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Sample records for knowledge attitudes beliefs

  1. Joggers versus Nonexercisers: An Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Jogging.

    Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)

  2. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Psoriasis Patients About the Disease

    Aslı Küçükünal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2% had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie

  3. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  4. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  5. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  6. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  7. Language Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs, Professional Knowledge, and Views on Professional Development: An Exploratory Study at a Preschool TEFL Setting

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…

  8. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  10. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  11. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383

  12. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    Robinson Ramírez-Velez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP, their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al.Results:The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2% aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%. Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%. The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%, the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%, EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1% and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%. Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice.Conclusion:The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice.

  13. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.

  14. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs about HIV and AIDS among mentally ill patients in Soweto, Johannesburg

    G Jonsson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics; knowledge on how HIV is acquired and spread; attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS; and condom usage. The statements in the knowledge sections were used to calculate a composite score, which if greater than or equal to 75% was defined as ‘adequate knowledge’. Results. A total of 1 151 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The mean age was 41.9 years (standard deviation 11.6 and the majority were males (50%; single (55%, and had achieved only a secondary level of education (53.3%. Overall, most of the study population did not believe in the myths surrounding the spread and acquisition of HIV and AIDS. There were however, significant associations between a low level of education and the belief that HIV is acquired from mosquito bites (odds ratio (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002 and through masturbation or body rubbing (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.33; p=0.000. Although more than 90% of the patients were aware of the facts regarding the spread of HIV, approximately 40% did not believe that one could acquire HIV through a single sexual encounter. The composite scoring for knowledge showed that less than half the patients had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This was significantly associated with gender and level of education: females were 1.6 times (p<0.0004 and patients with Grade 8 or higher education 1.5 times more knowledgeable (p=0.002. Conclusion. Among mentally ill patients there is a both a lack of

  16. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of technical staff towards doping in Spanish football.

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge among technical staff members of Spanish football teams regarding doping. The sample was drawn from 88 football teams that ranged from elite to under-18 categories. The 237 stakeholders (34.45 ± 8.59 years) were categorised as follows: coaches (COA) (n = 101), physical trainers (PT) (n = 68) and rest of technical staff (RTS) (n = 68). The descriptive exploratory design used an instrument that combined a validated questionnaire (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale; PEAS) with specific, qualitative open-ended questions. The overall mean score from the PEAS (range, 17-102, with higher scores representing more permissive attitudes towards doping) was 31.64 ± 10.77; for COA, 31.91 ± 11.42; for PT, 31.28 ± 9.44; and for RTS, 31.58 ± 11.18. Regarding participants' knowledge and beliefs, most respondents (57.6%) did not know the meaning of WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency); 84.9% did not know the prohibited list; and 39.2% had used/recommended supplements. In addition, 87.2% recognised "differential treatment of doping among sports," with cycling considered most affected (62.6%) and team sports least (27.2%, with football at 15%). The dangerous lack of knowledge highlights the necessity for anti-doping education and prevention programs for all football stakeholders, not just athletes.

  18. Caregivers’ Malaria Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes, and Related Factors in the Bata District, Equatorial Guinea

    Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Herrador, Zaida; Berzosa, Pedro; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adequate community knowledge about malaria is crucial in order to improve prevention by reducing exposure to the disease. Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children of less than five years of age in Equatorial Guinea. However, information concerning the accuracy of community knowledge is insufficient. This study aimed at assessing the depth of caregivers’ knowledge of malaria, their beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and their socioeconomic determinants in the Bata district of Equatorial Guinea. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata, involving 440 houses selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. A combined "Malaria Knowledge Score" was generated based on caregivers’ knowledge about transmission, symptoms, prevention, the treatment of children, and best place to seek treatment. Multivariate logistic regressions analyses were performed to assess those factors that are associated with knowledge about malaria. Results A total of 428 caregivers were interviewed; 255 (59.6%) and 173 (40.4%) lived in urban and rural areas respectively. Significant differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregivers’ malaria knowledges and beliefs. Almost 42% of urban and 65% of rural caregivers were unaware as to how malaria is transmitted (OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.78–4.05). Together with rurality, the factors most significantly associated with the Malaria Knowledge were the level of education of the caregiver and the socioeconomic status of the household. Conclusions Improvements in educational programs are needed to empower the most vulnerable households such that they can pro-actively implement malaria control measures. This could be achieved by a comprehensive communication strategy aimed at changing individual and community behaviours, and delivered by suitably trained community health workers and indoor residual spraying personnel. PMID:28036341

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever in children: a Danish interview study

    Sahm, Laura; Kelly, Maria; McCarthy, Suzanne;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Fever and febrile illness are some of the most common conditions managed by parents. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents around fever in children under five years of age. METHODS: Between July and August 2014, a convenience sample of parents...... to be introduced which provide general information on how to manage fever in children. CONCLUSION: Parents were very concerned when their child was febrile and instigated practices obtained from accessible information sources. This study has identified a need for specific and reliable information initiatives...... was invited to participate in this study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results were analysed thematically using a constant comparison method. RESULTS: Twenty-one parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: parental concern, help-seeking behaviour, parental knowledge, parent fever...

  20. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  1. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  2. Arab American immigrants in New York: health care and cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs.

    Shah, Susan M; Ayash, Claudia; Pharaon, Nora Alarifi; Gany, Francesca M

    2008-10-01

    Arab immigrants living in the United States total between 1.5 million and 3.5 million, and have been growing in number each decade. New York's Arab population, at 405,000, ranks third in the U.S. after California and Michigan. Despite the large numbers, little health research has focused on this population. Data about the cancer incidence, mortality, and screening practices of Arab Americans is overwhelmingly lacking. To better understand the health care and cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Arab American immigrants, five single-gender focus groups were convened with Arab men and women in New York City. Attention was given to factors that act as barriers to utilization of general health care services, and of cancer prevention, treatment, and support services. The data revealed the importance of providing culturally and linguistically appropriate health interventions in partnership with trusted community leaders, and the need for follow-up research of this understudied immigrant population.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers associated with the uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women

    Ahmed Y. Mayet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and factors associated with the uptake of the influenza (flu vaccination in women within Saudi Arabia during their pregnancy period. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey was conducted on 1085 pregnant women at the antenatal clinic over a period of 6 weeks with the provision of influenza vaccination. The questionnaire collected demographic and other data; it included 12 questions on their general knowledge and assessed their attitude toward influenza vaccination, and their awareness of vaccine risk and the potential benefits during pregnancy. The knowledge score obtained was then calculated and compared. Results: A total of 998 patients took part in the questionnaire with a response rate of 92%. There was poor awareness that the flu vaccine is safe to administer during pregnancy (130, 13.1% and that all pregnant women should receive the flu vaccine (190, 19.1%. Pregnant women with flu vaccine knowledge score of ⩽5 (range 0–12 were significantly less likely to take the vaccine (OR 3.78, 95% CI 2.68–5.26, p < 0.001. There was a low uptake of the vaccine (178, 18.1% and only 29 (3.0% had previously been offered the flu vaccine by any doctor during their pregnancy. In addition, 255 (25.8% were against taking the flu vaccine during pregnancy. Conclusion: The knowledge and uptake of the influenza vaccine among Saudi pregnant women are low. One quarter was against the vaccine during pregnancy. Very few believed the flu vaccine to be safe during pregnancy. Rarely, physicians advise their clients to take flu vaccine.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Arab-American women regarding inherited cancer risk.

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.

  5. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent negotiation among college women.

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women.

  7. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-08-18

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment.

  8. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Sanas Javadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.

  9. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  10. Knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in HIV/AIDS in India:identifying the gender and rural-urban differences

    Indrajit; Hazarika

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To promote the use of preventive measures and raise awareness regardingHIV/AIDS in India.Methods:Data from the population-basedNFHS-3 survey2005-06 was used. In this study, information collected on87 961women aged15-49years and44 717 men aged15-54years was used in the final analysis. The data collected was stratified by gender and place of residence. Analyses of the variables related to the outcomes i.e. knowledge, attitude, belief and practices, was conducted usingChi-square test to calculate significant differences among proportions of categorical variables.Results: We found that knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was low among women and rural residents. Most of the respondents had a non-discriminatory attitude towardsHIV positives and majority agreed that children should be educated onHIV/AIDS. The use of condoms and proportion of respondents who had undergoneHIV testing was found to be significantly low. We found a significant gap in the beliefs regarding ways to avoid HIV.Conclusions: There are significant gender and urban-rural differentials in India in terms of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices inHIV/AIDS. Information dissemination in India should be designed in a way that not only raises the level of awareness but also result in behavioral change.

  11. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools.

  12. Young Adults' Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire.

    Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; El-Hani, Charbel N

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.

  13. Young Adults’ Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire

    Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students’ knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. PMID:28114357

  14. A Multi-Site Study on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice of Child-Dog Interactions in Rural China

    David C. Schwebel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy.

  16. Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health: an exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of the Greek-Cypriot adolescents.

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health.

  17. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.

  18. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV among Young People – A baseline Survey in Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat

    Mamtarani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Title of the article: Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV among Young People- A baseline Survey in Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitudes and beliefs of young people of rural and tribal areas as regards reproductive health, sexuality, STIs and HIV/AIDS Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: rural and tribal areas of Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat Participants: young people of 15-24 years and 25-49 years age group. Methods: Using cluster sampling technique 30 Clusters (15 Navsari and 15 Dang were surveyed in January and February 2007. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi-info software. Results & Conclusion: Total of 2144 young people were interviewed. The major sources of information about HIV/AIDS were mass media and friends. Half (50% of young people had heard about HIV/AIDS. A majority of young people were aware of all four modes of transmission of it. About three-fourth of the young people (75% believed that it can be prevented. The results signify that although some amount of awareness is prevalent in the study area; further efforts are needed to bring awareness about reproductive health, sexuality and HIV/AIDS. The awareness programs need to focus on strategies of prevention especially emphasizing the role of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Education programs should focus on the most vulnerable groups – the adolescent girls and young women- who are less aware as compared to men about different methods of prevention

  20. Community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards depression in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A Syed; Hassali, Mohamed A; Anwar, Mudassir; Wasif, G; Khan, Amer H

    2010-02-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the mental health literacy vis-à-vis depression among inhabitants of Penang state in North Malaysia. Using a clustered random sampling method, 1,855 respondents were approached to participate in the survey. A total of 1,149 respondents actually participated, for a 61.9% response rate. Face to face interviews were then conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD +/-11.5). The majority (n = 884; 76.9%) could recognize three or more symptoms of depression. Chinese and/or female respondents performed the best in this domain. Respondents with a personal experience of depression displayed a significantly better knowledge of symptoms of and therapies for depression than those who did not (t = -35.745, P = Penang. Notably, respondents were generally inclined towards the use of alternative medicine. The study suggests that strong beliefs in alternative and traditional medicines could undermine the respondents' willingness and ability to seek evidence-based mental health care.

  1. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  2. The Attitudes, Knowledge and Beliefs of Arab Parents in Kuwait about Stuttering

    Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in…

  3. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  4. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria

    Babawale T Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents′ socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8 ± 12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria.

    Bello, Babawale T; Raji, Yemi R

    2016-01-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8±12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  7. The knowledge and attitudes of traditional birth attendants towards HIV/AIDS and their beliefs related to perinatal care: a study conducted in KwaZulu Natal

    G.G. Mchunu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are still mainly being utilized in the rural areas even in the presence of the formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that the utilization of TBAs is beneficial in some other contexts with some support and supervision from the western health sector. In order to develop further training for TBAs the researchers deemed it necessary to assess their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS, prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care.

  8. The Chronic Pain Myth Scale: Development and Validation of a French-Canadian Instrument Measuring Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes of People in the Community towards Chronic Pain

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72–0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis among South African Men who have Sex with Men.

    Hugo, J M; Stall, R D; Rebe, K; Egan, J E; Jobson, G; De Swardt, G; Struthers, H; McIntyre, J A

    2016-12-01

    The Soweto Men's Study (2008), demonstrated an overall HIV prevalence rate of 13.2 %, with 10.1 % among straight-identified Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), 6.4 % among bisexual-identified MSM and 33.9 % among gay-identified MSM. Behavioral interventions are imperative, but insufficient to prevent new HIV infections. Biomedical prevention of HIV offers a variety of combination prevention tools, including Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP studies amongst MSM have been conducted in Amsterdam, Brazil and San Francisco, but never before in Africa. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey was initiated to measure knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding PEP among South African MSM. Recruitment commenced in June 2014 and ran until October 2015. Participants were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook.com and mambaonline.com, advertisements in the local gay media and at Health4Men (H4M) MSM-targeted clinics. Outreach workers distributed flyers advertising the study in their local communities. The survey was also made available on a computer at the H4M clinics in Cape Town and Johannesburg to reach MSM who may not have Internet access. A total of 408 men completed the survey. The majority of these men were under the age of 40, identified as gay/homosexual and were employed; 51 % (208/408) self-identified as black or of mixed race. In multivariate analysis participants who identified as gay had greater odds of having previously heard of PEP (AOR 1.91, 95 % CI 1.04, 3.51; p = 0.036), as did those who reported their HIV status as positive (AOR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.47, 4.45; p = 0.001). Participants with medical insurance had greater odds of having used PEP previously (AOR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.11, 6.43; p = 0.029). Bivariate analysis showed that condomless sex in the past 6 months was not significantly associated with PEP knowledge (p = 0.75) or uptake (p = 0.56) of PEP. Our findings suggest a lack of PEP knowledge and uptake among non-gay identified

  10. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  11. A study of knowledge beliefs and attitudes regarding aids and human sexuality among medical college, engineering college and university Undergraduates of gorakhpur.

    Puneet Misra

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: i What is the level of knowledge and altitude of undergraduates about AIDS and human sexuality? ii What arc the preferred modes of obtaining such knowledge?.Objectives: To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of undergraduate students regarding AIDS and human sexuality.Study Design: Self administered questionnaire.Setting and Participants: 1289 undergraduates from B.R.D. Medical College., M. M. M. Engineering College and University of Gorakhpur.                                                                  .Study Variables: Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding AIDS and sexuality.Outcome Variables: Proportion of students having correct knowledge and positive attitudes.Statistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: l.evcl of knowledge about AIDS was generally high. Most of the students obtained knowledge about it through mass media. Few students had misconceptions about transmission of 1IIV infection. Knowledge about sex was obtained mainly from friends (36% and books (31.31%. Most of the students preferred doctors (44.15% and friends (43.66% for asking something about sex. and not their parents (4.37% or teachers (4.61%. 59.13% of boys and 34.49% of girls thought that students of their age had sex.Conclusion and Recommendations: The most peculiar fact in (his study is that students have no reliable means of obtaining correct information about subjects related to sex. Medical profession contributed very little in providing such knowledge. Most of them relied on their friends for such information. So. emphasis is to be given on recommending proper education material for the youth.

  12. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in relation to knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices among university students in North-Eastern Nigeria

    James O Adisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of communities in control of cervical cancer cannot be overemphasized, but this must take cognizance of their current knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices (KABP of the people if it will be sustainable. This study assessed the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among university students and their level of KABP concerning cervical screening in Maiduguri North-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-two subjects (age range: 18-69 years were screened using pap smear screening method and acetowhite method. A structured questionnaire was administered on each subject to elicit information on KABP that could predispose them to the disease. Results: CIN was recorded in 12.8% of subjects with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 10.8% and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 2.0% of the women, respectively. The average general level of knowledge of various aspect of was 43.3% average positive attitudes/beliefs about the disease was recorded in 17.1% of subject, while positive practices that could lead to prevention of the disease was obtained in 30.0%. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the disease and screening is very low and together with high levels of negative attitudes and practices, will adversely affect control measures and therefore have to be addressed.

  13. Development and validation of the Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale for assessment of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes to intellectual disability.

    Scior, Katrina; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Research into the general public's responses to individuals with intellectual disabilities has been dominated by attitudinal research. While this approach has unquestionably generated useful findings, it ignores important aspects, such as lay knowledge, explanatory models and beliefs about suitable interventions that can produce a multi-faceted understanding of public responses. This paper describes the development of a measure designed to assess respondents' intellectual disability literacy. Following a pilot with 114 participants, the IDLS was revised and then completed by 1376 members of the public (aged 18-78 years) from diverse cultural backgrounds. The measure was able to distinguish respondents who showed good intellectual disability literacy. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed four causal beliefs factors (adversity, biomedical, fate, environment) that accounted for 55% of the variance and three intervention beliefs factors (lifestyle, expert help, religion/spiritual,) that explained 52% of the variance. Test-retest reliability for these factors was good for all ethnic groups. The four-item social distance scale had good internal consistency for all ethnic groups and acceptable concurrent validity. The IDLS is a useful new tool to evaluate knowledge, beliefs and social distance to intellectual disability in lay people, is suitable for cross-cultural research and allows comparison of intellectual disability and mental health literacy in any given population.

  14. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  15. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  16. An audit on the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the uses and side-effects of antibiotics among outpatients attending 2 teaching hospitals in Jordan.

    Alzoubi, K; Al-Azzam, S; Alhusban, A; Mukattash, T; Al-Zubaidy, S; Alomari, N; Khader, Y

    2013-05-01

    This study aimedto assess general knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of people towards the use of antibiotics. Individuals referring to the outpatient pharmacies of 2 major teaching hospitals in the north of Jordan completed a self-administered, validated questionnaire. A total of 1091 individuals (56.8% males) participated in the study. Of these, 20.1% of the participants stated that antibiotics were used for bacterial infections, while 18.3% thought they were used for viral infections and 43.6% for mixed bacterial/viral infections. The average knowledge score of the participants about antibiotic uses and side-effects was low. Middle-aged participants and those with an education beyond high school had significantly higher knowledge scores about antibiotics use. Almost 75% of the participants disagreed that antibiotics could be given without a prescription.

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  18. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Italian female undergraduate students towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour. Do female medical students make good peer educators?

    Maria Anna Coniglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.

    Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.

    Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.

    Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  19. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.

  20. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  1. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    Moyer Cheryl A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of

  2. Screening practices and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women 35 years old or older in Nueces County, Texas.

    Tortolero-Luna, G; Glober, G A; Villarreal, R; Palos, G; Linares, A

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among women 35 years old or older in Nueces County, Tex., to assess ethnic differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women in self-reported cancer-screening practices and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer and to evaluate the effect of ethnicity as a predictor for screening practices. A total of 233 Hispanic and 332 non-Hispanic white women participated in the survey. Hispanics were younger and had lower educational and income levels. Overall, Hispanics had lower rates than did non-Hispanics of lifetime mammography (65% versus 79%), clinical breast examination (86% versus 96%), monthly performance of breast self-examination (37% versus 49%), and lifetime fecal occult blood testing (36% versus 69%). After control for confounding factors, Hispanics were still less likely to have ever had a clinical breast examination and fecal occult blood test. Our results suggest the need for more culturally sensitive health promotion efforts to improve knowledge about cancer and early detection practices among Hispanic women.

  3. Investigate the Relationship between Belief in a Just World, Multicultural Knowledge, Multicultural Awareness, and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of Practicing School Counselors

    Jones, Shenika Juanita

    2013-01-01

    The school counseling profession is governed by national standards to promote the academic, personal, social, and career development of all students. There is an emphasis on outlining professional dispositions for school counselors. Yet, the personal values, beliefs, and attitudes that influence their interactions with students and the carrying…

  4. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  5. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  6. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  7. An Analysis of the Candidate Teachers' Beliefs Related to Knowledge, Learning and Teaching

    Bay, Erdal; Vural, Ömer Faruk; Demir, Servet; Bagceci, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Candidate teachers have several beliefs related to their knowledge, learning and teaching. The purpose of this study is to analyze the beliefs of candidate teachers about knowledge, learning and teaching. Candidate teachers were assigned a scale and from the answers "belief points" were obtained based on their attitudes about these three…

  8. Knowledge, Belief, and Science Education

    Ferreira, Tiago Alfredo S.; El-Hani, Charbel N.; da Silva-Filho, Waldomiro José

    2016-10-01

    This article intends to show that the defense of "understanding" as one of the major goals of science education can be grounded on an anti-reductionist perspective on testimony as a source of knowledge. To do so, we critically revisit the discussion between Harvey Siegel and Alvin Goldman about the goals of science education, especially where it involves arguments based on the epistemology of testimony. Subsequently, we come back to a discussion between Charbel N. El-Hani and Eduardo Mortimer, on the one hand, and Michael Hoffmann, on the other, striving to strengthen the claim that rather than students' belief change, understanding should have epistemic priority as a goal of science education. Based on these two lines of discussion, we conclude that the reliance on testimony as a source of knowledge is necessary to the development of a more large and comprehensive scientific understanding by science students.

  9. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes report on patient care and safety in undergraduate students: validating the modified APSQ-III questionnaire

    Ezequiel García Elorrio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La seguridad del paciente tiene por objetivo lograr una atención en salud libre de daño. La Organización Mundial de la Salud indica que este objetivo se logra a través de la comunicación, el análisis y la prevención de eventos adversos en los pacientes. La cultura organizacional ha sido identificada como uno de los principales factores para el éxito de las intervenciones para mejorar la seguridad del paciente. Un componente esencial de la cultura en seguridad es la actitud de los profesionales de la salud hacia el error médico. Las actitudes pueden mejorarse a través de una educación apropiada en las carreras biomédicas, pero la inclusión en los programas de Argentina es escasa. El cuestionario Actitudes para la Seguridad del Paciente mide conocimientos, creencias y actitudes sobre seguridad del paciente en estudiantes de medicina de una institución en Argentina y puede resultar una herramienta útil para ser utilizada en nuestro país. OBJETIVO Validar el cuestionario modificado de Actitudes para la Seguridad del Paciente III (APSQ III, por su sigla en inglés Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire III, para la medición de conocimientos, creencias y actitudes de los estudiantes de medicina del Instituto Universitario Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas. Describir el nivel de conocimientos, creencias y actitudes en seguridad del paciente de los estudiantes de medicina del referido instituto en los años 2012, 2015 y 2016. MÉTODOS Diseño: estudio descriptivo. Alcance: exploratorio. Ambiente: Instituto Universitario Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Población: estudiantes de medicina de cuarto y quinto año. Muestreo: se estimó un tamaño de la muestra de 100 participantes para poder obtener estimaciones significativas de acuerdo al α de Cronbach >0,6. RESULTADOS La fiabilidad (consistencia interna del instrumento, mediante α de

  10. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  11. Using the PEN-3 Model to Assess Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diabetes Type 2 among Mexican American and Mexican Native Men and Women in North Texas

    Melancon, Jim; Oomen-Early, Jody; del Rincon, Lydia M.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this mixed-methods study was two-fold: first, to assess diabetes knowledge, attitudes, disease management and self efficacy among a sample of Mexican American (MA) and Mexican-Native (MN) adults living in North Texas; and second, to determine factors which promote or deter diabetes prevention and management using…

  12. Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.

    Condit, Celeste M

    2010-01-01

    The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

  13. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  15. Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Horizon Content Knowledge

    Mosvold, Reidar; Fauskanger, Janne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present and discuss an example of how teachers' discussions of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) items elicited their beliefs about the knowledge needed to teach mathematics. One category of MKT is "horizon content knowledge," and this can be described as mathematical knowledge not directly deployed in…

  16. False Beliefs in Unreliable Knowledge Networks

    Ioannidis, Evangelos; Varsakelis, Nikos; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this work are: (1) to extend knowledge dynamics analysis in order to assess the influence of false beliefs and unreliable communication channels, (2) to investigate the impact of selection rule-policy for knowledge acquisition, (3) to investigate the impact of targeted link attacks ("breaks" or "infections") of certain "healthy" communication channels. We examine the knowledge dynamics analytically, as well as by simulations on both artificial and real organizational knowledge networks. The main findings are: (1) False beliefs have no significant influence on knowledge dynamics, while unreliable communication channels result in non-monotonic knowledge updates ("wild" knowledge fluctuations may appear) and in significant elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, false beliefs may emerge during knowledge evolution, due to the presence of unreliable communication channels, even if they were not present initially, (2) Changing the selection rule-policy, by raising the awareness of agents to avoid the selection of unreliable communication channels, results in monotonic knowledge upgrade and in faster knowledge attainment, (3) "Infecting" links is more harmful than "breaking" links, due to "wild" knowledge fluctuations and due to the elongation of knowledge attainment. Moreover, attacking even a "small" percentage of links (≤5%) with high knowledge transfer, may result in dramatic elongation of knowledge attainment (over 100%), as well as in delays of the onset of knowledge attainment. Hence, links of high knowledge transfer should be protected, because in Information Warfare and Disinformation, these links are the "best targets".

  17. Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Reactions to Stuttering

    Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…

  18. Investigation of Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes towards Studying

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…

  19. Age, religious beliefs, and sexual attitudes.

    Le Gall, Armelle; Mullet, Etienne; Rivière Shafighi, Sheila

    2002-08-01

    Age effects on sexual attitudes were examined using the Hendrick and Hendrick (1987a) Sexual Attitude Scale. The study was cross-sectional, including people from various age groups, from young adults to older adults. The religious beliefs variable, which covaries substantially both with age and sexual attitudes, was controlled. Three main questions guided the study: (a) Is the four-factor structure (Permissiveness, Instrumentality, Communion, and Sexual Practices) previously identified in a sample of young students able to accurately account for data gathered over a full range of adult ages, (b) are older adults much less permissive and less instrumentalist than young people, and (c) to what extent are believers less permissive and instrumentalist than young people when age is taken into account? Factor analyses showed that at least five correlated factors were needed to account for the data; the fourth factor, Sexual Practices, divided itself into two distinct factors: Pleasure and Responsibility. Older adults and believers were shown to be less permissive than young people and nonbelievers, and this result held regardless of the participants educational level. As regards to instrumentality, however, the pattern of differences was extremely complex.

  20. 护理专业大学生宗教信仰知识、态度和行为调查%Investigation on Knowledge,attitude and practice towards religious belief among undergraduate nursing students

    史崇清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the status quo of related knowledge,attitude and practice of religious belief among undergraduate nursing students and provide reference for education on religious belief.Methods A self-filled questionnaire on religious belief was used randomly among undergraduate nursing students in 4 medical universities in Wuhan.Results Most nursing students were inferior to the cognitive degree of related knowledge on belief religious,which was greatly related to the grade,nationality,parents’ religious belief and family residence factors.The notion of nursing students towards religious belief policy was nebulous.Most students could cognize the relationship between religion and science correctly.The university had minor effect on students’ religion view.Students contacted religious belief with various channels and the role of the network could not be underestimated.Undergraduate nursing students understood and pardoned their religious belief and other students’.Their religious belief was not the mainstream of current belief.The Buddhist belief of religion was in the first place.The majority of students went to religious activities not for the belief.Conclusions We should face the reality,examine rationally at this society and strengthen the social,school,family and individual guidance on religion together with related education coustruction.%目的 了解护理专业学生宗教信仰的知识、态度和行为现状,为护理专业大学生宗教信仰教育提供科学依据.方法 问卷调查武汉市4所本科院校护理专业大学生.结果 大部分护理专业学生对宗教信仰相关知识认知程度不高,且与年级、民族、父母信仰宗教与否和家庭居住地等因素有关.大学生对宗教的政策内涵认识模糊.多数学生对宗教与科学的关系认知正确.学校对学生宗教观的教育影响较弱,大学生接触宗教的渠道多样化,网络的作用不可低估.护理专业学生对宗教信仰包括

  1. Belief Importance in Expectancy-Value Models of Attitudes

    J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1998-01-01

    In this study, 312 respondents were asked to indicate their attitude toward smoking and their smoking behavior. Attitudes were assessed by a direct attitude measure (4 items) and a series of 15 belief statements about the possible consequences of smoking. Next, respondents were asked to select the 3

  2. Belief, motivational, and ideological correlates of human rights attitudes.

    Crowson, H Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K

    2008-06-01

    Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of human rights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on human rights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women.

  3. Effects of Educational Beliefs on Attitudes towards Using Computer Technologies

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2012-01-01

    This study, aiming to determine the relationship between pre-service teachers' beliefs about education and their attitudes towards utilizing computers and internet, is a descriptive study in scanning model. The sampling of the study consisted of 270 pre-service teachers. The potential relationship between the beliefs of pre-service teachers about…

  4. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  5. Children's knowledge and beliefs about medicines.

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2015-03-01

    Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p economic status, parents' education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p < .001). This study showed that children have misconception about medicines. The need for medicine education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education.

  6. Opinions on nuclear energy: Evaluations, beliefs, and attitudes.

    Meertens, R.W.; Stallen, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Used the expectancy-value model of attitudes (M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, 1975) to investigate the attitudes, evaluations, and beliefs concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy in 252 Dutch social and natural scientists. The model received empirical support. A factor analysis revealed 2 independen

  7. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  8. Beliefs into Practice: A Religious Inquiry into Teacher Knowledge

    Baurain, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    In the field of teacher knowledge, "beliefs" is a large term narrowly constructed. The beliefs theorized, researched, and discussed are beliefs about technique, methodology, curriculum, classroom management, professional development, and similarly. Spiritual and religious beliefs are for the most part omitted. This study argues that they should be…

  9. A comparative study of the quality of life, knowledge, attitude and belief about leprosy disease among leprosy patients and community members in Shantivan Leprosy Rehabilitation centre, Nere, Maharashtra, India

    Madhavi J Mankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy a chronic infectious affliction, is a communicable disease that posses a risk of permanent and progressive disability. The associated visible deformities and disabilities have contributed to the stigma and discrimination experienced by leprosy patients, even among those who have been cured. Aims and Objectives: 1 To assess the knowledge, attitude and belief about leprosy in leprosy patients compared with community members. 2 To find the perceived stigma among leprosy patients. 3. To evaluate the quality of life in leprosy patients as compared to community members using WHO Quality of Life assessment questionaire (WHOQOL- BREF. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Leprosy Rehabilitation Centre, Shantivan, Nere in Panvel Taluka, district Raigad from October - December 2009. A pre-designed and pre-structured questionaire was used to evaluate knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma among leprosy patients and community members. WHO Quality of life questionaire (WHOQOL-BREF was used to assess quality of life in leprosy patients and controls. Data analysis was done with the help of SPSS package. Result: Among the cases and control, 43.13% of cases were aware that leprosy is an infectious disease compared to 20.69% of control. 68.62% of cases had knowledge of hypopigmented patches being a symptom of leprosy compared to the 25.86% in control. There was overall high level of awareness about disease, symptoms, transmission and curability in leprosy patients as compared to control. Among control group, 43.10% of population said that they would not like food to be served by leprosy patients as compared to 13.73% in study group. It was seen that the discrimination was much higher in female leprosy patients as compared to male leprosy patients. The mean quality of life scores for cases was significantly lower than those for control group in physical and psychological domain but not in the social relationship and

  10. Attitude Formation of Benefits Satisfaction: Knowledge and Fit of Benefits

    Gery Markova, Foard Jones

    2011-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action [6], we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...

  11. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality

    Pérez i Testor, Carles; Behar Algranti, Júlia; Davins, M.; Conde Sala, Josep Lluís; Castillo, J.A.; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, E; Segarra, S

    2010-01-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers" and other professionals" attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy b...

  12. Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy

    Nidhi Jaswal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.

  13. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  14. Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: Scale Construction and Psychometrics

    Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.

    2006-01-01

    The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…

  15. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDIES OF BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TO SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Jacqueline Ortelan Maia BOTASSINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to the theme “Linguistics Beliefs and Attitudes” have shown paths to Sociolinguistics to understand issues that may be related to certain linguistic attitudes manifested by a group or by a speaking community. In the whole society, the differences of “power” existent among distinct social groups may be realized through the linguistic variation and through attitudes towards these variations. Normally, the standards of language use of the dominant group are referred to as necessary models to social mobility, however the use of dialects or low profile accent reduces the opportunities of being successful. Researches on linguistic beliefs and attitudes may broaden the discussion about the factors of linguistic changes, about the influence on a second language learning process, about issues of prestige or discredit – which lead to prejudice not only regarding the language the other speaks, but also regarding these speakers community. Thus, this work approaches important items to understand the theme: a concepts of belief and of attitude; b attitudes components, formation/development and modification; c concepts like stigma, prejudice, linguistic prestige/status, linguistic identity, linguistic loyalty and disloyalty.

  17. Combining Knowledge and Beliefs in High School Climate Science Instruction

    Davis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we

  18. The relationship between media exposure and antifat attitudes: the role of dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

    Lin, Linda; Reid, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between media exposure, antifat attitudes, and body dissatisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of dysfunctional appearance beliefs. A sample of 112 women completed surveys measuring media exposure, antifat attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. It was found that time spent reading fashion magazines was positively correlated with antifat attitudes and that this relationship was mediated by dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. Measures of antifat attitudes and body dissatisfaction were both found to be correlated with endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about appearance and body mass index. Results suggest that time spent reading fashion magazines may be related to antifat attitudes through dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

  19. Aboriginal nurses' beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality in Taiwan.

    Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The potential of risky sexual behaviors and adolescent unplanned pregnancy has become a primary issue in the health care system for aborigines in eastern Taiwan. Using aboriginal nurses to provide information on sexual behaviors may have potential in promoting healthy sexual practices among aborigines. The purposes of this study were to explore Taiwanese aboriginal nurses beliefs. attitudes, and values about sexuality. Several health centers in eastern Taiwan were randomly selected to recruit participants in the year 2000. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 206 female nurses (mean age = 28.4, SD = 7.4) who worked in various clinical units. The results revealed that aboriginal nurses hold moderately positive beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality. The conflict between aboriginal nurses' belief and value systems about sexuality was clear. A conflict between aboriginal nurses' value systems and patients behaviors also existed. Strategies to help aboriginal nurses to be more aware of their beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality should be an essential issue in the practice and education of nurses.

  20. Tobacco access to youth: beliefs and attitudes of retailers.

    Dovell, R A; Mowat, D L; Dorland, J; Lam, M

    1998-01-01

    Results of a telephone survey provide insights into the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of tobacco merchants from two local health units. More than 90% of the retailers said they should not be able to sell cigarettes to minors. They are aware of laws prohibiting such sales but are sceptical about the impact on young people. The majority report being motivated to help protect the health of youth, however, they advise that legislation provides the main reason for not selling cigarettes to minors. Other responses and behaviours of the merchants help provide a profile of an important group that is being asked to stop selling tobacco to young people. The authors classify the retailers into three groups according to the potential influence on their behaviour of messages about health and threats of enforcement. One of the health units had implemented a local intervention, therefore we also compare responses between the two health units. This type of information can be used when selecting strategies to strengthen health policies. Such policies and strategies should include input and feedback from retailers of tobacco.

  1. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  2. Temple or Prison: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes Toward the Body.

    Jacobson, Heather L; Hall, M Elizabeth Lewis; Anderson, Tamara L; Willingham, Michele M

    2016-12-01

    Most research on religion and the body has focused on the relationship between broad dimensions of religion, such as religious commitment or religious orientation, and body image or eating behaviors. The present study extends existing research by examining two specific religiously influenced beliefs about the body within a Protestant Christian sample, radical dualism and sanctification, and by focusing on a wider range of attitudes toward the body. The view of radical dualism sees the body as corrupt and separate from oneself, while the view of sanctification sees the body as holy, worthy of respect, and integral to one's being. This study examined how both radically dualistic and sanctified views of the body relate to attitudes people hold about their bodies including body appreciation and two components of body objectification: self-surveillance and body shame. To date, none of these attitudes have been examined in relation to specific, nuanced religious beliefs about the body. Participants were 243 adults from a variety of Protestant denominations. Using an online survey system and self-report measures, participants indicated the degree to which they hold radically dualistic and sanctified views about their bodies as well as their attitudes toward their bodies. Radical dualism was found to be negatively related to body appreciation and positively related to body shame. Sanctification was found to predict body appreciation. Body shame mediated the relationship between religious beliefs about the body and self-surveillance. This study contributes to a greater understanding of how religiously based beliefs about the body are related to attitudes about the body.

  3. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  4. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    Hannah Keppler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults′ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years. The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL. A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency pure tone audiometry (PTA, transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  5. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  6. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment and therapeutic skills, and (d) understanding the barriers to breastfeeding: how health-care providers can make a difference. Data analysis suggests inconsistencies between the health-care provider’s perceived support and behaviors, lack of knowledge, and significant lack of skill in the assessment and management of breastfeeding couples. PMID:26957893

  7. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  8. The development of a questionnaire to assess sleep-related practices, beliefs, and attitudes.

    Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Patel, Nirav P

    2014-03-04

    There are no established questionnaires that evaluate habitual sleep practices in the context of beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This study describes an effort to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems; sleep hygiene; social and environmental determinants of sleep; beliefs and attitudes about sleep as it relates to health, safety, and functioning; and knowledge about sleep. A total of 124 participants completed the final questionnaire. Overall, the questionnaire and subscales demonstrated moderate internal consistency, and concurrent and divergent validity were demonstrated by comparing various subscales to existing measures. Future studies may utilize the descriptive data to determine the role of behavioral, social, and environmental determinants of healthy sleep.

  9. Teacher Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practice of Self-Regulated Learning

    Spruce, Robin; Bol, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined teacher beliefs, knowledge, and classroom practice of self-regulated learning for ten elementary and middle school teachers. Using Zimmerman's SRL model to frame our method and results, we administered questionnaires, observed classrooms and conducted interviews with these teachers. Teachers had positive beliefs about the role…

  10. Teachers' Knowledge Development and Change: Untangling Beliefs and Practices

    Theriot, Shirley; Tice, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    Through a case-study approach, the authors focus on understanding the complexity of teachers' knowledge development, particularly as it pertains to teachers' beliefs about literacy development and their teaching practices in literacy. Participants of the study are middle-school teachers who shared their beliefs and practices through (1) a…

  11. Teacher Thinking, Beliefs, and Knowledge in Higher Education: An Introduction.

    Hativa, Nira

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of this issue that focuses on teacher thinking, beliefs, and knowledge in higher education. Topics include teaching goals; self-perception of teachers as teachers; thinking and beliefs that are detrimental to good teaching; and changing teachers' conceptions of teaching in order to improve instruction and promote student…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  13. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  14. Beliefs about Knowledge, Knowing, and Learning: Differences across Knowledge Types in Physics

    Muis, Krista R.; Gierus, Bogusia

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined whether students' epistemic and learning beliefs varied across different knowledge types in physics. On the basis of various beliefs frameworks, the authors predicted that individuals' beliefs would vary within a domain across the same content when presented conceptually versus procedurally. Participants were 81 high…

  15. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  16. Development and Validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale.

    Kanamori, Yasuko; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H D; Pegors, Teresa K; Daniel, Todd; Hulgus, Joseph

    2016-08-29

    In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public's views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items. The initial factor analysis with 295 participants revealed three factors across 33 items-16 items on interpersonal comfort, 11 on sex/gender beliefs, and 6 on human value. The internal consistency of each factor was high-α = .97 for Factor 1, α = .95 for Factor 2, and α = .94 for Factor 3. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the second phase with an independent sample consisting of 238 participants. The Attitudes Toward Transgender Individual Scale and the Genderism and Transphobia Scale were also included to test for convergent validity, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were utilized to test discriminant validity. Both of the data collection phases employed MTurk, a form of online sampling with increased diversity compared to college student samples and more generalizability to the general U.S.

  17. Attitude toward Christianity and paranormal belief among 13- to 16-yr.-old students.

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy

    2006-08-01

    A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal.

  18. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  19. The Multidimensionality of Adolescents' Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Peers in School

    Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…

  20. Does Inquiry Based Learning Affect Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics?

    McGregor, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Ill-structured tasks presented in an inquiry learning environment have the potential to affect students' beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. This empirical research followed a Design Experiment approach to explore how aspects of using ill-structured tasks may have affected students' beliefs and attitudes. Results showed this task type and…

  1. Attitudes and Beliefs of Prekindergarten Teachers toward Teaching Science to Young Children

    Pendergast, Evelaine; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored infield prekindergarten teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward teaching science to young children. In addition, prekindergarten teachers' previous and future interests in science-related professional development were assessed. Data were collected through a self-report measure, the preschool teacher attitudes and beliefs toward…

  2. The Effect of Candidate Teachers' Educational and Epistemological Beliefs on Professional Attitudes

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    While teacher's cognitive skills are described with epistemological beliefs, the attitudes towards their profession, teaching styles and disciplinary actions are mainly associated with their educational beliefs. This study aiming to determine the effect of relation between candidate teachers' educational and epistemological beliefs on their…

  3. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  4. Measuring beliefs in centimeters: private knowledge biases preschoolers' and adults' representation of others' beliefs.

    Sommerville, Jessica A; Bernstein, Daniel M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children's (N = 63), 5-year-old children's (N = 60), and adults' (N = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a protagonist's false belief about the object's location. At all ages, participants' knowledge of the object's actual location biased their search estimates, independent of the attentional or memory demands of the task. Children's degree of bias correlated with their performance on a classic change-of-location false belief task, controlling for age. This task is a novel tool for providing a quantitative measurement of the degree to which self-knowledge can bias estimates of others' beliefs.

  5. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  6. [Dengue prevention and control: a review of studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices].

    Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Tomassini, Hugo Coelho Barbosa; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to dengue control programs through a review of recent studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning dengue and dengue prevention. The results show that adequate knowledge of dengue and prevention methods are found in close association with high rates of domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti. This suggests that traditional education strategies, although efficient in transmitting information, have failed to change population behavior. Qualitative studies reveal two important issues that appear to explain these attitudes: representations of dengue and risks associated with mosquitoes and difficulties in avoiding infestation of household water recipients due to sanitation problems in communities.

  7. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby

    2004-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations.

  8. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions.

  9. Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2009-02-01

    How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese

    Chrishantha Abeysena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.

  11. Effect of knowledge, attitude, belief, and practice model on self-care skills among elder patients with diabetic foot%知信行模式在老年糖尿病足患者中的应用

    甘秋嫦; 莫文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of knowledge , attitude, belief, and practice ( KABP ) model on self-care skills among elder patients with diabetic foot .Methods Seventy-seven elder patients were divided into the intervention group ( n=38 ) and control group ( n=39 ) .The KABP model was used in the intervention group , and the traditional teaching method was used in the control group .The patients were investigated with diabetic foot self-carequestionnaire and diabetic footself-efficacyscale ( DSES ) when they admitted into the hospital and after the intervention .Results The total score of self-care and DSES between the groups had no significant difference ( P >0.05 ).After 3months intervention, the self-care score of the intervention group and the control group were (67.63 ±15.23) and (50.65 ±21.03).The DSES score of the intervention group and the control group were (121.06 ±26.70) and (104.15 ±21.13).There were significant differences between groups (t =18.298,18.016, respectively;P <0.01).The self-care and DSES score compared before and after the intervention had significant differences ( P <0.01).Conclusions Health education using the KAP model can efficiently enhance their self-care skills and diabetic foot self-efficacy.%目的:探讨知信行模式对老年糖尿病足患者自我护理行为干预的效果。方法将77例老年0~1级糖尿病足患者按区组随机化分组方法随机分为干预组38例和对照组39例,应用知信行模式对干预组患者进行足部自我护理行为干预,对照组给予常规的糖尿病足教育。应用糖尿病足自我护理行为问卷、糖尿病足自我效能量表( DSES)于入院时、干预结束后对两组患者的足部自我护理行为和自我效能进行评估。结果干预前两组患者糖尿病足自我护理行为总分及DSES总分比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);3个月后,糖尿病足自我护理行为总分:干预组为(67.63±15.23

  12. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs, Knowledge, and Practices Related to Classroom Management

    Drang, Debra Michal

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preschool teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and practices related to classroom management. The rationale for researching this topic is based on the role of teachers in the special education referral process, the poor success rate for inclusion for children with disabilities who demonstrate problematic classroom behaviors, and the…

  13. Counselor Beliefs and Perceived Knowledge Regarding Clients with Learning Disabilities

    Bell, Tamekia R.

    2012-01-01

    Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…

  14. Nova Scotia Teachers' ADHD Knowledge, Beliefs, and Classroom Management Practices

    Blotnicky-Gallant, Pamela; Martin, Cheron; McGonnell, Melissa; Corkum, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on children's social, emotional, and academic performance in school, and as such, teachers are in a good position to provide evidence-based interventions to help ensure optimal adjustment of their students. The current study examined teachers' knowledge and beliefs about…

  15. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Jamaican Knowledge of Diabetes and Health Beliefs

    Melody L. Hartzler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that over 382 million people worldwide were affected by diabetes in 2013. The Caribbean region consistently is above the global average in regard to diabetes prevalence. Specifically, in Jamaica, researchers have found that the management of diabetes is not consistent with international guidelines, and in Caribbean culture, there are additional health beliefs that may need to be addressed. The purpose of this study is to (1 evaluate patient diabetes-related knowledge and health beliefs and (2 determine the association between diabetes-related knowledge and health beliefs in rural Jamaica. Methods: Rural Jamaican patients with diabetes (N=48, mean age = 55.16±15.08 were asked to complete questionnaires for cross-sectional examination of knowledge and health beliefs during a medical mission trip to the parish of St. Elizabeth in Jamaica. Participants were asked to verbally complete the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes Scale (SKILLD, 10 items and Health Belief Model-11 (HBM-11, 11 items, as well as a demographic instrument. Analyses were performed in SPSS v. 20.0. Descriptive statistics were performed for all items. Spearman or Pearson correlations, as appropriate, were utilized to assess associations. Differences in HBM subscales by demographic characteristics were assessed using paired t-tests. Results: Participants had poor knowledge of diabetes, particularly regarding signs and symptoms of hyper/hypoglycemia, importance of foot and eye exams, fasting blood glucose levels, and long-term diabetes complications. Knowledge deficits were associated with educational attainment, as many participants had only completed primary school. Most participants indicated they were ready to take action regarding their health, but they perceived there were significant barriers to doing so. Also, older adults were more likely to believe that they could control their diabetes

  17. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  18. Risk Belief and Attitude Formation From Translated Scientific Messages About PFOA, an Environmental Risk Associated With Breast Cancer.

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Russell, Jessica; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Atkin, Charles K; Keating, David

    2017-03-01

    Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA. Participants (N = 1,389) came from the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women. Findings indicated that ability, in the form of translated messages, predicted systematic processing, operationalized as knowledge gain, which was negatively associated with formation of risk beliefs that led to negative attitudes toward PFOA. Heuristic processing cues, operationalized as perceived message quality and source credibility, were positively associated with risk beliefs, which predicted negative attitudes about PFOA. Overall, more knowledge and lower literacy messages led to lower perceived risk, while greater involvement and ratings of heuristic cues led to greater risk perceptions. This is an example of a research, translation, and dissemination team effort in which biologists created knowledge, communication scholars translated and tested messages, and advocates were participants and those who disseminated messages.

  19. Routine pelvic examinations: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of women's attitudes and beliefs after new guidelines.

    Kling, Juliana M; Vegunta, Suneela; Al-Badri, Mina; Faubion, Stephanie S; Fields, Heather E; Shah, Amit A; Wallace, Mark R; Ruddy, Barbara E; Bryan, Michael J; Temkit, M'hamed; MacLaughlin, Kathy L

    2017-01-01

    Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions. Nonpregnant women age≥21years presenting to outpatient clinics at Mayo Clinic in Arizona or Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, received the survey. After being asked about pelvic examination practices and beliefs, participants were informed of the ACP guideline, to determine effect on attitudes and beliefs. Demographic characteristics and pertinent medical history questions were collected from participants. In total, 671 women who were predominantly white, married, and educated completed surveys. Participants described pelvic examinations as reassuring, and a majority believed the examinations were useful in detecting ovarian cancer (74.6%), necessary for screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (71.0%), or necessary before initiating contraception (67.0%). After reading the 2014 ACP guideline, significantly fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations (P<0.001). Despite evidence to the contrary, women believed pelvic examinations were necessary for STI screening, contraception initiation, and ovarian cancer detection. After education on the ACP screening guideline, fewer women planned to continue yearly pelvic examinations.

  20. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  1. Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying

    Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

  2. Attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    Because professional development (PD) is about persuasion and influence, it makes sense to use an influence framework when trying to determine the reasons current university-level PD has been fairly ineffective in changing teacher practice to date. This research used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to determine if university natural science professors' attitudes and beliefs toward the discipline of education (DE), a construct not recognized in the current literature, were positive or negative. The study also looked to discover some of the major influences on the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE. A method bricolage was used to analyze data from 10 participants in two separate phases in an attempt to establish a replicable Discourse Analysis methodology for analyzing attitudes and beliefs, and to investigate the major influences on the formation of these attitudes and beliefs. The findings indicate that in general the participants' had positive beliefs in and about DE with negative attitudes toward DE and that the majority of the participants' views of teaching were formed by a number of significant influences. However, the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE are complicated by several issues, the most prominent being that this cohort's ideas about DE are based upon their PD experiences, which were generally delivered by centers for teaching excellence (CTEs) or equivalent entities. This research needs to be extended to determine the generalizability of these findings, as well as to provide evidence-based research to support the re-thinking of how PD is delivered at the university level.

  3. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  4. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  5. Physician-Assisted Dying: Are Education and Religious Beliefs Related to Nursing Students' Attitudes?

    Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…

  6. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  7. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding.

  8. Mother’s Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  9. From Logic Programming Semantics to the Consistency of Syntactical Treatments of Knowledge and Belief

    Bolander, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics......This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger......, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us...

  10. Romanian knowledge and attitudes regarding dietary fibers

    Monica TARCEA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, the scientists recognize the health benefits of food fibers in the menu and also plant food sources are at high interest both for general population and food companies. The food companies are responsible for a clear nutrition labelling that will assist consumers to make informed and healthy choices and health providers has to inform the population about the benefits of fibers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Romanian knowledge and attitudes regarding dietary fibers from food products. Materials and methods: We made a qualitative survey based on a questionnaire applied in 2015, over a period of 6 months, over 670 Romanian consumers. It was focused on testing the attitudes and knowledge towards ingestion of foods rich in fibers. For all data analysis we used the software SPSS, from IBM Inc. Results and Discussions: Our results showed that the knowledge about dietary fibers and also the ingestion of food products rich in fibers were low, and most of the subjects didn’t have any interest to read the nutritional information from food labels related to fibers. The female participants ate more whole grains and fruits than males and pay more attention to food labelling, the Romanian people prefer to stay and eat home than at restaurants especially in rural areas, and the knowledge about fibers benefits was significantly related to education and urban location. Conclusion: We underline the needs for more efficient community interventions and proper information about the importance of dietary fibers for our health and also to improve and disseminate our nutritional standards and diet recommendation among population.

  11. Connections between experience, beliefs, scientific knowledge, and self-evaluated expertise among investigators of child sexual abuse in Finland.

    Finnilä-Tuohimaa, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Sainio, Mikael; Niemi, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinicians investigating child sexual abuse (CSA) rely more on scientific knowledge or on clinical experience when evaluating their own expertise. Another goal was to check what kind of pre-trial beliefs the clinicians had. The connections between these different factors were investigated. A questionnaire covering items concerning demographic data, experience, knowledge about CSA, self-evaluated expertise and beliefs about CSA was given to 126 social workers, 60 child psychiatrists and 134 psychologists. The results showed that the clinicians relied more on their clinical experience than on scientific knowledge when evaluating their expertise as investigators of CSA. Furthermore, social workers possessed stronger attitudes in favor of children than the other groups, while child psychiatrists had more negative attitudes towards the criminal justice system. Male participants had less strong beliefs than did the female participants. The findings indicate that the education of CSA investigators should focus more on theoretical knowledge and decision-making processes as well as the role of pre-trial beliefs.

  12. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  13. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  14. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.

  15. The Perceptions of Teachers Regarding Their Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Brain-Based Learning Strategies

    Ridley, Janice Rebecca Becky

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to assess K-12 teachers' perceptions of knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward brain-based learning strategies, how their knowledge relates to their beliefs and practices, and how their beliefs relate to their classroom practices. This research also investigated relationships between teachers' gender, years…

  16. Nurses' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills regarding evidence-based practice.

    Sherriff, Karen L; Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    The study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational programme on attitudes and perceptions of knowledge and skills, of registered nurses, towards EBP. The study was conducted using a quasiexperimental interrupted time series design. Participants were clinical nurses in educational and leadership roles within a Health Service District in south-east Queensland. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three points. Nurses' belief in the value of EBP for practice was high prior to the programme and did not change subsequently. There was an improvement following the intervention in nurses' attitudes to organizational support for EBP and their perceptions of their knowledge and skills in locating and evaluating research reports. Providing educational courses in a clinical setting is useful in improving clinicians' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills related to EBP.

  17. Fuzzy knowledge base construction through belief networks based on Lukasiewicz logic

    Lara-Rosano, Felipe

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure is proposed to build a fuzzy knowledge base founded on fuzzy belief networks and Lukasiewicz logic. Fuzzy procedures are developed to do the following: to assess the belief values of a consequent, in terms of the belief values of its logical antecedents and the belief value of the corresponding logical function; and to update belief values when new evidence is available.

  18. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  19. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  20. Neonatal nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings toward the care and management of fetal-infants.

    Richey, D A

    1988-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care nurses must handle on a regular basis the complex dilemmas that accompany the rapid advances in knowledge and technology that have enabled the survival of fetal-infants. Little literature addresses the attitudes and feelings of neonatal nurses regarding the moral, ethical, legal, economic, and social issues surrounding fetal-infants. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings held by neonatal nurses towards these issues as they relate to the care and management of fetal-infants. The research design of this study was a nonexperimental approach. The sample was drawn from a roster of subscribers to a neonatal nursing journal. The tool that was used in this study is an attitudinal assessment questionnaire developed by the investigator. Data obtained were described and synthesized by use of measures of central tendency, variability, frequency, and the chi square statistic. Comments to the questionnaire almost overwhelmingly referred to the participants' difficulty in responding as the issues were felt to be dependent on the particular fetal-infant, family, and circumstances involved. Respondents strongly supported the need for situational ethics in cases involving fetal-infants.

  1. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing atti- tude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were asse...

  2. Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or…

  3. Attitudes and beliefs of patients with chronic depression toward antidepressants and depression

    Jacob SA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Anne Jacob,1 Ab Fatah Ab Rahman,2 Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali3 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kuala Terengganu, 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia Background: Many patients have erroneous views with regard to depression and its management, and it was noted that these attitudes and beliefs significantly affected their adherence rates.Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of patients with depression toward depression and antidepressants. A secondary aim was to assess the influence of ethnicity on patients’ attitudes and beliefs.Patients and methods: The study involved patients with chronic depression being followed up at an outpatient clinic at a government-run hospital in Malaysia. Patients’ attitudes and beliefs were assessed using the Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire.Results: A total of 104 patients of Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups met the selection criteria. Chinese patients had significantly negative attitudes and beliefs toward depression and antidepressants compared to Malays and Indians (b=-8.96, t103=-3.22; P<0.05. Component analysis revealed that 59% of patients believed that antidepressants can cause a person to have less control over their thoughts and feelings, while 67% believed that antidepressants could alter one’s personality; 60% believed it was okay to take fewer tablets on days when they felt better, while 66% believed that antidepressants helped solve their emotional problems and helped them worry less.Conclusion: Patients had an overall positive view as to the benefits of antidepressants, but the majority had incorrect views as to the acceptable dosing of antidepressants and had concerns about the safety of the medication. Assessing patients’ attitudes and beliefs, as well as the

  4. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Relatives of Patients Referred to the Emergency Department

    Mahboob Pouraghaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organ donation is one of the surviving procedures which can increase the life expectancy of end-stage patients. Inappropriate beliefs and attitude of individuals to organ donation, their poor knowledge, and the socio-economic level are one of the most important barriers for organ donation. Therefore, here knowledge and attitude levels among relatives of trauma patients regarding organ donation were evaluated. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on relatives of trauma patients referred to the emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, through 2013 to 2014. The questionnaire included parts of demographic data and socio-economic situations as well as status of knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. A score between 0-7 was belonged to each person based on his/her level of knowledge. Attitude level had a score between 0-12. Chi- square, Fisher, and Mann–Whitney U test were performed to assess the relation between demographic variables and the level of knowledge and attitude. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: 79 persons (57.1% male with the mean age of 31.3±11.3 years were evaluated. 57 (73.1% of subjects agreed with organ transplant. The main causes of disagreement among relatives regarding organ donation were dissatisfaction of the donor's relatives (25% and religious issues (15%. 49 (62.02% studied people had inappropriate attitude and 27 (34.2% ones had good knowledge. male gender (OR=5.87; 95%CI: 3.32-8.42; p=0.001 and self-employed job (OR=7.78; 95%CI: 4.64-10.92; p=0.001 are independent factors associated with poor knowledge about organ donation. Self-employed job (OR=3.86; 95%CI: 1.41-6.11; p=0.009 and poor knowledge (OR=15.3; 95%CI: 9.03-21.57; p<0.001 were related to inappropriate attitude toward organ donation. Conclusion: The present study showed that 73.1% of participants agreed with organ donation. The major causes of disagreements were dissatisfaction of other relatives

  5. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  6. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  7. Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging

    Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

  8. Menstrual socialization, beliefs, and attitudes concerning menstruation in rural and urban Mexican women.

    Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.

  9. Observation on Impact of Knowledge, Attitude, Belief and Practice (KABP) Intervention on Reproductive Knowledge and Behavior of Artificial Abortion Adolescents%知信行干预对人工流产青少年生殖知识及行为的影响观察

    林淑红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of knowledge, attitude, belief and practice (KABP) intervention on the awareness of female reproductive knowledge and behavior in artificial abortion adolescents under 20 years old. Methods One hundred and fifty- eight female adolescents underwent artificial abortion in Outpatient Department of Beijing Haidian Hospital from November 2011 to April 2012 were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. Control group was given conventional care, while treatment group received KABP intervention care. Questionnaires about sexual and reproductive health knowledge designed by medical professionals were used in the survey. Before and after the nursing care, the awareness of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge, behavior and the score of psychological anxiety were compared between the two groups. Results Among the 158 female adolescents surveyed, the number of sexual debut increased with the age increased, and the number of first pregnancy mainly focused on the age group of 16~ years. After KABP intervention, the awareness rate of contraceptive knowledge and contraception rate in the patients were 91.46% and 85.37% respectively, which were significantly higher than those of control group (68.42% and 85.37%), (P0.05). After KABP intervention, the scores of psychological anxiety on one day before surgery, one week after surgery and one month after surgery in intervention group were all significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions KABP intervention is conducive to greatly improving the awareness of female reproductive knowledge and behavior in artificial abortion adolescents. Medical staff, schools, and families should give regular KABP education so as to reduce the harmfulness for the female adolescents.%目的 探讨知信行干预对20岁以下青少年人工流产女性生殖知识掌握程度及行为情况的影响. 方法 将2011年11月- 2012年4月在北京市

  10. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers.

  12. An Investigation into Prospective Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Laboratory Course and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Laboratory Use

    Aka, Elvan Ince

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify the attitudes towards the laboratory course and self-efficacy beliefs in the laboratory use of prospective teachers who are attending Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Primary Education Science Teaching program, and to investigate the relationship between the attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs.…

  13. Role of ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students in providing care for HIV/AIDS patients

    Saad Ahmed Khan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Dental students’ ethical beliefs about HIV/AIDS were not consistent with the ethical principles as stated in the code of ethics and they held negative attitudes towards PLWHAs. Ethical beliefs were found to be a determinant that may influence future attitudes of these students towards individuals with HIV/AIDS when providing care.

  14. A Naturalistic Inquiry into the Attitudes toward Mathematics and Mathematics Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Middle School Students

    Stramel, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much quantitative research done in the area of attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs, this study sought hear the voices of the middle school child. Therefore, this qualitative study investigated the attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students in one middle school in western…

  15. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  16. The attitudes and beliefs of Pakistani medical practitioners about depression: a cross-sectional study in Lahore using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)

    Haddad, M.; Waqas, A.; Qayyum, W.; M Shams; Malik, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan.\\ud \\ud METHODS:...

  17. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Lucero Soto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Results: Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5. Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001 and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001. Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5. Conclusions: High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural Gujarat, India.

    Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat.

  19. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  20. Teaching Financial Literacy in K-12 Schools: A Survey of Teacher Beliefs and Knowledge

    Otter, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn teacher attitudes and beliefs about teaching personal finance, as well as teacher understanding of a few core personal finance concepts. The population consisted of 1,120 classroom teachers from two public school districts in two states. The research questions were: (a) What are teacher attitudes and beliefs…

  1. Specialist physicians' knowledge and beliefs about telemedicine: a comparison of users and nonusers of the technology.

    Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Brega, Angela G; Devore, Patricia A; Mueller, Keith; Paulich, Marsha J; Floersch, Natasha R; Goodrich, Glenn K; Talkington, Sylvia G; Bontrager, Jeff; Grigsby, Bill; Hrincevich, Carol; Neal, Susannah; Loker, Jeff L; Araya, Tesfa M; Bennett, Rachael E; Krohn, Neil; Grigsby, Jim

    2007-10-01

    Telemedicine as a technology has been available for nearly 50 years, but its diffusion has been slower than many had anticipated. Even efforts to reimburse providers for interactive video (IAV) telemedicine services have had a limited effect on rates of participation. The resulting low volume of services provided (and consequent paucity of research subjects) makes the phenomenon difficult to study. This paper, part of a larger study that also explores telemedicine utilization from the perspectives of referring primary care physicians and telemedicine system administrators, reports the results of a survey of specialist and subspecialist physicians who are users and nonusers of telemedicine. The survey examined self-assessed knowledge and beliefs about telemedicine among users and nonusers, examining also the demographic characteristics of both groups. Statistically significant differences were found in attitudes toward telemedicine between users and nonusers, but in many respects the views of the two groups were rather similar. Physicians who used telemedicine were aware of the limitations of the technology, but also recognized its potential as a means of providing consultation. Demographic differences did not explain the differences in the knowledge and beliefs of user and nonuser consultant physicians, although some of the differences may be explained by other aspects of the professional environment.

  2. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    . Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views...

  3. Study of Youths’ Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude towards Consanguineous Marriages

    M Hasanzadeh-Nazarabadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.

  4. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  5. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  6. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  7. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Mammography in a Multiethnic Population in Israel

    Baron-Epel, Orna

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights beliefs, attitudes, and barriers that are associated with mammography use in four distinct cultural and ethnic groups in Israel: veteran, ultra-orthodox, and immigrant Jewish and Arab women. A random telephone survey of 1,550 women was performed. Information from claims records concerning mammography use was obtained for…

  8. Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...

  9. An Investigation of the Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values of Elementary School Teachers toward Race and Schooling

    Shay, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which elementary teachers reported their receptivity to cultural responsiveness and race-related topics in teaching and learning. Elementary teachers in a suburban school district in a Rocky Mountain state were surveyed to learn about their attitudes, beliefs, and values regarding race and…

  10. Measuring the Impact of a Supplemental Civic Education Program on Students' Civic Attitude and Efficacy Beliefs

    Piñgul, Ferdinand S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of Project Citizen Philippines, an extra-classroom civic education program, on its 3rd and 4th year high school participants' civic attitude and efficacy beliefs. Three hundred forty three participants and 107 non-participants from various public high schools in the Philippines' National Capital Region were compared…

  11. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  13. Preservice Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Attitudes toward Teaching Profession

    Elaldi, Senel; Yerliyurt, Nazli Sila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate preservice preschool teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward the teaching profession. The population of the present study consisted of 855 (Female = 729) preservice preschool teachers studying at the Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, in the fall semester of the 2015-2016 academic…

  14. Adolescents' Affective Engagement with Theatre: Surveying Middle School Students' Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

    Omasta, Matt

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores how viewing a single Theatre for Young Audiences production might affect the attitudes, values, and/or beliefs of adolescent spectators. Data is drawn from a mixed-methods case study performed with middle school students who viewed a professional performance for young people, and is considered through the lens of cognitive…

  15. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  16. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    de Graaf, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  17. Beliefs and Attitudes of Secondary Agriculture Teachers about Global Agriculture Issues

    Hurst, Sara D.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harder, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of secondary agriculture teachers regarding global agricultural issues. A randomized national sample of 417 teachers were surveyed using a modified version of the International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach, Boyd, Lindner, Dick, Arispe, & Haba,…

  18. Professional Socialization in Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs: Attitudes and Beliefs of Faculty Members and Recent Graduates

    Buettner, Kevin Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand professional socialization in nurse anesthesia educational programs through an exploration of the attitudes and beliefs of faculty members and recent graduates. Participants for this cross-sectional, quasi-experimental online study included a convenience sample of 178 nurse anesthesia faculty…

  19. Assessing the Attitudes and Beliefs of Preservice Middle School Science Teachers toward Biologically Diverse Animals

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between United States (US) preservice middle school science teacher characteristics, their attitude toward a specific animal and their belief concerning the likelihood of incorporating information about that specific animal into their future science classroom. The study participants…

  20. Beliefs and Attitudes of Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India towards Children Who Stutter

    Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitude about Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Music: An Intervention Study

    An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article presents exploratory research investigating the integration of music and a mathematics lesson as an intervention to promote preservice teachers' attitude and confidence and to extend their beliefs toward teaching mathematics integrated with music. Thirty students were randomly selected from 64 preservice teachers in a southern…

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs of Marriage and Family Therapists regarding Psychotropic Drugs and Therapy

    Springer, Paul R.; Harris, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical members of AAMFT were solicited by means of a randomized multi-staged clustering technique to identify their attitudes and beliefs regarding psychotropic drugs. All participants were blind to the overall purpose of the study (n = 322) and were directed to read a clinical vignette and then identify what course of action they would take…

  3. Adoption of Mobile Devices in Teaching: Changes in Teacher Beliefs, Attitudes and Anxiety

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Beliefs, attitudes and anxiety levels of schoolteachers are important factors influencing the acceptance, adoption and integration of mobile devices in teaching. To understand how to sustain device use, we need to understand what influences teachers and how such factors can change. We adopted a quasi-experimental design using pre- and…

  4. Relationship between Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Their Attitudes towards Students' Beliefs and Motivation

    Salehi, Hadi; Taghavi, Elham; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been done in the developed countries due to the importance of job satisfaction; however, only a limited number of studies have been conducted on teachers' job satisfaction in Iran. This study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction and their attitudes towards students' beliefs and…

  5. The Adaptation of Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales: Case from Turkish Perspective

    Hurioglu, Lili; Tümkaya, Songül

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on adapting the scales known as "Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales" ("ABAS") into Turkish version. The general aim of the study is to propound the Turkish version of the ABAS and to see if the scale functions in a similar fashion in Turkey in terms of its psychometric properties. The scales were…

  6. Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs.

  7. English Language Learners' Epistemic Beliefs about Vocabulary Knowledge

    Ziegler, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of work that examines the epistemic beliefs of learners and the role those beliefs play in the development of their critical thinking and other cognitive processes (Hofer, 2001). This study examines the epistemic beliefs of English language learners, a population of learners that is relatively understudied on the topic of…

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  9. First Year Medical Students′ AIDS Knowledge and Attitude

    Amalraj Edwin R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.

  10. Knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions of Turkish vitiligo patients regarding their condition*

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Duman, Hatice; Goncu, Ozgur Emek Kocaturk; Durmuscan, Mustafa; Gungor, Sule; Ulkumen, Pelin Kuteyla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder that affects 0.5% to 2.0% of the population. OBJECTIVE Patients' knowledge, opinions, and attitudes about vitiligo were evaluated. METHODS The team conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective study between June 2014 and May 2015. The study included 100 patients aged over 12 years who were diagnosed with vitiligo. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions, and beliefs about vitiligo and the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) were filled out by the patients, and the results were analyzed. RESULTS In total, 100 (58 female, 42 male) patients were included in the study. Of them, 74% knew the name of their disease, 90% thought that vitiligo was not contagious, 48% reported that they obtained information on the disease from a doctor, and 69% believed they had adequate information on vitiligo. Eighty percent reported no negative effects from vitiligo on relationships with friends or family. It was believed that stress, excessive sun exposure, and heredity were causes of vitiligo, according to 84%, 37%, and 22% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six patients (36%) believed that their illness was a serious disease and 35% deemed that it did not have a major impact on their lives. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that vitiligo patients were generally highly aware of their condition. The disease did not negatively affect patient opinions or attitudes about vitiligo. The authors believe that improving patient-physician communication will impact positively on the course of the disease. PMID:28099599

  11. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  12. Primary care physicians' attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain: an Asian study.

    Regina W S Sit

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a serious global health problem. There is substantial evidence that physicians' attitudes towards and beliefs about chronic low back pain can influence their subsequent management of the condition.(1 to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain among primary care physicians in Asia; (2 to study the cultural differences and other factors that are associated with these attitudes and beliefs.A cross sectional online survey was sent to primary care physicians who are members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physician (HKCFP. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapist (PABS-PT was used as the questionnaire to determine the biomedical and biopsychosocial orientation of the participants.The mean Biomedical (BM score was 34.8+/-6.1; the mean biopsychosocial (BPS score was 35.6 (+/- 4.8. Both scores were higher than those of European doctors. Family medicine specialists had a lower biomedical score than General practitioners. Physicians working in the public sector tended to have low BM and low BPS scores; whereas physicians working in private practice tended to have high BM and high BPS scores.The lack of concordance in the pain explanatory models used by private and public sector may have a detrimental effect on patients who are under the care of both parties. The uncertain treatment orientation may have a negative influence on patients' attitudes and beliefs, thus contributing to the tension and, perhaps, even ailing mental state of a person with chronic LBP.

  13. Beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy medicines among senior pharmacy students: An exploratory insight from Andhra Pradesh, India

    Akram Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH medicines among senior pharmacy students. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables. Results: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37−8.99, P < 0.001. Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12−4.07, P < 0.05. Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03−2.93, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student′s perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student′s beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  14. Beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy medicines among senior pharmacy students: An exploratory insight from Andhra Pradesh, India

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Kumar, Bandari Deepak; Kumar, Gogikar Sudhir; Rodriguez, Stephanie Perez; Patel, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables. Results: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37−8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12−4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03−2.93, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH. PMID:26692742

  15. Knowledge formalization for vector data matching using belief theory

    Ana-Maria Olteanu-Raimond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays geographic vector data is produced both by public and private institutions using well defined specifications or crowdsourcing via Web 2.0 mapping portals. As a result, multiple representations of the same real world objects exist, without any links between these different representations. This becomes an issue when integration, updates, or multi-level analysis needs to be performed, as well as for data quality assessment. In this paper a multi-criteria data matching approach allowing the automatic definition of links between identical features is proposed. The originality of the approach is that the process is guided by an explicit representation and fusion of knowledge from various sources. Moreover the imperfection (imprecision, uncertainty, and incompleteness is explicitly modeled in the process. Belief theory is used to represent and fuse knowledge from different sources, to model imperfection, and make a decision. Experiments are reported on real data coming from different producers, having different scales and either representing relief (isolated points or road networks (linear data.

  16. Computer Use, Confidence, Attitudes, and Knowledge: A Causal Analysis.

    Levine, Tamar; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a causal model which links measures of computer experience, computer-related attitudes, computer-related confidence, and perceived computer-based knowledge. The causal model suggests that computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitudes. Questionnaires were administered…

  17. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  18. Gendered contexts: masculinity, knowledge, and attitudes toward biotechnology.

    Simon, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    Research into the public understanding of science has revealed that the effect of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science is contextualized by gender; however there has not yet been an account of how gender contextualizes knowledge. This paper investigates how gender identification affects attitudes toward science, and tempers the effects of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science. Utilizing data from the Eurobarometer 52.1, it is predicted that when males perceive a threat to their masculinity (as measured by a perceived threat to their financial security) they will become more likely to be aversive to biotechnology, and that increased levels of perceived threat will reduce the effects of knowledge on attitudes toward biotechnology. Moreover, it is predicted that these effects will be smaller than their female counterparts. All predictions are affirmed.

  19. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  20. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    M Mirfakhraei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  1. A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sensitizing young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful sleep attitudes may have the potential to instill long-lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, evaluation of psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was undertaken. Following two weeks of sleep-log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two 90-minute workshops aimed to educate students about healthy sleep practices, helpful thoughts about sleep, and ways to improve sleep. The sleep monitoring group received a sleep hygiene handout and completed sleep logs for the study duration. Sleep 101 participants endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to the sleep monitoring participants. Brief psychoeducational courses may be a cost-effective way to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems in young adults.

  2. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  3. Changing attitudes and beliefs towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk in Malawi.

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McMahon, James M

    2016-01-01

    Female empowerment and positive attitudes towards women's rights in sexual relationships have been found to be key elements of successful behaviour-based HIV prevention programmes. However, HIV prevention programmes that do not specifically engage with gender issues may also affect attitudes and beliefs towards women's rights within sexual relationships. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health we compare measures of female empowerment and changing gender norms between intervention participants and non-participants. Results suggest that female intervention participants were more likely than non-participants to believe that: (1) women have more rights within sexual relationships in general and (2) women have the right to protect themselves against HIV risk (indicating possible increases in female self-efficacy in making HIV prevention decisions). Male intervention participants showed no substantial positive change in attitudes towards women's rights. These results highlight an important positive effect of HIV prevention programmes on women's attitudes towards their own rights.

  4. Belief in public efficacy, trust, and attitudes toward modern genetic science.

    Barnett, J; Cooper, H; Senior, V

    2007-08-01

    Government and policymakers want to engage the public in a dialogue about the conduct and consequences of science and increasingly seek to actively involve citizens in decision-making processes. Implicit in this thinking is that greater transparency and public inclusion will help dispel fears associated with new scientific advancements, foster greater public trust in those accountable, and ultimately increase the acceptability of new technologies. Less understood, however, are public perceptions about such high-level involvement in science and how these map onto public trust and attitudes within a diverse population. This article uses the concept of public efficacy -- the extent to which people believe that the public might be able to affect the course of decision making -- to explore differences in trust, attentiveness, and attitudes toward modern genetic science. Using nationally representative data from the 2003 British Social Attitudes Survey, we begin by examining the characteristics of those who have a positive belief about public involvement in this area of scientific inquiry. We then focus on how this belief maps on to indicators of public trust in key stakeholder groups, including the government and genetic scientists. Finally, we consider the relationship between public efficacy and trust and attitudes toward different applications of genetic technology. Our findings run contrary to assumptions that public involvement in science will foster greater trust and lead to a climate of greater acceptance for genetic technology. A belief in public efficacy does not uniformly equate with more trusting attitudes toward stakeholders but is associated with less trust in government rules. Whereas trust is positively correlated with more permissive attitudes about technologies such as cloning and gene therapy, people who believe in high-level public involvement are less likely to think that these technologies should be allowed than those who do not.

  5. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Gemma TUR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considered nowadays in order to address the lack of innovative use of technology by teachers. It has been argued that the introduction of technology has to be directed towards the empowerment of cognitive and high-level thinking skills and has to be used based on student-centred approaches. Building e-portfolios and helping students which grow and curate their own Personal Learning Environments (PLE are two approaches to go beyond technology-centered models. E-Portfolios are viewed as part of students’ PLE so social media are used to enhance both e-portfolio processes and students’ PLEs. The research is based on a survey in four groups of students at the local branch in Ibiza of the University of the Balearic Islands. The participants have previously built their e-portfolios with Web 2.0 tools during one semester. Students are asked to document their learning weekly and reflect on the change experienced in the way they think about educational issues. Students are also asked to use new tools and social media services to give evidence of their own learning. The survey is based on a Likert scale so as to be able to analyse the students’ attitude and beliefs towards their e-portfolio and technology in education. The results show that a generally positive attitude is developed by students. Conclusions highlight the slight difference in student teachers’ attitude between technology and specific e-portfolio processes.

  6. Monkeys Represent Others' Knowledge but Not Their Beliefs

    Marticorena, Drew C. W.; Ruiz, April M.; Mukerji, Cora; Goddu, Anna; Santos, Laurie R.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others' beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of this capacity. Here, we examine…

  7. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Beliefs among College Students in the USA and China

    M. Allison Ford; Martha Bass; Yan Zhao; Jin-Bing Bai; Yue Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy, and health beliefs among Chinese and American college students. Information obtained will be used in developing osteoporosis prevention programs for younger adults. Methods. Chinese ( = 4 0 9 ) and US ( = 4 0 8 ) college students completed the Osteoporosis Health Belief, Self-Efficacy, and Knowledge Tests. Results. Differences were seen in osteoporosis knowledge ( u s = 1 4 . 5 2 , C h i n e s e = 1 1 . 8 2 ...

  9. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Joshua M. Williams; Jody L. Langdon; James L. McMillan; Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods: Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results: The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  10. Attitudes and beliefs of patients with chronic depression toward antidepressants and depression

    Jacob SA; Ab Rahman AF; MA Hassali

    2015-01-01

    Sabrina Anne Jacob,1 Ab Fatah Ab Rahman,2 Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali3 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu, 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia Background: Many patients have erroneous views with regard to depression and its management, and it was noted that these attitudes and beliefs significantly affected their adh...

  11. The attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of GPs regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a systematic review

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies

  12. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  13. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  15. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  16. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged.

  17. Continuum beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.

  18. Responsibility Attitudes in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients: The Contributions of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Worry

    Changiz Rahimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.

  19. Mediated Effects of Technology Competencies and Experiences on Relations among Attitudes Towards Technology Use, Technology Ownership, and Self Efficacy about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Boz, Yezdan; Aydın-Günbatar, Sevgi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relations of preservice science teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences to their self-efficacy beliefs about technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The present study also investigated interrelations among preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences. The participants of study were 665 elementary preservice science teachers (467 females, 198 males) from 7 colleges in Turkey. The proposed model based on educational technology literature was tested using structural equation modeling. The model testing results revealed that preservice teachers' technology competencies and experiences mediated the relation of technology ownership to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs. The direct relation of their possession of technology to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs was insignificant while the indirect relation through their technology competencies and experiences was significant. The results also indicated there were significant direct effects of preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology competencies, and experiences on their TPACK self efficacy beliefs.

  20. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? / ¿Una creencia verdadera justificada es conocimiento?

    Edmund L. Gettier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [ES] En este breve trabajo, se presenta una edición bilingüe de Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? (1963, de Edmund L. Gettier, donde se presentan contraejemplos a la definición de «conocimiento» como «creencia verdadera justificada». [ES] In this brief text, a bilingual edition of Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, (1963 by Edmund L. Gettier, some counterexamples are presented to the definition of «knowledge» as «justified true belief».

  1. Preservice Teachers' TPACK Beliefs and Attitudes toward Simulations

    Lehtinen, Antti; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an intervention regarding the use of simulations in science teaching on primary school preservice science teachers' (n = 36) self-assessed technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). The connection of their self-assessed TPACK on their views on the usefulness of simulations in science teaching…

  2. Development of Attributional Beliefs and Strategic Knowledge in Years 5?9: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Chan, Lorna K.S.; Moore, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-year longitudinal study of students' attributional beliefs and strategic knowledge in school learning. Two cohorts of primary and high school students were followed for three years from Years 5-7 and 7-9, respectively. Data were collected each year on students' attributional beliefs regarding the reasons for their…

  3. Knowledge, attitudes towards and acceptability of genetic modification in Germany.

    Christoph, Inken B; Bruhn, Maike; Roosen, Jutta

    2008-07-01

    Genetic modification remains a controversial issue. The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes towards genetic modification, the knowledge about it and its acceptability in different application areas among German consumers. Results are based on a survey from spring 2005. An exploratory factor analysis is conducted to identify the attitudes towards genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that identified a cluster of supporters, of opponents and a group of indifferent consumers. Respondents' knowledge of genetics and biotechnology differs among the found clusters without revealing a clear relationship between knowledge and support of genetic modification. The acceptability of genetic modification varies by application area and cluster, and genetically modified non-food products are more widely accepted than food products. The perception of personal health risks has high explanatory power for attitudes and acceptability.

  4. Adverse Drug Reactions: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacy

    Maryam Etminani-Isfahani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to excessive health care costs. Detection and reporting of ADRs could decrease these consequences. The present study was designed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students towards ADRs monitoring and reporting.Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students regarding ADR reporting. The questionnaire consisting of 17 questions (7 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitudes and 5 on practice were given to pharmacy students randomly.Results: A total of 71 respondents participated in the study. 70% of participants had favorable general knowledge about ADRs but more than 60% of their professional knowledge was not satisfying. 60% of respondent believed that educational intervention will improve participating of health care professional in ADRs reporting. 63% of respondent observed ADRs cases but about 95% of them had never reported an ADR.Conclusion: In overall, pharmacy students have poor knowledge, attitude and practice towards ADRs reporting and pharmacovigilance. This suggests the need of suitable changes in the undergraduate teaching curriculum and additional training among the students regarding ADRs.

  5. Classroom Management Training, Teaching Experience and Gender: Do These Variables Impact Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Classroom Management Style?

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…

  6. Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.

    Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

    2014-10-01

    Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice.

  7. Unpacking Teachers' Language Ideologies: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practiced Language Policies in Schools in Alsace, France

    Young, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    In France, most teachers still receive scant training in how to support plurilingual children in their learning of and through the language of instruction. In the absence of relevant, in-depth knowledge about language, we believe that many teachers are practising language policies based on beliefs rooted in ideologies unsupported by research…

  8. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition…

  9. To explore the neonatal nurses' beliefs and attitudes towards caring for dying neonates in Taiwan.

    Chen, Chao-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi; Liu, Hsin-Li; Lee, Ho-Yu; Wu, Shu-Ya; Chang, Yue-Cune; Peng, Niang-Huei

    2013-12-01

    (1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers.

  10. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%, no time for donation (45%, and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%. Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%, mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%, token gifts (31.5%, and finally paying money (18.9%. Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  12. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and attitude among general dentists in Kuwait

    Alkandari, Sarah A.; Alyahya, Lolwa; Abdulwahab, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dentists as health care providers should maintain a competence in resuscitation. This cannot be overemphasized by the fact that the population in our country is living longer with an increasing proportion of medically compromised persons in the general population. This preliminary study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of general dentists towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 licensed general dental practitioners working in ministry of health. Data were obtained through electronic self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data of general dentists, and their experience, attitude and knowledge about CPR based on the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR. RESULTS: Totally 208 general dentists took part in the present study giving a response rate of 83.2%. Only 36% of the participants demonstrated high knowledge on CPR, while 64% demonstrated low knowledge. Participants’ age, gender, nationality, years of experience, career hierarchy, and formal CPR training were associated significantly with CPR knowledge. Almost all the participants (99%) felt that dentists needed to be competent in basic resuscitation skills and showed a positive attitude towards attending continuing dental educational programs on CPR. CONCLUSION: This study showed that majority of general dental practitioners in Kuwait had inadequate knowledge on CPR. It was also found that CPR training significantly influenced the CPR knowledge of the participants. Therefore, training courses on CPR should be regularly provided to general dentists in the country. PMID:28123615

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of residents regarding electroconvulsive therapy

    Gokay Alpak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of non-psychiatry residents about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and additionally to make a comparison between residents of medical sciences and surgical sciences. METHODS: The study consisted of 176 medical school graduates in their residency training (119 medical sciences, 57 surgical sciences at a university hospital. All subjects are asked to fill a questionnaire prepared by the authors. RESULTS: Among all, 58 of the medical sciences residents (48.7%, and 32 of the surgical sciences residents (56.1% had reported that they have never observed any ECT session. There was no statistically significant difference between the residents of the two groups in terms of theirs attitudes towards ECT (p>0.05. The residents of surgical sciences differed from the others only in their response to the question that sought answer whether they would agree to have any of their relatives to undergo ECT. They more often disagreed to this statement (p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge and attitudes of residents in medical, and surgical sciences about ECT seemed to be similar. Despite their significant amount of knowledge about ECT the residents showed similar attitudes towards it with the patients and their caregivers that were previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the results also suggest that current training in medical schools need a revision that would eventually improve attitudes of medical graduates towards ECT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 33-38

  14. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  15. Female adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, motivations, and attitudes in the negotiation of science texts

    Bennett, Camille

    This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of pediatric office nursing staff about breastfeeding.

    Register, N; Eren, M; Lowdermilk, D; Hammond, R; Tully, M R

    2000-08-01

    This descriptive study documents nurses' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes. The nursing staffs of 27 private pediatric practices in North Carolina were surveyed. The 42-item questionnaire included questions about who was responsible for breastfeeding support, what staff nurses knew and believed about breastfeeding, and where their breastfeeding education was obtained. The response rate was 59% (134 out of 227). Only 5% responded that a breastfeeding patient experiencing problems would be referred to a physician, whereas 81% selected a lactation consultant, and 38% selected a member of the nursing staff. Knowledge scores ranged from 19 to 33 (out of 33). Attitude scores ranged from 10 to 30 (out of 30). Only 46% of respondents reported having received breastfeeding education in their training programs; 85% had received on-the-job training. The nurses surveyed were involved in breastfeeding support, yet many had incorrect information and negative attitudes toward breastfeeding.

  17. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  18. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  19. Drug Education Based on a Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience Study

    Grant, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)

  20. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  1. Attitudes and knowledge of nurses regarding HIV+/AIDS patients

    Angeles Merino Godoy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know attitudes and knowledge of nursing personnel regarding HIV/AIDS patients in the Hospital General de Huelva. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Sample: Nursing staff of the Hospital General de Huelva (Registered nurses and Nursing auxiliar personnel randomised selected (N=980, n=88. Selected subjects were asked to answer a validated questionnaire including questions about personal and professional characteristics, attitudes about HIV+/AIDS patients and knowledge about HIV infection. Additionally, 8 interviews were performed to Nursing staff who suffered occupational accidents with HIV contaminated fluids. Another 8 interviews were performed to HIV+/AIDS patients about the nurses attitudes when working with them. Results: Participating subjects were worried about the risk of infection. A low rate of knowledge about HIV infection was observed. Conclusion: A modification of some attitudes of Nursing staff is mandatory as well as an improvement of specific knowledge about HIV infection and measures to avoid the infection in a professional setting. Strategies to improve nurses abilities when working with HIV+/AIDS patients should be provided.

  2. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-beh...

  3. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  4. General practitioner knowledge, skills and attitudes to eating disorders

    Doherty, Sally; McNamee, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Given that general practitioners are perfectly placed to detect eating disorders this summer research study aimed to examine general practitioners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards eating disorders. The study aimed to compile a national picture of the diagnosis, referral practices, and management of eating disorders in primary care in Ireland.

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  6. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  8. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  9. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source...

  10. Mathematical Knowledge of Non-mathematics Students and Their Beliefs about Mathematics

    Ljerka Jukic Matic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is tightly interwoven with science and engineering, where it has numerous applications. In the educational context, there is an ongoing debate who should teach mathematics to non-mathematicians and how this mathematics should be taught. The knowledge gained in mathematics course is used in another course (mathematics, science or engineering, hence students should retain core concepts some time after learning. Beliefs that students have about mathematics significantly influence on their learning, and consequently on the retained knowledge. We investigated retained calculus knowledge and beliefs about mathematics in two groups of first year students coming from the science and engineering study programs. The results showed that both groups of students showed better procedural knowledge than conceptual. Also they showed positive beliefs about mathematics in their study program, but were not certain where this knowledge will be used later. However they differed in the perception of mathematics as being exciting discipline. The educational implications of these findings are also discussed.

  11. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding pandemic h1n1 influenza among medical and dental residents and fellowships in Shiraz, Iran

    Mehrdad Askarian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: High knowledge is not sufficient lonely for improve attitude and practices.It seems that traditional educational models are not efficient and governments should emphasize to advanced and motivational education methods including health belief model and motivational interview at postgraduate levels. Perhaps younger students, dentists and males have less motivation to change their attitude and behavior, so we can focuses our interventions in these groups.

  13. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  14. Evaluation of Jamaican Knowledge of Diabetes and Health Beliefs

    Melody L. Hartzler; Chen, Aleda M. H.; Murphy, Bethany L.; Sarah J. Rodewald

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims: The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that over 382 million people worldwide were affected by diabetes in 2013. The Caribbean region consistently is above the global average in regard to diabetes prevalence. Specifically, in Jamaica, researchers have found that the management of diabetes is not consistent with international guidelines, and in Caribbean culture, there are additional health beliefs that may need to be addressed. The purpose of this study is to...

  15. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science

  16. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  17. How attitudes and beliefs about physics change from high school to faculty

    Simon P. Bates*

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637, using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.

  18. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  19. Emergency contraception: knowledge and attitudes of nursing students

    Danyelle Lorrane Carneiro Veloso

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception among nursing students from a public university in Goiás - a state in Brazil. A descriptive and analytical research methodology with a quantitative approach was used, applying, from February to May 2011 a questionnaire on the sexual knowledge and attitude of students regarding emergency contraception. 178 students participated in the study. Knowledge was confirmed through the high frequency of correct answers to the questions, especially those concerning the correct time and the instructions for use (between 86% - 96%. Although many students use this method, there are still some doubts about the mechanism of action, side effects and access availability (frequency of correct answers lower than 50%. We noticed the need to develop educational policies that encourage the promotion of sex education in schools and universities.

  20. Arab School Teachers' Knowledge, Beliefs and Reactions regarding Stuttering

    Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…

  1. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

    1997-01-01

    A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU) in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas) in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01). Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward b...

  2. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  3. High-School Teachers' Beliefs about Effort and Their Attitudes toward Struggling and Smart Students in a Confucian Society.

    Chen, Shun-Wen; Fwu, Bih-Jen; Wei, Chih-Fen; Wang, Hsiou-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western societies showed that instructors' beliefs about intellectual ability affected their attitudes toward students. However, in many East Asian societies influenced by Confucian culture, teachers not only hold beliefs of ability but also two kinds of beliefs about effort: obligation-oriented belief (i.e., believing that effort-making is a student's role obligation) and improvement-oriented belief (i.e., believing that effort can conquer the limitations of one's ability). This study aimed to investigate the relationships between teachers' effort beliefs and their attitudes toward favoritism, praise, and expectations toward struggling and smart students. The participants were 151 Taiwanese high-school teachers. Results of Structure Equation Modeling showed that (1) teachers' obligation-oriented belief about effort was positively correlated with their favoritism, praise, short-term and long-term expectations of struggling students, but negatively correlated with their favoritism and praise of smart students, (2) teachers' improvement-orientated belief about effort was negatively correlated with their short-term expectation of smart students and favoritism of struggling students, but positively correlated with their praise of smart students, and (3) the entity theory of intelligence was negatively correlated with favoritism and praise of struggling students, but positively correlated with favoritism of smart students. The theoretical and cultural implications are discussed.

  4. The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

    Taggart, Helen M.; Connor, Sara E.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of the relationship between female college students' exercise habits and their knowledge about osteoporosis and health beliefs indicated that age positively correlated with knowledge level, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older subjects believed the barriers to exercise were greater than…

  5. Effect of Education on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Bioterrorism

    Siavash Hamzeh pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in recent years. To date, the effect of education on knowledge and attitude of students regarding bioterrorism has not been evaluated in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how education affects knowledge and attitude of biological sciences students about bioterrorism. Methods: The present interventional before-after study was carried out on the students of different branches of biological sciences. The students’ level of knowledge on nature of bioterrorism and its causatives, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, management at the time of biological and bioterrorist attacks, and tendency to participate in relief at these events were evaluated before and after training using a pre-designed checklist. Then the effect of education on the students’ knowledge and attitude was evaluated based on their sex. Results: 120 students were included (60% female; mean age 21 ± 3.2 years. The knowledge score was not significantly different between female and male students before educational intervention (p > 0.05. After education, the knowledge score raised significantly in the 4 areas of bioterrorism nature (p < 0.0001, causative factors (p < 0.0001, diagnosing bioterrorism agents (p < 0.0001, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks (p < 0.0001 in female participants, but not in male students (p > 0.05. In addition, after education both male and female participants showed greater tendency to work and do research in the field of bioterrorism (p < 0.0001 but the increase was more significant in females (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Educational intervention led to an improvement in female participants’ knowledge regarding bioterrorism nature, causative factors, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks. Yet, the low level of knowledge and tendency of the students indicates the need for more education in this field.

  6. Desiring the Hidden God:Knowledge Without Belief

    Perlmutter, Julian Felix

    2016-01-01

    For many people, the phenomenon of divine hiddenness is so total that it is far from clear to them that God (roughly speaking, the God of Jewish and Christian tradition) exists at all. Reasonably enough, they therefore do not believe that God exists. Yet it is possible, whilst lacking belief in God’s reality, nonetheless to see it as a possibility that is both realistic and attractive; and in this situation, one will likely want to be open to the considerable benefits that would be available ...

  7. Effects of gender diversity management on perceptions of organizational attractiveness: the role of individual differences in attitudes and beliefs.

    Martins, Luis L; Parsons, Charles K

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the authors examined how individual gender-related attitudes and beliefs affect the reactions of men and women to gender diversity management programs in organizations. They found that whereas there were no significant between-sex differences in the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness, there were strong within-sex differences based on individual attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, within the sexes, centrality of one's gender identity, attitudes toward affirmative action for women, and the belief that women are discriminated against in the workplace moderated the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness. The findings, combined with prior research, suggest that it is critical for organizations to incorporate efforts to manage perceptions of gender diversity management programs into their diversity management strategies.

  8. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  9. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  10. ADVERSE DRUG REACTION: COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR

    Ravi Katti Venkappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4% community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5% pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7% and 14 (10.9% were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43% agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.

  11. Attitudes and beliefs of South African medical students toward organ transplantation.

    Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, preincarnation (18%, p=0.00) were less willing to accept human or animal organs. About 95% of respondents stated that they would like to learn more about transplantation and would keep information about it in their practice but only 18% of respondents knew where to find information for potential donors and recipients. Most students have a favorable attitude toward organ transplantation; religion and belief systems impact on willingness to receive organs.

  12. Breastfeeding Education in Term of Knowledge and Attitude through Mother Support Group

    Lina Handayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.

  13. Taiwanese adolescents' gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation.

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yang, Kyeongra; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation among Taiwanese adolescents. This study was a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional comparison study conducted in Taiwan. A total of 287 female and 269 male students at a junior high school participated in the study. The results showed that almost all the students had heard about menstruation and most of them had received menstrual information at school. However, their knowledge about menstruation was not accurate. Moreover, the male students expressed more negative attitudes towards menstruation than the female students. Taboos were heard by most students and, although many female students doubted the reality of the taboos they had heard, they observed them anyway. The study calls for an evaluation of sex education and suggests more open discussions about menstruation among young people in those education sessions. In addition, school nurses and obstetrical/gynecological nurses should be involved more in adolescents' sexual education.

  14. An exploration of the knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among a sample of Chinese mothers in Ireland

    Zhou, Qianling

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  16. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  17. Nurses knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of ICU syndrome

    Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university d...

  18. Sexuality education: attitudes, knowledge, comfort and willingness of portuguese teachers

    ALVAREZ, M.-J.; PINTO, A. Marques

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the widespread implementation of sexuality education (SE) in Portuguese schools, after becoming mandatory in 2009, we aim to understand Portuguese teachers' perspective on SE (N = 307). Through an on-line questionnaire, analysed by descriptive statistics and factorial and inferential analysis, we measured general attitudes on SE, knowledge, comfort and willingness to teach it, the importance assigned to several topics of SE and the grade level at which they should be int...

  19. Sexuality in the elderly: knowledge and attitudes of professional caregivers

    Senra, Margarida; Saraiva, Horácio; Pinheira, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sexuality in the elderly still remains a taboo, especially in the institutional context. Demographic changes have been occurring these past few years which led to an increase in the number of institutionalized elders, as an attempt to respond their needs. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to know the levels of knowledge and attitudes of the professional caregivers, how these are related and how these relate with the socio demographic variables. METHODS: Quantitative, ...

  20. An Evaluation of Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Levels on Classroom Control in Terms of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (The Sample of Biology Teachers in Turkey)

    Kurt, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control…

  1. 农村社区慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者行为学特征及行为认知状况分析%Analysis on behavioral characteristic and the knowledge-attitude-belief-practice of rural community patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    娄培安; 余加席; 安晓红; 张宁; 陈培培; 张莉; 韩令才; 李刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To know social and demographic characteristics,behavioral characteristics,as well as knowledge-attitude-belief-practice(KABP) and its influential factors of rural community chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) patients. Methods Cluster sampling all COPD patients of fangcun and mape township of tongshan county in 2007. A face-to-face interview was performed to investigate the COPD patients in their home,and t test,one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the behavioral characteristics and K.ABE Results The main Patients were old person aged 60-80,with mean of(63 ± 15)years old. The active and passive smoking rate were 49.5% and 35.9%,respectively,and very significance between male and female Patients (X2 = 101. 365,P< 0. 05). 62. 9%abstained from smoking mainly owing to having COPD. About 31.9% of the patients had used the firewood and coal to cook for longer than 30 years. 24. 2% often built their body by exercise; however,only 8. 9%participated in convalescence. The mean KABP score of Patients was (38 ± 8). The Patients have lower knowledge to COPD, but give much more concerns to their own diseases. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that the main influential factors of COPD patients KABP were education, family attitude, income,sex and the distance between their homes and health stations. Conclusions Community COPD patients have high smoking rate,long firewood and coal cooking history,so active interventions should be took to those risk factors. KABP level of the COPD patients was not good, more health instructions including prevention,treatment and convalescing of COPD need to be gave to COPD patients.%目的 了解社区慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者社会人口学特征、行为学特征、行为认知(KABP)水平及其影响因素.方法 整群抽取铜山县房村和马坡2个社区2007年现患COPD患者.采取人户面对面调查的方式对392例COPD患者进行问卷调查,

  2. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE & PRACTICE REGARDING EYE DONATION AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A SHORT REVIEW

    Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  3. Knowledge, Health Beliefs, and Self-Efficacy regarding Osteoporosis in Perimenopausal Women

    Renée D. Endicott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this pilot study were to (1 determine if having a family history of osteoporosis impacts knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis among perimenopausal women aged 42–52 and to (2 describe the impact of an osteoporosis-specific educational intervention had on the knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy of this population. Participants completed three surveys measuring knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis before and two months after the educational program. At baseline, no differences were noted in knowledge of osteoporosis among women with and without a family history of osteoporosis, although women with a family history perceived a greater susceptibility for developing osteoporosis than women without the family history. Findings indicate that both groups increased in knowledge of osteoporosis (P<.001. Benefits of calcium increased in the women without a family history of osteoporosis (P<.001 and benefits of exercise increase in women with a family history of osteoporosis (P=.007. There were no significant statistical findings regarding self-efficacy between the two groups of women. Findings indicate that an osteoporosis-specific educational program improves perimenopausal women’s knowledge and some health beliefs.

  4. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  5. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  6. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Gyeong Mi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot

    Natalia de Sá Policarpo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos - PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%. On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot.

  8. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.

  9. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-07-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  10. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-10-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  11. Children's Understanding of Behavioral Consequences of Epistemic States: A Comparison of Knowledge, Ignorance, and False Belief.

    Deneault, Joane

    2015-01-01

    The author addressed the issue of the simultaneity of false belief and knowledge understanding by investigating children's ability to predict the behavioral consequences of knowledge, ignorance, and false belief. The second aim of the study was to explore the role of counterfactuals in knowledge understanding. Ninety-nine (99) children, age 3-7 years old, completed the unexpected transfer task and a newly designed task in which a protagonist experienced 1 of the following 4 situations: knowing a fact, not knowing a fact, knowing a procedure, and not knowing a procedure. The results showed that factual ignorance was as difficult as false belief for the children, whereas the other conditions were all easier than false belief, suggesting that the well-known lag between ignorance and false belief may be partly methodologically based. The results provide support for a common underlying conceptual system for both knowing and believing, and evidence of the role of counterfactual reasoning in the development of epistemic state understanding. Methodological variations of the new task are proposed for future research.

  12. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  13. "The evil virus cell": Students‘ knowledge and beliefs about viruses

    Enzinger, Sonja M.; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients to unnecessarily prescribe antibiotics, and possibly lead to potentially dangerous neglect concerning vaccination. The effectiveness of newly developed virus-related teaching units and material could be tested with the instrument used here. PMID:28350815

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practice of Women Concerning Osteoporosis

    Z Jalili

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of women above 45 years old. Methods: A total of 770 households in Kerman (southern Iran were selected for inclusion in the study using cluster sam¬pling from April through August 2005. The interview schedule consisted of 4 parts including questions about knowledge, atti¬tude and practice (KAP and also demographic questions. The average score for KAP was 9.3 out of 21, 2.6 out of 5 and 1.5 out of 6, respectively. Results: Adequate osteoprotective exercise and sufficient calcium intake were found in 3.8% and 5.5% of subjects, respec¬tively. A significant relationship between the score of preventive practice and all the following parameters was found: level of education, hearing about osteoporosis, knowledge score, perceived barrier to preventive actions and perceived serious¬ness of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Considering the Iranian women’s inaccurate or insufficient knowledge and their negative attitude to the preven¬tive actions and their weak practice in case of prevention, it is the responsibility of health policymakers and medi¬cal associations to plan for osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Knowledge about Multiculturalism

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Commins, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined pre-service teachers' knowledge of issues related to multiculturalism and diversity before and after taking a multicultural education course. Data from 38 degree students in an urban university in the southwest of Finland were analysed using a mixed method approach. The results indicate that pre-service teachers'…

  16. Nurses' attitudes and knowledge of their roles in newborn abandonment.

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to "abandon" her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.

  17. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Mucherah W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%, suspension from school (61%, and expulsion from school (49%. Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. Keywords: homosexuality, attitudes, beliefs, high school, Kenya

  18. Intervening in Bullying: Differences across Elementary School Staff Members in Attitudes, Perceptions, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Williford, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has investigated the experiences of certified school staff in antibullying efforts, a dearth of research exists on noncertified staff. To that end, the present study examined differences in attitudes, perceptions, and self-efficacy beliefs to intervene among certified (for example, teachers, counselors, school…

  19. Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Multi-Institutional Study of Gender Differences

    Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.

    2012-01-01

    Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…

  20. Examination of the Relationships between Fifth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivational Beliefs, Attitudes, and Achievement

    Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…

  1. Measuring Educators' Attitudes and Beliefs about Evaluation: Construct Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Evaluation Experience Scale

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Kurz, Alexander; Peters, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the reliability and validity of the Teacher Evaluation Experience Scale--Teacher Form (TEES-T), a multidimensional measure of educators' attitudes and beliefs about teacher evaluation. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 583 teachers were conducted on the TEES-T hypothesized five-factor model, as well as on alternative…

  2. Investigation of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Teaching Science and Attitudes towards Teaching Profession of the Candidate Teachers

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes of the primary school teacher candidates towards teaching profession and self-efficacy beliefs in teaching science. The research was conducted with a survey model. The sample of the study consisted of 182 teacher candidates who were studying at the 2015-2016 spring term from Kastamonu…

  3. Peer Instruction in Introductory Physics: A Method to Bring about Positive Changes in Students' Attitudes and Beliefs

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin; Mazur, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n = 441) in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture) teaching methods, and the other three…

  4. Current Kindergarten Parents' Attitudes toward and Beliefs about Children's Art Education in Majority Cities and Counties of Taiwan

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Current kindergarten parents' attitudes toward and beliefs about children's art education in majority cities and counties of Taiwan were investigated. A review of the literature was conducted to identify several possible influences on parents' interpretation/ assessment of children's art education. Then, the researcher developed and distributed a…

  5. The Role of Beliefs about the Importance of Social Skills in Elementary Children's Social Behaviors and School Attitudes

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive attitudes toward school have been suggested as a meaningful indicator of school engagement among elementary children. The current study was guided by a social cognitive developmental perspective which suggests that social cognitions, including beliefs, play an important role in children's adjustment outcomes. Objective: The…

  6. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  7. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  8. Faculty of Education Students' Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Attitudes towards Computers and Implementing Computer Supported Education

    Berkant, Hasan Güner

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates faculty of education students' computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The…

  9. An Investigation of the Relationship between Students’ Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Computer Attitudes in PISA 2009 Turkey Sampling

    Cem Oktay GÜZELLER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the computer attitudes and computer self-efficacy beliefs of students in the sample of PISA 2009 Turkey. It is examined whether computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students show variation by the variables of gender, type of school and region or not in the study. Moreover, the relation between computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes of students was analyzed. Since the study is a study aiming to examine computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students participating in PISA 2009 from Turkey in terms of various variables, it is a descriptive study. Computer self-efficacy belief scale and computer attitude scale were used as the tool of data collection in the research. In data analysis, construction validity of computer self-efficacy and computer attitude scales was examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated based on internal consistency and the differences between the groups were tested by the t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. While computer self-efficacy beliefs of students do not differ by gender, computer attitudes are significantly different by gender and this difference has no practical significance. Computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students differ by type of school and region of school.

  10. Residential building stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs regarding nail gun injury risks and prevention.

    Albers, James T; Hudock, Stephen D; Lowe, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are ubiquitous at residential construction sites across the United States. These tools are noted for the traumatic injuries that can occur from their operation. Different trigger mechanisms on these tools are associated with different levels of risk. Residential building subcontractors and workers, both native-born and immigrant, were brought together in focus groups to discuss their attitudes and beliefs regarding risk factors for nail gun injury as well as barriers to the adoption of safer technology. Participants' comments are organized first by influences on traumatic injury occurrence or prevention and later by sociotechnical system category. Participants attributed influences on injury risk to personal and external causation factors in all sociotechnical system categories; however, participants more frequently described influences on injury prevention as related to workers' behaviors, rather than to external factors. A discussion of these influences with respect to attribution theory and sociotechnical models of injury causation is presented.

  11. The Nature of Science and the Role of Knowledge and Belief

    Cobern, William W.

    In everyday language we tend to think of knowledge as reasoned belief that a proposition is true and the natural sciences provide the archetypal example of what it means to know. Religious and ideological propositions are the typical examples of believed propositions. Moreover, the radical empiricist worldview so often associated with modern science has eroded society's meaningful sense of life. Western history, however, shows that knowledge and belief have not always been constructed separately. In addition, modern developments in the philosophy and history of science have seriously undermined the radical empiricist's excessive confidence in scientific methods. Acknowledging in the science classroom the parallel structure of knowledge and belief, and recognizing that science requires a presuppositional foundation that is itself not empirically verifiable would re introduce a valuable discussion on the meaning of science and its impact on life. Science would less likely be taught as a `rhetoric of conclusions'. The discussion would also help students to gain a firmer integration of science with other important knowledge and beliefs that they hold.

  12. Primary Special School Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about Supporting Learning in Numeracy

    Moscardini, Lio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of a group of 12 teachers in primary special schools in Scotland for children with moderate learning difficulties. It sets out an analysis of classroom observations and interviews that explored teachers' knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning in mathematics with children with…

  13. Kindergarten through Second-Grade Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about Dyslexia Assessment and Retention

    Foreman-Sinclair, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed research study was to investigate early assessment and identification for dyslexia in kindergarten through second grade, and to examine whether teachers' knowledge and beliefs lead to the practice of retaining students in grade rather than recommending formal dyslexia assessment. This study investigated both…

  14. The Relationship between Mathematical Knowledge of Numbers and Operations and Mathematics Beliefs of Prospective Teachers

    Stiegelmeyer, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed 82 preservice elementary teachers using items from an instrument designed to predict student achievement based on a teacher's mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) in numbers and operations concepts. Additional mathematics beliefs items asked participants to rate their level of agreement with math myths and math anxiety…

  15. Weighing Opposing Positions: Examining the Effects of Intratextual Persuasive Messages on Students' Knowledge and Beliefs

    Andiliou, Andria; Ramsay, Crystal M.; Murphy, P. Karen; Fast, Jerel

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of new forms of media has given way to a multitude of new text structures, particularly texts designed to alter the receiver's perspectives. Yet, little is known about the ways in which these novel text structures alter the characteristics of the receiver including one's knowledge and beliefs. As such, the purpose of this…

  16. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    Boschman, F.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J.M.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  17. The Effect of Informational Characteristics and Faculty Knowledge and Beliefs on the Use of Assessment

    Jonson, Jessica L.; Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Mitchell, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the use of learning outcome assessments to inform educational decisions is a major challenge in higher education. For this study we used a sense-making theoretical perspective to guide an analysis of the relationship of information characteristics and faculty assessment knowledge and beliefs with the use of general education assessment…

  18. [Osteoporosis. Knowledge and attitudes of the Norwegian population].

    Joakimsen, R M; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Magnus, J H

    1996-06-30

    In March 1994, a random sample of 1,514 Norwegians aged 16-79 years were interviewed about their knowledge of osteoporosis and their attitudes towards prevention of this disease. About 85% answered correctly that osteoporosis can be prevented, but only 57% knew that it cannot be cured. Women had better knowledge of osteoporosis than men had. Two thirds of the women were positive to the use of long-term hormone replacement therapy to prevent osteoporosis. The majority of women aged 60 years or more preferred walking to other physical activities to prevent the disease. Although the data demonstrated fairly good general knowledge of osteoporosis in the population, the oldest women, those at the highest risk of developing the disease, knew less about osteoporosis than the younger women did.

  19. Placebos in clinical practice: comparing attitudes, beliefs, and patterns of use between academic psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrists.

    Raz, Amir; Campbell, Natasha; Guindi, Daniella; Holcroft, Christina; Déry, Catherine; Cukier, Olivia

    2011-04-01

    Controversial and ethically tenuous, the use of placebos is central to medicine but even more pivotal to psychosocial therapies. Scholars, researchers, and practitioners largely disagree about the conceptualization of placebos. While different professionals often confound the meanings of placebo effects with placebo responses, physicians continue to prescribe placebos as part of clinical practice. Our study aims to review attitudes and beliefs concerning placebos outside of clinical research. Herein we compare patterns of placebo use reported by academic psychiatrists with those reported by physicians from different specialties across Canadian medical schools. Using a web-based tool, we circulated an online survey to all 17 Canadian medical schools, with a special emphasis on psychiatry departments therein and in university-affiliated teaching hospitals. A variation on earlier efforts, our 5-minute, 21-question survey was anonymous. Among the 606 respondents who completed our online survey, 257 were psychiatrists. Our analysis revealed that psychiatrists prescribed significantly more subtherapeutic doses of medication than physicians in other specialties, although about 20% of both psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrists prescribed placebos regularly as part of routine clinical practice. However, compared with 6% of nonpsychiatrists, only 2% of psychiatrists deemed placebos of no clinical benefit. In addition, more than 60% of psychiatrists either agreed or strongly agreed that placebos had therapeutic effects relative to fewer than 45% of other practitioners. Findings from this pan-Canadian survey suggest that, compared with other physicians, psychiatrists seem to better value the influence placebos wield on the mind and body and maintain more favourable beliefs and attitudes toward placebo phenomena.

  20. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  1. Attitudes and knowledge of nurses on organ legacy and transplantation

    Vlaisavljević Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.

  2. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.

  3. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  4. Green Consumption: A Cross Cultural Study about Environmental Beliefs, Concerns, and Attitudes

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though young college students, from different countries, have ever growing access to information about environmental practices, this does not mean that they develop an awareness that leads to good practices of green consumption. Using a new scale, applied to 2372 college students from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, it was verified whether the perception of the environment of those youngsters is expressed by a construct which is reasonably structured by beliefs, concerns, and environment-friendly attitudes, through the analysis of the impacts caused by those dimensions onto their consumption practices. As a strategy for data analysis, was used exploratory factor analysis, with the use of the Mann-Whitney test on factors scores and Spearman correlation between the mean values of the factors. It was possible to conclude that, although there are similarities between the youngsters from Latin America and the group from Iberia (Spain and Portugal, there are significant differences on how such a perception is structured. The Iberians have an anthropocentric motivation, linked to the idea of preserving resources for the future, while the Latin Americans have a more holistic vision, in which the environmental beliefs play a role of an important background. Between the two groups there are also differences regarding the possibility to conciliate economical development with environmental conservation. It was noted that the green consumption is an answer to the environmental concerns for both groups, which are less influenced by other dimensions, and this fact could impact the marketing strategies towards those groups.  

  5. Belief in corrective feedback for common misconceptions: Implications for knowledge revision.

    Rich, Patrick R; Van Loon, Mariëtte H; Dunlosky, John; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2017-03-01

    When correcting a common misconception, it seems likely that for corrective feedback to be effective, it needs to be believed. In 2 experiments, we assessed how participants' belief in the validity of corrective feedback regarding individual misconceptions influenced knowledge revision. After responding about the validity of a set of misconceptions, participants received either a refutation alone (feedback that they were correct or incorrect) or a refutation accompanied by a supporting explanation, and then rated their belief in the corrective feedback. One week later, participants once again responded about the validity of the misconceptions. Across both experiments, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they believed the corrective feedback. In addition, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they had earlier received a refutation with a supporting explanation than when they had received the refutation only. This benefit of supportive explanations on knowledge revision was mediated by belief in the feedback, suggesting that explanations enhance the effectiveness of a correction by increasing belief in the feedback. These findings imply that successful correction of common misconceptions is likely enhanced by techniques that increase people's belief in the validity of the corrective feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Samia Ghanem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available le doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy students towards obesity

    A. Awotidebe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been recognised as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases, with more than one billion adults worldwide who are overweight, of which approximately 300 million are obese. Obesity puts an individual in danger of a shorter life expectancy and at risk for developing chronic diseases of life style, which includediabetes, cardio vascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis and back pain. Wide spread negative attitudes towards obese people have been observed which are equally prevalent among health care professionals.  This study was based on the need to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards obese people among physiotherapy students, as they are well suited to address theintricacies of obesity and its related conditions. One hundred and seventy five students from a university in the Western Cape, South Africa, completed a structured, self-administered questionnaire that was adopted from the Obesity Risk Knowledge and Fat Phobia Scale. The study sample demonstrated average levels of knowledge regarding obesity with scores ranging from 3 to 9 on a scale of 10 with a mean score of 6.05. A n overwhelming majority of the participants(> 80% viewed obesity as largely a behavioural problem while nearly all the participants (97.6% characterised obese people as lazy, unattractive, insecure and with lower self-esteem. This study has reinforced the need for a morefocussed approach to the education of physiotherapy students around obesity and obesity-related conditions, as well asthe management thereof.

  8. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers

    Paramasivam Parimalam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers′ and fabric printers′ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (΁10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  11. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  12. Health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia.

    Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D

    2017-03-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  13. HPV Vaccination: Attitude and Knowledge among German Gynecologists

    Kolben, T. M.; Dannecker, C.; Baltateanu, K.; Goess, C.; Starrach, T.; Semmlinger, A.; Ditsch, N.; Gallwas, J.; Mahner, S.; Friese, K.; Kolben, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve a higher vaccination rate, education on HPV as well as options for prophylaxis performed by doctors is of great importance. One opportunity to increase the protection against HPV would be vaccinating boys. This study evaluated attitude and knowledge among German gynecologists regarding HPV vaccination, especially in boys. Material and Methods: A questionnaire with 42 questions about demographics, attitude and knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccination was sent to members of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Results: 998 out of 6567 addressed gynecologists participated. Knowledge about HPV, associated diseases and possible HPV vaccines was high among participants. The attitude towards vaccination in boys as well as girls was positive. Only 8.2 % refused to vaccinate their sons whereas 2.2 % refused to do this for their daughters. However, only few gynecologists vaccinated their daughters and sons against HPV. Main reason for girls was an age outside of vaccination guidelines; for boys it was the lack of cost coverage. Conclusion: The willingness of gynecologists to perform HPV vaccination in boys is as high as for girls. However, sons of gynecologists are only rarely vaccinated against HPV. Main reason is the lack of cost coverage. Vaccinating boys could decrease the disease burden in males, as well as protect women by interrupting ways of transmission. Since the main argument against vaccination of boys is only of financial nature, the necessity of a vaccination recommendation for boys needs to be re-evaluated taking into account the cost-reduced 2-dose vaccination scheme.

  14. Revealing sexuality: have nurses' knowledge and attitudes changed?

    Giddings, L S; Wood, P J

    1998-07-01

    All nurses should be adequately prepared for assisting clients with issues relating to sexuality. This article describes a descriptive study undertaken between 1988 and 1991 which used a questionnaire to survey the knowledge and attitudes of New Zealand pre- and post-registration nursing students regarding sexuality. The results of this study have previously been available only in an unpublished report. As interest in this area of research is increasing overseas, and as it is now time to consider resurveying New Zealand nurses, it is useful to have a summary of the findings available to a wider audience. Phase One analysed the responses of a convenience sample of 319 registered nurses undertaking a one-year post-registration programme in four New Zealand schools of nursing in either 1988 or 1989. Phase Two analysed 575 questionnaires completed by a convenience sample of nursing students in their first and/or third years of a three-year programme leading to nursing registration. Analysis of the 35 true/false items showed that students near the completion of their programme were as knowledgeable or more knowledgeable than registered nurses, although there were areas where both groups lacked information. Analysis of the 33 items measuring attitudes on a 5-point Likert scale suggested that the attitudes of both pre- and post-registration students were more liberal than conservative, but with some differences discernible when participants were grouped by demographic variables. Importantly, the study found that 55% of pre-registration students, and 88% of registered nurse participants, felt that nurses were inadequately prepared for helping clients with concerns about sexual matters. The findings are compared with those of studies undertaken overseas this decade.

  15. Cultural beliefs and attitudes of Black and Hispanic college-age women toward exercise.

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women.

  16. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Joshua M. Williams

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  17. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  19. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    Michael G. Prucha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.

  20. Comparison of fertility ratios, attitudes and beliefs of Polish and Czech women

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to estimate some basic data related to the fertility in the chosen groups of Polish and Czech women. We have tried to acquire and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of these women in motherhood and the desire to have children. These data enable to verify the interdisciplinary hypothesis explaining the decline of birth rate and low fertility in European countries. Materials and methods: The authors performed the survey by means of a questionnaire formulated after a comprehensive discussion of possible reasons of birth rate decline. They have tried through the questions of the survey to verify the hypothesis that the decline is the result of the cumulative mental changes occurring in contemporary societies. The questionnaire completed 90 Polish women students pursuing complementary studies of nursing in Higher School of Applied Sciences in Nysa, during the academic year 2012/2013. The questionnaire also completed 53 Czech women students pursuing part-time studies and training at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin (the Czech Republic. Results: The above surveyed 90 Polish women gave birth to 132 children, so fertility rates is 1.46. The average age at the birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.5 and of the third child 31.7 years. The surveyed 53 Czech women gave birth to 86 children, so fertility rates is 1.62. The average age at birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.2 and of the third child 27,5 years. The authors present also convictions, beliefs and attitudes of the women under study. Conclusions: The multifaceted and interdisciplinary hypothesis (theoretical model formulated at the outset of our work, can be useful for attempts to estimate the pro-family attitudes in different populations of women. The results in the light of compliance with the proposed theoretical model allow for the formulation of proposals for action, which would counteract the

  1. The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.

    Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment.

  2. Menstruation: knowledge, attitude and practices of students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Irinoye, O O; Ogungbemi, A; Ojo, A O

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated students' knowledge of, beliefs, attitude to and practices during menstruation. Data was collected from a sample of 200 students from Ile-Ife using the multi-stage sampling technique. Only 5% of respondents could correctly define menstruation. Materials used to manage menstruation include sanitary pad, pieces of cloths, toilet rolls, cotton wool, tampon and shoulder pad foam. Practices vary on menstruating and non-menstruating days with 11(39.3%) of the 28 practices classified as healthy, 6(21.43%) as potentially harmful and 11(39.3%) as uncertain. Three (21.43%) of the listed 14 beliefs and taboos are potentially health-promoting, 5(35.71%) are potentially not health-promoting while 6(42.86%) are potentially harmless. Menstruation is associated with restrictions in diet and social interaction with 8%, 20.5% and 5% seeing menstruation as abnormal, dirty and a disease respectively. Findings from this study would be helpful in planning educational programmes to correct misinformation and promote healthy practices among women during menstruation.

  3. An Investigation of Somali Women’s Beliefs, Practices, and Attitudes about Health, Health Promoting Behaviours and Cancer Prevention

    S. A. Francis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies.   Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness.  Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.       

  4. Patient Attitudes and Beliefs and Provider Practices Regarding Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Minya, Egypt

    Amr Kandeel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community is one of the major causes of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to explore the physician prescribing pattern of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs and to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients regarding antibiotic use for ARIs. The study was conducted in Upper Egypt and used quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Eligible patients exiting outpatient clinics with ARIs were invited to participate in the study. A qualitative study was conducted through 20 focus group discussions. Out of 350 encounters for patients with various ARIs, 292 (83% had been prescribed at least one antibiotic. Factors significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing for adults included patient preference that an antibiotic be prescribed. For children younger than 18, presentation with fever, cough, loss of appetite, and sore throat, along with the caregiver’s antibiotic preference, were associated with an antibiotic prescription. Several misconceptions regarding antibiotic use among community members were stated, such as the strong belief of the curing and prophylactic power of antibiotics for the common cold. Interventions to promote proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be piloted, targeting both physicians and the public. Educational programs for physicians and campaigns to raise public awareness regarding proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be developed.

  5. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

      Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered...... in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining...... a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers...

  6. Knowledge and attitude of medical resident doctors toward antihistamines

    Esha Chainani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis and urticaria are chronic persistent allergic conditions that need proper management as they significantly reduce quality of life measures. Of the many pharmacological options of allergic rhinitis and urticaria, second-generation antihistamines are the mainstay of therapy. Aims: This review focuses on the knowledge of medical residents toward prescribing antihistamines, according to the new ARIA and GA2LEN guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria, attempting to find the cause of less prescription of newer second-generation antihistamines by finding out the knowledge and attitude of the doctors prescribing them to the patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Primary data from 100 resident doctors, who gave their informed consent, was collected. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of antihistamines was filled up. The data was then analyzed with suitable statistical tests. Every question was first validated using the Chi-square test, and significance was below 10% hence proving validity of the questions. Results: Out of the doctors surveyed, 82% of doctors said they prescribed second-generation antihistamines, while 18% still prescribed first-generation antihistamines. Out of the 82% that prescribed second-generation antihistamines, 8.9% also prescribed first-generation antihistamines as well. 23% of doctors surveyed had heard about the ARIA and GAL2EN guidelines and their recommendations for prescribing second-generation antihistamines over the older first-generation antihistamines, while 77% of them had not heard of these position papers. Conclusion: First-generation or classic antihistamines are still overused due to the lack of knowledge of various guidelines that have been published. The main reason for not prescribing the second-generation antihistamines was due to the increased

  7. Tanning in solarium – knowledge, attitudes and Polish habits

    Katarzyna Torzewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tanning devices are sources of UVA and UVB radiation. UV exposure can cause damage to the cornea of the eye, skin burns and even skin cancer. Appropriate use of solarium requires adequate knowledge of health effects resulting from the excessive use of sunbeds. The aim of the study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and habits in the solarium use. Material and methods. The study was based on our own questionnaire distributed among the citizens of a city located in Łódź Province. The study group consisted of 135 adults, mostly women and people with secondary and vocational education. Participants of the study were asked to answer specific questions included in the questionnaire concerning the knowledge of UV radiation, attitudes and the behaviour in the solarium. Results. 36% of the respondents were going to the solarium. 38% of the respondents weren’t going at all. Every fourth respondent used to go to the solarium in the past, however gave up this type of tanning for some reasons. Protecting goggles were used only by 18% of the respondents. 94% of the respondents never asked the service about CE certificates for the sunbeds intended for use. Conclusions. People tanning in the solarium, in comparison to those who do not use the artificial sun, enjoy better knowledge of the ultraviolet radiation. However they do not follow the requirements of the safe tanning. They are also not interested in technical conditions of the sunbeds. People who are not tanning in the solarium are more aware of health effects caused by UV radiation. Actions promoting public awareness on negative health effects of exposure to UV radiation in the solarium are needed.

  8. Nurses knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of ICU syndrome

    Ali Dadgari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in

  9. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

    Erly Catarina Moura

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01. Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward breast-feeding in public: SJSU students (56.8% felt social pressures to not breast=feed in public, and PUC-Campinas students (54.3% expressed personal constraint. SJSU students emphasized convenience, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, immunological factors as advantages of breast-feeding. PUC-Campinas students considered protection as an advantage of formula, feeding. Concerning causal factors for breast feeding failure, SJSU students cited negative social pressure and biological problems, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, lack of information. In conclusion, it is necessary to improve the curricula, if we expect future nutrition professionals to have adequate knowledge to promote and choose breast feeding successfully.

  10. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  11. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  12. Benefits, barriers, attitudes, and beliefs about soy meat-alternatives among African American parishioners living in eastern North Carolina.

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Corbett, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess benefits, barriers, attitude, and beliefs about nutrient content and health effects, and sensory analysis of soy meat-alternatives among 40 African Americans, mean (SD) aged 54 (10), 78% of whom were females, participating in a faith-based nutrition program. Perceived benefits received higher scores than perceived barriers to eat soy meat-alternatives. Beliefs about nutrient content and health effects of consuming soy meat-alternatives were consistent with the scientific findings. The results indicate that soy meat-alternatives may be considered viable options to include in a diet of some African Americans.

  13. Knowledges and Attitudes in Province of Trabzon Regarding Anti-Smoking Legislation

    Gamze Can

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 office employees and 465 customers in total, including 692 people face to face with the survey technique was applied. The 75.3% of those who participated in the study of law is thought necessary. The number of those who believe in the necessity of law is increasing with education level (p<0.0005. Smoking ban was found more necessary by non-smokers than who current smokers and have quit smoking (p<0.0005. There is a no difference between the man and woman about the necessity of law (p=0.403. The 35.6 % of business owners , 53.5 % of customers, 41.4 % of the office staff is considering the law be applied (p=0.021. The 33.9% of current smokers, 62% non-smoking, 54.3% of those who have quit smoking is considering that ban can be applied. There was statistically significant difference among groups(p<0.0005. The number of those who believe in belief that the ban can be applied is increasing with education level (p=0.015. There is a no difference between the man and woman on belief about the ban can be applied (p=0.339. The adoption of the law in our country in terms of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and social measures have been taken an important step in the way of implementation. The our research that was made immediately preceding the entering into application of the law, was very positive support on law compliance. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 275-280

  14. Turkish university students' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications.

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2016-09-10

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016.

  15. Students’ attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Methods Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Results The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Conclusions Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process. PMID:24673877

  16. Attitudes and knowledge of Iranian nurses about hospice care

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Due to expansion of chronic diseases and increase of health care costs, there is a need for planning and delivering hospice care for patients in their final stages of life in Iran. The aim of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about delivering hospice care for End of Life (EOL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 with a sample size of 200 nurses that were selected by convenient (available sampling. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire whose validity was approved by experts′ opinions and its reliability was approved by test-retest method. Results : Among all participants of this study, 87% were female. The mean age of nurses was 32.00 ± 6.72. From all respondents 62% stated that they have no knowledge about hospice care and 80% declared that need for hospice care is increasing. Most of the participants felt that, appropriate services are not presented to patients in the final stages of their lives. About 80% believed that hospice care leads to reduction of health care costs, improvement of physical, mental and social health of patients and finally improvement of the quality of health care services. There was a significant relationship between age, employment history and level of education of nurses and their attitude and knowledge about how this service is provided. Conclusion : In view of the increase in chronic illnesses and the costs of caring, the need for provision of hospice care is felt more and more every day. However the awareness level of nurses about these services is low. Therefore the need for including these issues in nursing curriculum and holding scientific courses and seminars in this field is needed.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes about sexuality in the elderly with HIV/AIDS

    Okuno,Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Fram,Dayana Souza; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida [UNIFESP; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Assess the knowledge and attitudes about sexuality in the elderly with HIV/AIDS served in a specialized ambulatory clinic; and identify the epidemiological profile of these patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study with a sample of 148 people aged 50 years and over. The Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale was used to assess the knowledge and the attitudes about sexuality of the elderly. RESULTS: The study included 148 elderly, male gender (63.5%),...

  18. Basic Beliefs and Cultural Attitudes as Predictors of Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Urban and Rural Populations

    Shamionov R.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses outcomes of a research on cultural attitudes and basic beliefs as predictors of psychological and emotional well-being in urban and rural populations. As it was revealed, beliefs contribute to the emotional and psychological well-being of both people living in urban and in rural areas. The rates of regression explaining the variations in psychological well-being by beliefs are higher in those living in rural areas, whereas the rates explaining emotional well-being are higher in urban population. The most significant predictor of the subjective well-being is one’s belief in the worth of his/her Self and in other people’s kindness. Also, of much importance for the well-being of those living in the cities (in contrast to the rural population is their belief in luck. The impact of cultural context on the psychological well-being is higher in the rural population, while its impact on their emotional well-being remains unclear. However, if the city represents the impact of vertical individualism, in the rural areas it is horizontal individualism and collectivism that play an important role in the prediction. Thus beliefs and cultural context to a greater extent account for the variations in the psychological well-being in the rural population than in the urban one. Inclusion in a social territorial community also predetermines the differences in the prediction of the emotional and psychological well-being.

  19. Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives.

    Adebowale, T O; Ogunlesi, A O

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 70 insightful clinically stable out-patients with functional psychotic disorders and 70 accompanying relatives was carried out. They were interviewed about their beliefs concerning the cause of the illness, and their awareness of other possible aetiological factors. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were also elicited. Twelve (17.1%) patients and relatives, respectively, gave "medical" causal explanations; 16 (22.9%) patients and 13 (18.6%) relatives gave "psychosocial" causal explanations; 27 (38.6%) patients and 38 (54.3%) relatives were "uncertain" about the cause of their/relatives' illness (X2 = 5.08; df = 3: P = 0.16). Relatives reported a greater relevance of "heredity" (X2 = 11.58; P = 0.0006) and "supernatural" factors (X2 = 4.72: P = 0.029) as other possible causal factors, than patients. Patients with previous psychiatric hospitalisation reported higher prevalence of "psychosocial" and "supernatural" causal beliefs than those without (X2 = 9.15; P = 0.027). Also, patients with "medical" causal belief reported better treatment compliance than those with other beliefs (P = 0.031). Among relatives, "psychosocial" causal belief in comparison with other beliefs was associated with a longer duration of treatment in the hospital (h = 8.29; P = 0.04). For patients, knowledge about possible causal role of "heredity was significantly more prevalent among male than female patients (X2 = 6.55; P = 0.01) and admission of possible "supernatural" causation was associated with education below the secondary level (X2 = 6.68; P = 0.008). For relatives, knowledge about possible causal role of brain dysfunction was associated with longer duration of treatment (u = 3.93; P = 0.047), and knowledge of possible causal role of "psychosocial" stress was associated with urban place of residence rather than rural (X2 = 10.52; P = 0.0012). For both patients and relatives, the most acceptable aetiological proposition was the "supernatural" while the least

  20. Young People and the Environment in Australia: Beliefs, Knowledge, Commitment and Educational Implications

    Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment as the…

  1. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  2. Changes in beliefs and attitudes toward people with depression and schizophrenia - results of a public campaign in Germany.

    Makowski, Anna C; Mnich, Eva E; Ludwig, Julia; Daubmann, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-03-30

    We examined the impact of a mental health awareness campaign on public attitudes. The campaign was embedded in the project psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health. Beliefs and attitudes were examined before and after specific awareness measures in Hamburg (intervention region) and Munich (control region). Analyses were based on representative surveys (2011: N=2014; 2014: N=2006). Vignettes with symptoms suggestive of depression respectively schizophrenia were presented, followed by questions on social distance, beliefs and emotional reactions. Analyses of variance tested variations between regions over time and differences between those aware of the campaign and those not aware. In 2014, 7.3% (n=74) of the Hamburg respondents were aware of the psychenet campaign. Regarding the total sample, there were minor changes in attitudes. Differentiated according to campaign awareness among Hamburg respondents, those who were aware showed less desire for social distance toward a person with depression. Moreover, respondents aware of the campaign stated less often that a person with schizophrenia is in need of help. The campaign had small impact on attitudes. A substantial change in ingrained attitudes toward persons with mental health problems is difficult to achieve with interventions targeting the general public.

  3. Medical students’ sexuality – beliefs and attitudes [Seksualność studentów medycyny – przekonania i postawy

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was self-report Questionnaire on Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2 applied. Medical students filled-out the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Results. Analysis of the collected data revealed differentiation of the studied group in regard of beliefs and attitudes towards sex life, dialogue about sex in erotic relationships, and seeking for professional help. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. The following factors, which may negatively influence medical doctor’s competencies in domain of sexual health, were identified: discomfort considering their own sexuality, avoidance of sexual drive, negative moral judgment of sexual activity. Conclusions. Assessment of influence of students’ and doctors’ own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies. There is a clear indication to look for the means for prophylaxis and correction of ineffective attitudes and convictions of future doctors’, as professional sexual education or interpersonal trainings.

  4. Indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices among VhaVenda: A challenge to the promotion of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies

    F.M. Mulaudzi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.

  5. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  6. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    Aqeel Munahi Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4% of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7% had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6% respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5% stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

  8. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  9. Change in religious beliefs, parental pressure, and attitudes of college students toward higher education as related to religious fundamentalism.

    Sebby, Rickard A; Schaefer, Lisa

    2008-02-01

    Men (n = 55) and women (n = 99) college students (M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 6.1, range 18 to 58 years), from a moderate-sized midwestern university reported attitudes toward the goals and purposes of higher education, perceptions of parental pressure and support, and change in religious beliefs. The Religious Fundamentalist Scale, the Quest Scale, Faith-keeping, and Obedience to Parents Scales were also administered. Students classified as religious fundamentalists had more negative attitudes toward the goals and purposes of higher education goals and toward faculty. An interaction of Sex x Fundamentalist Classification indicated that nonfundamentalist college men reported greater change in their religious beliefs, relative to other groups. Perceptions of parental pressure or support were unrelated to scores on fundamentalism. The implications of students' religious backgrounds in relation to academic success were discussed.

  10. Survey of knowledge and attitude about AIDS among six areas

    Guo Xin; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Huang Na; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the circumstances, influencing factors, and the extent of discrimination and prejudice towards AIDS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. One county from each of the six provinces was selected. 800 respondents were then chosen from each province through cluster sampling. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to study the demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge, and related attitudes towards AIDS. Results: In this survey, 3,095 respondents (64.5%) feared AIDS; 66.5% of respondents thought AIDS patients or HIV infectors should be treated separately; 40.1% of respondents thought that AIDS patients or HIV carriers should have been confined in freedom; and 1,497 respondents (31.2%)said that they were not willing to donate to AIDS patients. Discrimination and prejudice towards AIDS among the six regions were different partially (P<0.01). Conclusion: Discrimination and prejudice commonly occur. Gender, characteristics of the registered residence, educational level, and knowledge about AIDS are the main factors related to discrimination and prejudice. Many respondents had prejudice against AIDS, because they were lacking correct knowledge about the transmission ways of AIDS. Among the six regions, discrimination and prejudice were lowest in a region in Henan province and highest in Jiangsu province.

  11. Developing a scale to measure stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about women who have abortions: results from Ghana and Zambia.

    Shellenberg, Kristen M; Hessini, Leila; Levandowski, Brooke A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the context of abortion stigma in Ghana and Zambia through qualitative research, and develop a quantitative instrument to measure stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about abortion. Ultimately, we aimed to develop a scale to measure abortion stigma at the individual and community level that can also be used in the evaluation of stigma reduction interventions. Focus group discussions were conducted in both countries to provide information around attitudes and beliefs about abortion. A 57-item instrument was created from these data, pre-tested, and then administered to 531 individuals (n = 250 in Ghana and n = 281 in Zambia). Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on 33 of the original 57 items to identify a statistically and conceptually relevant scale. Items with factor loadings > 0.39 were retained. All analyses were completed using Stata IC/11.2. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance in an 18-item instrument. The three identified subscales are: (i) negative stereotypes (eight items), (ii) discrimination and exclusion (seven items), and (iii) potential contagion (three items). Coefficient alphas of 0.85, 0.80, and 0.80 for the three subscales, and 0.90 for the full 18-item instrument provide evidence of internal consistency reliability. Our Stigmatizing Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions scale captures three important dimensions of abortion stigma: negative stereotypes about men and women who are associated with abortion, discrimination/exclusion of women who have abortions, and fear of contagion as a result of coming in contact with a woman who has had an abortion. The development of this scale provides a validated tool for measuring stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about abortion in Ghana and Zambia. Additionally, the scale has the potential to be applicable in other country settings. It represents an important contribution to the fields of reproductive

  12. Psychotherapy across languages: beliefs, attitudes and\\ud practices of monolingual and multilingual therapists\\ud with their multilingual patients

    Costa, B; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates beliefs, attitudes and practices of 101 monolingual and multilingual therapists in their interactions with multilingual patients. We adopted a\\ud mixed-method approach, using an on-line questionnaire with 27 closed questions which were analysed quantitatively and informed questions in interviews with one monolingual\\ud and two multilingual therapists. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 41% of the variance. The first dime...

  13. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Ghanem, Samia; Glaoui, Meriem; Elkhoyaali, Siham; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Boutayeb, Saber; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Morocco. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that female healthcare professionals have greater influence on women's positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice screening methods for early detection of the disease. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Morocco. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 136 female doctors and nurses working in the university hospital of Rabat, Morocco. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v19.0. Results Female doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses. PMID:22187603

  14. Developing a Leveling Framework of Mathematical Belief and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching of Indonesian Pre-Service Teachers

    Novikasari, Ifada; Darhim, Didi Suryadi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics of pre-service primary teachers (PSTs) influenced by mathematical belief and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) PSTs'. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the levels of PSTs on mathematical belief and MKT. The two research instruments used in this study were an interview-based task and a…

  15. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  16. The attitudes and beliefs of Pakistani medical practitioners about depression: a cross-sectional study in Lahore using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ

    Mark Haddad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals’ attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ. A convenience sample of 700 non-psychiatrist medical practitioners based in six hospitals in Lahore was approached to participate in the survey. Results Six hundred and one (86 % of the doctors approached consented to participate; almost all respondents (99 % endorsed one of various biopsychosocial causes of depression (38 to 79 % for particular causes, and 37 % (between 13 and 19 % for particular causes noted that supernatural forces could be responsible. Supernatural causes were more commonly held by female doctors, those working in rural settings, and those with greater psychiatry specialist education. Attitudes to depression were mostly less confident or optimistic and less inclined to a generalist perspective than those of clinicians in the UK or European nations, and deterministic perspectives that depression is a natural part of aging or due to personal failings were particularly common. However, there was substantial confidence in the efficacy of antidepressants and psychological therapy. More confident and therapeutically optimistic views and a more generalist perspective about depression management were associated with a rejection of supernatural explanations of the origin of depression. Conclusions Non

  17. Assessing attitudes, beliefs and readiness for musculoskeletal injury prevention in the construction industry.

    Village, Judy; Ostry, Aleck

    2010-10-01

    The objectives are to determine attitudes and beliefs among construction workers and supervisors related to taking action to reduce musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). "Action" stage of change was confirmed if workers in the last 6 months are continuing to take steps to reduce MSIs. Surveys (520 workers; 35% and 171 supervisors; 67%) revealed that more workers are concerned about MSIs (p<0.05) and are taking action to reduce MSIs (p<0.05) than supervisors. Workers taking action tended to be younger and less experienced than other workers (p=0.00). The final multivariate model showed those workers taking action were more likely to be mechanics and general laborers, to have experienced pain within the last week, to be involved in health and safety, to feel that changes aimed at reducing MSIs would be effective, and that injuries are due to adverse work conditions rather than with characteristics of individual workers. This information can be used to target ergonomics interventions in this industry.

  18. Validation of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Lopez-McKee, Gloria; Bader, Julia

    2011-03-21

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We'll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research.

  19. KOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS CONCERNING FEVER IN KAZIM KARABEKIR A DISTRICT AREA OF UMRANIYE

    Sebahat Dilek TORUN

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don’t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 69-76

  20. The role of attitudes toward White privilege and religious beliefs in predicting social justice interest and commitment.

    Todd, Nathan R; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Suffrin, Rachael L

    2014-03-01

    The current study examines links among attitudes toward White privilege, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment for White Christian students. Two distinct patterns of results emerged from a path analysis of 500 White Christian students. First, a willingness to confront White privilege was positively associated with the sanctification of social justice (i.e., attributing spiritual significance to working for social justice) and both were positively associated with social justice interest and commitment. Second, awareness of White privilege was negatively associated with religious conservatism, and religious conservatism was negatively associated with social justice interest. These patterns show that White privilege attitudes directly (i.e., willingness to confront White privilege) and indirectly (i.e., awareness of White privilege through religious conservatism) predicted social justice interest and commitment. Moreover, religious beliefs demonstrated opposite patterns of association with social justice interest and commitment such that the sanctification of social justice positively predicted social justice interest and commitment whereas religious conservatism negatively predicted social justice interest. Overall, findings demonstrate direct and indirect links between White privilege attitudes, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment. Limitations and implications for future community psychology research and collaboration also are discussed.

  1. I Want to Be the Inquiry Guy! How Research Experiences for Teachers Change Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values about Teaching Science as Inquiry

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Bancroft, Senetta F.; Edwards, Molly M.; Schairer, Caroline J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how and why research experiences for teachers (RETs) influenced middle and high school science teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and values about teaching science as inquiry. Changes teachers reported after participating in the RET ranged from modifying a few lessons (belief change) to a comprehensive revision of what…

  2. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP about rabies prevention and control: a community survey in Tanzania.

    Maganga Sambo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite being entirely preventable, canine rabies still kills 55,000 people/year in developing countries. Information about local beliefs and practices can identify knowledge gaps that may affect prevention practices and lead to unnecessary deaths.We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to rabies and its prevention and control amongst a cross-section of households (n = 5,141 in urban and rural areas of central, southern and northern Tanzania. Over 17% of respondents owned domestic dogs (average of 2.3 dogs/household,>95% had heard about rabies, and>80% knew that rabies is transmitted through dog bites. People who (1 had greater education, (2 originated from areas with a history of rabies interventions, (3 had experienced exposure by a suspect rabid animal, (4 were male and (5 owned dogs were more likely to have greater knowledge about the disease. Around 80% of respondents would seek hospital treatment after a suspect bite, but only 5% were aware of the need for prompt wound cleansing after a bite. Although>65% of respondents knew of dog vaccination as a means to control rabies, only 51% vaccinated their dogs. Determinants of dog vaccination included (1 being a male-headed household, (2 presence of children, (3 low economic status, (4 residing in urban areas, (5 owning livestock, (6 originating from areas with rabies interventions and (7 having purchased a dog. The majority of dog-owning respondents were willing to contribute no more than US$0.31 towards veterinary services.We identified important knowledge gaps related to, and factors influencing the prevention and control of rabies in Tanzania. Increasing knowledge regarding wound washing, seeking post-exposure prophylaxis and the need to vaccinate dogs are likely to result in more effective prevention of rabies; however, greater engagement of the veterinary and medical sectors is also needed to ensure the availability of preventative services.

  4. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    Azeem Sultan Mir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ′evil′ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher′s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  5. A Community Based Study on the Mode of Transmission, Prevention and Treatment of Buruli Ulcers in Southwest Cameroon: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices.

    Jane-Francis K T Akoachere

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a neglected tropical disease affecting the skin, tissues and in some cases the bones, caused by the environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans. Its mode of transmission is still elusive. Delayed treatment may cause irreversible disabilities with consequent social and economic impacts on the victim. Socio-cultural beliefs, practices and attitudes in endemic communities have been shown to influence timely treatment causing disease management, prevention and control a great challenge. An assessment of these factors in endemic localities is important in designing successful intervention strategies. Considering this, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding BU in three endemic localities in the South West region, Cameroon to highlight existing misconceptions that need to be addressed to enhance prompt treatment and facilitate effective prevention and control.A cross-sectional study was executed in three BU endemic health districts. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches we surveyed 320 randomly selected household heads, interviewed BU patients and conducted three focus group discussions (FGDs to obtain information on awareness, beliefs, treatment, and attitudes towards victims. The influence of socio-demographic factors on these variables was investigated.Respondents (84.4% had a good knowledge of BU though only 65% considered it a health problem while 49.4% believed it is contagious. Socio-demographic factors significantly (P<0.05 influenced awareness of BU, knowledge and practice on treatment and attitudes towards victims. Although the majority of respondents stated the hospital as the place for appropriate treatment, FGDs and some BU victims preferred witchdoctors/herbalists and prayers, and considered the hospital as the last option. We documented beliefs about the disease which could delay treatment.Though we are reporting a high level of knowledge of BU, there exist fallacies about

  6. Qualitative study of knowledge and attitudes to biobanking among lay persons in Nigeria

    Igbe Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North, Enugu (Southeast, Oyo States (Southwest and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements

  7. Salient Beliefs of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Underlying an Attitude "Liking or Disliking Physics"

    Kapucu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salient beliefs of pre-service primary school teachers (PPSTs) about why they like or dislike physics and to explore whether these beliefs predict their teaching beliefs about physics. A total of 267 PPSTs (Male = 137, Female = 130) participated in the study. Qualitative data analyses were used and the…

  8. Conservative Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Bisexuality, and Willingness to Engage in Romantic and Sexual Activities With a Bisexual Partner.

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed.

  9. Neonatal nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward caring for cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers.

    Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M

    1996-03-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak.

  10. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Confidence of Australian General Practice Registrars

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence were assessed in General Practice Registrars (GPRs throughout Australia. Of approximately 6,000 GPRs invited to complete a nutrition survey, 93 respondents (2% completed the online survey, with 89 (20 males, 69 females providing demographic and educational information. Fifty-one percent had graduated from medical school within the last two years. From a list of 11 dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk, respondents selected weight loss (84%, reducing saturated fats (90%, a maximum of two alcoholic drinks/day (82%, and increasing vegetables (83% as “highly appropriate” strategies, with only 51% indicating that salt reduction was “highly appropriate.” Two-thirds of registrars felt “moderately” (51% or “very” confident (16% providing nutrition advice. Most of them (84% recalled receiving information during training, but only 34% recalled having to demonstrate nutritional knowledge. The results indicate that this group of Australian GPRs understood most of the key dietary recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk but lacked consensus regarding the recommendation to reduce salt intake and expressed mixed levels of confidence in providing nutritional advice. Appropriate nutrition education before and after graduation is recommended for GPRs to ensure the development of skills and confidence to support patients to make healthy dietary choices and help prevent chronic diseases.

  11. Parents' beliefs and knowledge about the management of acute otitis media

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Howlett, Janine; Del Mar, Chris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media is a common reason for antibiotic prescribing, despite strong evidence that antibiotics provide minimal benefit. Studies have demonstrated that patients' (or parents') expectations of antibiotics often influence general practitioners' (GPs) decision to prescribe...... antibiotics, but few have explored parents' expectations of the management of infections in children, or which factors influence the development of these expectations. This study aimed to explore parents' knowledge and beliefs about the management of acute otitis media in children. METHODS: Individual semi...... experience and the advice of the GP. Pain relief medications, such as paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, were not considered by parents to be sufficient treatment on their own. CONCLUSION: There is discrepancy between parents' beliefs and expectations of management of acute otitis media...

  12. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  13. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  14. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  15. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  16. Pressure ulcers: knowledge and attitude of nurses and nursing assistants in Belgian nursing homes.

    Demarre, L.; Vanderwee, K.; Defloor, T.; Verhaeghe, S.; Schoonhoven, L.; Beeckman, D.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To gain insight into the knowledge and attitudes of nurses and nursing assistants and to study the correlation between knowledge, attitudes and the compliance with the pressure ulcer prevention guidelines provided to residents at risk of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: There is a

  17. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  18. Dutch dental patients on informed consent: Knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behaviour.

    Schouten, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Eijkman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior concerning informed consent regarding dental patients. 128 dental patients (mean age 41.7 yrs) completed questionnaires concerning knowledge of and attitudes and behavior toward present status, purpose and risks of treatment, treatment costs

  19. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  20. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  1. The Multifaceted Nature of Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching: Understanding the Use of Teachers' Specialized Content Knowledge and the Role of Teachers' Beliefs from a Practice-Based Perspective

    Provost, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates middle school teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) as defined by Hill (2007). Within this two-part dissertation, the level of MKT was considered as well as the role of teacher beliefs in actual specialized content knowledge (SCK) use, a specific type of mathematics knowledge for teaching vital in quality…

  2. Conspiracy beliefs and knowledge about HIV origins among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Collins, Alexandra; Closson, Kalysha; Cui, Zishan; Kanters, Steve; Chia, Jason; Barhafuma, Bernard; Palmer, Alexis; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We examined adolescents’ knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Methods Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit’s Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS). Adolescents were eligible to participate if aged 14–19 years and living in Soweto. We calculated the proportion of adolescents who correctly believed that HIV originated from non-human primates, and used contingency table analysis and logistic regression modeling to describe correlates associated with accurate knowledge and beliefs in conspiracy theories. Results Of 830 adolescents, 168 (20.2%) participants correctly identified HIV as originating from chimpanzees and one third (n = 71, 8.6%) believed in a conspiracy theory about the origins of HIV, including that it originated from the US government (2.3%), the pharmaceutical industry (2.2%), a vaccine (2.1%), space (1.5%), and a scientist (0.6%). Participants who were more likely to correctly identify the origin of HIV were older, men, and unemployed. Participants who were men, unemployed or students, and who had a parent or close relative who had died of HIV, were more likely to believe in a conspiracy theory regarding the origins of HIV. Conclusions Adolescents living in Soweto did not have high levels of accurate knowledge regarding the origins of HIV/AIDS and conspiracy beliefs were present among a small minority of participants. Accurate knowledge of the origins of HIV and debunking myths are important for improving uptake of HIV prevention tools in this population. PMID:28151937

  3. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    Odusanya Olumuyiwa O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86% believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.

  4. The knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on immunization of healthcare workers

    Zehra Karacaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of healthcare workers (HCWs working in our center about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, seasonal flu (SF and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccinations and reasons not to be vaccinated. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey conducted among HCWs of our hospital between 1 to 31 May 2014. The data were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire form consisting of 41 questions. Collected data were analyzed via SPSS 22,0, p <0.05 was considered significant Results: 219 HCWs participated in the study. The study group included 113 men. A median age of 39 years (minmax: 24-66. The median service duration of HCWs was 17 years (min-max: 1-35. Education levels of personnels were primary (primary -secondary-high school, colleges-university, master's degree-PhD ( respectively 45, 136, 38 people. The median score of correct information, the right attitude and the correct behavior were 7 (min-max: 1-10, 35 (min-max: 27-47, 5 (min-max: 0- 9, respectively. People who never got vaccinated against SF and who got vaccinated every year were calculated 46.6% and 20.1%. H1N1, HBV and measles vaccination rate were 46.6%, 82.6% and 18.3%, respectively. Not believing vaccine's protectiveness for SF (34,9%, concerned about safety for H1N1(44,4%, neglected for HBV (36,8%, got sick before for measles (36,3% were the factors most influential in refusal to get vaccinated. Conclusions: It is important that correct and sufficient information is accessed on issues such as effectiveness, side effects of vaccines in order to increase the rate of vaccination of HCWs [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 353-363

  5. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. Methods: A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs…

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of family physicians coming to COPD continuing medical education

    Barbara P Yawn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn, Peter C WollanOlmsted Medical Center, Research Department, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: COPD remains under-recognized and under-treated. Much of early COPD care is given by primary care physicians but only when COPD is recognized. This survey explores the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to COPD recognition, diagnosis, and treatment from family physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs and physician assistants (PAs working in primary care.Methods: We completed a survey of family physicians, and NPs/PAs attending one of three CME programs on five common chronic conditions including COPD.Results: Return rate was 62% (n = 284 including 178 physicians and 100 NPs/PAs. Fewer than half of the respondents reported knowledge of or use of COPD guidelines. The barriers to recognition and diagnosis of COPD they reported included the multiple morbidities of most COPD patients, failure of patients to report COPD symptoms, as well as lack of knowledge and inadequate training in COPD diagnosis and management. Three quarters (74% of respondents reported use of spirometry to diagnose COPD but only 32% said they included reversibility assessment. COPD was incorrectly assessed as a disease primarily of men (78% of respondents that appeared after age 60 (61%. Few respondents reported that they believed COPD treatment was useful or very useful for improving symptoms (15% or decreasing exacerbations (3% or that pulmonary rehabilitation was helpful (3%, but 13% reported they thought COPD treatment could extend longevity.Conclusions: Primary care physicians and NPs/PAs working in primary care continue to report lack of awareness and use of COPD guidelines, as well as correct information related to COPD epidemiology or potential benefits of available treatments including pulmonary rehabilitation. It is unlikely that diagnosis and management of COPD will improve in primary care until these knowledge gaps and discrepancies with published efficacy of

  7. Human papillomavirus infection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among lesbian, gay men, and bisexual in Italy.

    Concetta P Pelullo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of condom use by women of an impoverished urban area

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.

  9. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  10. Improving sun-safe knowledge, attitude and behaviour in parents of primary school children: a pilot study.

    Cercato, M C; Nagore, E; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Guillén, C

    2013-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p ≤ 0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p ≤ 0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p = 0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children.

  11. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household......Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  12. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults.

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.

  13. A study of masturbatory knowledge and attitudes and related factors among Taiwan adolescents.

    Wang, Rung-Jy; Huang, Yu; Lin, Yen-Chin

    2007-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masturbatory knowledge and masturbatory attitudes among Taiwan adolescents. This study was based on a structured questionnaire survey that used the Adolescent Masturbatory Knowledge Inventory (AMKI) and the Adolescent Negative Attitude toward Masturbation Inventory (ANAMI). Subjects were recruited from the third grade of high school and vocational school students aged 17-18 living in Kaohsiung (southern Taiwan) using stratified and cluster sampling approaches. Seven hundred and eighty questionnaires were sent out, with a 96.8% response rate. A total of 95.3% of male subjects and 30.3% of female subjects reported having masturbation experience. Masturbatory knowledge was significantly related to the variables "school system", "frequency of viewing pornographic media", "status of being sexually active", and "conversation about sex with friends". Masturbatory attitudes were significantly associated with the same variables as well as with gender and masturbatory behavior. Masturbatory attitudes were positively correlated with masturbatory knowledge. The school system explained 15.4% of masturbatory knowledge variance. Masturbatory knowledge, masturbatory behavior, frequency of viewing pornographic media and status of being sexually active explained 39.5% of masturbatory attitude variance. In conclusion, adolescents in Taiwan hold positive attitudes toward masturbation and reported having insufficient knowledge regarding masturbation. Results can assist school staffs and parents to gain a deeper understanding of adolescents' knowledge about and attitudes toward masturbation.

  14. Female genital mutilation: Survey of paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Zurynski, Yvonne; Moloney, Susan; Raman, Shanti; Varol, Nesrin; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to determine paediatricians' experience with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Australian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional, pilot-tested national survey of paediatricians practising in Australia and contributing to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was conducted. Clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with FGM, awareness of clinical guidelines and education/training needs were recorded. Of 1311 paediatricians surveyed, 497 (38%) responded. Fifty-seven percent were aged 50 years or more, and 51.3% were males. Over half believed that FGM was performed in children in Australia and most were aware of its complications, but few asked about or examined for FGM. Fifty (10.3%) had seen at least one case of FGM in girls aged <18 years during their clinical career, including 16 (3.3%) in the past 5 years. Most were aware that FGM is illegal in Australia (93.9%), agreed all types of FGM were harmful (97.4%) and agreed that FGM violated human rights (98.2%). Most (87.6%) perceived FGM as a traditional cultural practice, although 11.6% thought it was required by religion. The majority (81.8%) knew notification of FGM to child protection authorities was mandatory. Over half (62.0%) were aware of the WHO Statement on FGM, but only 22.0% knew the WHO classification of FGM. These novel data indicate a minority of paediatricians in Australia have clinical experience with or education about FGM. Educational programs, best-practice clinical guidelines and policies are required to address knowledge gaps and help paediatricians identify, manage and prevent FGM in children.

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals regarding alternative treatments

    Alexandros Andrikopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there seems to be an interest in complementary treatments, with the result that there is a noticeable increase in their use. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals who work in a medium-sized general hospital, regarding employing alternative treatments in everyday practice. Method and material: The sample of the study comprised of 234 healthcare professionals from a General Hospital. A special, valid and anonymous questionnaire was used. Data collection took place from March to May 2013, and the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: The majority of the participants were married (62.3% female (75.6% nurses (56.9% of higher education level (46.1%, aged 47,08 ± 9,18 years. The majority knew what alternative treatments were and how they could be applied (79.2%, n=186, while 79 persons (33.8% reported having used at least once some kind of an alternative treatment and 61.5% (n=143 of them said they were fairly/very satisfied with the results. 91% (n=211 of the participants said supervision should be necessary for the use of alternative treatments, and most of them were informed about those treatments by other healthcare professionals (38.8%, family or friends (38%, and the Internet (34,6%. Conclusions: Alternative treatments are a modern therapeutic approach that improves cooperation; healthcare professionals should acquire specialised knowledge regarding complementary treatments.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Scalingi, Stefania; Garruto, Veronica; Siclari, Marco; Chiarini, Massimiliano; Mannocci, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014–August 2015 in the Lazio region. The study was conducted by recruiting HCWs and biomedical students. The sample was comprised of 571 responders, of whom 12.4% were physicians, 18.9% were nurses, 34.3% were other HCW, and 34.3% were biomedical students (medical and nurses students). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is perceived as a risk for personal health by 457 (80%) participants; TB is also worrying (434; 76%). Moreover, HBV (70.9%) and tuberculosis (TB) (79.2%) are perceived as a risk for health, while influenza is not considered so by most participants (46.2%). There is an underestimation of the role of influenza, perceived as a risk for 137 respondents (24%). The vaccination rate among these HCWs is highest for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (82%), and lowest for influenza (28.5%) and varicella (40.3%). The vast majority of responders are in favour of HBV (77.8%) and TB (64.8%) vaccines. For other vaccinations there is less interest (between 33% and 40% for measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and influenza). This study shows that knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, with few exceptions represented by HBV and TB. There is a need for novel approaches in this field, with the aim of enhancing vaccine coverage among HCW. PMID:28272332

  17. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  18. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  19. Patient's Knowledge and Attitude towards Tuberculosis in an Urban Setting.

    Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Hoque, F M Anamul

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge of TB patients about symptoms, ways of transmission and treatment of tuberculosis, and their perception of the illness. Between March and August 2008, 762 adult TB patients were interviewed at selected DOTS centre of Dhaka city. Male and female distribution was 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. One quarter of them were illiterate, and more than half had extended family and live in a congested situation. Night fever was the most common symptom known (89.9%), and 56% were aware that it could spread through sneezing/coughing. Television was mentioned as a source of information about TB. The majority expressed a helping attitude towards other TB patients. Although most of them were positive about getting family support, 46.6% mentioned discrimination of separate utensils for food or drink. About 50.5% expressed increased sadness, 39.8% had fear of loss of job/wedges, and 21.4% felt socially neglected. Along with drug treatment the psychosocial reactions of TB patients should be addressed at DOTS centers for better control of the disease.

  20. Malaria knowledge, attitudes and practices in Malawi: survey population characteristics.

    Ettling, M; Steketee, R W; Macheso, A; Schultz, L J; Nyasulu, Y; Chitsulo, L

    1994-03-01

    A national knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey was conducted in March-April 1992 to examine malaria illness and the people's response to illness and malaria prevention. Fifty-one households in each of 30 randomly selected communities were sampled and information was recorded from 1,531 households and 7,025 individuals. The population is characterized by low income (average household and per capita income were US $490 and $122, respectively) and low education levels (among adult women, 45% had no formal education and only 3.9% completed more than 8 years of schooling). Characteristics of the population were similar to those found in the 1987 national census, suggesting that the survey population was representative of the larger population of Malawi. Children under 5 years of age made up 15.8% of the population and had the highest rates of fever illness; these children experienced an estimated 9.7 cases/year of fever illness consistent with malaria. Although adults reported fever less frequently, women of reproductive age experienced an estimated 6.9 episodes of fever annually. The burden of malaria morbidity in this population is extremely high and occurs in all age groups.

  1. Knowledge, Self-Confidence and Attitudes towards Suicidal Patients at Emergency and Psychiatric Departments: A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of an Educational Poster Campaign

    van Landschoot, Renate; Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders (n = 1171). Structured self-report questionnaires assessed the knowledge, confidence and beliefs regarding suicidal behaviour management, and attitudes. Data were analysed through a Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions. Baseline scores for knowledge and provider confidence were high. The poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide did not have an effect on knowledge about suicide and self-confidence in suicidal behaviour management. However, the poster campaign appeared to be beneficial for attitudes towards suicidal patients, but only among staff from mental health departments that were assigned to the un-pretested condition. Given the limited effects of the poster campaign in the studied population with a relatively high baseline knowledge, the evaluation of this poster as part of a multimodal educational programme in a more heterogeneous sample of health care professionals is recommended. PMID:28335446

  2. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt.

  4. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  5. Association between Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Cardiovascular Disease among Women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study ...

  6. Intentions to Move from Homelessness to Social Inclusion: The Role of Participation Beliefs, Attitudes and Prior Behaviour

    Julie Christian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key aim of homelessness services is not only to ensure that homeless people attain a secure home, but that this is a pathway to wider social inclusion. However, relatively little is known about the psychological elements that are essential for homeless people to engage with these pathways, nor whether these elements combine in ways that are predictable from previous research. In the present work, we examined both demographic and behavioural precursors, and contemporaneous psychological predictors, of a set of 49 homeless men’s intentions to engage with a programme to move them toward long-term housing and social inclusion. Contrary to predictions based on subjective utility and rational choice theories, we found that normative pressure and did not directly predict the men’s intentions. Instead, we found that intentions were predicted by their attitudes towards the services, and their specific beliefs about the benefits of particular courses of action (efficacy beliefs, and to a more restricted extent their experience (sociodemographics; and in those with high prior service use histories, only participatory beliefs guided future service use intentions. These findings suggest that it is important to focus on intentions as a highly relevant outcome of interventions, because beliefs about interventions can break the link between past behaviour or habitual service use and future service use. Such interventions may be particularly effective if they focus on the evaluative and efficacy-related aspects of behaviour over time and better understand the benefits the men evaluated the services as offering them.

  7. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Anuradha, Chandramohan, E-mail: anuradhachandramohan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Jacob, K.S., E-mail: ksjacob@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Specialist Mental Health Service for Older People, Suite 106, 64–68 Derby Street, Kingswood, Penrith 2750 (Australia); Shyamkumar, N.K., E-mail: aparnashyam@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Sridhar, Gibikote, E-mail: gibikote@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  8. Using Belief Theory to Diagnose Control Knowledge Quality. Application to cartographic generalisation

    Taillandier, Patrick; Drogoul, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Both humans and artificial systems frequently use trial and error methods to problem solving. In order to be effective, this type of strategy implies having high quality control knowledge to guide the quest for the optimal solution. Unfortunately, this control knowledge is rarely perfect. Moreover, in artificial systems-as in humans-self-evaluation of one's own knowledge is often difficult. Yet, this self-evaluation can be very useful to manage knowledge and to determine when to revise it. The objective of our work is to propose an automated approach to evaluate the quality of control knowledge in artificial systems based on a specific trial and error strategy, namely the informed tree search strategy. Our revision approach consists in analysing the system's execution logs, and in using the belief theory to evaluate the global quality of the knowledge. We present a real-world industrial application in the form of an experiment using this approach in the domain of cartographic generalisation. Thus far, the res...

  9. Association of HIV transmissions and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS

    WEN Yu-feng; WANG Hua-dong; ZHAO Cun-xi; YAO Ying-shui; YE Dong-qing; JIANG Zuo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immure deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related stigma is an obstacle to the implementation of treatment, care, and support programs for people living with HIV/AIDS. This study explored the association of the HIV knowledge with the attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV epidemic rural areas with 5355 participants. Their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS were assessed, and the associations of HIV transmission and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS were analyzed.Results Negative attitudes were significantly correlated with the HIV non-transmission knowledge and the correlation was higher than that with HIV transmission knowledge among participants who were male, 20 years old and migrant workers, students and respondents of and above junior high school. However, among those who were female, age 30 and older, illiterate with primary school education, negative attitudes were significantly associated with HIV non-transmission knowledge and the association was lower than that with HIV transmission knowledge.Conclusions HIV transmission knowledge and non-transmission knowledge have different influences on negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among different demographic subgroups.

  10. Knowledge levels and attitudes of health care professionals toward patients with hepatitis C infection

    Farahnaz Joukar; Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei; Fatemeh Soati; Panah Meskinkhoda

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study knowledge levels and attitudes of health care providers toward patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Guilan,a northern province of Iran.METHODS:This cross-sectional study was performed on 239 health care professionals from the Razi Hospital,including doctors,nurses,and operating room technicians.The questionnaires consisted of questions on demographic characteristics,knowledge levels,and attitudes toward hepatitis C patients.The questionnaire was tested in a pilot study and validated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient.Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.RESULTS:The mean ± SD knowledge score was 17.43 ± 2.65 (from a total of 22).51.9% of the participants achieved scores higher than the mean.There was a significant relationship between knowledge score and age (P =0.001),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.027).There was also a significant relationship between attitude level and age (P =0.002),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.035).Physicians were significantly more knowledgeable and showed more positive attitudes.There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores (P =0.02).CONCLUSION:Discriminatory attitudes are common among health care providers toward hepatitis C patients.It is therefore necessary to improve their knowledge level and attitude toward this disease.

  11. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.

  12. A cluster analysis to investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the clinical management system.

    Chan, M F

    2007-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.

  13. Knowledge, Belief, and Science Education - A Contribution from the Epistemology of Testimony

    Ferreira, Tiago Alfredo S.; El-Hani, Charbel N.; da Silva-Filho, Waldomiro José

    2016-07-01

    This article intends to show that the defense of "understanding" as one of the major goals of science education can be grounded on an anti-reductionist perspective on testimony as a source of knowledge. To do so, we critically revisit the discussion between Harvey Siegel and Alvin Goldman about the goals of science education, especially where it involves arguments based on the epistemology of testimony. Subsequently, we come back to a discussion between Charbel N. El-Hani and Eduardo Mortimer, on the one hand, and Michael Hoffmann, on the other, striving to strengthen the claim that rather than students' belief change, understanding should have epistemic priority as a goal of science education. Based on these two lines of discussion, we conclude that the reliance on testimony as a source of knowledge is necessary to the development of a more large and comprehensive scientific understanding by science students.

  14. Creation and Application of a Replicable Analytic Method to Determine Attitudes and Beliefs of Undergraduate Science Professors Toward the Discipline of Education

    Katherine Fogelberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed here is the creation and application of a replicable method bricolage that brings together Discourse Analysis, discourse analysis, and the theory of reasoned action to examine attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education. This method used a two-phase method for analysis. The first phase looked for phrases that could be defined as either an attitude or a belief based on definitions taken from the social psychology and communication studies literature. The second phase interpreted the overall data to explore the influences on the formation of the attitudes and beliefs as well as to support or refute the findings from Phase 1. The need for a replicable Discourse Analysis method is apparent in the education literature, as is a solid definition of what constitutes an attitude or a belief. The method outlined here provides good definitions for attitudes and beliefs, a method for extracting both constructs from the data, and incorporates an internal crystallization process for looking at and comparing emergent themes from both phases of analysis.

  15. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    Anke Fischer

    Full Text Available Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732 in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  16. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  17. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  18. Attitudes towards obesity in the Swedish general population: the role of one's own body size, weight satisfaction, and controllability beliefs about obesity.

    Hansson, Lena M; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of different socio-demographic and psychological factors with attitudes towards obesity. Individuals with different weight status (N=2436) were drawn from an annual population-based survey in Sweden, and data on attitudes towards obesity (ATOP) and predictor variables were assessed in 2008. The strongest predictor of ATOP was controllability beliefs about obesity (β=0.83). Thus, greater controllability beliefs about obesity predicted more negative attitudes. Sex and weight satisfaction were also independently associated with ATOP. However, there was no, or only a weak, association between weight satisfaction and ATOP among individuals with normal weight or overweight. And the higher the weight satisfactions of individuals with obesity, the more positive were their attitudes. It seems that stigma-reduction strategies in the general public should address the uncontrollable factors in the aetiology of obesity. However, more research is needed to understand the underlying causes of people's attitudes towards obesity.

  19. The Impact of ICT Training Through Wikis on In-Service EFL Teachers: Changes in Beliefs, Attitudes, and Competencies

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology (ICT invites teachers to abandon traditional roles and act more as mentors, exploring the new media themselves as learners and thus acting as role models for their students (Fitzpatrick & Davies, 2003. For turning students into producers of online content and creating a collaborative learning environment, wikis appear to help foreign language teachers to infuse ICT in their classrooms (Kovacic, Bubas & Zlatovic, 2007. Within this context, results from an action research project carried out in four public schools suggest that beliefs, attitudes, and competencies can be impacted positively when working on the use of new technologies with in-service English teachers.

  20. Validação para a população portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS)

    Dias, Hélia; Sim-Sim, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação para a língua portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) e suas respectivas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos: Estudo metodológico e quantitativo. Participaram 49 estudantes de enfermagem. Após o desenvolvimento da tradução do SABS, atendendo à equivalência semântica, idiomática e conceitual do conteúdo dos seus itens, procedeu-se à determinação das qualidades psicométricas. Resultados: Ao nível da confiabilidade, o...

  1. Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia in Pre-Service and In-Service Spanish-Speaking Teachers

    Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Echegaray-Bengoa, Joyce; Joshi, R. Malathesa

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated knowledge, misconceptions, and lack of information about dyslexia among pre-service (PST) and in-service (IST) Spanish-speaking teachers in Spain and Peru. Two hundred and forty-six pre-service teachers and 267 in-service teachers completed the Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia Scale (KBDDS).…

  2. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  3. Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge...

  4. Impact of a lecture about empirical bases of hypnosis on beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis among Cuban health professionals.

    Martín, Marta; Capafons, Antonio; Espejo, Begoña; Mendoza, M Elena; Guerra, Mayda; Enríquez Santos, José Angel; Díaz-Purón, Sandra; Guirado, Israel García; Castilla, Carmen Dolores Sosa

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether a lecture on hypnosis can modify attitudes and misconceptions about hypnosis. The sample consisted of 97 health professionals from institutions in Havana City, Cuba. Group 1 consisted of 46 participants who received a lecture on hypnosis. Group 2 consisted of 51 participants who received a lecture about urology. and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist was applied before and after the lecture. Results indicated that there were significant differences between the groups: Group 1 showed more positive attitudes toward hypnosis. However, both groups showed similar misconceptions about hypnosis and memory, which changed significantly in Group 1 after receiving the lecture about hypnosis but not in Group 2. Therefore, the lecture about hypnosis had a significant impact in correcting participants' misconceptions about memory and hypnosis.

  5. Attitudes and Beliefs towards Disease and Treatment in Patients with Advanced Cancer Using Anthroposophical Medicine.

    von Rohr, E.; Pampallona, S.; van Wegberg, B.; Cerny, T.; Hürny, C.; Bernhard, J.; Helwig, S.; Heusser, P.

    2000-12-01

    BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, anthroposophical medicine has a long tradition, offers a special tumor treatment, is frequently used by cancer patients, and has been approved in 1998 by the Swiss government to be reimbursed by health insurances. This popularity contrasts with the fact that to date no sound evidence of the effectiveness of anthroposophical cancer treatments exists. In this study we draw a profile on a population of patients with advanced disease attending treatment at the anthroposophical Lukas Clinic (LC) regarding patients' attitudes, experiences and expectations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All newly admitted patients with a diagnosis of locally advanced or metastasized breast, gastrointestinal, lung or gynecological cancer were recruited into a registration study. In parallel, a population of patients with the same inclusion criteria attending a conventional institution (Institute of Medical Oncology, University of Bern, IMO) was taken as a reference sample. Data were collected by means of a fully structured interview, and simple descriptive statistics was used for evaluation. RESULTS: 221 and 280 patients accrued at LC and at IMO, respectively. LC patients were mainly women (87%), had a good education (36% with completed college or university education), and were admitted on average 3.5 months after the diagnosis of advanced disease. With respect to their advanced cancer, they put very little hope in the effectiveness of conventional medicine, but expected great help from anthroposophical treatment. Compared with the reference population they cared more for psychological well-being and quality of life, but an important factor for choosing treatment at the LC was clearly the patients' strong belief in the effectiveness of anthroposophical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: With its holistic approach, anthroposophical medicine intends to provide tumor treatment together with supportive care throughout the course of the illness. To some patients this is an attractive

  6. Towards the ASEAN Community: Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Aspirations of Thai University Students

    Pinn Siraprapasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and aspirations for ASEAN among Thai university students, who are set to enter the ASEAN Community labour market and are among those most in touch with ASEAN issues. It uses data obtained from a countrywide survey and focus group discussions to identify variables that affect knowledge, attitudes, and aspirations and to explore the relationships between knowledge, attitudes, and aspirations. The quantitative analysis conducted here uses students’ fields of study, academic performance, and exposure to both ASEAN-related courses and also information and discussions about ASEAN in the mass media and public forums as predictors of their level of knowledge about ASEAN. The paper’s results confirm that positive attitudes towards ASEAN lead to positive aspirations for ASEAN. They also reveal that significant knowledge about ASEAN cannot, in isolation, adequately explain students’ attitudes towards ASEAN and does not always lead to positive attitudes. These findings and those obtained from the focus group discussions suggest that a high level of knowledge and understanding of fellow ASEAN member countries and their people – whether attained through formal or informal education or social interaction – is needed for students to develop positive attitudes and become aspiring members of the ASEAN Community.

  7. The views of registered nursing students from different cultures on attitude and knowledge regarding elderly sexuality

    Lin, Shan; Chen, Lihong; Han, Ruwang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge and the attitude of registered nursing students regarding elderly sexuality, in order to raise the awareness of sexual needs of the aging. This study also aims to identify attitude towards elderly sexuality among registered nursing students from different cultural backgrounds. The research questions of this thesis are: What is the attitude towards elderly sexuality among students from different cultural backgrounds? To what extent does reg...

  8. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Epilepsy Among Biology Teachers in Fars Province, Iran

    Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study investigates the awareness and perception on “epilepsy” amongst biology teachers in Fars province, Iran.Materials & MethodsA sample of high school biology teachers in Fars province, Iran, filled out an investigator designed questionnaire including questions about their knowledge and attitude concerning “epilepsy”. There were 17 questions in the questionnaire. Nine questions addressed the knowledge and the rest were about attitude and perception.ResultsForty two teachers completed the questionnaires. More than two-thirds of the participants had a fairly desirable awareness about the definition; whereas, only approximately 40% knew something about the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. More than two-thirds of the participants had a positive attitude towards epilepsy; however, misconceptions and negative attitudes were observed.ConclusionEducational programs for biology teachers and also other teachers are necessary to improve their knowledge, attitude and perception about epilepsy.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  11. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    N. İzzet Kurbanoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented

  12. Underuse of Breast Cancer Adjuvant Treatment: Patient Knowledge, Beliefs, and Medical Mistrust

    Bickell, Nina A.; Weidmann, Jessica; Fei, Kezhen; Lin, Jenny J.; Leventhal, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about why women with breast cancer who have surgery do not receive proven effective postsurgical adjuvant treatments. Methods We surveyed 258 women who recently underwent surgical treatment at six New York City hospitals for early-stage breast cancer about their care, knowledge, and beliefs about breast cancer and its treatment. As per national guidelines, all women should have received adjuvant treatment. Adjuvant treatment data were obtained from inpatient and outpatient charts. Factor analysis was used to create scales scored to 100 of treatment beliefs and knowledge, medical mistrust, and physician communication about treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed differences between treated and untreated women. Results Compared with treated women, untreated women were less likely to know that adjuvant therapies increase survival (on a 100-point scale; 66 v 75; P < .0001), had greater mistrust (64 v 53; P = .001), and had less self-efficacy (92 v 97; P < .05); physician communication about treatment did not affect patient knowledge of treatment benefits (r = 0.8; P = .21). Multivariate analysis found that untreated women were more likely to be 70 years or older (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.13), to have comorbidities (aRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.12), and to express mistrust in the medical delivery system (aRR, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.007), even though they were more likely to believe adjuvant treatments were beneficial (aRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99; model c, 0.84; P ≤ .0001). Conclusion Patient knowledge and beliefs about treatment and medical mistrust are mutable factors associated with underuse of effective adjuvant therapies. Physicians may improve cancer care by ensuring that discussions about adjuvant therapy include a clear presentation of the benefits, not just the risks of treatment, and by addressing patient trust in and concerns about the medical system. PMID:19770368

  13. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    Wong Daniel FK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.

  14. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  15. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  16. A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

  17. Primary teachers’ and primary pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession

    Cemalettin İpek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Abstract The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (Özgür, 1994 and the Turkish form of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Baloğlu and Karadağ, 2008 were used as data gathering instrument in the study. The study results revealed that the first grade primary pre-service teachers’ scores on the attitudes towards teaching professions were statistically higher than the scores of the fourth grade primary pre-service teachers and of the primary teachers. However, the study results indicated that the teaching self-efficacy scores of the first grade pre-service teachers were statistically lower than the teaching self-efficacy scores of the fourth grade pre-service teachers and primary teachers. On the other hand, the study results showed that females’ attitudes towards teaching profession were higher than the attitudes of their male counterparts whereas self-efficacy scores did not differentiate due to the gender of the primary pre-service teachers and primary teachers. Moreover, the study results indicated that there were not any significant correlation between the self-efficacy and attitudes scores of the pre-service teachers and primary teachers.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  19. The Students\\' Knowledge, Attitude and Performance about Prevention of Using of Ecstasy

    Mitra Zolfaghari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades because of stimulant and hallucinogenic properties of ecstasy, it has been found so many users among adolescent and youth people. The aim of present study was the study of students' knowledge, attitude and performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Method: This descriptive – analytic study has done in 400 female students of government schools of zone no. 17. The sample selected by clustering random sampling and their knowledge, attitude, and performance measured by using of researchers developed questionnaire which shown sufficient level of validity and reliability. Results: The results showed that the majority of students (41% had low knowledge, 56% had positive attitude, and 55.1% had good performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Also, there was positive relationship between students' knowledge and attitude also attitude and performance. There was also positive relationship between some of the demographic characteristics and the students' knowledge, attitude and performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Conclusion: Finding of the research showed that the students' knowledge related to use of ecstasy is low, therefore appropriate instructional intervention in order to promote the students' knowledge is necessary.

  20. Knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students in Kenya on ethics in mental health research

    Beatrice Amagune

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available untreated. As effort is made to encourage mental health (MH research as an avenue to optimise the management of mental illness,this should be accompanied by adequate knowledge, correct attitude and practice on ethical conduct of research. This study reports the knowledge and attitude among postgraduate students in Kenya on ethics in MH research. Methods. Consenting students undertaking master’s degree courses (n=40 with interest in carrying out MH research were assessed using adapted standard tools for assessing knowledge and attitude. Primary comparison is made on the level of knowledge and attitude between the different cohorts. Results. Participants undertaking postgraduate degrees in medicine, clinical psychology, pharmacy and nursing were individually scored and collectively found to have a medium (n=32, 79.5% or high (n=8, 20.5% level of knowledge. The general attitude towards most aspects of the consent process and confidentiality was observed to be appropriate. Low knowledge of international ethics guidelines was observed. Conclusion. Gaps in knowledge and attitude on ethics among the participants have been identified, and this may initiate the process of appropriate interventions necessary in maintenance of ethical practices in the management of mental illness.

  1. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  2. Enhancing knowledge and attitudes in pain management: a pain management education program for nursing home staff.

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management.

  3. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  4. Patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment: a population based study

    Harrold Leslie R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal patient self-management. Methods We identified patients (≥18 years of age cared for in the setting of a multispecialty group practice with documentation of at least one health care encounter associated with a gout diagnosis during the period 2008–2009 (n = 1346. Patients were sent a questionnaire assessing knowledge with regard to gout, beliefs about prescription medications used to treat gout, and trust in the physician. Administrative electronic health records were used to identify prescription drug use and health care utilization. Results Two hundred and forty patients returned surveys out of the 500 contacted for participation. Most were male (80%, white (94%, and aged 65 and older (66%. Only 14 (6% patients were treated by a rheumatologist. Only a minority of patients were aware of common foods known to trigger gout (e.g., seafood [23%], beef [22%], pork [7%], and beer [43%]. Of those receiving a urate-lowering medication, only 12% were aware of the short-term risks of worsening gout with initiation. These deficits were more common in those with active as compared to inactive gout. Conclusion Knowledge deficits about dietary triggers and chronic medications were common, but worse in those with active gout. More attention is needed on patient education on gout and self-management training.

  5. The environmental history in pediatric practice: a study of pediatricians' attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice

    2002-08-01

    We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who was seriously affected by an environmental exposure. Pediatricians agreed moderately strongly that environmental history-taking is useful in identifying potentially hazardous exposures and in helping prevent these exposures. Respondents reported low self-efficacy regarding environmental history-taking, discussing environmental exposures with parents, and finding diagnosis and treatment resources related to environmental exposures. The probability of self-reported history-taking varied with the specific exposure, with environmental tobacco smoke and pets most frequently queried and asbestos, mercury, formaldehyde, and radon rarely queried. The pediatricians' preferred information resources include the American Academy of Pediatrics, newsletters, and patient education materials. Pediatricians are highly interested in pediatric environmental health but report low self-efficacy in taking and following up on environmental histories. There is considerable opportunity for training in environmental history-taking and for increasing the frequency with which such histories are taken.

  6. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  7. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  8. Perceptions of early body image socialization in families: Exploring knowledge, beliefs, and strategies among mothers of preschoolers.

    Liechty, Janet M; Clarke, Samantha; Birky, Julie P; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image. Beliefs: Although 97% of participants believed weight and shape impact children's self-esteem, 63% believed preschoolers too young to have a body image. Strategies: Most participants (53%) said family was a primary influence on body image, but identified few effective strategies and 63% said they did not do anything to influence children's body image. Findings suggested family body image socialization in preschoolers is occurring outside the awareness of parents and the concept of positive body image is underdeveloped.

  9. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Mucherah W; Owino E; McCoy K

    2016-01-01

    Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most su...

  10. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  11. Attitudes and beliefs about smoking among African-American college students at historically black colleges and universities.

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Cooper, Dexter L

    2007-04-01

    Smoking rates are lower among African Americans compared to Caucasians, but African Americans have higher lung cancer mortality. Guided by the Powe Fatalism Model, this descriptive study reports on attitudes and beliefs and predictors of lifetime cigarette smoking behaviors among students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Data were collected using the Attitudes and Beliefs about Perceived Consequences of Smoking Scale and a Demographic Data Questionnaire. The majority (N = 438) were female and single. More than 50% reported trying cigarettes in their lifetime and reported smoking a whole cigarette at age 15.5 years. Only 7.5% of the sample were lifetime smokers. The likelihood that a student would smoke was 15 times greater if their friends smoked and almost seven times greater if they were not members of a Greek organization compared to other students. Males associated smoking with self-confidence, endorsed the emotional benefits and influencing factors of smoking compared to females. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing the initiation of smoking as well as cessation efforts for students at HBCUs. Campus clubs and organizations can play a vital role in long-term changes in smoking behaviors for these students.

  12. Attitudes, beliefs and perceptions regarding truth disclosure of cancer-related information in the Middle East: a review.

    Bou Khalil, Rami

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current status concerning attitudes, beliefs and/or practices of patients, family members, health professionals and/or caregivers regarding truth disclosure about a cancer diagnosis in the Greater Middle East countries. A search was done via MedLine for all publications related to this review objective. 55 publications were included emanating from Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. In the Greater Middle East region, a diagnosis of cancer is still mixed with social stigma and misperceptions related to incurability. Physicians conserve a truth disclosure policy in which from one side they respect some of the historical and cultural misperceptions about cancer and accordingly, tell the truth about cancer to one of the family members and from another side acknowledge the patients' right to know the truth and tend to disclose it for him(or her) when possible. Family members and caregivers' attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about telling the truth to the patient seem to be in favor of concealment. Discrepant results concerning physicians' and patients' evaluation of the quality of truth disclosure exist in the literature. Education programs in breaking bad news are lacking in many countries. Finally, the most important and common problem affecting truth disclosure to a patient suffering from cancer is the lack of codes and legislations concerning the patients' rights in an informed consent. Studies, legislations and training programs are needed in this domain in Middle Eastern societies.

  13. Development of the mammography beliefs and attitudes questionnaire for low-health-literacy Mexican-American women.

    Lopez-McKee, Gloria

    2010-11-24

    Low-income, low-health-literacy Mexican-American women exhibit poor mammography screening participation and are being diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer than are non-Hispanic white women. No instrument has been available to measure the impact of cultural and psycho-social factors on the intent to seek mammography screening participation in this population. In this article the author describes the development process of the English Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ) and the Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (SMBAQ). The Theory of Planned Behavior is the theoretical framework underlying these instruments designed to measure intent to seek mammography screening in low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. The process of developing the MBAQ utilized input from low-health-literacy Mexican-American women and an expert committee. The MBAQ was translated into Spanish and assessed for content validity and reading level. In the discussion, the author explains why the MBAQ and SMBAQ are appropriate tools for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women to measure their intentions to seek mammography screening. Limitations of the study and implications for practice and research are presented.

  14. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  15. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  16. Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and self efficacy of pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in a science methods course and factors responsible for possible changes

    Kazempour, Mahsa

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore changes in prospective teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy with regard to science and science teaching as a result of enrolling in an elementary science methods course and examine factors that may be responsible for instigating changes. Potential differences in the extent or types of changes experienced by students who began the course with different self-efficacy beliefs and attitude and interrelationships between the three variables were also explored. Two quantitative instruments were administered to identify two students with initial negative, neutral, and positive attitudes and self efficacy beliefs for a total of six cases. Within case analysis included a descriptive case study of each participant detailing their background experiences and initial and post attitudes, self efficacy, and beliefs about science and science teaching. All qualitative data, including pre and post interviews, student artifacts, and observation data were simultaneously analyzed using the constant comparative model for each individual in order to generate thick and rich descriptions of each case. A cross case analysis between different cases was performed to determine commonalities and differences among cases. The results of this study indicated that a science methods course employing effective teaching strategies can be influential in improving pre-service teachers' attitude and self-efficacy and help better align their beliefs with recommendations of major national science education reforms. The various influential factors instrumental in producing major changes in their attitude, self-efficacy beliefs, and views included class activities, readings, videos, weekly reflections, mini and full unit development, and collaborative work with their peers. They credited these factors with allowing them to (1) view science and science teaching in a different light, (2) find science interesting and fun to learn and

  17. Attitudes towards and Knowledge about Homosexuality among Medical Students in Zagreb

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milošević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about ...

  18. Knowledge and Attitude about AndropauseAmong General Physicians in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    Maliheh Abootalebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Andropause in men refers to the clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age and characterized by a deficiency in serum testosterone levels. With the increase in aging male population and life span in Iran and focus on quality of life, andropause will become a major health issue that needs to be addressed in order to prevent disability. The results of some research have shown that there is still low level of knowledge and attitude toward andropause among health professionals. This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians regarding andropause in 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 general physicians in Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed for assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians about andropause. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the data, and descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied for data analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge and attitude about andropause was 29.4 out of 76 and 35.1 out of 45, respectively. The findings showed a poor level of knowledge and positive attitude toward andropause among general physicians. There was a significant relationship between occupational status and knowledge about andropause (P<0.001. There was a statistically significant relationship between attitude and demographic characteristics (P<0.05.The correlation between knowledge and attitude toward andropause was not statistically significant (P=0.548. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the need for designing educational interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of andropause among general physicians.

  19. Self-Reported Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists towards Prescription of Fluoride

    Afsaneh Pakdaman; Zahra Yarahmadi; Mohammad Javad Kharazifard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude of dentists towards fluoride prescription.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted at the national annual dental congress in 2010 in Tehran-Iran. Dentists’ level of knowledge about the preventive effects of systemic and topical administration of fluoride was assessed as well as their attitudes towards its application. Self-reported practice for two paper patients (a child and an adult with high ...

  20. Using Qualitative Research Methods to Assess the Degree of Fit between Teachers' Reported Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Practical Knowledge during Teacher Education

    Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or challenging if they…