems to be observed from the control room. Incipient failures in auxiliary subsystems, such as a chemical degrading of an axis holder caused by a blockage of lubricant supply line through increased friction and subsequent extra heating, are typically local and irreversible consequences. On the other hand, deviation propagation in main systems, such as outlet temperature rise by an increased pump rotation friction though decreased coolant flow rate, are typically global and reversible consequences. This paper describes a methodology development to represent a category of knowledge to support operators' and maintenance staffs' effort in understanding local and irreversible failure consequences. (author)

  8. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Personalized Web-Based e-Learning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2006-01-01

    a user inferred from user interactions with the eLeanrning systems is used to adapt o®ered learning resources and guide a learner through them. This keynote gives an overview about knowledge and rules taken into account in current adaptive eLearning prototypes when adapting learning instructions....... Adaptation is usually based on knowledge about learning esources and users. Rules are used for heuristics to match the learning resources with learners and infer adaptation decisions.......Adaptation that is so natural for teaching by humans is a challenging issue for electronic learning tools. Adaptation in classic teaching is based on observations made about students during teaching. Similar idea was employed in user-adapted (personalized) eLearning applications. Knowledge about...

  9. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  10. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  11. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  12. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  13. Characterisation of Teacher Professional Knowledge and Skill through Content Representations from Tertiary Chemistry Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.; Lawrie, G. A.; Bailey, C. H.; Dargaville, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    An established tool for collating secondary teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (Loughran's CoRe) has been adapted for use by tertiary educators. Chemistry lecturers with a range of levels of experience were invited to participate in workshops through which the tool was piloted, refined and applied. We now present this refined tool for the…

  14. Knowledge Representation and Data Mining of Neuronal Morphologies Using Neuroinformatics Tools and Formal Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavaram, Sridevi

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience can greatly benefit from using novel methods in computer science and informatics, which enable knowledge discovery in unexpected ways. Currently one of the biggest challenges in Neuroscience is to map the functional circuitry of the brain. The applications of this goal range from understanding structural reorganization of neurons to…

  15. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  16. Knowledge Organization and its Representation in Teaching Physics : Magnetostatics in University and Upper Secondary School Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Majidi, Sharareh

    2013-01-01

    Physics has been always one of the most challenging subjects to learn for university and school students. It is also considered a demanding topic for teachers who aim to teach it efficiently. Therefore, one of the most important notions in physics is to find suitable ways to maximize productive learning and teaching outcomes. One of the most important factors that influence physics learning and teaching is the organization of physics knowledge and the ability to arrange its concepts properly....

  17. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans?Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the developme...

  18. Voluntary Standards, Expert Knowledge and the Governance of Sustainability Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Cheyns, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Products certified according to their environmental and social sustainability are becoming an important feature of production, trade and consumption in the agro-food sector. ‘Sustainability networks’ are behind the emergence and growth of these new product forms, often evolving into multi......-stakeholder initiatives that establish and manage base codes, standards, certifications and labels. As sustainability moves into the mainstream, understanding the governance of these networks is essential because they partly reshape the structure and characteristics of commodity flows. In this article, we examine...

  19. Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gary

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the greatest challenges facing biomedical research is the integration and sharing of vast amounts of information, not only for individual researchers, but also for the community at large. Agent Based Modeling (ABM can provide a means of addressing this challenge via a unifying translational architecture for dynamic knowledge representation. This paper presents a series of linked ABMs representing multiple levels of biological organization. They are intended to translate the knowledge derived from in vitro models of acute inflammation to clinically relevant phenomenon such as multiple organ failure. Results and Discussion ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systems Conclusion A series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior

  20. Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary

    2008-05-27

    One of the greatest challenges facing biomedical research is the integration and sharing of vast amounts of information, not only for individual researchers, but also for the community at large. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) can provide a means of addressing this challenge via a unifying translational architecture for dynamic knowledge representation. This paper presents a series of linked ABMs representing multiple levels of biological organization. They are intended to translate the knowledge derived from in vitro models of acute inflammation to clinically relevant phenomenon such as multiple organ failure. ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systems. A series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior in the intensive care setting. The ABMs all utilize cell-level agents

  1. USE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AS A FACTOR OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION HUMANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of educational projects get no further development primarily due to the lack of competent academic staff. It is not only the professional knowledge, abilities and skills, but also the ability to perceive educational innovations and ability to implement them. With regard to the mathematics education the most urgent is the problem of humanization, which appears in the ratio of scientific knowledge, national and cultural revival, issues of values and new type of education content. The problem of humanizing of mathematical education isexamined in the article, in particular in the field of training ofpedagogical personnels. As for the serve of mathematicalmaterial the language of formal logic, that is regulated by thesecond alarm system, is used, it results in the deficit ofinformation of the first alarm system, that is responsible forperception, imagination, supervision, experience. Logical isthe use of such methods serves of information, thatmaximally use both сигнальних systems of man. It issuggested one of directions of upgrading of educating tomathematics of future teachers except the traditionallanguage of formal logic to use the alternative languages ofserve of material : language of semantic networks, languageof the system of frames, language of productional.

  2. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Manifesting Destiny: Re/Presentations of Indigenous Peoples in K-12 U.S. History Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Sarah B.; Knowles, Ryan T.; Soden, Gregory J.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we use a postcolonial framework to investigate how state standards represent Indigenous histories and cultures. The research questions that guided this study include: (a) What is the frequency of Indigenous content (histories, cultures, current issues) covered in state-level U.S. history standards for K-12? (b) What is…

  4. Standard representation and unified stability analysis for dynamic artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ki K; Patrón, Ernesto Ríos; Braatz, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    An overview is provided of dynamic artificial neural network models (DANNs) for nonlinear dynamical system identification and control problems, and convex stability conditions are proposed that are less conservative than past results. The three most popular classes of dynamic artificial neural network models are described, with their mathematical representations and architectures followed by transformations based on their block diagrams that are convenient for stability and performance analyses. Classes of nonlinear dynamical systems that are universally approximated by such models are characterized, which include rigorous upper bounds on the approximation errors. A unified framework and linear matrix inequality-based stability conditions are described for different classes of dynamic artificial neural network models that take additional information into account such as local slope restrictions and whether the nonlinearities within the DANNs are odd. A theoretical example shows reduced conservatism obtained by the conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Knowledge structure representation and automated updates in intelligent information management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Stephen; Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems is examined. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within the proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. Potential techniques are studied for developing such an automated update capability and IIMS update requirements are examined in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.

  6. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  7. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2015v35n1p167 In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  8. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  9. Knowledge representation and management: benefits and challenges of the semantic web for the fields of KRM and NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A-M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of knowledge representation and management (KRM). A synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2011 is provided and an attempt to highlight the current trends in the field is sketched. This last decade, with the extension of the text-based web towards a semantic-structured web, NLP techniques have experienced a renewed interest in knowledge extraction. This trend is corroborated through the five papers selected for the KRM section of the Yearbook 2011. They all depict outstanding studies that exploit NLP technologies whenever possible in order to accurately extract meaningful information from various biomedical textual sources. Bringing semantic structure to the meaningful content of textual web pages affords the user with cooperative sharing and intelligent finding of electronic data. As exemplified by the best paper selection, more and more advanced biomedical applications aim at exploiting the meaningful richness of free-text documents in order to generate semantic metadata and recently to learn and populate domain ontologies. These later are becoming a key piece as they allow portraying the semantics of the Semantic Web content. Maintaining their consistency with documents and semantic annotations that refer to them is a crucial challenge of the Semantic Web for the coming years.

  10. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  11. Short-Term Electricity-Load Forecasting Using a TSK-Based Extreme Learning Machine with Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Uk Yeom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses short-term electricity-load forecasting using an extreme learning machine (ELM with automatic knowledge representation from a given input-output data set. For this purpose, we use a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK-based ELM to develop a systematic approach to generating if-then rules, while the conventional ELM operates without knowledge information. The TSK-ELM design includes a two-phase development. First, we generate an initial random-partition matrix and estimate cluster centers for random clustering. The obtained cluster centers are used to determine the premise parameters of fuzzy if-then rules. Next, the linear weights of the TSK fuzzy type are estimated using the least squares estimate (LSE method. These linear weights are used as the consequent parameters in the TSK-ELM design. The experiments were performed on short-term electricity-load data for forecasting. The electricity-load data were used to forecast hourly day-ahead loads given temperature forecasts; holiday information; and historical loads from the New England ISO. In order to quantify the performance of the forecaster, we use metrics and statistical characteristics such as root mean squared error (RMSE as well as mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percent error (MAPE, and R-squared, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method showed good performance when compared with a conventional ELM with four activation functions such sigmoid, sine, radial basis function, and rectified linear unit (ReLU. It possessed superior prediction performance and knowledge information and a small number of rules.

  12. Core Knowledge and Standards: A Conversation with E.D. Hirsch, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, John

    1999-01-01

    Hirsch believes it is vitally important to specify the "core knowledge" that all students must learn. Here, Hirsch explains elements of his K-8 core-knowledge sequence. Teachers should avoid canned lessons but should know where they are going. New English standards are unacceptable, since they omit Shakespeare's works. (MLH)

  13. Media Representations of National and International Standardized Testing in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa

    2017-01-01

    This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…

  14. Event-related potentials to event-related words: grammatical class and semantic attributes in the representation of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Horacio A; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Otten, Leun J; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-05-21

    A number of recent studies have provided contradictory evidence on the question of whether grammatical class plays a role in the neural representation of lexical knowledge. Most of the previous studies comparing the processing of nouns and verbs, however, confounded word meaning and grammatical class by comparing verbs referring to actions with nouns referring to objects. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity from native Italian speakers reading single words all referring to events (e.g., corsa [the run]; correre [to run]), thus avoiding confounding nouns and verbs with objects and actions. We manipulated grammatical class (noun versus verb) as well as semantic attributes (motor versus sensory events). Activity between 300 and 450ms was more negative for nouns than verbs, and for sensory than motor words, over posterior scalp sites. These grammatical class and semantic effects were not dissociable in terms of latency, duration, or scalp distribution. In a later time window (450-110ms) and at frontal regions, grammatical class and semantic effects interacted; motor verbs were more positive than the other three word categories. We suggest that the lack of a temporal and topographical dissociation between grammatical class and semantic effects in the time range of the N400 component is compatible with an account in which both effects reflect the same underlying process related to meaning retrieval, and we link the later effect with working memory operations associated to the experimental task. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhou Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor’s intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating “perceptual symbols”: the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of “accumulation.” On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

  16. Representation of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    structure composed of nodes representing semantic primitives. From this structure, a French translation of the input is generated. The translation serves as a...Style: range: (Burgers, Chinese, American, Seafood, French ) default: American if-added: (Update Alternatives of Restaurant) Times-of-Operation: range: a...Restaurant Frame is used to modify the list of alternative restaurants once a particular cuisine is chosen. In some systems, trigger procedures

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  18. A new standard of visual data representation for imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Padula, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    MALDI imaging MS (IMS) is principally used for cancer diagnostics. In our own experience with publishing IMS data, we have been requested to modify our protocols with respect to the areas of the tissue that are imaged in order to comply with the wider literature. In light of this, we have determined that current methodologies lack effective controls and can potentially introduce bias by only imaging specific areas of the targeted tissue EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A previously imaged sample was selected and then cropped in different ways to show the potential effect of only imaging targeted areas. By using a model sample, we were able to effectively show how selective imaging of samples can misinterpret tissue features and by changing the areas that are acquired, according to our new standard, an effective internal control can be introduced. Current IMS sampling convention relies on the assumption that sample preparation has been performed correctly. This prevents users from checking whether molecules have moved beyond borders of the tissue due to delocalization and consequentially products of improper sample preparation could be interpreted as biological features that are of critical importance when encountered in a visual diagnostic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Impact of Standardized New Medication Education Program on Postdischarge Patients' Knowledge and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tammie R; Coke, Lola

    2016-10-01

    This study, implemented on 2 medical-surgical units, evaluated the impact of a standardized, evidence-based new medication education program. Outcomes evaluated included patient postdischarge knowledge of new medication purpose and side effects, patient satisfaction with new medication, and Medicare reimbursement earn-back potential. As a result, knowledge scores for new medication purpose and side effects were high post intervention. Patient satisfaction with new medication education increased. Value-based purchasing reimbursement earn-back potential improved.

  20. An Ontology-Based Approach to Enable Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Worker–Cobot Agile Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. Sadik

    2017-11-01

    accomplish the cooperative manufacturing concept, a proper approach is required to describe the shared environment between the worker and the cobot. The cooperative manufacturing shared environment includes the cobot, the co-worker, and other production components such as the product itself. Furthermore, the whole cooperative manufacturing system components need to communicate and share their knowledge, to reason and process the shared information, which eventually gives the control solution the capability of obtaining collective manufacturing decisions. Putting into consideration that the control solution should also provide a natural language which is human readable and in the same time can be understood by the machine (i.e., the cobot. Accordingly, a distributed control solution which combines an ontology-based Multi-Agent System (MAS and a Business Rule Management System (BRMS is proposed, in order to solve the mentioned challenges in the cooperative manufacturing, which are: manufacturing knowledge representation, sharing, and reasoning.

  1. Promoting pedagogical content knowledge development for early career secondary teachers in science and technology using content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Eames, Chris; Hume, Anne; Lockley, John

    2012-11-01

    Background: This research addressed the key area of early career teacher education and aimed to explore the use of a 'content representation' (CoRe) as a mediational tool to develop early career secondary teacher pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was situated in the subject areas of science and technology, where sound teacher knowledge is particularly important to student engagement. Purpose: The study was designed to examine whether such a tool (a CoRe), co-designed by an early career secondary teacher with expert content and pedagogy specialists, can enhance the PCK of early career teachers. The research questions were: How can experts in content and pedagogy work together with early career teachers to develop one science topic CoRe and one technology topic CoRe to support the development of PCK for early career secondary teachers? How does the use of a collaboratively designed CoRe affect the planning of an early career secondary teacher in science or technology? How has engagement in the development and use of an expert-informed CoRe developed an early career teacher's PCK? Sample: The research design incorporated a unique partnership between two expert classroom teachers, two content experts, four early career teachers, and four researchers experienced in science and technology education. Design: This study employed an interpretivist-based methodology and an action research approach within a four-case study design. Data were gathered using qualitative research methods focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Results: The study indicated that CoRes, developed through this collaborative process, helped the early career teachers focus on the big picture of the topic, emphasize particularly relevant areas of content and consider alternative ways of planning for their teaching. Conclusions: This paper presents an analysis of the process of CoRe development by the teacher-expert partnerships and the effect that had on

  2. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrit, C.

    2005-10-01

    Currently, decisions pertaining to the management of potentially polluted sites very often rely on the evaluation of risks for man and the environment. This evaluation is carried out with the help of models which simulate the transfer of pollutants from a source to a vulnerable target, for different scenarios of exposure. The selection of parameter values of these models is based as much as possible on the data collected at the time of on-site investigations (phase of diagnosis). However, due to time and financial constraints, information regarding model parameters is often incomplete and imprecise. This leads to uncertainty that needs to be accounted for the decision-making process. Uncertainty regarding model parameters may have essentially two origins. It may arise from randomness due to natural variability resulting from heterogeneity of population or the fluctuations of a quantity in time. Or it may be caused by impreciseness due to a lack of information resulting, for example, from systematic measurement errors or expert opinions. In risk assessment, no distinction is traditionally made between these two types of uncertainty, both being represented by means of a single probability distribution. So, uncertainty in risk assessment models is generally addressed within a purely probabilistic framework. This approach comes down to assuming that knowledge regarding model parameters is always of random nature (variability). Such knowledge is represented by single probability distributions typically propagated through the risk model using the Monte-Carlo technique. Even if this approach is well-known, the difficulty is to avoid an arbitrary choice of the shape of probability distributions assigned to model parameters. Indeed in the context of risk assessment related to pollutant exposure, knowledge of some parameters is often imprecise or incomplete. The use of single probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge becomes subjective and partly arbitrary

  3. An Object-oriented Knowledge Link Model for General Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-hong, CHEN; Bang-chuan, LAI

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge link is the basic on knowledge share and the indispensable part in knowledge standardization management. In this paper, a object-oriented knowledge link model is proposed for general knowledge management by using objectoriented representation based on knowledge levels system. In the model, knowledge link is divided into general knowledge link and integrated knowledge with corresponding link properties and methods. What’s more, its BNF syntax is described and designed.

  4. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  5. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  6. Influence of the knowledge representation on the results of risks calculation; Influence de la representation de la connaissance sur les resultats de calcul de risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C. [Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Mercat-Rommens, C.; Chojnacki, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (DPAM/SEMIC/LMPC), Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the field of radioecology, uncertainty was especially apprehended within a purely probabilistic framework. This report presents the various mathematical theories which make it possible to represent dubious information: theory of probabilities, theory of possibilities, theory of belief function. The influence of the choice of these various mathematical models to represent knowledge is then studied on the example of the transfer of strontium 90 from an atmospheric deposit to the man through the cow s milk consumption. (authors)

  7. Quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  8. Representation in Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…

  9. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  10. Social Representations of the "Musical Child": An Empirical Investigation on Implicit Music Knowledge in Higher Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Carugati, Felice

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an empirical study undertaken at the University of Bologna about the social representations of music held by university students studying to become teachers in nursery, kindergarten and primary education. An open questionnaire was submitted to the university students at the beginning and end of the music education teaching…

  11. Fostering Students' Conceptual Knowledge in Biology in the Context of German National Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Dorfner, Tobias; Baumgartner, Julia; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2018-04-01

    The German National Education Standards (NES) for biology were introduced in 2005. The content part of the NES emphasizes fostering conceptual knowledge. However, there are hardly any indications of what such an instructional implementation could look like. We introduce a theoretical framework of an instructional approach to foster students' conceptual knowledge as demanded in the NES (Fostering Conceptual Knowledge) including instructional practices derived from research on single core ideas, general psychological theories, and biology-specific features of instructional quality. First, we aimed to develop a rating manual, which is based on this theoretical framework. Second, we wanted to describe current German biology instruction according to this approach and to quantitatively analyze its effectiveness. And third, we aimed to provide qualitative examples of this approach to triangulate our findings. In a first step, we developed a theoretically devised rating manual to measure Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in videotaped lessons. Data for quantitative analysis included 81 videotaped biology lessons of 28 biology teachers from different German secondary schools. Six hundred forty students completed a questionnaire on their situational interest after each lesson and an achievement test. Results from multilevel modeling showed significant positive effects of Fostering Conceptual Knowledge on students' achievement and situational interest. For qualitative analysis, we contrasted instruction of four teachers, two with high and two with low student achievement and situational interest using the qualitative method of thematic analysis. Qualitative analysis revealed five main characteristics describing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge. Therefore, implementing Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in biology instruction seems promising. Examples of how to implement Fostering Conceptual Knowledge in instruction are shown and discussed.

  12. [Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to standard hospital precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandana Bambenongama, Norbert; Losimba Likwela, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The infectious risk in the healthcare setting is potentially ubiquitous. Several infectious agents may be transmitted to healthcare professionals, most of which are carried by blood and body fluids. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in delivery rooms and operating theatres about standard precautions in healthcare settings in order to deduce the actions to be implemented to improve their security. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2011. A questionnaire was sent to 96 people using the direct interview technique. Only 20% of study subjects were familiar with the main bloodborne viruses (HBV, HCV and HIV). 67.8% of them considered that standard precautions must be applied only to women in labour and suspected HIV-positive patients. Almost all respondents (91.1%) had already been subject to at least one AES during the last 12 months. Respondents appeared to have a poor knowledge of the recommended actions following an AES. Recapping of needles after care is a practice reported by 55.6% of respondents. Routine use of protective barriers is unsatisfactory. The frequent failure of systematic application of standard precautions in healthcare settings by healthcare workers in the city of Isiro should lead the Ministry of Health to implement a process designed to increase awareness about standard precautions and improve the equipment necessary for strict compliance with these precautions.

  13. ADEpedia: a scalable and standardized knowledge base of Adverse Drug Events using semantic web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-01-01

    A source of semantically coded Adverse Drug Event (ADE) data can be useful for identifying common phenotypes related to ADEs. We proposed a comprehensive framework for building a standardized ADE knowledge base (called ADEpedia) through combining ontology-based approach with semantic web technology. The framework comprises four primary modules: 1) an XML2RDF transformation module; 2) a data normalization module based on NCBO Open Biomedical Annotator; 3) a RDF store based persistence module; and 4) a front-end module based on a Semantic Wiki for the review and curation. A prototype is successfully implemented to demonstrate the capability of the system to integrate multiple drug data and ontology resources and open web services for the ADE data standardization. A preliminary evaluation is performed to demonstrate the usefulness of the system, including the performance of the NCBO annotator. In conclusion, the semantic web technology provides a highly scalable framework for ADE data source integration and standard query service.

  14. Developing Practical Knowledge of the Next Generation Science Standards in Elementary Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Zangori, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Just as the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs) call for change in what students learn and how they are taught, teacher education programs must reconsider courses and curriculum in order to prepare teacher candidates to understand and implement new standards. In this study, we examine the development of prospective elementary teachers' practical knowledge of the NGSS in the context of a science methods course and innovative field experience. We present three themes related to how prospective teachers viewed and utilized the standards: (a) as a useful guide for planning and designing instruction, (b) as a benchmark for student and self-evaluation, and (c) as an achievable vision for teaching and learning. Our findings emphasize the importance of collaborative opportunities for repeated teaching of the same lessons, but question what is achievable in the context of a semester-long experience.

  15. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  16. WE-F-BRB-01: The Power of Ontologies and Standardized Terminologies for Capturing Clinical Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, P. [University of Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented.

  17. WE-F-BRB-01: The Power of Ontologies and Standardized Terminologies for Capturing Clinical Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented

  18. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  19. Incorporating personalized gene sequence variants, molecular genetics knowledge, and health knowledge into an EHR prototype based on the Continuity of Care Record standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Cimino, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives The current volume and complexity of genetic tests, and the molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge related to interpretation of the results of those tests, are rapidly outstripping the ability of individual clinicians to recall, understand and convey to their patients information relevant to their care. The tailoring of molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge in clinical settings is important both for the provision of personalized medicine and to reduce clinician information overload. In this paper we describe the incorporation, customization and demonstration of molecular genetic data (mainly sequence variants), molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge into a standards-based electronic health record (EHR) prototype developed specifically for this study. Methods We extended the CCR (Continuity of Care Record), an existing EHR standard for representing clinical data, to include molecular genetic data. An EHR prototype was built based on the extended CCR and designed to display relevant molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from an existing knowledge base for cystic fibrosis (OntoKBCF). We reconstructed test records from published case reports and represented them in the CCR schema. We then used the EHR to dynamically filter molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from OntoKBCF using molecular genetic data and clinical data from the test cases. Results The molecular genetic data were successfully incorporated in the CCR by creating a category of laboratory results called “Molecular Genetics ” and specifying a particular class of test (“Gene Mutation Test”) in this category. Unlike other laboratory tests reported in the CCR, results of tests in this class required additional attributes (“Molecular Structure” and “Molecular Position”) to support interpretation by clinicians. These results, along with clinical data (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnostic procedures, and therapies) were used

  20. Biological standards for the Knowledge-Based BioEconomy: What is at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Schmidt, Markus

    2018-01-25

    The contribution of life sciences to the Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy (KBBE) asks for the transition of contemporary, gene-based biotechnology from being a trial-and-error endeavour to becoming an authentic branch of engineering. One requisite to this end is the need for standards to measure and represent accurately biological functions, along with languages for data description and exchange. However, the inherent complexity of biological systems and the lack of quantitative tradition in the field have largely curbed this enterprise. Fortunately, the onset of systems and synthetic biology has emphasized the need for standards not only to manage omics data, but also to increase reproducibility and provide the means of engineering living systems in earnest. Some domains of biotechnology can be easily standardized (e.g. physical composition of DNA sequences, tools for genome editing, languages to encode workflows), while others might be standardized with some dedicated research (e.g. biological metrology, operative systems for bio-programming cells) and finally others will require a considerable effort, e.g. defining the rules that allow functional composition of biological activities. Despite difficulties, these are worthy attempts, as the history of technology shows that those who set/adopt standards gain a competitive advantage over those who do not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Spatial Knowledge in the Absence of Vision: Allocentric and Egocentric Representations Generated by Blind People When Supported by Auditory Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Latini Corazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of visuospatial representations and visuospatial memory can profit from the analysis of the performance of specific groups. in particular, the surprising skills and limitations of blind people may be an important source of information. For example, converging evidence indicates that, even though blind individuals are able to develop both egocentric and allocentric space representations, the latter tend to be much more restricted than those in blindfolded sighted individuals. however, no study has explored yet whether this conclusion also holds when people receive practice with the spatial environment and are supported by auditory stimuli. The present research examined these issues with the use of an experimental apparatus based on the morris Water maze (morris et al., 1982. in this setup, blind people and blindfolded controls were given the opportunity to develop knowledge of the environment with the support of simultaneous auditory cues. The results show that even in this favourable case blind people spontaneously maintain to rely on an egocentric spatial representation.

  2. The Application and Its Consequences for Non-Standard Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouwens, Midas; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2018-01-01

    Application-centric computing dominates human-computer interactions, yet the concept of an application is ambiguous and the impact of its ubiquity underexplored. We unpack “the application” through the lens of non-standard knowledge work: freelance, self-employed, and fixed-term contract workers...... of applications, such as update processes, interface symmetries, application-document relationships, and operating system and hardware dependencies. By empirically and analytically focusing on “the application”, we reveal the implications of the current application-centric computing paradigm and discuss how...

  3. Wikis: Developing pre-service teachers’ leadership skills and knowledge of content standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia Reid-Griffin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this initial phase of our multi-year research study we set out to explore the development of leadership skills in our pre-service secondary teachers after using an online wiki, Wikispaces. This paper presents our methods for preparing a group of 13 mathematics and 3 science secondary pre-service teachers to demonstrate the essential knowledge, skills and dispositions of beginning teacher leaders. Our findings indicate the pre-service teachers' overall satisfaction with demonstrating leadership through collaborative practices. They were successful in these new roles as teacher/collaborator within the context of communication about content standards. Though the candidates participated in other collaborative tasks, this effort was noted for bringing together technology, content standards and leadership qualities that are critical for beginning teachers. Implications for addressing the preservice teachers' development of leadership skills, as they become professional teachers will be shared.

  4. Medical ethical standards in dermatology: an analytical study of knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, W Z; Abdel Hay, R M; El Lawindi, M I

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology practice has not been ethically justified at all times. The objective of the study was to find out dermatologists' knowledge about medical ethics, their attitudes towards regulatory measures and their practices, and to study the different factors influencing the knowledge, the attitude and the practices of dermatologists. This is a cross-sectional comparative study conducted among 214 dermatologists, from five Academic Universities and from participants in two conferences. A 54 items structured anonymous questionnaire was designed to describe the demographical characteristics of the study group as well as their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the medical ethics standards in clinical and research settings. Five scoring indices were estimated regarding knowledge, attitude and practice. Inferential statistics were used to test differences between groups as indicated. The Student's t-test and analysis of variance were carried out for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was conducted for qualitative variables. The results were considered statistically significant at a P > 0.05. Analysis of the possible factors having impact on the overall scores revealed that the highest knowledge scores were among dermatologists who practice in an academic setting plus an additional place; however, this difference was statistically non-significant (P = 0.060). Female dermatologists showed a higher attitude score compared to males (P = 0.028). The highest significant attitude score (P = 0.019) regarding clinical practice was recorded among those practicing cosmetic dermatology. The different studied groups of dermatologists revealed a significant impact on the attitude score (P = 0.049), and the evidence-practice score (P dermatology research. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. The impact of assumed knowledge entry standards on undergraduate mathematics teaching in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann

    2015-10-01

    Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who may be returning to study, or who are changing career paths but do not have particular prerequisite study, now have more flexible pathways. However, there is mounting evidence to indicate that there are also significant negative impacts associated with assumed knowledge approaches, with large numbers of students enrolling in degrees without the stated assumed knowledge. For students, there are negative impacts on pass rates and retention rates and limitations to pathways within particular degrees. For institutions, the necessity to offer additional mathematics subjects at a lower level than normal and more support services for under-prepared students impacts on workloads and resources. In this paper, we discuss early research from the First Year in Maths project, which begins to shed light on the realities of a system that may in fact be too flexible.

  6. The Logic of Adaptive Behavior - Knowledge Representation and Algorithms for the Markov Decision Process Framework in First-Order Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Otterlo, M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning and reasoning in large, structured, probabilistic worlds is at the heart of artificial intelligence. Markov decision processes have become the de facto standard in modeling and solving sequential decision making problems under uncertainty. Many efficient reinforcement learning and dynamic

  7. What’s Next: The Status of ISO Global KM Standards and the Importance of Managing Knowledge Assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Ron Young, CEO of Knowledge Associates International, based in Cambridge UK, is Chair of the BSI KM Standards Committee KMS/1, member of the BSI Asset Management Committee AMS/1 working with ISO 55000, and member of the ISO 30401 workgroup developing a global KM Standard. He will present the benefits, challenges and implications of a global KM standard, from his perspective, and give an update on the ISO/BSI standard development. He will also provide insights into the latest developments with knowledge asset management. (author

  8. Constructible Authentic Representations: Designing Video Games That Enable Players to Utilize Knowledge Developed In-Game to Reason about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri

    2014-01-01

    While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, representations and declared practices of nurses and physicians about obesity in a university hospital: training is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher Della Torre, S; Courvoisier, D S; Saldarriaga, A; Martin, X E; Farpour-Lambert, N J

    2018-04-01

    In the context of a worldwide obesity epidemic, healthcare providers play a key role in obesity management. Knowledge of current guidelines and attitudes to prevent stigmatization are especially important. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, perception of opportunity for intervention, declared practices and need for training and material of nurses and physicians about obesity in a Swiss University Hospital. A total of 834 physicians and nurses filled an online survey. The questionnaire was based on literature, exploratory interviews and expert committee review. It was pre-tested with 15 physicians and nurses. Participants declared a low level of negative attitudes towards individuals living with obesity. However, the results highlighted a lack of knowledge to diagnose obesity in adults and children, as well as confidence and training to care of patients with obesity. One-third of providers did not know how to calculate body mass index. Half of providers felt it was part of their role to take care of patients with obesity, even if 55% of them had the feeling that they did not have adequate training. Nurses and physicians working in a university hospital showed a low level of negative attitudes but a lack of knowledge and skills on obesity management. Training should be improved in this population to insure adequate and coherent messages and equal access to evidence-based treatment for patients living with obesity. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Limited Knowledge of Fraction Representations Differentiates Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disability (Dyscalculia) versus Low Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions…

  11. Four (Algorithms) in One (Bag): An Integrative Framework of Knowledge for Teaching the Standard Algorithms of the Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Ira; Koichu, Boris; Peled, Irit; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative framework of knowledge for teaching the standard algorithms of the four basic arithmetic operations. The framework is based on a mathematical analysis of the algorithms, a connectionist perspective on teaching mathematics and an analogy with previous frameworks of knowledge for teaching arithmetic…

  12. From a Content Delivery Portal to a Knowledge Management System for Standardized Cancer Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlue, Danijela; Mate, Sebastian; Haier, Jörg; Kadioglu, Dennis; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Breil, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous tumor documentation and its challenges of interpretation of medical terms lead to problems in analyses of data from clinical and epidemiological cancer registries. The objective of this project was to design, implement and improve a national content delivery portal for oncological terms. Data elements of existing handbooks and documentation sources were analyzed, combined and summarized by medical experts of different comprehensive cancer centers. Informatics experts created a generic data model based on an existing metadata repository. In order to establish a national knowledge management system for standardized cancer documentation, a prototypical tumor wiki was designed and implemented. Requirements engineering techniques were applied to optimize this platform. It is targeted to user groups such as documentation officers, physicians and patients. The linkage to other information sources like PubMed and MeSH was realized.

  13. Representational coexistence in the God concept: Core knowledge intuitions of God as a person are not revised by Christian theology despite lifelong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2018-01-25

    Previous research has shown that in the minds of young adult religious adherents, acquired theology about the extraordinary characteristics of God (e.g., omniscience) coexists with, rather than replaces, an initial concept of God formed by co-option of the person concept. We tested the hypothesis that representational coexistence holds even after extensive experience with Christian theology, as indexed by age. Christian religious adherents ranging in age from 18 to 87 years were asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about persons and Christian theology about God were consistent (both true or both false) or inconsistent (true on one and false on the other). Results showed, across adulthood, more theological errors in evaluating inconsistent versus consistent statements. Older adults also exhibited slower response times to inconsistent versus consistent statements. These findings show that despite extensive experience, indeed a lifetime of experience for some participants, the Christian theological God concept does not separate from the initial person concept from which it is formed. In fact, behavioral signatures of representational coexistence were not attenuated by experience. We discuss the broader implications of these findings to the acquisition of evolutionarily new concepts.

  14. A Standard, Knowledge Integrated Consultation Document for Pediatric HIV Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkumar Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is one of life-threatening diseases over which human currently does not have enough control. Study and research on HIV and its prevention are being carried out by different organizations. However, they are mostly area specific, thereby, failing to provide a nation-wide or region-wide overview of HIV infection. One of the major bottlenecks in having a wider study is the lack of interoperability among systems managing HIV patient information. Besides, such lack of interoperability also hinders forming larger HIV care network where telemedicine could be accomplished more effectively. We have addressed this interoperability issue through HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA, a document-based messaging standard for clinical interaction. This article introduces a document architecture that conforms to HL7 CDA standard and contains all relevant information of a pediatric HIV patient. We extended the existing architecture of CDA consultation note in three dimensions: (1 HIV specific content, (2 HIV specific knowledgebase and (3 HIV specific presentation of content and knowledge. An example CDA consultation note is demonstrated following the proposed extension.

  15. Emotionalization in Science Communication: The Impact of Narratives and Visual Representations on Knowledge Gain and Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication of scientific information plays an increasingly important role for scientists and scientific institutions. This is especially true of institutions in the field of biodiversity and conservation research, since the transfer of research results to the public is a prerequisite for decision-making, and the success of conservation measures often depends on public acceptance or active contribution. To have the desired impact, science communication in the context of human–wildlife interactions must enable recipients to (1 gain valid knowledge, (2 form an attitude toward the subject matter, and (3 develop an adequate understanding of the risks and dangers associated with human–wildlife interactions, which are usually overestimated by the general public. Using the topic of foxes in urban habitats, we investigated the role of emotionalization in science communication. In a laboratory experiment with 127 university students (91 females, we manipulated textual and visual features in an information brochure about foxes and examined their impact on people’s knowledge gain, attitude development, and modified risk perception. In particular, we compared a narrative presentation to a non-narrative list of facts and examined the use of photographs of young foxes. We found a positive development in all of the outcome variables from the pre- to the posttest (more knowledge, more positive attitude, lower risk perception. We also found an interaction effect of text type and visualization on knowledge gain that highlighted the importance of the fit between text type and visualization. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any differential effects of specific treatments on attitude development. Finally, we found a main effect of text type on modified risk perception, indicating less reduction of risk perception with a narrative article than with a fact list. We discuss our findings with respect to the role of emotionalization in science

  16. Application of the Naive Bayes Classifier for Representation and Use of Heterogeneous and Incomplete Knowledge in Social Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Trovato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As societies move towards integration of robots, it is important to study how robots can use their cognition in order to choose effectively their actions in a human environment, and possibly adapt to new contexts. When modelling these contextual data, it is common in social robotics to work with data extracted from human sciences such as sociology, anatomy, or anthropology. These heterogeneous data need to be efficiently used in order to make the robot adapt quickly its actions. In this paper we describe a methodology for the use of heterogeneous and incomplete knowledge, through an algorithm based on naive Bayes classifier. The model was successfully applied to two different experiments of human-robot interaction.

  17. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jiliu; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Xi; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures. (paper)

  18. The Use of Lesson Study Combined with Content Representation in the Planning of Physics Lessons During Field Practice to Develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt

    2016-08-01

    Recent research, both internationally and in Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real-life practice in schools. This study addresses this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, studying pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson. Two means of intervention were introduced. The first was lesson study, which is a method for planning, carrying out and reflecting on a research lesson in detail with a learner and content-centered focus. This was used in combination with a second means, content representations, which is a systematic tool that connects overall teaching aims with pedagogical prompts. Changes in teaching were assessed through the construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A deductive coding analysis was carried out for this purpose. Transcripts of pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson were coded into four main PCK categories, which were thereafter divided into 16 PCK sub-categories. The results showed that the intervention affected the pre-service teachers' potential to start developing PCK. First, they focused much more on categories concerning the learners. Second, they focused far more uniformly in all of the four main categories comprising PCK. Consequently, these differences could affect their potential to start developing PCK.

  19. Knowledge of stakeholders in the game meat industry and its effect on compliance with food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Johan Leon; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2011-10-01

    The game meat industry is continuing to grow in South Africa. Several stakeholders are involved in the game meat supply chain and a high level of knowledge is necessary to ensure compliance with legislation and standards. It was therefore necessary to determine the level of knowledge of the stakeholders since this has not been determined before. Information regarding the extent of stakeholders' knowledge and the possible impact on compliance to standards was obtained through a desk-top study and an analysis of questionnaire responses from industry, consumers and relevant authorities. Results have shown that consumers have a specific expectation regarding the safe production of game meat. Limitations in the knowledge of the stakeholders have been identified. Understanding these limitations can assist policy-makers, law enforcers and the game meat industry in developing strategies to alleviate the problem. The result of this study may assist in providing consumers with game meat that is safe for human consumption.

  20. An architecture for standardized terminology services by wrapping and integration of existing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Roland; Prins, Antoon K.

    2003-01-01

    Research on terminology services has resulted in development of applications and definition of standards, but has not yet led to widespread use of (standardized) terminology services in practice. Current terminology services offer functionality both for concept representation and lexical knowledge

  1. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  2. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  3. Introduction to representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a "holistic" introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic k...

  4. Standard precautions and infection control, medical students' knowledge and behavior at a Saudi university: the need for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Noaim, Khalid Ibrahim; Bu Saad, Mohammed Ahmed; Al Malhm, Turki Ahmed; Al Mulhim, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Al Awas, Marwah Abdulaziz

    2013-04-21

    No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7%) students scored ? 24 (out of 41points) which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect

  5. Wikis: Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Leadership Skills and Knowledge of Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Griffin, Angelia; Slaten, Kelli M.

    2016-01-01

    In this initial phase of our multi-year research study we set out to explore the development of leadership skills in our pre-service secondary teachers after using an online wiki, Wikispaces. This paper presents our methods for preparing a group of 13 mathematics and 3 science secondary pre-service teachers to demonstrate the essential knowledge,…

  6. Density matrix renormalization group simulations of SU(N ) Heisenberg chains using standard Young tableaus: Fundamental representation and comparison with a finite-size Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    We develop an efficient method to perform density matrix renormalization group simulations of the SU(N ) Heisenberg chain with open boundary conditions taking full advantage of the SU(N ) symmetry of the problem. This method is an extension of the method previously developed for exact diagonalizations and relies on a systematic use of the basis of standard Young tableaux. Concentrating on the model with the fundamental representation at each site (i.e., one particle per site in the fermionic formulation), we have benchmarked our results for the ground-state energy up to N =8 and up to 420 sites by comparing them with Bethe ansatz results on open chains, for which we have derived and solved the Bethe ansatz equations. The agreement for the ground-state energy is excellent for SU(3) (12 digits). It decreases with N , but it is still satisfactory for N =8 (six digits). Central charges c are also extracted from the entanglement entropy using the Calabrese-Cardy formula and agree with the theoretical values expected from the SU (N) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories.

  7. Standard Versus Simplified Consent Materials for Biobank Participation: Differences in Patient Knowledge and Trial Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Sarah B; Murphy, Marie; Wiley, James; Dohan, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Replacing standard consent materials with simplified materials is a promising intervention to improve patient comprehension, but there is little evidence on its real-world implementation. We employed a sequential two-arm design to compare the effect of standard versus simplified consent materials on potential donors' understanding of biobank processes and their accrual to an active biobanking program. Participants were female patients of a California breast health clinic. Subjects from the simplified arm answered more items correctly ( p = .064), reported "don't know" for fewer items ( p = .077), and consented to donate to the biobank at higher rates ( p = .025) than those from the standard arm. Replacing an extant consent form with a simplified version is feasible and may benefit patient comprehension and study accrual.

  8. Traditional knowledge and patent protection: conflicting views on international patent standards

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, A

    2010-01-01

    As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is ...

  9. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  10. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, John B; Alverdy, John C; Zaborina, Olga; An, Gary

    2011-09-19

    There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI) can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. An agent-based model (ABM) of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM) was used to: 1) investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed--i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2) examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data--i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3) produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design--i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological experiments, and new investigatory avenues proposed to test those

  11. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborina Olga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. Methodology/Principal Findings An agent-based model (ABM of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM was used to: 1 investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed - i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2 examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data - i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3 produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design - i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological

  12. Diatomic molecule vibrational potentials: Accuracy of representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for increasing the radius of convergence of certain representations of diatomic molecule vibrational potentials. The method relies on using knowledge of the analytic structure of such potentials to the maximum when attempting to approximate them. The known singular point (due to the centrifugal and/or Coulomb potentials) at zero internuclear separation should be included in its exact form in an approximate representation. The efficacy of this idea is tested [using Peek's ''exact'' numerical Born-Oppenheimer potential for the (1ssigma/sub g/) 2 Σ + /sub g/ state of H + 2 as a test problem] when the representational form is the series of (1) Dunham, (2) Simons, Parr, and Finlan, (3) Thakkar, and (4) Ogilvie-Tipping, and also (5) when the form is a [2, 2] or a [3, 3] Pade approximant. Significant improvements in accuracy are obtained in some of these cases, particularly on the inner wall of the potential. A comparison of the effectiveness of the five methods is made both with and without the origin behavior being included exactly. This is useful in itself as no comprehensive accuracy comparison of the standard representations seems to have appeared in the literature. The Ogilvie-Tipping series, corrected at the origin for singular behavior, is the best representation presently available for states analogous to the (1ssigma/sub g/) 2 Σ + /sub g/ state of H + 2

  13. AAVP Recommendations for Core Competency Standards Relating to Parasitological Knowledge and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Karen F; Krecek, Rosina C; Bowman, Dwight D

    As part of the accreditation process, the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education has defined nine broad areas of core competencies that must be met by graduating students earning a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree. To define competencies in veterinary parasitology, the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP) has developed a detailed list of knowledge and skills that are recommended for inclusion in professional curricula. These recommendations were developed by instructors from colleges/schools of veterinary medicine in the US, Canada, and the Caribbean, and were reviewed and endorsed following AAVP guidelines.

  14. Requirement Volatility, Standardization and Knowledge Integration in Software Projects: An Empirical Analysis on Outsourced IS Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesri Govindaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information systems development (ISD projects are highly complex, with different groups of people having  to collaborate and exchange their knowledge. Considering the intensity of knowledge exchange that takes place in outsourced ISD projects, in this study a conceptual model was developed, aiming to examine the influence of four antecedents, i.e. standardization, requirement volatility, internal integration, and external integration, on two dependent variables, i.e. process performance and product performance. Data  were collected from 46 software companies in four big cities in Indonesia. The collected data were examined to verify the proposed theoretical model using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique. The results show that process performance is significantly influenced by internal integration and standardization, while product performance is  significantly influenced by external integration and  requirement volatility. This study contributes  to a better understanding of how knowledge integration can be managed in outsourced ISD projects in view of increasing their success.

  15. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K–8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards. PMID:24006402

  16. Assessing the life science knowledge of students and teachers represented by the K-8 national science standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students' performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K-4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5-8 standards.

  17. Increasing High School Students' Chemistry Performance and Reducing Cognitive Load through an Instructional Strategy Based on the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic´, Dus?ica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Hrin, Tamara N.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to examine the extent to which a teaching approach focused on the interaction between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic levels of chemistry representations could affect high school students' performance in the field of inorganic reactions, as well as to examine how the applied instruction influences…

  18. Patient perceptions of risky drinking: Knowledge of daily and weekly low-risk guidelines and standard drink sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Effective intervention for risky drinking requires that clinicians and patients know low-risk daily and weekly guidelines and what constitutes a "standard drink." The authors hypothesized that most patients lack this knowledge, and that education is required. Following primary care visits, patients completed anonymous exit questionnaires that included the 3 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions, "How many drinks (containing alcohol) can you safely have in one day?" and questions about size, in ounces, of a standard drink of wine, beer, and liquor. Descriptive analyses were done in Stata. Of 1,331 respondents (60% female, mean age: 49.6, SD = 17.5), 21% screened positive on the AUDIT-C for risky drinking. Only 10% of those accurately estimated daily low-risk limits, with 9% accurate on weekly limits, and half estimated low-risk limits at or below guidelines. Fewer than half who checked "Yes" to "Do you know what a 'standard drink' is?" provided accurate answers for beer, wine, or liquor. Patients with a positive screen were twice as likely to say they knew what a standard drink is, but only a third gave accurate estimates. When asked about plans in the next month regarding change in drinking behavior, 23% with a positive AUDIT-C indicated they were at least considering a change. Most patients in primary care don't know specifics of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for low-risk drinking. Exploring patient perceptions of low-risk guidelines and current drinking behavior may reveal discrepancies worth discussing. For risky drinkers, most of whom don't know daily and weekly low-risk guidelines or standard drink sizes, education can be vital in intervening. Findings suggest the need for detailed and explicit social marketing and communication on exactly what low-risk drinking entails.

  19. Metaphores et representations du cerveau plurilingue: conceptions naives ou construction du savior? Exemples dans le contexte d'enseignement andorran (Metaphors and Representations of the Multilingual Brain: Naive Conceptions or Knowledge Construction? Examples in the Context of Andorran Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruy, Martine Marquillo

    2000-01-01

    This article concentrates on the use of metaphors characterizing a multilingual brain in a corpus of oral interactions drawn from the Andorran part of an international research study. First, the situation and the status of metaphors in fields connected to the elaboration of knowledge is questioned. Next, the most important metaphors associated to…

  20. Effects of a mixed media education intervention program on increasing knowledge, attitude, and compliance with standard precautions among nursing students: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J

    2017-04-01

    Standard precautions (SPs) are considered fundamental protective measures to manage health care-associated infections and to reduce occupational health hazards. This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a mixed media education intervention to enhance nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. A randomized controlled trial with 84 nursing students was conducted in a teaching hospital in Hubei, China. The intervention group (n = 42) attended 3 biweekly mixed media education sessions, consisting of lectures, videos, role-play, and feedback with 15-20 minutes of individual online supervision and feedback sessions following each class. The control group learned the same material through self-directed readings. Pre- and posttest assessments of knowledge, attitudes, and compliance were assessed with the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale, respectively. The Standard Bacterial Colony Index was used to assess handwashing effectiveness. At 6-week follow-up, performance on the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale were significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (P media education intervention is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  2. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  3. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  4. Social representations about cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Cirila Škufca

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are presenting the results of the comparison study on social representations and causal attributions about cancer. We compared a breast cancer survivors group and control group without own experience of cancer of their own. Although social representations about cancer differ in each group, they are closely related to the concept of suffering, dying and death. We found differences in causal attribution of cancer. In both groups we found a category of risky behavior, which attributes a responsibility for a disease to an individual. Besides these factors we found predominate stress and psychological influences in cancer survivors group. On the other hand control group indicated factors outside the ones control e.g. heredity and environmental factors. Representations about a disease inside person's social space are important in co-shaping the individual process of coping with own disease. Since these representations are not always coherent with the knowledge of modern medicine their knowledge and appreciation in the course of treatment is of great value. We find the findingss of applied social psychology important as starting points in the therapeutic work with patients.

  5. A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Develop Domain Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongyan; Xu, Jianliang; Xiong, Jing; Wei, Moji

    2011-01-01

    Ontologies are one of the most popular and widespread means of knowledge representation and reuse. A few research groups have proposed a series of methodologies for developing their own standard ontologies. However, because this ontological construction concerns special fields, there is no standard method to build domain ontology. In this paper,…

  6. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  7. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  8. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... representation? How is virtual reality used in public participation and how do virtual environments affect participatory decision making? How does VR thus affect the physical world of built environment? Given the practical collaborative possibilities of immersive technology, how can they best be implemented...

  9. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. This ...

  10. Experience representation in information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. Th...

  11. The Use of Lesson Study Combined with Content Representation in the Planning of Physics Lessons during Field Practice to Develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt

    2016-01-01

    Recent research, both internationally and in Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real-life practice in schools. This study addresses this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, studying pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics…

  12. Commonalities and differences in the neural representations of English, Portuguese, and Mandarin sentences: When knowledge of the brain-language mappings for two languages is better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bailer, Cyntia; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-12-01

    This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages. This two-language advantage was selective to abstract concept domains such as social interactions and mental activity. Representational Similarity Analyses (RSA) of the inter-sentence neural similarities resulted in similar clustering of sentences in all the three languages, indicating a shared neural concept space among languages. These findings identify semantic domains that are common across these three languages versus those that are more language or culture-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  14. Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Practices, and Student Achievement in the Context of the "Responsive Classroom Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A.; Berry, Robert Q.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was…

  15. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Semantic representation of reported measurements in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkampf, Heiner; Zillner, Sonja; Overton, James A; Bauer, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias

    2016-01-22

    In radiology, a vast amount of diverse data is generated, and unstructured reporting is standard. Hence, much useful information is trapped in free-text form, and often lost in translation and transmission. One relevant source of free-text data consists of reports covering the assessment of changes in tumor burden, which are needed for the evaluation of cancer treatment success. Any change of lesion size is a critical factor in follow-up examinations. It is difficult to retrieve specific information from unstructured reports and to compare them over time. Therefore, a prototype was implemented that demonstrates the structured representation of findings, allowing selective review in consecutive examinations and thus more efficient comparison over time. We developed a semantic Model for Clinical Information (MCI) based on existing ontologies from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) library. MCI is used for the integrated representation of measured image findings and medical knowledge about the normal size of anatomical entities. An integrated view of the radiology findings is realized by a prototype implementation of a ReportViewer. Further, RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) guidelines are implemented by SPARQL queries on MCI. The evaluation is based on two data sets of German radiology reports: An oncologic data set consisting of 2584 reports on 377 lymphoma patients and a mixed data set consisting of 6007 reports on diverse medical and surgical patients. All measurement findings were automatically classified as abnormal/normal using formalized medical background knowledge, i.e., knowledge that has been encoded into an ontology. A radiologist evaluated 813 classifications as correct or incorrect. All unclassified findings were evaluated as incorrect. The proposed approach allows the automatic classification of findings with an accuracy of 96.4 % for oncologic reports and 92.9 % for mixed reports. The ReportViewer permits

  17. LIS Professionals as Knowledge Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of library and information science professionals as knowledge engineers. Highlights include knowledge acquisition, including personal experience, interviews, protocol analysis, observation, multidimensional sorting, printed sources, and machine learning; knowledge representation, including production rules and semantic nets;…

  18. The representation of inherent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, Sandeep

    2014-10-01

    Research on the representation of generic knowledge suggests that inherent properties can have either a principled or a causal connection to a kind. The type of connection determines whether the outcome of the storytelling process will include intuitions of inevitability and a normative dimension and whether it will ground causal explanations.

  19. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  20. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    the minimum epistemic conditions for establishing a dialogue between some investigation programs in knowledge psychology and the psychology of social representations.

  1. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  2. Drawings as Representations of Children's Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Drawings are often used to obtain an idea of children's conceptions. Doing so takes for granted an unambiguous relation between conceptions and their representations in drawings. This study was undertaken to gain knowledge of the relation between children's conceptions and their representation of these conceptions in drawings. A theory of…

  3. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  4. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data....... The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations...

  5. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  6. Application of standard softWare of the CDC-6500 interactive graphic therminal for representation of spiral scanning data and event saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrguj, B.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A system of programs, based on a standard graphic display software, is developed which enables the user to display the results of spiral scanning using a terminal keyboard and a FILTR program. Quality assessment of filtering is also available. The use of a cursor which provides a certain feedback between the display and the CDC-6500 computer provides good capabilities for the investigation of the filtering program failures and saves the most interesting events. To speed up scanning of events, a special program is written which performs pre-filtration and reduces 4 to 5 fold the amount of source numerical data of track projections. Its flowchart is based on the well-known method of cords, which allows to save 10-12 events/hour

  7. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE teaching format structured around the following steps: assemble (A) into groups, convey (C) learning objectives, teach (T) background information, inquire (I) through cases and questions, verify (V) understanding, and explain (E) answer choices and educate on the learning points. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the ACTIVE teaching format versus the standard lecture format, comparing resident satisfaction, immediate knowledge achievement and long-term knowledge retention. We qualitatively assessed participating faculty members’ perspectives on the faculty development efforts and the feasibility of teaching using the ACTIVE format. Results Sixty-nine internal medicine residents participated in the study. Overall, there was an improvement in perceived engagement using the ACTIVE teaching format (4.78 vs. 3.80, P teaching format (overall absolute score increase of 11%, P = 0.04) and a trend toward improvement in long-term knowledge retention. Faculty members felt adequately prepared to use the ACTIVE teaching format, and enjoyed teaching with the ACTIVE teaching format more than the standard lecture. Conclusions A structured ACTIVE teaching format improved resident engagement and initial knowledge, and required minimal resources. The ACTIVE teaching format offers an exciting alternative to the standard lecture for resident noon conference and is easy to implement. PMID:24985781

  8. Representations of quantum bicrossproduct algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arratia, Oscar; Olmo, Mariano A del

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to construct induced representations of quantum algebras which have a bicrossproduct structure. We apply this procedure to some quantum kinematical algebras in (1+1) dimensions with this kind of structure: null-plane quantum Poincare algebra, non-standard quantum Galilei algebra and quantum κ-Galilei algebra

  9. A Global Assessment on Climate Research Engaging Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Recommendations for Quality Standards of Research Practice in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davíd-Chavez, D. M.; Gavin, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous communities worldwide have maintained their own knowledge systems for millennia informed through careful observation of dynamics of environmental changes. Withstanding centuries of challenges to their rights to maintain and practice these knowledge systems, Indigenous peoples continually speak to a need for quality standards for research in their communities. Although, international and Indigenous peoples' working groups emphasize Indigenous knowledge systems and the communities who hold them as critical resources for understanding and adapting to climate change, there has yet to be a comprehensive, evidence based analysis into how diverse knowledge systems are integrated in scientific studies. Do current research practices challenge or support Indigenous communities in their efforts to maintain and appropriately apply their knowledge systems? This study addresses this question using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis assessing levels of Indigenous community participation and decision-making in all stages of the research process (initiation, design, implementation, analysis, dissemination). Assessment is based on reported quality indicators such as: outputs that serve the community, ethical guidelines in practice (free, prior, and informed consent and intellectual property rights), and community access to findings. These indicators serve to identify patterns between levels of community participation and quality standards in practice. Meta-analysis indicates most climate studies practice an extractive model in which Indigenous knowledge systems are co-opted with minimal participation or decision-making authority from communities who hold them. Few studies report outputs that directly serve Indigenous communities, ethical guidelines in practice, or community access to findings. Studies reporting the most quality indicators were initiated in mutual agreement between Indigenous communities and outside researchers or by communities themselves

  10. Knowledge and perceptions of prescribers regarding adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria: a comparative cross-sectional study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M; Hassali, M A A; Shafie, A A; Hussain, A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the availability of standard treatment guidelines for malaria in Pakistan adherence to protocols by prescribers is poor. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prescribers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities towards adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 360 prescribers; 64.7% were satisfied with the available antimalarial drugs and 41.3% agreed that antimalarial drugs should only be prescribed after diagnostic testing. Only half the prescribers had the guidelines available in their health facility. Almost all the prescribers (97.7%) agreed that there was a need for more educational programmes about the guidelines. Most prescribers were unaware of the correct standard treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. There were no differences in knowledge between males and females, but prescribers having more experience, practising as general practitioners and working in private health-care facilities possessed significantly better knowledge than their counterparts.

  11. [Social and cultural representations in epilepsy awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arborio, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Representations relating to epilepsy have evolved over the centuries, but the manifestations of epilepsy awaken archaic images linked to death, violence and disgust. Indeed, the generalised epileptic seizure symbolises a rupture with the surrounding environment, "informs it", through the loss of social codes which it causes. The social and cultural context, as well as medical knowledge, influences the representations of the disease. As a result, popular knowledge is founded on the social and cultural representations of a given era, in a given society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    we ’an translate Lewis’s writings on the variet,- of imp lieation into writings on varitti,. necessity. This translation - heme is now almost... definted byv 11ha1 rullev - .! ’.A is guaranteedl to lead to a solution. Consequently, the rules may be applied in any, order witbout - backtracking and

  13. Systematic Representation of Molecular Biology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.

    A small set of relationships has been identified which appears to be sufficient for describing all molecular and cellular reactions and structures discussed in an introductory biology course. A precise definition has been developed for each relationship. These 20 relationships are of four types: (1) analytical; (2) spatial; (3) temporal; and (4)…

  14. Factorizations and physical representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzen, M; Khanna, F C; Mann, A; Zak, J

    2006-01-01

    A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the decomposition of M into prime numbers. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (Zak J 1970 Phys. Today 23 51), and related representations termed q 1 q 2 representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter representation each quantum number varies in a subspace that is associated with one of the prime numbers that make up M

  15. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  16. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  17. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  18. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Cook Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test…

  19. A before and after study of medical students' and house staff members' knowledge of ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards on an acute care for elders unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Samantha P; Cohen, Victor; Nelson, Marcia; Likourezos, Antonios; Goldman, William; Paris, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    The Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) comprehensive set of quality assessment tools for ill older persons is a standard designed to measure overall care delivered to vulnerable elders (ie, those aged > or =65 years) at the level of a health care system or plan. The goal of this research was to quantify the pretest and posttest results of medical students and house staff participating in a pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention that focused on the ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards. This was a before and after study assessing the knowledge ofACOVE standards following exposure to an educational intervention led by a pharmacotherapist. It was conducted at the 29-bed Acute Care for Elders (ACE) unit of Maimonides Medical Center, a 705-bed, independent teaching hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Participants included all medical students and house staff completing a rotation on the ACE unit from August 2004 through May 2005 who completed both the pre-and posttests. A pharmacotherapist provided a 1-hour active learning session reviewing the evidence supporting the quality indicators and reviewed case-based questions with the medical students and house staff. Educational interventions also occurred daily through pharmacotherapeutic consultations and during work rounds. Medical students and house staff were administered the same 15-question, patient-specific, case-based, multiple-choice pre-and posttest to assess knowledge of the standards before and after receiving the intervention. A total of 54 medical students and house staff (median age, 28.58 years; 40 men, 14 women) completed the study. Significantly higher median scores were achieved on the multiple-choice test after the intervention than before (median scores, 14/15 [93.3%] vs 12/15 [80.0%], respectively; P = 0.001). A pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention improved the scores of medical students and house staff on a test evaluating knowledge of evidence

  20. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  1. The advantages of a standardized linguistic reference set in managing the company's knowledge and know-how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, N.; Abemonti, F.; Cayzergues, P.; Pinoche, M.; Talou, C.; Levesque, L.

    1997-01-01

    The company's knowledge and know-how take the concrete form of documents (texts, photographs, video tapes). For purposes of transmission, they must not only be stored, in electronic form today, but also retrieved easily and quickly. To further that end, Gaz de France (GDF) has compiled a bilingual (French, English) thesaurus on the gas industry. The English version was prepared in conjunction with NGTC, Canada's Natural Gas Technologies Center. This thesaurus, comprising descriptors organized according to relationships of genericness, specificity, association and documentary synonymity, is an integral part of the engineers' working enviroment at the NGTC, and GDF. The electronic version facilitates its use by company employees. Constantly available, it is helpful in describing and finding information readily. As a result of studies conducted in this regard: design and maintenance rules have been developed for the thesaurus; the thesaurus has been disseminated to all the engineers in the Company; the thesaurus has been incorporated in the Company's Electronic Document Management system. (au)

  2. On Representation in Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Brenner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.

  3. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  4. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  5. A review of medical terminology standards and structured reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaysheh, Abdullah; Wilcke, Jeffrey; Elvinger, François; Rees, Loren; Fan, Weiguo; Zimmerman, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Much effort has been invested in standardizing medical terminology for representation of medical knowledge, storage in electronic medical records, retrieval, reuse for evidence-based decision making, and for efficient messaging between users. We only focus on those efforts related to the representation of clinical medical knowledge required for capturing diagnoses and findings from a wide range of general to specialty clinical perspectives (e.g., internists to pathologists). Standardized medical terminology and the usage of structured reporting have been shown to improve the usage of medical information in secondary activities, such as research, public health, and case studies. The impact of standardization and structured reporting is not limited to secondary activities; standardization has been shown to have a direct impact on patient healthcare.

  6. Dual PECCS: a cognitive system for conceptual representation and categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Radicioni, Daniele P.; Rho, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    In this article we present an advanced version of Dual-PECCS, a cognitively-inspired knowledge representation and reasoning system aimed at extending the capabilities of artificial systems in conceptual categorization tasks. It combines different sorts of common-sense categorization (prototypical and exemplars-based categorization) with standard monotonic categorization procedures. These different types of inferential procedures are reconciled according to the tenets coming from the dual process theory of reasoning. On the other hand, from a representational perspective, the system relies on the hypothesis of conceptual structures represented as heterogeneous proxytypes. Dual-PECCS has been experimentally assessed in a task of conceptual categorization where a target concept illustrated by a simple common-sense linguistic description had to be identified by resorting to a mix of categorization strategies, and its output has been compared to human responses. The obtained results suggest that our approach can be beneficial to improve the representational and reasoning conceptual capabilities of standard cognitive artificial systems, and - in addition - that it may be plausibly applied to different general computational models of cognition. The current version of the system, in fact, extends our previous work, in that Dual- PECCS is now integrated and tested into two cognitive architectures, ACT-R and CLARION, implementing different assumptions on the underlying invariant structures governing human cognition. Such integration allowed us to extend our previous evaluation.

  7. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils; Representation et propagation de connaissances imprecises et incertaines: application a l'evaluation des risques lies aux sites et aux sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C

    2005-10-15

    Currently, decisions pertaining to the management of potentially polluted sites very often rely on the evaluation of risks for man and the environment. This evaluation is carried out with the help of models which simulate the transfer of pollutants from a source to a vulnerable target, for different scenarios of exposure. The selection of parameter values of these models is based as much as possible on the data collected at the time of on-site investigations (phase of diagnosis). However, due to time and financial constraints, information regarding model parameters is often incomplete and imprecise. This leads to uncertainty that needs to be accounted for the decision-making process. Uncertainty regarding model parameters may have essentially two origins. It may arise from randomness due to natural variability resulting from heterogeneity of population or the fluctuations of a quantity in time. Or it may be caused by impreciseness due to a lack of information resulting, for example, from systematic measurement errors or expert opinions. In risk assessment, no distinction is traditionally made between these two types of uncertainty, both being represented by means of a single probability distribution. So, uncertainty in risk assessment models is generally addressed within a purely probabilistic framework. This approach comes down to assuming that knowledge regarding model parameters is always of random nature (variability). Such knowledge is represented by single probability distributions typically propagated through the risk model using the Monte-Carlo technique. Even if this approach is well-known, the difficulty is to avoid an arbitrary choice of the shape of probability distributions assigned to model parameters. Indeed in the context of risk assessment related to pollutant exposure, knowledge of some parameters is often imprecise or incomplete. The use of single probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge becomes subjective and partly arbitrary

  8. From Data to Knowledge through Concept-oriented Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified. PMID:10833166

  9. An Argument from Acquisition: Comparing English Metrical Stress Representations by How Learnable They Are from Child-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa; Ho, Timothy; Detrano, Zephyr

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there is a natural dependence between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition, with the idea that the right knowledge representation enables acquisition to happen as reliably as it does. Given this, a reasonable criterion for a theory of knowledge representation is that it be…

  10. SABERES DEL DOCENTE Y REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES: IMPLICANCIAS PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LAS CIENCIAS NATURALES (KNOWLEDGE OF THE TEACHER AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING OF NATURAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aguilar Susana

    2011-08-01

    hierarchical organization of terms – about different aspects related to the teaching and learning of Natural Sciences. To analyze the structures and identify the common elements that cut across these studies and present certain stability, we considered the classification of teacher‟s knowledge offered by Braslavsky and Birgin (substantive, pedagogic and institutional. The obtained results have allowed us to have access to important information about the meanings shared by this professional group. Thus, the similarity between the structures of the different groups shows that there exists a representation that allows us to describe what these teachers are and what they do, which correspond to traditional education approaches, marking the differences with other groups and other professional activities. The categories that appear in a constant way, beyond the topics proposed in every particular case, are related to the fact of "educating", that is, developing schooled subjects for the social world in which they live. Consequently, it can be inferred that the social demands puts strong pressure on the teachers and seem to turn their attention to other functions (supportive, sanitary, of social assistance away from their professional performance and which do not constitute the essence of the social function they attribute to themselves and which they aim at retaining over time.

  11. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  12. An Initiative to Standardize the Identification of and Acute Response to Postoperative Lower-Extremity Neurological Deficits: Effects on Provider Knowledge, Confidence, and Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Peter B; Iyer, Sravisht; Garner, Matthew; Orr, Steven; Felix, Karla J; Goldberg, Allison; Ologhobo, Titilayo; Wu, Minlun; Robbins, Laura; Cornell, Charles

    2016-12-07

    Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty. An educational curriculum composed of online learning modules and an in-person "boot camp" featuring simulations with standardized patients was developed, along with assessments of clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. Nurses, physical therapists, physician assistants, residents, fellows, and attending surgeons were encouraged to participate. The intervention spanned a 5-month period in 2015 with a mean time of 18.4 weeks between baseline assessments and the time of the latest follow-up. Online modules were completed by 322 individuals, boot camp was completed by 70 individuals, and latest assessments were completed by 38 individuals. The percentage correct on the knowledge assessment increased from 74.5% before the learning modules to 89.5% immediately after (p communication skills assessment showed a significant mean increase (p = 0.02) over the course of the intervention from 30.32 to 32.50, and the mean self-assessed confidence survey scores increased by 16.7%, from 7.2 to 8.4 (p confidence and communication skills appear to be more long-lasting.

  13. Association of Implementation of Practice Standards for Electrocardiographic Monitoring with Nurses’ Knowledge, Quality of Care, and Patient Outcomes: Findings from the Practical Use of the Latest Standards of Electrocardiography (PULSE) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Marjorie; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Stephens, Kimberly E.; May, Jeanine L.; Winkler, Catherine G.; Drew, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although continuous electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring is ubiquitous in hospitals, monitoring practices are inconsistent. We evaluated implementation of American Heart Association practice standards for ECG monitoring on nurses’ knowledge, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Methods and Results The PULSE Trial was a 6-year multi-site randomized clinical trial with crossover that took place in 65 cardiac units in 17 hospitals. We measured outcomes at baseline, Time 2 after Group 1 hospitals received the intervention, and Time 3 after Group 2 hospitals received the intervention. Measurement periods were 15 months apart. The 2-part intervention consisted of an online ECG monitoring education program and strategies to implement and sustain change in practice. Nurses’ knowledge (N=3,013 nurses) was measured by a validated 20-item online test, quality of care related to ECG monitoring (N=4,587 patients) by on-site observation, and patient outcomes (mortality, in-hospital myocardial infarction, and not surviving a cardiac arrest) (N=95,884 hospital admissions) by review of administrative, laboratory, and medical record data. Nurses’ knowledge improved significantly immediately following the intervention in both groups, but was not sustained 15 months later. For most measures of quality of care (accurate electrode placement, accurate rhythm interpretation, appropriate monitoring, and ST-segment monitoring when indicated), the intervention was associated with significant improvement, which was sustained 15 months later. Of the 3 patient outcomes, only in-hospital myocardial infarction declined significantly after the intervention, and was sustained. Conclusions Online ECG monitoring education and strategies to change practice can lead to improved nurses’ knowledge, quality of care, and patient outcomes. PMID:28174175

  14. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  15. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  16. The knowledge reengineering bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge engineering upholds a longstanding tradition that emphasises methodological issues associated with the acquisition and representation of knowledge in some (formal) language. This focus on methodology implies an ex ante approach: "think before you act". The rapid increase of linked data

  17. Representação do conhecimento na perspectiva do ciência da informação em templ e espaço digitaisRepresentation of the knowledge in the perspective of the science of the information in digital time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Alvarenga

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Trying studying cognition inside information science area, this essay has the aim of discussing some knowledge representation process elements, inside digital archives and libraries context. As a preliminary schema, including ideas for future studies, this text is adressed to information science researchers and students. An introductory part stand out representation process occurring in diferent moments: in knowledge production, in document system organization and in the users acess to documents. Some preliminary discussions concerning the relationship of representation process with ontology and epistemology are including and also other topics relating to the principal theme, such as: cognition and transdiciplinarity; concepts as primary representation process product or as subsidies for creating secondary representation; new spaces and knowledge representation methods.Abordando algumas interfaces do fenômeno da cognição com a ciência da informação, este ensaio tem por objetivo refletir sobre alguns componentes do processo de representação de conhecimentos, no contexto atual balizado pelo surgimento e desenvolvimento dos arquivos e bibliotecas digitais. Como um esquema básico, contendo idéias introdutórias a serem posteriormente trabalhadas, destina-se especialmente a pesquisadores e estudantes de cursos oferecidos no âmbito disciplinar da ciência da informação. O texto se inicia com uma introdução que ressalta os processos de representação, passíveis de ocorrer em momentos distintos: na produção dos registros de conhecimento, na organização dos sistemas de informações documentais e no acesso às informações pelos usuários. São também incluídas neste texto discussões preliminares sobre as relações da representação com a ontologia e a epistemologia, campos tradicionais da filosofia. Seguem se outros tópicos relacionados ao tema, cujos títulos denotam seus conteúdos específicos: cognição e

  18. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...

  19. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of visual representation techniques for product configuration systems in industrial companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    with knowledge representations and communications with domain experts. The results presented in the paper are therefore aimed to provide insight into the impact from using visual knowledge representations techniques in PCSs projects. The findings indicate that use of visual knowledge representations techniques...... in PCSs projects will result in improved quality of maintenance and development support for the knowledge base and improved quality of the communication with domain experts....

  1. A Comparative Study between the Conventional MCQ Scores and MCQ with the CBA Scores at the Standardized Clinical Knowledge Exam for Clinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghadermarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Partial knowledge is one of the main factors to be considered when dealing with the improvement of the administration of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ in testing. Various strategies have been proposed for this factor in the traditional testing environment. Therefore, this study proposed a Confidence Based Assessment (CBA as a pertinent solution and aims at comparing the effect of the CBA Scoring system with that of the conventional scoring systems (with and without negative score estimation as penalty on the students’ scores and estimating their partial knowledge on clinical studies.Methods: This comparative study was conducted using a standardized clinical knowledge exam for 117 clinical students. After two-step training, both the conventional MCQ and CBA examination was given in a single session simultaneously. The exam included 100 questions and the volunteers were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their attitude and satisfaction on their first experience of the CBA after exam. A new confidence based marking system was selected for the scoring, which was a hybrid of the UCL and MUK2010 systems. The MCQ-Assistant, SPSS and Microsoft office Excel software were used for scoring and data analysis.Results: The mean age of the volunteers was 27.3±5.47, of whom 43.6% were men and 69.2% were senior medical students. Exam reliability was 0.977. The fit line of the MCQ scores without penalty estimation was R2=0.9816 and Intercept=18.125 or approximately.2 deviation in the low scores. The MCQ scoring with penalty had a fit line approximately parallel to the 45-degree line but on or above it and the CBA scoring fit line was nearer to the 45-degree line, parallel to it and a little below it. These two sets of scores had a significant p value0.037. The response percentage to the CBA is higher (p value=0.0001. The discrimination power of the MCQ and the CBA for the upper and lower 1/3 of the students was not

  2. The abstract representations in speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Speech processing by human listeners derives meaning from acoustic input via intermediate steps involving abstract representations of what has been heard. Recent results from several lines of research are here brought together to shed light on the nature and role of these representations. In spoken-word recognition, representations of phonological form and of conceptual content are dissociable. This follows from the independence of patterns of priming for a word's form and its meaning. The nature of the phonological-form representations is determined not only by acoustic-phonetic input but also by other sources of information, including metalinguistic knowledge. This follows from evidence that listeners can store two forms as different without showing any evidence of being able to detect the difference in question when they listen to speech. The lexical representations are in turn separate from prelexical representations, which are also abstract in nature. This follows from evidence that perceptual learning about speaker-specific phoneme realization, induced on the basis of a few words, generalizes across the whole lexicon to inform the recognition of all words containing the same phoneme. The efficiency of human speech processing has its basis in the rapid execution of operations over abstract representations.

  3. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  4. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue...... that students’ context awareness can significantly be enhanced by the use of appropriate external representations which guide them to activate context inducing cognitive processes. By embedding such representations in a case based learning environment we expect to guide students’ processing of the rich...... in contextual information material, in a way that improves both their context awareness and metacontextual competence. After presenting a context model, we discuss the design of such representations based on this model and explain why we expect that their use in a learning situation would enhance context...

  5. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  6. Interpretive Viewers and Structured Programs: The Implicit Representation of Soap Opera Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates regular viewers' representations of soap opera characters to discover the nature of these representations, the extent to which they reflect the application of social knowledge, and the extent to which they reflect the structure of the program. (MS)

  7. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...

  8. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  10. Using Distributed Representations to Disambiguate Biomedical and Clinical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tulkens, Stéphan; Šuster, Simon; Daelemans, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a knowledge-based method for Word Sense Disambiguation in the domains of biomedical and clinical text. We combine word representations created on large corpora with a small number of definitions from the UMLS to create concept representations, which we then compare to representations of the context of ambiguous terms. Using no relational information, we obtain comparable performance to previous approaches on the MSH-WSD dataset, which is a well-known dataset in the bi...

  11. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  12. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  13. Spectral Approaches to Learning Predictive Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    representation and a value function. In practice, we would like to be able to find a good set of features, without prior knowledge of the system model. Kolter ...http://www.cs.ucr.edu/ eamonn/TSDMA/index.html. 7.1 [55] J. Zico Kolter and Andrew Y. Ng. Regularization and feature selection in least-squares temporal

  14. Design Case Retrieval by Generic Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Gero, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Case-Based Reasoning and Case-Based Design have been proposed to utilize knowledge of previous design solutions to understand or solve current design problems. Case retrieval is often performed on the basis of verbal indexing systems, whereas in design the use of graphic representations is

  15. The spatial representation of market information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Degeratu, AM; Wedel, M; Saxton, MK

    2001-01-01

    To be used effectively, market knowledge and information must be structured and represented in ways that are parsimonious and conducive to efficient managerial decision making. This manuscript proposes a new latent structure spatial model for the representation of market information that meets this

  16. Covariant representations of nuclear *-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Extensions of the Csup(*)-algebra theory for covariant representations to nuclear *-algebra are considered. Irreducible covariant representations are essentially unique, an invariant state produces a covariant representation with stable vacuum, and the usual relation between ergodic states and covariant representations holds. There exist construction and decomposition theorems and a possible relation between derivations and covariant representations

  17. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  18. L-functions and the oscillator representation

    CERN Document Server

    Rallis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    These notes are concerned with showing the relation between L-functions of classical groups (*F1 in particular) and *F2 functions arising from the oscillator representation of the dual reductive pair *F1 *F3 O(Q). The problem of measuring the nonvanishing of a *F2 correspondence by computing the Petersson inner product of a *F2 lift from *F1 to O(Q) is considered. This product can be expressed as the special value of an L-function (associated to the standard representation of the L-group of *F1) times a finite number of local Euler factors (measuring whether a given local representation occurs in a given oscillator representation). The key ideas used in proving this are (i) new Rankin integral representations of standard L-functions, (ii) see-saw dual reductive pairs and (iii) Siegel-Weil formula. The book addresses readers who specialize in the theory of automorphic forms and L-functions and the representation theory of Lie groups. N

  19. Statistical representation of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montina, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the state is described by an abstract wave function in the representation space. Conversely, in a realistic interpretation, the quantum state is replaced by a probability distribution of physical quantities. Bohm mechanics is a consistent example of realistic theory, where the wave function and the particle positions are classically defined quantities. Recently, we proved that the probability distribution in a realistic theory cannot be a quadratic function of the quantum state, in contrast to the apparently obvious suggestion given by the Born rule for transition probabilities. Here, we provide a simplified version of this proof.

  20. The Representation of Abstract Words: Why Emotion Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the representation and processing of concrete concepts, knowledge of what abstract semantics might be is severely limited. In this article we first address the adequacy of the 2 dominant accounts (dual coding theory and the context availability model) put forward in order to explain representation and processing…

  1. Reimagining Game Design: Exploring the Design of Constructible Authentic Representations for Science Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan Ryan

    Video games have recently become a popular space for educational design due to their interactive and engaging nature and the ubiquity of the gaming experience among youth. Though many researchers argue video games can provide opportunities for learning, educational game design has focused on the classroom rather than the informal settings where games are typically played. Educational games have been moderately successful at achieving learning gains on standardized items, but have failed to show improvements on related but distal problems. In this dissertation I develop and assess a new design principle, called constructible authentic representations for creating informal gaming experiences that players will actively draw on when reasoning in formal and real world contexts. These games provide players with opportunities to engage in meaningful construction with components that integrate relevant concepts to create in-game representations that visually and epistemologically align with related tools and representations utilized in the target domain. In the first phase of the dissertation, I observed children playing popular video games to better understand what in-game representations children attend to and how interactions with these representations contribute to intuitive ideas of encountered STEM content. Results from this study fed into the iterative design of two prototype video games, FormulaT Racing and Particles!, intending to give players useful knowledge resources for reasoning about kinematics and the particulate nature of matter respectively. Designed games encourage players to utilize and refine intuitive ideas about target content through the construction of domain relevant representations. To assess the effectiveness of these designs I conducted two studies of children ages 7-14 playing prototype games in informal settings. An analysis of pre- and post-game clinical interviews, domain specific tasks, and video and logging data of gameplay suggests

  2. Social representation of the kinesiotherapist profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAŞE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of COR. Working method was based on the questionnaire. Interpretation of results, the first two items of the questionnaire was done through word association technique, developed by P. Verges (1 and an alternative method for determining the structure and organization of elements representation proposed by. C. Havârneanu (2. Qualitative analysis reveals that students’ specialization Physical Therapy and Special Motricity believes that a therapist uses therapy as a strategy to work, and it must be applied professionally. Respondents considered, as shown in the data collected, that this profession is subject to skills, education, cognitive baggage, all sending to knowledge, experience and passion. The core refers to the complex representation obtained thanks cognitive process by which individuals or groups in familiar transforms abstract and it integrates knowledge of their system.

  3. Standardized metrics for accessibility : establishing a federal policy-relevant knowledge base : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report seeks opportunities for standardization of these data and explains findings on three principal tasks. First, it assesses the current state of standardized transportation data. By studying documentation of other programs of standardized da...

  4. Representation and management of narrative information theoretical principles and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this book supplies an exhaustive description of NKRL and of the associated knowledge representation principles. It also constitutes an invaluable source of reference for practitioners, researchers and graduates.

  5. The semantic representation of prejudice and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Representations and Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  8. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  9. Polynomial representations of GLn

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James A; Erdmann, Karin

    2007-01-01

    The first half of this book contains the text of the first edition of LNM volume 830, Polynomial Representations of GLn. This classic account of matrix representations, the Schur algebra, the modular representations of GLn, and connections with symmetric groups, has been the basis of much research in representation theory. The second half is an Appendix, and can be read independently of the first. It is an account of the Littelmann path model for the case gln. In this case, Littelmann's 'paths' become 'words', and so the Appendix works with the combinatorics on words. This leads to the repesentation theory of the 'Littelmann algebra', which is a close analogue of the Schur algebra. The treatment is self- contained; in particular complete proofs are given of classical theorems of Schensted and Knuth.

  10. Polynomial representations of GLN

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James A

    1980-01-01

    The first half of this book contains the text of the first edition of LNM volume 830, Polynomial Representations of GLn. This classic account of matrix representations, the Schur algebra, the modular representations of GLn, and connections with symmetric groups, has been the basis of much research in representation theory. The second half is an Appendix, and can be read independently of the first. It is an account of the Littelmann path model for the case gln. In this case, Littelmann's 'paths' become 'words', and so the Appendix works with the combinatorics on words. This leads to the repesentation theory of the 'Littelmann algebra', which is a close analogue of the Schur algebra. The treatment is self- contained; in particular complete proofs are given of classical theorems of Schensted and Knuth.

  11. Procedural Media Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Henrysson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept for using procedural techniques to represent media. Procedural methods allow us to represent digital media (2D images, 3D environments etc.) with very little information and to render it photo realistically. Since not all kind of content can be created procedurally, traditional media representations (bitmaps, polygons etc.) must be used as well. We have adopted an object-based media representation where an object can be represented either with a procedure or with its trad...

  12. Concept theory and semiotics in knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, Alon; Thellefsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The paper explores the basics of semiotic analysis and concept theory that represents two dominant approaches to knowledge representation, and explores how these approaches are fruitful for knowledge organization. Design/methodology/approach - In particular the semiotic theory formulated....../value - This paper is the first paper that combines theories of knowledge representation, semiotic and concept theory, within the context of knowledge organization....... by the American philosopher C.S. Peirce and the concept theory formulated by Ingetraut Dahlberg is investigated. The objective of this paper is to compare the differences and similarities between these two theories of knowledge representation. Findings - The semiotic model is a general and unrestricted model...

  13. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  14. Efficient Representation of Timed UML 2 Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knapp, Alexander; Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    UML 2 interactions describe system behavior over time in a declarative way. The standard approach to defining their formal semantics enumerates traces of events; other representation formats, like Büchi automata or prime event structures, have been suggested, too. We describe another, more succin...

  15. From data to knowledge through concept-oriented terminologies: experience with the Medical Entities Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified.

  16. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Marcelo; Thompson, Richard; Russ, Thomas A; Burns, Gully A P C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macro connections using the Swanson third edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step toward developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called "Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design" (KEfED) model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web-application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus indexed by non-spatial experimental design features.

  17. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eTallis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on high-quality neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature neuroanatomical methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macroconnections using the Swanson 3rd edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the neuroanatomical data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step towards developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the neuroanatomical data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called ’Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design’ (KEfED model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus incorporated with non-spatial data sets.

  18. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show......The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  19. Knowledge Transfer in Collaborative Knowledge Management: A Semiotic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Jastroch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Codification and transfer of knowledge is essential in the practice of knowledge management. Theoretical knowledge, like scientific theories and models, by nature comes in coded representation for the explicit purpose of transfer. Practical knowledge, as involved frequently in engineering or business operations, however, is a priori uncoded, making transfer for further use or the generation of new knowledge difficult. A great deal of systems engineering effort in recent years has been focused on resolving issues related to this sort of knowledge transfer. Semantic technologies play a major role in here, along with the development of ontologies. This paper presents a semiotic perspective on transfer of knowledge within collaborations.

  20. Materials Driven Architectural Design and Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to outline a framework for a deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design. While materials and architecture in the process of realisation are tightly connected, architectural design and representation are often distanced from...... another role in relation to architectural production. It is, in this paper, the intention to point at material research as an active initiator in explorative approaches to architectural design methods and architectural representation. This paper will point at the inclusion of tangible and experimental...... material research in the early phases of architectural design and to that of the architectural set of tools and representation. The paper will through use of existing research and the author’s own material research and practice suggest a way of using a combination of digital drawing, digital fabrication...

  1. A course in finite group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.

  2. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  3. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts......, literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars...

  4. Memetics of representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Rubertis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss about the physiological genesis of representation and then it will illustrate the developments, especially in evolutionary perspective, and it will show how these are mainly a result of accidental circumstances, rather than of deliberate intention of improvement. In particular, it will be argue that the representation has behaved like a meme that has arrived to its own progressive evolution coming into symbiosis with the different cultures in which it has spread, and using in this activity human work “unconsciously”. Finally it will be shown how in this action the geometry is an element key, linked to representation both to construct images using graphics operations and to erect buildings using concrete operations.

  5. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  6. Introduction to computer data representation

    CERN Document Server

    Fenwick, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

  7. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  8. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  9. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  10. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  11. On the spinor representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Villalobos, C.H.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    A systematic study of the spinor representation by means of the fermionic physical space is accomplished and implemented. The spinor representation space is shown to be constrained by the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities among the spinor bilinear covariants. A robust geometric and topological structure can be manifested from the spinor space, wherein the first and second homotopy groups play prominent roles on the underlying physical properties, associated to fermionic fields. The mapping that changes spinor fields classes is then exemplified, in an Einstein-Dirac system that provides the spacetime generated by a fermion. (orig.)

  12. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  13. A searching and reporting system for relational databases using a graph-based metadata representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Robin; Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Relational databases are the current standard for storing and retrieving data in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. However, retrieving data from a relational database requires specialized knowledge of the database schema and of the SQL query language. At Anadys, we have developed an easy-to-use system for searching and reporting data in a relational database to support our drug discovery project teams. This system is fast and flexible and allows users to access all data without having to write SQL queries. This paper presents the hierarchical, graph-based metadata representation and SQL-construction methods that, together, are the basis of this system's capabilities.

  14. On the representation matrices of the spin permutation group. [for atomic and molecular electronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of the representation matrices of the spin permutation group (symmetric group), a detailed knowledge of these matrices being required in the study of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The method is characterized by the use of two different coupling schemes. Unlike the Yamanouchi spin algebraic scheme, the method is not recursive. The matrices for the fundamental transpositions can be written down directly in one of the two bases. The method results in a computationally significant reduction in the number of matrix elements that have to be stored when compared with, say, the standard Young tableaux group theoretical approach.

  15. Acquisition of a space representation by a naive agent from sensorimotor invariance and proprioceptive compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvan Le Clec’H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a simple agent which learns an internal representation of space without a priori knowledge of its environment, body, or sensors. The learned environment is seen as an internal space representation. This representation is isomorphic to the group of transformations applied to the environment. The model solves certain theoretical and practical issues encountered in previous work in sensorimotor contingency theory. Considering the mathematical description of the internal representation, analysis of its properties and simulations, we prove that this internal representation is equivalent to knowledge of space.

  16. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  17. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...

  18. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  19. The Problem of Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  20. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  1. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  2. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  3. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  4. Europe representations in textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Brennetot , Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    This EuroBroadMap working paper presents an analysis of textbooks dealing with the representations of Europe and European Union. In most of these textbooks from secondary school, the teaching of the geography of Europe precedes the evocation of the EU. Europe is often depicted as a given object, reduced to a number of structural aspects (relief, climate, demography, traditional cultures, economic activities, etc.) whose only common point is their location within conventional boundaries. Such ...

  5. Non-Representational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  6. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  7. Functional representations for quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides information on Representing transformations in quantum theory bosonic quantum field theories: Schrodinger Picture; Represnting Transformations in Bosonic Quantum Field Theory; Two-Dimensional Conformal Transformations, Schrodinger picture representation, Fock space representation, Inequivalent Schrodinger picture representations; Discussion, Self-Dual and Other Models; Field Theory in de Sitter Space. Fermionic Quantum Field Theories: Schroedinger Picture; Schrodinger Picture Representation for Two-Dimensional; Conformal Transformations; Fock Space Dynamics in the Schrodinger Picture; Fock Space Evaluation of Anomalous Current and Conformal Commutators

  8. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  9. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  10. Cohen-Macaulay representations

    CERN Document Server

    Leuschke, Graham J

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the representation theory of maximal Cohen-Macaulay (MCM) modules over local rings. This topic is at the intersection of commutative algebra, singularity theory, and representations of groups and algebras. Two introductory chapters treat the Krull-Remak-Schmidt Theorem on uniqueness of direct-sum decompositions and its failure for modules over local rings. Chapters 3-10 study the central problem of classifying the rings with only finitely many indecomposable MCM modules up to isomorphism, i.e., rings of finite CM type. The fundamental material--ADE/simple singularities, the double branched cover, Auslander-Reiten theory, and the Brauer-Thrall conjectures--is covered clearly and completely. Much of the content has never before appeared in book form. Examples include the representation theory of Artinian pairs and Burban-Drozd's related construction in dimension two, an introduction to the McKay correspondence from the point of view of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules, Au...

  11. Quantum theory, groups and representations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Woit, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This text systematically presents the basics of quantum mechanics, emphasizing the role of Lie groups, Lie algebras, and their unitary representations. The mathematical structure of the subject is brought to the fore, intentionally avoiding significant overlap with material from standard physics courses in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The level of presentation is attractive to mathematics students looking to learn about both quantum mechanics and representation theory, while also appealing to physics students who would like to know more about the mathematics underlying the subject. This text showcases the numerous differences between typical mathematical and physical treatments of the subject. The latter portions of the book focus on central mathematical objects that occur in the Standard Model of particle physics, underlining the deep and intimate connections between mathematics and the physical world. While an elementary physics course of some kind would be helpful to the reader, no specific ...

  12. Using Standardized Patients to Evaluate Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Knowledge and Skill Acquisition for Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors…

  13. Process and representation in multiple-cue judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the cognitive processes and representations underlying human judgment in a multiple-cue judgment task. Several recent models assume that people have several qualitatively distinct and competing levels of knowledge representations (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Waldron, 1998; Erickson & Kruschke, 1998; Nosofsky, Palmeri, & McKinley, 1994; Sloman, 1996). The most successful cognitive models in categorization and multiple-cue judgment are, respectively, exe...

  14. Linking Video and Text via Representations of Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Andrew; Graham, Mike; Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Xu, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The ongoing TIWO project is investigating the synthesis of language technologies, like information extraction and corpus-based text analysis, video data modeling and knowledge representation. The aim is to develop a computational account of how video and text can be integrated by representations of narrative in multimedia systems. The multimedia domain is that of film and audio description – an emerging text type that is produced specifically to be informative about the events and objects dep...

  15. Medical Named Entity Recognition for Indonesian Language Using Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arief

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, Named Entity Recognition (NER) system is used in medical texts to obtain important medical information, like diseases, symptoms, and drugs. While most NER systems are applied to formal medical texts, informal ones like those from social media (also called semi-formal texts) are starting to get recognition as a gold mine for medical information. We propose a theoretical Named Entity Recognition (NER) model for semi-formal medical texts in our medical knowledge management system by comparing two kinds of word representations: cluster-based word representation and distributed representation.

  16. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  17. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  18. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevreau, F.R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: chevreau@cindy.ensmp.fr; Wybo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: wybo@cindy.ensmp.fr; Cauchois, D. [Process Safety Department, Sanofi-Aventis, Site de Production de Vitry sur Seine, 9 Quai Jules Guesdes, 94400 Vitry sur Seine (France)]. E-mail: didier.cauchois@sanofi-aventis.com

    2006-03-31

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety.

  19. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, F.R.; Wybo, J.L.; Cauchois, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety

  20. Cross-industry standard process for data mining is applicable to the lung cancer surgery domain, improving decision making as well as knowledge and quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivo, Eduardo; de la Fuente, Javier; Rivo, Ángel; García-Fontán, Eva; Cañizares, Miguel-Ángel; Gil, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of knowledge discovery in database methodology, based upon data mining techniques, to the investigation of lung cancer surgery. According to CRISP 1.0 methodology, a data mining (DM) project was developed on a data warehouse containing records for 501 patients operated on for lung cancer with curative intention. The modelling technique was logistic regression. The finally selected model presented the following values: sensitivity 9.68%, specificity 100%, global precision 94.02%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 93.98% for a cut-off point set at 0.5. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. The area under the curve (CI 95%) was 0.817 (0.740- 0.893) (p CRISP-DM process model is very suitable for lung cancer surgery analysis, improving decision making as well as knowledge and quality management.

  1. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Berlacher, Kathryn; Granieri, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE...

  2. An evaluation of space time cube representation of spatiotemporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Per Ola; Dahlbäck, Nils; Anundi, Daniel; Björnstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Mårtensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Mathias; Ståhl, Josefine

    2009-01-01

    Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a data set to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap, we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users' error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions, the error rates were lower when using the baseline representation. For complex questions where the participants needed an overall understanding of the spatiotemporal structure of the data set, the space time cube representation resulted in on average twice as fast response times with no difference in error rates compared to the baseline. These results provide an empirical foundation for the hypothesis that space time cube representation benefits users analyzing complex spatiotemporal patterns.

  3. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  4. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...

  5. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how prayer and praying practice are reflected in archaeological sources. Apart from objects directly involved in the personal act of praying, such as rosaries and praying books, churches and religious foundations played a major role in the medieval system of intercession....... At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  6. Visual perception and verbal descriptions as sources for generating mental representations: Evidence from representational neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Michel; Beschin, Nicoletta; Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio

    2002-03-01

    In the majority of investigations of representational neglect, patients are asked to report information derived from long-term visual knowledge. In contrast, studies of perceptual neglect involve reporting the contents of relatively novel scenes in the immediate environment. The present study aimed to establish how representational neglect might affect (a) immediate recall of recently perceived, novel visual layouts, and (b) immediate recall of novel layouts presented only as auditory verbal descriptions. These conditions were contrasted with reports from visual perception and a test of immediate recall of verbal material. Data were obtained from 11 neglect patients (9 with representational neglect), 6 right hemisphere lesion control patients with no evidence of neglect, and 15 healthy controls. In the perception, memory following perception, and memory following layout description conditions, the neglect patients showed poorer report of items depicted or described on the left than on the right of each layout. The lateralised error pattern was not evident in the non-neglect patients or healthy controls, and there was no difference among the three groups on immediate verbal memory. One patient showed pure representational neglect, with ceiling performance in the perception condition, but with lateralised errors for memory following perception or following verbal description. Overall, the results indicate that representational neglect does not depend on the presence of perceptual neglect, that visual perception and visual mental representations are less closely linked than has been thought hitherto, and that visuospatial mental representations have similar functional characteristics whether they are derived from visual perception or from auditory linguistic descriptive inputs.

  7. Special functions and the theory of group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, N Ja

    1968-01-01

    A standard scheme for a relation between special functions and group representation theory is the following: certain classes of special functions are interpreted as matrix elements of irreducible representations of a certain Lie group, and then properties of special functions are related to (and derived from) simple well-known facts of representation theory. The book combines the majority of known results in this direction. In particular, the author describes connections between the exponential functions and the additive group of real numbers (Fourier analysis), Legendre and Jacobi polynomials and representations of the group SU(2), and the hypergeometric function and representations of the group SL(2,R), as well as many other classes of special functions.

  8. Terminologia anatomica: considered from the perspective of next-generation knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, C

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica, taking one page as an example. The focus of analysis is the meaning imparted to an anatomical term by virtue of its location within the structured list. Terminologia's structure, expressed through hierarchies of headings, varied typographical styles, indentations, and an alphanumeric code, implies specific relationships among the terms embedded in the list. Together, terms and relationships can potentially capture essential elements of anatomical knowledge. The analysis focuses on these knowledge elements and evaluates the consistency and logic in their representation. Most critical of these elements are class inclusion and part-whole relationships. Since these are implied, rather than explicitly modeled, by Terminologia, the use of the term list is limited to those who have some knowledge of anatomy; computer programs are excluded from navigating through the terminology. Assuring consistency in the explicit representation of anatomical relationships would facilitate adoption of Terminologia as the anatomical standard by the various controlled medical terminology (CMT) projects. These projects are motivated by the need to computerize the patient record, and their aim is to generate machine-understandable representations of biomedical concepts, including anatomy. Because of the lack of a consistent and explicit representation of anatomy, each of these CMTs has generated its own anatomy model. None of these models is compatible with any other, yet each is consistent with textbook descriptions of anatomy. The analysis of the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica leads to some suggestions for enhancing the term list in ways that would facilitate its adoption as the standard for anatomical knowledge representation in biomedical informatics. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. El conocimiento histórico del libro y la biblioteca novohispanos: representación de las fuentes originales The historic knowledge of new spain book and library: representation of original sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia García

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento del libro y las bibliotecas en la Nueva España es escaso, en comparación con el abundante recurso bibliográfico y documental del pasado colonial que se conserva en México. Las perspectivas historiográficas contemporáneas muestran la riqueza de información que puede obtenerse de las fuentes originales para interpretar un momento cultural en la historia. Sin embargo ese conocimiento también debería impactar en la valoración patrimonial del legado documental, para favorecer su adecuada salvaguarda, en especial si el trabajo se realiza relacionando toda la información obtenida con investigaciones precedentes para integrar una idea más completa de la realidad histórica analizada. Este trabajo esboza brevemente los enfoques utilizados en la historiografía del libro y la biblioteca en México, así como sus características y tendencias.The knowledge of book and libraries in New Spain is scarce in comparision with the bibliographical and documental sources preserved in Mexico of the colonial past. Contemporary historiographic perspectivesshow the information wealth that can be obtained of original sources for reconstructing one cultural moment in History. Nevertheless, this approach should also impact in hereditary appraisal of documental legacy for proper safeguards. Specially if the work relates all information with previous researches for integrating a complete idea of historical reality analyzed. This work is a short critical exercise about the approaches employed in the historiography of book and library in Mexico, as well as its characteristics and tendencies.

  10. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  11. Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Trepode, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...

  12. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  13. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  14. Teaching object concepts for XML-based representations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R. L. (Robert L.)

    2002-01-01

    Students learned about object-oriented design concepts and knowledge representation through the use of a set of toy blocks. The blocks represented a limited and focused domain of knowledge and one that was physical and tangible. The blocks helped the students to better visualize, communicate, and understand the domain of knowledge as well as how to perform object decomposition. The blocks were further abstracted to an engineering design kit for water park design. This helped the students to work on techniques for abstraction and conceptualization. It also led the project from tangible exercises into software and programming exercises. Students employed XML to create object-based knowledge representations and Java to use the represented knowledge. The students developed and implemented software allowing a lay user to design and create their own water slide and then to take a simulated ride on their slide.

  15. Use of a web-based educational intervention to improve knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle in women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus compared to standard clinic-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary; Steele, Cheryl

    2016-08-05

    This study introduced a web-based educational intervention for Australian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim was to improve knowledge on healthy diet and lifestyle in GDM. Evaluation of the intervention explored women's knowledge and understanding of GDM, healthy diet, healthy food, and healthy lifestyle, after using the web-based program compared to women receiving standard clinic-based GDM education. A total of 116 women, aged 18-45 years old, newly diagnosed with GDM, participated (Intervention (n) = 56 and control (n) = 60). Women were randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups and both groups attended a standard GDM education class. Group 1(Intervention) additionally used an online touch screen/computer program. All women completed a questionnaire following the computer program and/or the education class. All questions evaluating levels of knowledge had more than one correct answer and scores were graded from 0 to 1, with each correct component receiving a score, eg. 0.25 per each correct answer in a 4 answer question. Chi-square test was performed to compare the two groups regarding knowledge of GDM. Findings indicated that the majority of women in the intervention group reported correct answers for "types of carbohydrate foods" for pregnant women with GDM, compared to the control group (62.5 % vs 58.3 %, respectively). Most women in both groups had an excellent understanding of "fruits and vegetables" (98.2 % vs 98.3 %), and the majority of women in the intervention group understood that they should exercise daily for 30 min, compared to the control group (92.9 % vs 91.7 %). Both groups had a good understanding across all categories, however, the majority of women in the intervention group scored all correct answers (score = 1) in term of foetal effects (17.9 % vs 13.3 %, respectively), maternal predictors (5.4 % vs 5 %), care requirements (39.3 % vs 23.3 %), GDM perceptions (48.2 % vs 46.7 %) and

  16. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  17. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  18. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  19. Integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with an EHR prototype and providing customized information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2014-09-01

    When clinicians use electronic health record (EHR) systems, their ability to obtain general knowledge is often an important contribution to their ability to make more informed decisions. In this paper we describe a method by which an external, formal representation of clinical and molecular genetic knowledge can be integrated into an EHR such that customized knowledge can be delivered to clinicians in a context-appropriate manner.Web Ontology Language-Description Logic (OWL-DL) is a formal knowledge representation language that is widely used for creating, organizing and managing biomedical knowledge through the use of explicit definitions, consistent structure and a computer-processable format, particularly in biomedical fields. In this paper we describe: 1) integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with a standards-based EHR prototype, 2) presentation of customized information from the knowledge base via the EHR interface, and 3) lessons learned via the process. The integration was achieved through a combination of manual and automatic methods. Our method has advantages for scaling up to and maintaining knowledge bases of any size, with the goal of assisting clinicians and other EHR users in making better informed health care decisions.

  20. An Alternate Graphical Representation of Periodic table of Chemical Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr, Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Periodic table of chemical elements symbolizes an elegant graphical representation of symmetry at atomic level and provides an overview on arrangement of electrons. It started merely as tabular representation of chemical elements, later got strengthened with quantum mechanical description of atomic structure and recent studies have revealed that periodic table can be formulated using SO(4,2)* SU(2) group. IUPAC, the governing body in Chemistry, doesn't approve any periodic table as a standard...

  1. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  2. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  3. Detailed clinical models: representing knowledge, data and semantics in healthcare information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William T F

    2014-07-01

    This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future.

  4. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  5. Elementary student teachers' science content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis

    2002-08-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which three prospective teachers who had early opportunities to teach science would approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. The study is framed in the literature on pedagogical content knowledge and learning to teach. A situated perspective on cognition is applied to better understand the influence of context and the role of the cooperating teacher. The three participants were enrolled in an experimental teacher preparation program designed to enhance the teaching of science at the elementary level. Qualitative case study design guided the collection, organization, and analysis of data. Multiple forms of data associated with student teachers' content representations were collected, including audiotaped planning and reflection interviews, written lesson plans and reflections, and videotaped teaching experiences. Broad analysis categories were developed and refined around the subconstructs of content representation (i.e., knowledge of instructional strategies that promote learning and knowledge of students and their requirements for meaningful science learning). Findings suggest that when prospective teachers are provided with opportunities to apply and reflect substantively on their developing considerations for supporting children's science learning, they are able to maintain a subject matter emphasis. However, in the absence of such opportunities, student teachers abandon their subject matter emphasis, even when they have had extensive background and experiences addressing subject-specific considerations for teaching and learning.

  6. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered.

  7. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  8. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  9. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  10. Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine Diane

    Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed

  11. Assessment of representational competence in kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Klein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-tier instrument for representational competence in the field of kinematics (KiRC is presented, designed for a standard (1st year calculus-based introductory mechanics course. It comprises 11 multiple choice (MC and 7 multiple true-false (MTF questions involving multiple representational formats, such as graphs, pictures, and formal (mathematical expressions (1st tier. Furthermore, students express their answer confidence for selected items, providing additional information (2nd tier. Measurement characteristics of KiRC were assessed in a validation sample (pre- and post-test, N=83 and N=46, respectively, including usefulness for measuring learning gain. Validity is checked by interviews and by benchmarking KiRC against related measures. Values for item difficulty, discrimination, and consistency are in the desired ranges; in particular, a good reliability was obtained (KR20=0.86. Confidence intervals were computed and a replication study yielded values within the latter. For practical and research purposes, KiRC as a diagnostic tool goes beyond related extant instruments both for the representational formats (e.g., mathematical expressions and for the scope of content covered (e.g., choice of coordinate systems. Together with the satisfactory psychometric properties it appears a versatile and reliable tool for assessing students’ representational competency in kinematics (and of its potential change. Confidence judgments add further information to the diagnostic potential of the test, in particular for representational misconceptions. Moreover, we present an analytic result for the question—arising from guessing correction or educational considerations—of how the total effect size (Cohen’s d varies upon combination of two test components with known individual effect sizes, and then discuss the results in the case of KiRC (MC and MTF combination. The introduced method of test combination analysis can be applied to any test

  12. Assessment of representational competence in kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Müller, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-06-01

    A two-tier instrument for representational competence in the field of kinematics (KiRC) is presented, designed for a standard (1st year) calculus-based introductory mechanics course. It comprises 11 multiple choice (MC) and 7 multiple true-false (MTF) questions involving multiple representational formats, such as graphs, pictures, and formal (mathematical) expressions (1st tier). Furthermore, students express their answer confidence for selected items, providing additional information (2nd tier). Measurement characteristics of KiRC were assessed in a validation sample (pre- and post-test, N =83 and N =46 , respectively), including usefulness for measuring learning gain. Validity is checked by interviews and by benchmarking KiRC against related measures. Values for item difficulty, discrimination, and consistency are in the desired ranges; in particular, a good reliability was obtained (KR 20 =0.86 ). Confidence intervals were computed and a replication study yielded values within the latter. For practical and research purposes, KiRC as a diagnostic tool goes beyond related extant instruments both for the representational formats (e.g., mathematical expressions) and for the scope of content covered (e.g., choice of coordinate systems). Together with the satisfactory psychometric properties it appears a versatile and reliable tool for assessing students' representational competency in kinematics (and of its potential change). Confidence judgments add further information to the diagnostic potential of the test, in particular for representational misconceptions. Moreover, we present an analytic result for the question—arising from guessing correction or educational considerations—of how the total effect size (Cohen's d ) varies upon combination of two test components with known individual effect sizes, and then discuss the results in the case of KiRC (MC and MTF combination). The introduced method of test combination analysis can be applied to any test comprising

  13. Knowledge network model of the energy consumption in discrete manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binzi; Wang, Yan; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    Discrete manufacturing system generates a large amount of data and information because of the development of information technology. Hence, a management mechanism is urgently required. In order to incorporate knowledge generated from manufacturing data and production experience, a knowledge network model of the energy consumption in the discrete manufacturing system was put forward based on knowledge network theory and multi-granularity modular ontology technology. This model could provide a standard representation for concepts, terms and their relationships, which could be understood by both human and computer. Besides, the formal description of energy consumption knowledge elements (ECKEs) in the knowledge network was also given. Finally, an application example was used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  15. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  16. Representations in Simulated Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Martijn; Terwel, Jan; van Oers, Bert

    2014-01-01

    In vocational education students are to be prepared to participate in communities of practice. Hence they need technical skills as well as content knowledge e.g. science and mathematics. Research has shown that the instructional strategy of guided co-construction may lead to deeper understandings within a practice. The research questions in this…

  17. NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rulebased representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because...

  18. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...

  19. Factorial representations of path groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Testard, D.; Vershik, A.

    1983-11-01

    We give the reduction of the energy representation of the group of mappings from I = [ 0,1 ], S 1 , IRsub(+) or IR into a compact semi simple Lie group G. For G = SU(2) we prove the factoriality of the representation, which is of type III in the case I = IR

  20. Using Integer Manipulatives: Representational Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Teachers and students commonly use various concrete representations during mathematical instruction. These representations can be utilized to help students understand mathematical concepts and processes, increase flexibility of thinking, facilitate problem solving, and reduce anxiety while doing mathematics. Unfortunately, the manner in which some…

  1. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  2. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  3. Mathematical knowledge in teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  4. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  5. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  6. Source Authenticity in the UMLS – A Case Study of the Minimal Standard Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhanan, Gai; Huang, Kuo-Chuan; Perl, Yehoshua

    2010-01-01

    As the UMLS integrates multiple source vocabularies, the integration process requires that certain adaptation be applied to the source. Our interest is in examining the relationship between the UMLS representation of a source vocabulary and the source vocabulary itself. We investigated the integration of the Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) into the UMLS in order to examine how close its UMLS representation is to the source MST. The MST was conceived as a “minimal” list of terms and structure intended for use within computer systems to facilitate standardized reporting of gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. Although the MST has an overall schema and implied relationship structure, many of the UMLS integrated MST terms were found to be hierarchically orphaned, and with lateral relationships that do not closely adhere to the source MST. Thus, the MST representation within the UMLS significantly differs from that of the source MST. These representation discrepancies may affect the usability of the MST representation in the UMLS for knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, they pose a problem from the perspective of application developers. While these findings may not necessarily apply to other source terminologies, they highlight the conflict between preservation of authentic concept orientation and the UMLS overall desire to provide fully specified names for all source terms. PMID:20692366

  7. The Extent of Membership Representation and Non-Representation on the IASB

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Brown

    2008-01-01

    Status groups abound in financial markets and none more so than in the global accounting market. One such group is the powerful and closed International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study empirically examines the social control of IASB membership by considering the country affiliation of members, Internet access, and gender composition over a five-year period. The results of the study show that over the period 2001-2005 representation on a four IASB committees was dominated by m...

  8. An XML Representation for Crew Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    NASA ensures safe operation of complex systems through the use of formally-documented procedures, which encode the operational knowledge of the system as derived from system experts. Crew members use procedure documentation on the ground for training purposes and on-board space shuttle and space station to guide their activities. Investigators at JSC are developing a new representation for procedures that is content-based (as opposed to display-based). Instead of specifying how a procedure should look on the printed page, the content-based representation will identify the components of a procedure and (more importantly) how the components are related (e.g., how the activities within a procedure are sequenced; what resources need to be available for each activity). This approach will allow different sets of rules to be created for displaying procedures on a computer screen, on a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA), verbally, or on a printed page, and will also allow intelligent reasoning processes to automatically interpret and use procedure definitions. During his NASA fellowship, Dr. Simpson examined how various industries represent procedures (also called business processes or workflows), in areas such as manufacturing, accounting, shipping, or customer service. A useful method for designing and evaluating workflow representation languages is by determining their ability to encode various workflow patterns, which depict abstract relationships between the components of a procedure removed from the context of a specific procedure or industry. Investigators have used this type of analysis to evaluate how well-suited existing workflow representation languages are for various industries based on the workflow patterns that commonly arise across industry-specific procedures. Based on this type of analysis, it is already clear that existing workflow representations capture discrete flow of control (i.e., when one activity should start and stop based on when other

  9. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  10. Chemical thermodynamic representation of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base

  11. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, F.L. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sullivan, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ross, T. [University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guimaraes, L.N.F. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference. This would facilitate analysis of alternative values, discussions, and demonstrations, for example, at public hearings, for an audience with several different backgrounds. Through fuzzy logic tools, the translated information will serve as a basis for clearly inferring the level of evidence, and consequent confidence, which supports the selection of values. With this approach, all the decisions are characterized by the respective degrees of membership, or degrees of compatibility, to a certain fuzzy set. Through the fuzzy mathematical tools, these degrees of membership can be propagated throughout the calculations up to the final result of the safety assessment. This methodology can easily be implemented in an Excel spreadsheet where any changes in a parameter values, or conditions, can instantly be propagated to the final result. A practical example will be provided. (author)

  12. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.; Ross, T.; Guimaraes, L.N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference. This would facilitate analysis of alternative values, discussions, and demonstrations, for example, at public hearings, for an audience with several different backgrounds. Through fuzzy logic tools, the translated information will serve as a basis for clearly inferring the level of evidence, and consequent confidence, which supports the selection of values. With this approach, all the decisions are characterized by the respective degrees of membership, or degrees of compatibility, to a certain fuzzy set. Through the fuzzy mathematical tools, these degrees of membership can be propagated throughout the calculations up to the final result of the safety assessment. This methodology can easily be implemented in an Excel spreadsheet where any changes in a parameter values, or conditions, can instantly be propagated to the final result. A practical example will be provided. (author)

  13. Integrating Conceptual Knowledge Within and Across Representational Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    McNorgan, Chris; Reid, Jackie; McRae, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that concepts are distributed across brain regions specialized for processing information from different sensorimotor modalities. Multimodal semantic models fall into one of two broad classes differentiated by the assumed hierarchy of convergence zones over which information is integrated. In shallow models, communication within- and between-modality is accomplished using either direct connectivity, or a central semantic hub. In deep models, modalities are connected via casc...

  14. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    interpretation would not be too bad if one were to believe that a frame "is intended to represent a ’ stereotypical situation’" ( [24], p. 48). We...natural kind-like concepts - some form of definitional structuring is necessary. The internal structure of non atomic concepts (e.g., proximate genus ...types of beer, bottles of wine, etc.; <x> need not be any sort of Onatural genus .’ For example, in Dll the definite pronoun Othem" is not meant to I

  15. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    how a Concept specializes its subsumer. |C|ANIMAL. |C|PLANT. |C(PERSON, and |C| UNICORN are natural kinds, and so will need a PrimitiveClass. As...build this proof, we must build a proof of p x (p X n) steps. The size of the proofs grows exponentially with the depth of nesting This :s clearly

  16. Modular Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Luciano; Homola, Martin

    Construction of modular ontologies by combining different modules is becoming a necessity in ontology engineering in order to cope with the increasing complexity of the ontologies and the domains they represent. The modular ontology approach takes inspiration from software engineering, where modularization is a widely acknowledged feature. Distributed reasoning is the other side of the coin of modular ontologies: given an ontology comprising of a set of modules, it is desired to perform reasoning by combination of multiple reasoning processes performed locally on each of the modules. In the last ten years, a number of approaches for combining logics has been developed in order to formalize modular ontologies. In this chapter, we survey and compare the main formalisms for modular ontologies and distributed reasoning in the Semantic Web. We select four formalisms build on formal logical grounds of Description Logics: Distributed Description Logics, ℰ-connections, Package-based Description Logics and Integrated Distributed Description Logics. We concentrate on expressivity and distinctive modeling features of each framework. We also discuss reasoning capabilities of each framework.

  17. Speech Recognition: Acoustic-Phonetic Knowledge Acquisition and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-25

    Society of "" America , Anaheim, CA, Dec. 1986. # Randolph, M. A., and V. W. Zue, "The Role of Syllable Structure in the Acoustic Realizations of Stops...input speech signal is first transformed into a represen- ences in sociolinguistic background, dialect, and vocal tract tation that takes into account...Perceptual Evidence,’ Journal of the Acovuticai Society of America , vol. 59, * no. 5, pp. 1208-1221, May 1976. � G. E. Kupec and M. A. Bush, ’Network

  18. Representation of Knowledge on Some Management Accounting Techniques in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyagina, Alena; Valuckas, Danielius

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the coverage of management accounting techniques in several popular management accounting texts, assessing each technique's claimed position within practice, its benefits and limitations, and the information sources substantiating these claims. Employing the notion of research genres, the study reveals that textbooks in their…

  19. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  20. Investigating the Implementation of Knowledge Representation in the COMBATXXI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Medical Sciences of the United States National Institutes of Health 6. AUTHOR(S) Mongi Bellili 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...GM10331601 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the United States National Institutes of Health . xvi THIS PAGE...Trash MortarShell TankRound RPG_Shell SodaCan Springs SteelTubes Vehicle hasDelivery Method Human DeliveryMethod Man Woman Kid Car Bike Truck Pressur

  1. Lost in Translation: Western Representations of Maori Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    We recently attended a conference at which a non-Maori presenter, drawing on a particular metaphor already established by Maori writers, related Maori natural world features to a research method. The presentation was useful because it highlighted several issues that call for our concern as Maori philosophers. In this article, we outline these…

  2. Foundation of a Knowledge Representation System for Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    rather general. In the category module we see that a subclass of ships could be " fishing boat", and we see that the value of the feature could change. Thus...we would have, X = size( fishing boat(Enterprise)). size( fishing boat(Enterprise)) = very, very big. In the case of features whose values depend on...edge or boundary segments. Thus, we have:: (1) bars: parallel edge pairs (2) blobs : closed contours which can be defined from a cloud nf tokens, for

  3. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  4. In conclusion: Political representation ans legitimacy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Hermann; Schmitt, Hermann; Thomassen, Jacques J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to expand knowledge of political representation in the EU and of the legitimacy of its political order. In this concluding chapter, a summary is given of what has been learned on these two subjects and what this says about the EU as a developing democratic political

  5. Consumers’ perception of relatedness in mental representations of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    The work in this thesis investigates relatedness (as perceived by consumers) in mental representations of products. Just as other objects that are part of the physical world, products are represented in consumers’ minds in the form of concepts. Concepts hold consumers’ knowledge about a product.

  6. COALA-System for Visual Representation of Cryptography Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Zarko; Stanisavljevic, Jelena; Vuletic, Pavle; Jovanovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Educational software systems have an increasingly significant presence in engineering sciences. They aim to improve students' attitudes and knowledge acquisition typically through visual representation and simulation of complex algorithms and mechanisms or hardware systems that are often not available to the educational institutions. This paper…

  7. Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

  8. Path tortuosity in everyday movements of elderly persons increases fall prediction beyond knowledge of fall history, medication use, and standardized gait and balance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, William D; Fozard, James L; Becker, Marion; Jasiewicz, Jan M; Craighead, Jeffrey D; Holtsclaw, Lori; Dion, Charles

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that variability in voluntary movement paths of assisted living facility (ALF) residents would be greater in the week preceding a fall compared with residents who did not fall. Prospective, observational study using telesurveillance technology. Two ALFs. The sample consisted of 69 older ALF residents (53 female) aged 76.9 (SD ± 11.9 years). Daytime movement in ALF common use areas was automatically tracked using a commercially available ultra-wideband radio real-time location sensor network with a spatial resolution of approximately 20 cm. Movement path variability (tortuosity) was gauged using fractal dimension (fractal D). A logistic regression was performed predicting movement related falls from fractal D, presence of a fall in the prior year, psychoactive medication use, and movement path length. Fallers and non-fallers were also compared on activities of daily living requiring supervision or assistance, performance on standardized static and dynamic balance, and stride velocity assessments gathered at the start of a 1-year fall observation period. Fall risk due to cognitive deficit was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and by clinical dementia diagnoses from participant's activities of daily living health record. Logistic regression analysis revealed odds of falling increased 2.548 (P = .021) for every 0.1 increase in fractal D, and having a fall in the prior year increased odds of falling by 7.36 (P = .006). There was a trend for longer movement paths to reduce the odds of falling (OR .976 P = .08) but it was not significant. Number of psychoactive medications did not contribute significantly to fall prediction in the model. Fallers had more variable stride-to-stride velocities and required more activities of daily living assistance. High fractal D levels can be detected using commercially available telesurveillance technologies and offers a new tool for health services administrators seeking to reduce falls at their

  9. Analytic representation of the square-root operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Tepper L; Zachary, W W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use the theory of fractional powers of linear operators to construct a general (analytic) representation theory for the square-root energy operator of relativistic quantum theory, which is valid for all values of the spin. We focus on the spin 1/2 case, considering a few simple yet solvable and physically interesting cases, in order to understand how to interpret the operator. Our general representation is uniquely determined by the Green's function for the corresponding Schroedinger equation. We find that, in general, the operator has a representation as a nonlocal composite of (at least) three singularities. In the standard interpretation, the particle component has two negative parts and one (hard core) positive part, while the antiparticle component has two positive parts and one (hard core) negative part. This effect is confined within a Compton wavelength such that, at the point of singularity, they cancel each other providing a finite result. Furthermore, the operator looks like the identity outside a few Compton wavelengths (cut-off). To our knowledge, this is the first example of a physically relevant operator with these properties. When the magnetic field is constant, we obtain an additional singularity, which could be interpreted as particle absorption and emission. The physical picture that emerges is that, in addition to the confined singularities and the additional attractive (repulsive) term, the effective mass of the composite acquires an oscillatory behaviour. We also derive an alternative relationship between the Dirac equation (with minimal coupling) and the square-root equation that is somewhat closer than the one obtained via the Foldy-Wouthuysen method, in that there is no change in the wavefunction. This is accomplished by considering the scalar potential to be a part of the mass. This approach leads to a new Klein-Gordon equation and a new square-root equation, both of which can have the same eigenfunctions and (related

  10. Desiderata for computable representations of electronic health records-driven phenotype algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huan; Thompson, William K; Rasmussen, Luke V; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Jiang, Guoqian; Kiefer, Richard; Zhu, Qian; Xu, Jie; Montague, Enid; Carrell, David S; Lingren, Todd; Mentch, Frank D; Ni, Yizhao; Wehbe, Firas H; Peissig, Peggy L; Tromp, Gerard; Larson, Eric B; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman; Denny, Joshua C; Speltz, Peter; Kho, Abel N; Jarvik, Gail P; Bejan, Cosmin A; Williams, Marc S; Borthwick, Kenneth; Kitchner, Terrie E; Roden, Dan M; Harris, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly used for clinical and translational research through the creation of phenotype algorithms. Currently, phenotype algorithms are most commonly represented as noncomputable descriptive documents and knowledge artifacts that detail the protocols for querying diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and/or text-driven medical concepts, and are primarily meant for human comprehension. We present desiderata for developing a computable phenotype representation model (PheRM). A team of clinicians and informaticians reviewed common features for multisite phenotype algorithms published in PheKB.org and existing phenotype representation platforms. We also evaluated well-known diagnostic criteria and clinical decision-making guidelines to encompass a broader category of algorithms. We propose 10 desired characteristics for a flexible, computable PheRM: (1) structure clinical data into queryable forms; (2) recommend use of a common data model, but also support customization for the variability and availability of EHR data among sites; (3) support both human-readable and computable representations of phenotype algorithms; (4) implement set operations and relational algebra for modeling phenotype algorithms; (5) represent phenotype criteria with structured rules; (6) support defining temporal relations between events; (7) use standardized terminologies and ontologies, and facilitate reuse of value sets; (8) define representations for text searching and natural language processing; (9) provide interfaces for external software algorithms; and (10) maintain backward compatibility. A computable PheRM is needed for true phenotype portability and reliability across different EHR products and healthcare systems. These desiderata are a guide to inform the establishment and evolution of EHR phenotype algorithm authoring platforms and languages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical

  11. Representation Methods in AI. Searching by Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel GARRIDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical origin of the Artificial Intelligence (A I is usually established in the Darmouth Conference, of 1956. But we can find many more arcane origins [1]. Also, we can consider, in more recent times, very great thinkers, as Janos Neumann (then, John von Neumann, arrived in USA, Norbert Wiener, Alan Mathison Turing, or Lofti Zadehfor instance [6, 7]. Frequently A I requires Logic. But its classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it was necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as fuzzy logic, modal logic, non-monotonic logic and so on [2]. Among the things that A I needs to represent are: categories, objects, properties, relations between objects, situations, states, time, events, causes and effects, knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in A I can be classified in two general types [3, 4]: search problems and representation problems. In this last “mountain”, there exist different ways to reach their summit. So, we have [3]: logics, rules, frames, associative nets, scripts and so on, many times connectedamong them. We attempt, in this paper, a panoramic vision of the scope of application of such Representation Methods in A I. The two more disputable questions of both modern philosophy of mind and A I will be Turing Test and The Chinese Room Argument. To elucidate these very difficult questions, see both final Appendices.

  12. Conditions for the Effectiveness of Multiple Visual Representations in Enhancing STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.

    2017-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in enhancing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Educational psychology research shows that adding visual representations to text can enhance students' learning of content knowledge, compared to text-only. But should students learn with a single type of visual…

  13. A new image representation for compact and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

  14. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    is carried out at Copenhagen Business School, will be introduced. In order to illustrate the need for a taxonomy for terminological data, some examples from the Data Category Registry of ISO TC 37 (ISOcat) will be given, and the taxonomy which has been developed for the DanTermBank project will be compared...... to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented.......This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...

  15. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  16. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja X. Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  17. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  18. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  19. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  20. Solitons and theory of representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems on the theory of group representations finding application in constructing the quantum variant of the inverse scattering problem are discussed. The multicomponent nonlinear Shroedinger equation is considered as a main example of nonlinear evolution equations (NEE)