WorldWideScience

Sample records for kis aastavahetusel strencis

  1. Interactions between the toxin kid of the bacterial parD system and the antitoxins Kis and MazE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.B.; Monti, M.C.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Lemonnier, M.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.

    2007-01-01

    The proteins Kid and Kis are the toxin and antitoxin, respectively, encoded by the parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1. Kis prevents the inhibition of E. coli cell growth caused by the RNA cleavage activity of Kid. Overproduction of MazE, the chromosome-encoded homologue of Kis, has been

  2. Interactions of Kid-Kis toxin-antitoxin complexes with the parD operator-promotor region of plasmid R1 are piloted by the Kis antitoxin and tuned by the stoichiometry of Kid-Kis oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, M.C.; Hernandez-Arriaga, A.M.; Kamphuis, M.B.; Lopez-Villarejo, J.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1 encodes a toxin–antitoxin system, which is involved in plasmid stabilization. The toxin Kid inhibits cell growth by RNA degradation and its action is neutralized by the formation of a tight complex with the antitoxin Kis. A fascinating but poorly

  3. Experimental immunotargeting therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using anti-human esophageal monoclonal antibody KIS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Teruhiko; Yamana, Hideaki; Higaki, Kensaku; Fujita, Hiromasa; Shirouzu, Kazuo; Morimatsu, Minoru

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, several MoAbs with high specificity to tumor associated antigens, have been produced and investigated for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tumors. We produced murine MoAb KIS1 against human squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, and we evaluated it and its F (ab') 2 fragment for experimental radioimmunotherapy (RIT), RIT combined with hyperthermia (HT) and KIS1-vindesine (VDS) conjugate using tumor bearing nude mice. KIS1 has been shown to react specifically with an antigen of human squamous cell carcinoma. Scintigraphy produced high quality tumor images on 3 days following the injection of 131 I-KIS1F (ab') 2 . By 14 days following injection, tumor bearing mice treated with RIT+HT group showed significant tumor growth inhibition about 1.5, 2.1 and 1.7 times greater than that of the KIS1-VDS group, 131 I-intact KIS1 group and 131 I-KIS1F (ab') 2 group. These results suggest that RIT combined with hyperthermia may be clinically useful for tumor targeting therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  4. Exploiting polypharmacology for improving therapeutic outcome of kinase inhibitors (KIs): An update of recent medicinal chemistry efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Lv, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiankang

    2018-01-01

    Polypharmacology has been increasingly advocated for the therapeutic intervention in complex pathological conditions, exemplified by cancer. Although kinase inhibitors (KIs) have revolutionized the treatment for certain types of malignancies, some major medical needs remain unmet due to the relentless advance of drug resistance and insufficient efficacy of mono-target KIs. Hence, "multiple targets, multi-dimensional activities" represents an emerging paradigm for innovative anti-cancer drug discovery. Over recent years, considerable leaps have been made in pursuit of kinase-centric polypharmacological anti-cancer therapeutics, providing avenues to tackling the limitation of mono-target KIs. In the review, we summarize the clinically important mechanisms inducing KI resistance and depict a landscape of recent medicinal chemistry efforts on exploring kinase-centric polypharmacological anti-cancer agents that targeting multiple cancer-related processes. In parallel, some inevitable challenges are emphasized for the sake of more accurate and efficient drug discovery in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Leuctra kisi STEINMANN, 1968 with Leuctra quadrimaculata KIS, 1963 (Plecoptera: Leuctridae, and the first record of L. quadrimaculata from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murányi, D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Female of Leuctra kisi STEINMANN, 1968, is compared with Leuctra quadrimaculata KIS, 1963. The similarity of their characters is stated, and the distinguishing characters of the original descriptions of L. kisi is rejected. The first record of L. quadrimaculata from Ukraine is given.

  6. Mida aastavahetusel kuulatakse : Jõulu TOP 5 / Jaak Ojakäär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakäär, Jaak, 1958-2016

    1999-01-01

    Viiest populaarsemast jõlulaulust maailmas - "White Christmas" (I. Berlin), "Jingle Bells" (J. S. Pierpoint), "Santa Claus is coming to town" (F. Coots), "Silent Night" (Franz Gruber) ja "Rudolf the red-nosed reindeer" (Johnny Marks). Laulude sünnist, autoritest, esitajatest

  7. Uus trükis / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustatakse 2009. aastal ilmunud kunstiraamatuid: Leonhard Lapin : merkit ja tyhjyys; Johannes Uiga. Pühajärve maalija; Ülo Õun. Kunstnik katkeval avastusrajal; Hotell Pärnu. Rael Artel gallery; Rühmitused : koostöö võimalikkusest kaasaegses Eesti kunstis; Andy Warholi filosoofia; Me näeme teid. Foksal galerii tegevus 1966-1989; Raivo Kelomees. Postmateriaalsus kunstis; Mall. Nukke. Kollaažid; XxX ehk Artishoki aastanäitus (võrguteavik)

  8. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  9. Trükis : Kreutzwaldi pildiajakiri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusraamatukogu esitleb täna F. R. Kreutzwaldi pildiajakirja "Ma-ilm ja mõnda mis seal sees leida on" (1848-1849) faksiimiletrükki; vt. sama ka Postimees, 5. veebr., lk. 27 ja Eesti Päevaleht, 7. veebr., lk. 22

  10. KIS-RIS-PACS integration: the Marburg approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, K.J.; Schaefer, C.; Kail, S.; Roethke, M.; Zhang, L.

    2005-01-01

    When describing the development of data processing at the Department of Radiology at the Philipps University of Marburg, three phases can be identified covering the areas of patient care, education, and research as well as administrative and organizational aspects. The first phase (1987-1995) was centered on radiology and characterized by the early implementation of the radiology information system (RIS) and installation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The experiences gained during this phase led to intensive discussion on application-oriented information processing. The second phase (1996-2000) describes the changes in the general framework brought by Internet technology and international standards. The course was set for the future of data processing in the hospital setting. The phase ended with implementation of a clinical workplace system (KAS) as the basis for a comprehensive electronic patient record and the switch in radiology to an integrated RIS solution. The third phase (2001-2006) addressed further implementation and development of clinical data management in which both regular documentation of patient data and information processing not related to patients are optimized by making use of Intranet/Internet technology. It includes the hospital wide implementation of PACS and the forthcoming phase of information processing increasingly shaped by workflow and decision support. (orig.) [de

  11. Posūkis prie istorijos? Neoekspresionizmas pertvarkos laikotarpio tapyboje

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitytė, Linara

    2010-01-01

    The article explores issues that are related to the notion of history in the discourse of Lithuanian painting of the last decade of the Soviet period. The conscious appropriation of historical forms and styles was then an important idea in the art scene; this was related to international art phenomena, primarily, to the neoexpressionism that was popular in the West. The article analyses what elements were common to the local and international tendencies in art, and what the usage of the histo...

  12. Bromidotetra?kis?(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-?N 3)copper(II) bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Do??ga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  13. μ(4)-Orthothio-carbonato-tetra-kis-[tri-carbonyl-iron(I)](2 Fe-Fe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yao-Cheng; Cheng, Huan-Ren; Yuan, Li-Min; Li, Qian-Kun

    2011-11-01

    The fused bis-butterfly-shaped title compound, [Fe(4)(CS(4))(CO)(12)], possesses an orthothio-carbonate (CS(4) (4-)) ligand that acts as a bridge between two Fe(2)(CO)(6) units. A short intra-molecular S⋯S contact [2.6984 (8) and 2.6977 (8) Å] occurs in each S(2)Fe(2)(CO)(6) fragment.

  14. Mall Pendin rääkis Poola reisist / Liina Falkenberg ; foto: Miljande Pärtma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Falkenberg, Liina

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Genealoogiaseltsi Tartu osakonna juhatuse tegevliikme ja Eesti Rahva Muuseumi Sõprade Seltsi tegemiste ja toimetamiste korraldaja Mall Pendini reisimuljete õhtust 16. oktoobril Stockholmi Eesti Majas

  15. Bush vs Kerry ookeanitaguses trükisõnas / Piret Pernik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pernik, Piret

    2004-01-01

    USA juhtivate ajalehtede Financial Times, New York Times ja Washington Post hinnanguid Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendikandidaatide esinemisstiilile, hoiakutele, poliitilistele veendumustele ning suhtele religiooni

  16. Gerda Murre / Lidia Sooster

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooster, Lidia, 1926-1999

    2000-01-01

    Estonia teatri laulja Gerda Murre elust Karaganda oblastis Kiilasmäe erilaagris, kus ta oli Kiilasmäe naisteteatri kunstiline juht. (1940/41 aastavahetusel arreteeriti ebaseaduslikult ja saadeti 1941 asumisele Siberisse). Ka hilisematest kokkupuudetest Eestis

  17. Francis Picabia hilislooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Aastavahetusel Hamburgi teises Deichtorhalles olnud näitusest, kus eksponeeriti Francis Picabia (1879-1953) loomingut alates 1935. aastast. Näitus tutvustas Picabiat kui aktimaalijat, portretisti, fotograafi ja kirjameest

  18. Millest Baltimaade väljapanek rääkis ja kuidas ta kohapeal mõjus? / Tomomi Hayashi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hayashi, Tomomi, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Balti Arhitektide Liitude Assotsiatsiooni (BAUA) väljapanekust "Maakera - jaga oma visiooni ja kujunda oma keskkonna tulevikku" (autor Mark Grimitliht, kuraator Tomomi Hayashi, Eesti) Rahvusvahelise Arhitektide Liidu (UIA) maailmakongressil "Design 2050 - Beyond Disasters, through Solidarity, towards Sustainability" Tokyos 25.-28.09.2011

  19. Bromidotetra?kis?(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl?imidazole-?N 3)copper(II) bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Do??ga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry overline{4}) by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group ...

  20. Rootsi kuninganna Silvia rääkis Tartust ja ülikoolist vaid ülivõrdes / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Rootsi kuninganna Silvia osales Tartus ülikooli 375. aastapäeva pidustustel ja heategevusüritustel. Juuresoleval fotol kuninganna Silvia koos president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Tartu Ülikooli rektori Alar Karisega

  1. Šiuolaikinių lietuvių filosofų romanai: (iš)šūkis?

    OpenAIRE

    Brazauskas, Nerijus

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the intersection between philosophy and literature in presentday Lithuania, three novels by contemporary Lithuanian philosophers are analysed: Laikraštis 11 (2003) by Arvydas Juozaitis, Arkada (2006) by Tomas Kačerauskas, and O kas po to? (2006) by Loreta Anilionytė. It is attempted to envisage the specificity of philosophers' artistic thinking, peculiarities of poetics of their texts, relation with scientific works. In 2005, the polemics born in the national paper "Šia...

  2. μ4-Orthothio­carbonato-tetra­kis­[tri­carbonyl­iron(I)](2 Fe—Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yao-Cheng; Cheng, Huan-Ren; Yuan, Li-Min; Li, Qian-Kun

    2011-01-01

    The fused bis-butterfly-shaped title compound, [Fe4(CS4)(CO)12], possesses an orthothio­carbonate (CS4 4−) ligand that acts as a bridge between two Fe2(CO)6 units. A short intra­molecular S⋯S contact [2.6984 (8) and 2.6977 (8) Å] occurs in each S2Fe2(CO)6 fragment. PMID:22219779

  3. Tetra­kis[bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine-κN 2](nitrato-κO)silver(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashchenko, Yuliia; Pavlishchuk, Anna; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ag(NO3)(C10H9N3)4], the nitrate ligand is found to be disordered over two sets of positions, with occupancy factors of 0.473 (5) and 0.527 (5). The AgI ion is located in a square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by four N atoms from four bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine ligands and one O atom from a nitrate ligand. Weak inter­actions between the AgI ions and the nitrate anions acting in a monodentate mode [Ag⋯O = 2.791 (13) and 2.816 (9) Å for the major component of the nitrate ligand, and 2.865 (8) and 2.837 (8) Å for the minor component] link the complex mol­ecules into a chain along [001]. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:24764824

  4. Oma riiki peab uskuma / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    Presidendi tervitus 2006/2007. aasta vahetusel. Ilmunud ka: Postimees 3. jaan. 2007, lk. 21, pealk.: Rohkem armastust Eesti vastu; Eesti Päevaleht 3. jaan. 2007, lk. 3, pealk.: Olgem uhked oma riigi üle; Virumaa Teataja 3. jaan. lk.11, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese uusaastatervitus; lühendatult: Pärnu Postimees 3. jaan. 2007, lk. 15, pealk.: Vabariigi presidendi tervitus 2006/2007 aastavahetusel; Põhjarannik 3. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Uskumata oma riiki, pole usku iseendasse; Severnoje Poberezhje 3. jaan. 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja 4. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese uusaastatervitus; Lõunaleht 4. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Eesti presidendi uusaastatervitus; Koit 4. jaan. 2007, lk. 6 lüh., pealk.: Presidendi tervitus aastavahetusel; Harjumaa 5. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus; Kuulutaja 5. jaan. 2007, lk. 4, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2006/2007 aastavahetusel; MK-Estonija 10. jaan. 2007, lk. 8; Eesti Elu 5. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2006/2007. aastavahetusel, lk. 11, pealk.: Greeting from the President of the Republic for the turn of 2006/2007; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 11. jaan. 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Olgem uhked oma riigi üle; Vaba Eesti Sõna 4. jaan. 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: Greeting from the President of the Republic for the turn of 2006/2007; Meie Kodu 24. jaan. 2007, lk. 1, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2006/2007. aastavahetusel

  5. Me saame hakkama! / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2008/2009. aastavahetusel. Ilmunud ka: Postimees 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese uusaastatervitus; Eesti Päevaleht 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: Sajandi keerulisim aasta. Vt. samas: Muutunud aeg. Väljavõte presidendi uusaastakõnest 2007. aasta 31. detsembril; Oma Saar 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 5, pealk.: Armas rahvas!; Pärnu Postimees 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 5, pealk.: Vabariigi presidendi aastavahetuse tervitus; Võrumaa Teataja 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi presidendi tervitus aastavahetusel 2008/2009; Virumaa Teataja 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 11, pealk.: Homne on meie teha; Järva Teataja 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 2, pealk.: Me tuleme toime; Hiiu Leht : Nädalalõpp 9. jaan. 2009, lk. 6, pealk.: Armas rahvas!; Meie Maa 3. jaan. 2009, lk. 2 (tsitaat kõnest); Vaba Eesti Sõna 8. jaan. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus aastavahetusel; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 14. jaan. 2009, lk. 1, pealk.: Toomas Hendrik Ilves: Jäägem raskuste kiuste ausaks; Eesti Elu 9. jaan. 2009, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2008/2009. aastavahetusel; Meie Kodu 21. jaan. 2009, lk. 1, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2008/2009. aastavahetusel; Eesti Hääl 24. jaan. 2009, lk. 1, pealk.: EV Presidendi kõne

  6. Eestil läheb jätkuvalt hästi / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus Eesti rahvale 2007/2008. aastavahetusel Eesti Panga saalis. Ilmunud ka: Postimees 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 15, pealk.: Usalduse tugevnemise aasta; Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 9; Eesti Päevaleht 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: Eestil läheb hästi; Maaleht 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, pealk.: Meie oleme õnnelik rahvas; Virumaa Teataja 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 11, pealk.: Saame täna olla kindlamad kui kunagi varem; Pärnu Postimees 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 15, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Lõunaleht 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Põhjarannik 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 4, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Severnoje Poberezhje 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 4; Meie Maa 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi presidendi aastavahetuse tervitus; Hiiu Leht 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Presidendi tervitus; Harjumaa 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 10. jaan. 2008, lk. 2; Eesti Elu 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel (lüh.); Vaba Eesti Sõna 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel, ingl. k. lk. 12, pealk.: President of the Republic New Year Address 2008; Meie Kodu 23. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel; Eesti Rada 2008, nr. 1, lk. 3, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel. Väljavõte tervitusest ilmunud ka: Postimees 31. dets. 2008, lk. 9, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese tervitus aastavahetusel 2007/2008

  7. Genoom : ühe liigi autobiograafia kahekümne kolmes peatükis / Matt Ridley ; tõlk. Kalle Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ridley, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Järgneb nr. 5, lk. 1097-1127 ; nr. 6 lk. 1319-1351 ; nr. 7, lk. 1543-1575 ; nr. 8, lk. 1765-1799 ; nr. 9, lk. 1991-2023 ; nr. 10, lk. 2215-2247 ; nr. 11, lk. 2439-2471. Inimese genoom ehk inimgeenide täielik kogum

  8. [2,3,7,8,13,14,17,18-Octa­kis(ethyl­sulfan­yl)-5,10,15,20-porphyrazinato]zinc(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Coşkun, Naciye Yılmaz; Kılıçaslan, Fatma Aytan; Yalçın, Sabiha Manav; Büyükgüngör, Orhan; Gül, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C32H40N8S8)], the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms in a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In addition, there is a Zn⋯S contact involving a symmetry-related S atom which, when considered, forms a pseudo-square-pyramidal coordination with respect to the ZnII ion. Three of the ethyl groups are disordered over two sites with occupancy ratios of 0.841 (10):0.159 (10), 0.802 (10):0.198 (10) and 0.457 (13):0.543 (13). Weak intra­molecular C—H⋯N and C—H⋯S inter­actions contribute to the stability of the mol­ecular conformation. Inter­molecular C—H⋯S contacts, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centriod distances = 3.832 (4) and 3.850 (5) Å] contribute to the stabilization of the crystal structure. PMID:21588217

  9. [2,3,7,8,13,14,17,18-Octa-kis(ethyl-sulfan-yl)-5,10,15,20-porphyrazinato]zinc(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Coşkun, Naciye Yılmaz; Kılıçaslan, Fatma Aytan; Yalçın, Sabiha Manav; Büyükgüngör, Orhan; Gül, Ahmet

    2010-07-24

    In the title compound, [Zn(C(32)H(40)N(8)S(8))], the Zn(II) ion is coordinated by four N atoms in a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In addition, there is a Zn⋯S contact involving a symmetry-related S atom which, when considered, forms a pseudo-square-pyramidal coordination with respect to the Zn(II) ion. Three of the ethyl groups are disordered over two sites with occupancy ratios of 0.841 (10):0.159 (10), 0.802 (10):0.198 (10) and 0.457 (13):0.543 (13). Weak intra-molecular C-H⋯N and C-H⋯S inter-actions contribute to the stability of the mol-ecular conformation. Inter-molecular C-H⋯S contacts, weak C-H⋯π inter-actions and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centriod distances = 3.832 (4) and 3.850 (5) Å] contribute to the stabilization of the crystal structure.

  10. [2,3,7,8,13,14,17,18-Octa?kis(ethyl?sulfan?yl)-5,10,15,20-porphyrazinato]zinc(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Co?kun, Naciye Y?lmaz; K?l??aslan, Fatma Aytan; Yal??n, Sabiha Manav; B?y?kg?ng?r, Orhan; G?l, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C32H40N8S8)], the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms in a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In addition, there is a Zn...S contact involving a symmetry-related S atom which, when considered, forms a pseudo-square-pyramidal coordination with respect to the ZnII ion. Three of the ethyl groups are disordered over two sites with occupancy ratios of 0.841 (10):0.159 (10), 0.802 (10):0.198 (10) and 0.457 (...

  11. Tetra­kis(aceto­nitrile)copper(I) hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid–aceto­nitrile (1/0.5/0.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royappa, A. Timothy; Stepherson, Jacob R.; Vu, Oliver D.; Royappa, Andrew D.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Müller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(CH3CN)4](C2HO4)·0.5C2H2O4·0.5CH3CN, the CuI ion is coordinated by the N atoms of four aceto­nitrile ligands in a slightly distorted tetra­hedral environment. The oxalic acid mol­ecule lies across an inversion center. The aceto­nitrile solvent mol­ecule is disordered across an inversion center and was refined with half occupancy. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate anions and oxalic acid mol­ecules are linked via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. PMID:24098175

  12. Tetra-kis(2,2'-bipyrid-ine)di-μ(3)-hydroxido-bis(μ-2-oxidobenzoato)tetra-copper(II) dinitrate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Miao; Gu, Chao; Mi, Huai-Feng; Hu, Tong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The tetra-nuclear title complex, [Cu(4)(C(7)H(4)O(3))(2)(OH)(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(4)](NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, has a crystallographically imposed centre of symmetry. The Cu(II) atoms display a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry and are linked by two μ(2)-phenolate O atoms from the salicylate ligands and two μ(3)-hydroxo groups, forming a Cu(4)O(4) core that adopts a 'stepped-cubane' geometry. In the crystal, the cations are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the nitrate anions, which are in turn connected via O-H⋯O inter-actions to centrosymmentric water tetra-mers.

  13. Ikka very best / Laur Uudam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uudam, Laur

    2008-01-01

    Autor kritiseerib president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnet 2007/2008. aastavahetusel. Vt. samas juhtkiri: Elagu Soome! SL Õhtuleht võrdleb Eesti presidendi kõnet Soome presidendi Tarja Haloneni pöördumisega 1. jaanuaril 2008. Lisatud karikatuur

  14. Pyridinium bis­(pyridine-κN)tetra­kis­(thio­cyanato-κN)ferrate(III)–pyrazine-2-carbo­nitrile–pyridine (1/4/1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylin, Sergii I.; Gural’skiy, Il’ya A.; Haukka, Matti; Golenya, Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, (C5H6N)[Fe(NCS)4(C5H5N)2]·4C5H3N3·C5H5N, the FeIII ion is located on an inversion centre and is six-coordinated by four N atoms of the thio­cyanate ligands and two pyridine N atoms in a trans arrangement, forming a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. A half-occupied H atom attached to a pyridinium cation forms an N—H⋯N hydrogen bond with a centrosymmetrically-related pyridine unit. Four pyrazine-2-carbo­nitrile mol­ecules crystallize per complex anion. In the crystal, π–π stacking inter­actions are present [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6220 (9), 3.6930 (9), 3.5532 (9), 3.5803 (9) and 3.5458 (8) Å]. PMID:23723782

  15. Muusikamaailm : Gaudeamuse muusikanädal Amsterdamis. The Last Night of the Prom"s. Uusaastakontsert tuleb Uus-Meremaalt. Baieri Riigiooperi orkestri Euroopa reis. Kimanen jääb aastaks eemale Kuhmost / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    12. sept. lõppes Amsterdamis Gaudeamuse rahvusvaheline muusikanädal "Surprising New Sounds". Promenaadikontserdid Londoni Royal Albert Hallis (16.07-11.09) lõppesid suure lõppkontserdiga. Traditsioonilise uusaastakontserdi asemel Viinis kantakse sel aastavahetusel üle kontsert Uus-Meremaalt Gisborne"ist. Seoses R. Straussi mälestusaastapäevaga toimus Baieri Riigiooperi orkestri ringreis Euroopas. 30 aastat Kuhmo kammermuusikafestivali juhtinud S. Kimanen võtab aasta puhkust

  16. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  17. Drosophila Kismet regulates histone H3 lysine 27 methylation and early elongation by RNA polymerase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividhya Srinivasan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb and trithorax group proteins regulate cellular pluripotency and differentiation by maintaining hereditable states of transcription. Many Polycomb and trithorax group proteins have been implicated in the covalent modification or remodeling of chromatin, but how they interact with each other and the general transcription machinery to regulate transcription is not well understood. The trithorax group protein Kismet-L (KIS-L is a member of the CHD subfamily of chromatin-remodeling factors that plays a global role in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II. Mutations in CHD7, the human counterpart of kis, are associated with CHARGE syndrome, a developmental disorder affecting multiple tissues and organs. To clarify how KIS-L activates gene expression and counteracts Polycomb group silencing, we characterized defects resulting from the loss of KIS-L function in Drosophila. These studies revealed that KIS-L acts downstream of P-TEFb recruitment to stimulate elongation by Pol II. The presence of two chromodomains in KIS-L suggested that its recruitment or function might be regulated by the methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by the trithorax group proteins ASH1 and TRX. Although we observed significant overlap between the distributions of KIS-L, ASH1, and TRX on polytene chromosomes, KIS-L did not bind methylated histone tails in vitro, and loss of TRX or ASH1 function did not alter the association of KIS-L with chromatin. By contrast, loss of kis function led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of TRX and ASH1 associated with chromatin and was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 27 methylation-a modification required for Polycomb group repression. A similar increase in H3 lysine 27 methylation was observed in ash1 and trx mutant larvae. Our findings suggest that KIS-L promotes early elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression by recruiting the ASH1 and TRX histone methyltransferases to chromatin.

  18. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  19. Determination of penicillin-G procaine in kidney, muscle, serum, and urine of heavy sows after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) recently adapted the use of the Charm Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS) test for screening antibiotics on-site, along with a LC-MS/MS method for confirmation of KIS-positive samples. A study with 126 heavy sows (227.0 ...

  20. Self-help is key to recovery

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    31. oktoobril Kopenhaagenis toimunud Balti- ja Põhjamaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti Euroopa majandusolukorrast. Peaminister Andrus Ansip rääkis ka Eesti hiljutistest kogemustest majanduskriisist väljatulemisel

  1. Huvilised sukeldusid nahkhiirte maailma / Vello Jaska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaska, Vello, 1949-

    2012-01-01

    Taageperas Kivimäe turismitalus toimunud looduslaagris rääkis nahkhiirtest Tallinna Ülikooli lektor, MTÜ Suurkõrv spetsialist Triinu Tõrv, looduslaagri korraldas Ala põhikooli õpetaja Evelyn Tamm

  2. Reklaamitööstus teeb naise kehast universaalse märgi / Veljo Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Veljo

    2005-01-01

    Piret Räni ühiskonnakriitiline näitus "Hello friend, are you impotent?" Eesti Kunstiakadeemia galeriis. Näha digitrükis kollaazhipannood ning fotouurimus naise keha kasutamisest ruumis ja meedias

  3. Jõhvi kiriku eelmise altari küljes kuni aastani 1900 olnud Balti aadli vapid on taastatud ja kirikusaali seintele kinnitatud / Peeter Kaldur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldur, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    29. IX vapid õnnistati, avati vappide osadega vitriinid. Vappide avamisele eelnenud konverentsil tutvustas vappe Vallo Reimaa, Porkuni linnusest rääkis Jevgeni Kaljundi, Jõhvi kiriku orelist Peeter Kaldur, E. Bornhöhe Jõhvi perioodist Peeter Olesk

  4. U Jevropõ - dve skorosti / Aleksandr Shegedin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shegedin, Aleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Endise Euroopa Komisjoni esimehe ja praeguse Itaalia peaministri Romano Prodi intervjuust internetiportaalile EuroActiv. Prodi viitas Euroopa Liidu kahestumisele, rääkis Euroopa põhiseadusleppest ja ühtsest energeetikapoliitikast

  5. Ilves critical of 'Old Europe'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud Balti Assamblee 20. aastapäeva konverentsil "The Baltic Ways: 20 Years on. Closing the Gaps in the Baltic Sea Region" rääkis president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Baltimaade regionaalkoostööst

  6. Varakambri lahtine värav / Katrin Kaugver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugver, Katrin, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Uppsalas toimunud CERL-i (Consortium of European Research Libraries) vanaraamatu seminar "Käsikiri, trükis ja internet", kus TLÜ professor Tiiu Reimo andis ülevaate meie raamatukogude ja arhiivide vanatrükiste kogudest

  7. Muzei rabotajet otlitshno! / Anna Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Peterburi Vene Muuseumi Kohtla-Järve virtuaalse filiaali "Vene muuseum : Virtuaalne filiaal" tööst rääkis oma ettekandes rahvusvahelisel muuseumide ümarlaual Peterburis filiaali juhataja Nadezhda Arikainen

  8. Gordoni koolitused / Steve Emmons

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Emmons, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Gordoni metodoloogia Master Trainer rääkis oma Eestis toimunud koolitusel põhilistest suhtlemisvigadest, Gordoni koolitustel õpitavast ning suhtlemisoskuse olulisusest organisatsiooni töökliimale

  9. Tom Russell: "Õpetajakoolitust tuleks alustada praktikast" / Liisa Lumiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiste, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Eduko programmi raames Tallinna Ülikoolis toimunud avalikul loengul rääkis Kanada kasvatusteadlane Tom Russell praktika tähtsusest õpetajakoolituses ja viis läbi meistriklassi õpetajakoolituse õppejõududele

  10. Asevälisminister Tshizhov avas Vene kaardid / Vladimir Tshizhov ; interv. Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tshizhov, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Vene asevälisminister rääkis visiidil Tallinna ajakirjanikele Venemaa murest seoses EL-i laienemisega euroliidu-Venemaa partnerluslepingust, Eesti-Vene suhetest, slaavi vähemustest Eestis, NATO kohustustest Venemaa suhtes

  11. Piret Raud IBBY aunimekirjas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    IBBY aunimekiri (IBBY Honour) on iga kahe aasta tagant ilmuv trükis, kuhu kantakse IBBY (International Board on Books for Young People) liikmesmaade parimad lastekirjanikud, lasteraamatute illustraatorid ja tõlkijad

  12. Anne-Marie Sargueil: ilu on kasulik / intervjueerinud Emilie Toomela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sargueil, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prantsuse Disainiinstituudi juht Anne-Marie Sargueil rääkis prantsuse ja skandinaavia disainist, prantslaste disainieelistustest, uutest suundadest disaini valdkonnas, Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis avatud näitusest "20 prantsuse disainiikooni"

  13. Gruusia sunnib NATOt kärmelt enda kaitsmisele mõtlema / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    USA suursaadiku NATO juures Kurt Volkeri mõtteid ajalehest Financial Times, kus ta rääkis NATO kaitsepoliitikast ja Balti riikide kaitsmisest. Kaitseministeeriumi kantsleri Lauri Almanni selgitusi NATO kaitseplaanide kohta

  14. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis Ecologenia® 17β-Estradiol (E2) Microplate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This verification test was conducted according to procedures specifiedin the Test/QA Planfor Verification of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kis for the Quantitative Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) in Aqueous Phase Samples. Deviations to the...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results: ... children to participate in vaccine trials is critical. Very few .... A few FGDs and KIs also referred to an incident where children ...

  16. Sogenbits: Industry 4.0 on muutunud ülioluliseks / Emöke Sogenbits ; [üles kirjutanud] Harro Puusild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sogenbits, Emöke, 1962-

    2017-01-01

    "Industry 4.0 on minu jaoks muutunud ülioluliseks,” rääkis Hanza Mechanics Tartu tegevjuht Emöke Sogenbits Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse IMECC korraldatud seminaril “Robotid ja automatiseerimine”

  17. Baltoscandalistide massiline meeleavaldus : Hitler inglise moodi ja tantsuteater spordikirikus / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    2000-01-01

    Meeldejäävaimaid "teatripärleid" Rakvere teatrifestivalilt "Baltoscandal 2000" : ameerika New York Wyoming Dance Theatre Projecti all tegutseva Pat Creminsi tantsuõhtu ja inglase Pit Upponi kehastatud Hitler monotükis "Adolf"

  18. Tere tulemast koju, papa Jannsen! / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves avas Pärnus Rüütli tänaval kultuuritegelase Johann Voldemar Jannseni pronksskulptuuri, autor Mati Karmin. Riigipea rääkis kuju avamisel ajakirjanduse rollist ja vastutusest

  19. Mehed ei peaks soolist võrdõiguslikkust kartma / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Pärnu, Linnaleht : Tartu 25. mai, lk. B5. Hiljuti peetud foorumil "Kuidas elab Eesti naine?" rääkis sotsioloog Iris Pettai soolise võrdõiguslikkuse teadvustamisest ning soorollide arengust Eestis

  20. Markko Märtin : sain maailma parima kaardilugeja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Markko Märtin rääkis ajakirjale Autosport traagilisest avariist ja hukkunud kaardilugejast Michael Parkist. Michael Parki meenutavad: Robert Reid, Paul Turner, Sebastien Loeb, David Higgins, Malcolm Wilson, Daniel Elena, David Evans

  1. Jaanus Samma In the Studio / intervjueerinud Travis Jeppesen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samma, Jaanus, 1982-

    2015-01-01

    Jaanus Samma loomingust. Piltmustriga kudumite näitus "Kampsunipood Hair Sucks" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis. Siiditrükis fotod basseinidest, millel on veepind kaetud litritega. Jaanus Samma kunstiprojekt "NFSV. Esimehe lugu" 56. Venezia biennaalil

  2. Hariduspoliitika tekitab peavalu kõigile Euroopa liidu riikidele / Nikolaus van der Pas ; interv. Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pas, Nikolaus van der

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni Hariduse ja Kultuuri Peadirektoraadi direktor külastas Eestit ja rääkis Balti riikide haridussüsteemi kindlustamisest, eluaegse õppe tagamisest ja hariduse rahastamisest. Kommenteerib Made Kirtsi

  3. Effects of 31 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors on isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Salminen, Alec; Yang, Xi; Luo, Yong; Wu, Qiangen; White, Matthew; Greenhaw, James; Ren, Lijun; Bryant, Matthew; Salminen, William; Papoian, Thomas; Mattes, William; Shi, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with six having black box warnings for hepatotoxicity (BBW-H) in product labeling. The precise mechanisms and risk factors for KI-induced hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Here, the 31 KIs were tested in isolated rat liver mitochondria, an in vitro system recently proposed to be a useful tool to predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans. The KIs were incubated with mitochondria or submitochondrial particles at concentrations ranging from therapeutic maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) levels to 100-fold Cmax levels. Ten endpoints were measured, including oxygen consumption rate, inner membrane potential, cytochrome c release, swelling, reactive oxygen species, and individual respiratory chain complex (I-V) activities. Of the 31 KIs examined only three including sorafenib, regorafenib and pazopanib, all of which are hepatotoxic, caused significant mitochondrial toxicity at concentrations equal to the Cmax, indicating that mitochondrial toxicity likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity associated with these KIs. At concentrations equal to 100-fold Cmax, 18 KIs were found to be toxic to mitochondria, and among six KIs with BBW-H, mitochondrial injury was induced by regorafenib, lapatinib, idelalisib, and pazopanib, but not ponatinib, or sunitinib. Mitochondrial liability at 100-fold Cmax had a positive predictive power (PPV) of 72% and negative predictive power (NPV) of 33% in predicting human KI hepatotoxicity as defined by product labeling, with the sensitivity and specificity being 62% and 44%, respectively. Similar predictive power was obtained using the criterion of Cmax ≥1.1 µM or daily dose ≥100 mg. Mitochondrial liability at 1-2.5-fold Cmax showed a 100% PPV and specificity, though the NPV and sensitivity were 32% and 14%, respectively. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into KI hepatotoxicity and indicate that

  4. Proposal of a concept of the land brigade C4ISR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M.Manjak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of a concept of the land brigade command information system that is a product of the research work of numerous experts throughout the years done in the then-Yugoslav Army, Army of Serbia and Montenegro and today's Army of the Republic of Serbia. The institution formed for this purpose is the Centre for Command Information Systems and Information Support where command information systems are studied continuously and systematically. Today the KIS represents a primary source needed to obtain an efficient military command management system and an instrument for multiplying combat power without increasing the number of units and combat resources. The KIS is a complex multidisciplinary system requiring the implementation of prototype evolution methodology. Due to its complexity, importance end sensitivity, the KIS has to be realized in one's own military R&D institutions belonging to the Ministry of defense, because only these institutions have adequate knowledge and facilities. Fast and ad-hoc solutions in this area are unacceptable from the military, specialized and economic point of view. The primary KIS br KoV structure concept relies on six types of KIS, five technical subsystems and a number of adequate information systems. The key segment are technical systems that represent one open technical and technological (hardware and software platform in the realization of any KIS type. The KIS is a dynamic permanent system following the users' needs and technical technology changes. It is not, therefore, a closed and finally defined system, it is the system in continuous evolution, under construction and implementations. Introduction The concept described in this paper is the result of work of numerous people, authors included, engaged in the last twenty years of KIS research. The real balance of forces in combat does not depend so much on the potentials of warring parties but rather on the efficiency of command of

  5. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Repeatability and Accuracy of Turbine Rig Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Ratio of Ptip/Pto (87 87 SYMBOL DEFINITION Pl/PTO Pressure Ratio of P1/Pto P-HUB/PTO Pressure Ratio of Phub /Pto KIS Isentropic Head Coefficient TURB...60.717 634.4 16.697 22.734 16.806 16.903 PT. PTIP/PTO P1/PTO PHUB /PTO KIS TURB RE DEL T ETA 1 0.289 0.243 0.203 13.614 2280990 119.57 0.655 2 0.298 0.245...PT. PTIP/PTO P1/PTO PHUB /PTO KIS TURS RE DEL T ETA 1 0.289 0.241 0.202 13.625 2861040 121.63 8.653 2 0.298 8.238 8.218 11.511 2988368 129.66 0.685 3

  7. Identifikacija ocetnokislinskih bakterij iz industrijske proizvodnje jabolčnega kisa na osnovi medgenske regije 16S-23S rDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Mori Štornik, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Zavedanje ljudi o pomembnosti uživanja zdrave hrane postaja vedno močnejše, zato se v zadnjih letih povečuje trend uživanja živil, pridobljenih iz surovin, ki so čim manj izpostavljene kemikalijam, npr. s škropljenjem. Tudi kis, kot eden izmed pogosto uporabljenih dodatkov k hrani, se lahko pridobiva iz jabolk, ki so pridelana na konvencionalen način, s škropljenjem, ali pa brez škropljenja, s čimer pridobimo bio-jabolčni kis. V okviru te magistrske naloge smo primerjali mikrobioto iz industr...

  8. Kotler : edukate firmade juhid ei ole karismaatilised / Katrin Rohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohtla, Katrin, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 6. juuni lk. 8. Turundusguru Philip Kotler rääkis Tallinnas konverentsil uutest müügi- ja turundusstrateegiatest. Vt. samas: Sirje Rank. Kotler tõstis esile turunduse väärtuse

  9. Anne Veesaar astus Valgas üles uudses rollis / Jaan Rapp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rapp, Jaan

    2010-01-01

    2010. aasta iga kuu viimasel reedel esitab näitlejanna Anne Veesaar Raadio Ruudus katkendeid Valgamaa kirjanike loomingust. 14. jaanuaril kohtumisel lugejatega rääkis Valgas sündinud näitlejanna oma elulooraamatust "Anne Veesaar : elus, see on kõige tähtsam", mille on kirja pannud Helen Eelrand, ja oma praegustest tegemistest

  10. Pärnus sündis maailmarekord / Valdo Jahilo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jahilo, Valdo, 1972-

    2000-01-01

    Grillfest 2000 raames peeti 24. juunil Pärnus rekordite päev, kus maailma ja Eesti tippmarki prooviti püstitada nii õllekastidel ronimises kui toore muna paarisloopimises. Ainsa maailmarekordi omanikuks sai humorist Erkki Kõlu, kes rääkis tunniga 505 anekdooti

  11. Paroc Group kavandab Baltimaadesse tootmisliini / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2005-01-01

    Soome ehituskontserni Paroc Group president ja tegevdirektor Peder Biese rääkis ettevõtte plaanidest Baltimaades, tutvustas ajakirjanikele 2006. aastal jõustuvat direktiivi, mis kohustab ka Eestit vähendama aastaks 2010 atmosfääri paisatava CO₂ kogust 8% võrra, ning andis ülevaate direktiivi võimalikest mõjudest Eesti ehitusturule

  12. YLE TV teeb koos Oksasega KGB-filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Sofi Oksanen külastas koos YLE TV võttegrupiga Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilist Raamatukogu. YLE teeb filmi Eesti NSV KGB tegevusest ja vastupropagandast. Väliseesti kirjanduse keskuse juhataja Anne Valmas rääkis raamatukogu kinnise osakonna ja selle propagandisti Andrus Roolahe tegevusest

  13. Ice stream behaviour and deglaciation of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in the Kuittijärvi area, Russian Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha-Pekka Lunkka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial landforms of the Lake Kuittijärvi area, Russian Karelia, which covers an area of more than 7000 km^2, were studied in detail using aerial photography and satellite imagery methods and on-site field observations. This was done to reconstruct a detailed historyof Scandinavian ice sheet behaviour in the Lake Kuittijärvi area. The results indicate that the Lake Tuoppajärvi sub-ice stream (TIS that formed the northern part of the Kuusamo-White Sea ice stream and the Lake Kuittijärvi sub-ice stream (KIS, which was part of theNorthern Karelian ice stream, operated in the area during the last deglaciation. Subglacially formed lineation patterns associated with other indicative landforms such as end moraines and esker ridges indicate a clear age relationship between the ice streams’ activity and that the KIS was active after the linear landforms were created by the TIS. It is estimated that deglaciation of the TIS from the Kalevala end moraine to the Lake Pääjärvi end moraine took place between ca. 11 300 – 10 900 calendar years ago. It seems that the terminus of the KIS marker by the Kalevala end moraine was also formed around 11 300 calendar years ago but the KIS remained active longer than the TIS. Both of these sub-ice streams terminated into a glacial lake that was part of a larger White Sea Basin ice lake.

  14. Brussels talks about finances, Libya and nukes / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    24.-25. märtsil Brüsselis toimunud Euroopa Ülemkogust osavõtnud Leedu president Dalia Grybauskaite rääkis Valgevenesse rajatavast tuumajaamast ja selle ohust. Kohtumisel kiideti heaks ka stabiilsusmehhanismi ja euroala pakt

  15. MID idjot v nastuplenije / Aleksandra Manukjan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manukjan, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Välisminister Kristiina Ojuland tegi kokkuvõtte välisministeeriumi poolaasta tööst, rääkis Venemaaga piirilepingu allakirjutamisest, Venemaa süüdistustest vähemusrahvuste olukorra pärast, Tšetšeeni lastele viisade mitteandmisest

  16. Trükitud majad : korterelamu Pariisis / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Tänaste fassaadide keerukusest, paindlikkusest, vastuolulisusest. Trükitud klaasist fassaadi näiteks toodud elamu uue Pariisi Rahvusraamatukogu kõrval. Hoone pinna moodustavad suured värvitrükis klaaspaneelid, molle motiivid on laenatud renessanssmaalidelt. Katkematu lindina jooksevad ümber maja etteulatuvad metallrõdud.

  17. Taani farmerid palkavad venelasi / Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lättemäe, Silja, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Taanis Herningis toimunud 30. põllumajandusnäitusel Agromek rääkis Euroopa Liidu talunike organisatsiooni COPA ja Taani põllumajandusnõukogu president Peter Gaemelke Taani tööturu avamisest Euroopa Liidu uute liikmesriikide kodanikele, Taani põllumajandusest ning koostööst Ida- ja Kesk-Euroopaga

  18. Pojezd "Ankara - Brüssel" / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Türgi riigiminister Ali Babacan, kes on ka Türgi ja Euroopa Liidu vaheliste liitumisläbirääkimiste Türgi delegatsiooni juht, külastas Eestit ning rääkis Türgi reformidest Euroopa Liidu kandidaatriigina

  19. 77 FR 39895 - New Analytic Methods and Sampling Procedures for the United States National Residue Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... implemented the newest in- plant screen (Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS TM ) test) in 2009, and since then, the... for developing information that will support future policy development within the NRP. FSIS is... are present; (5) it is prone to unknown microbial inhibition responses; (6) it takes a team of...

  20. Key informant perceptions of vision loss in children and implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A population-based study on the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment was conducted using the KI method. KIs were selected by their communities and trained in advocacy, identifi cation and referral of children with visual impairment. Prior to the KI training, ...

  1. Koolirõõmuta kool on lapsele kui sunnitöö / Ene-Silvia Sarv ; intervjueerinud Karin Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Ene-Silvia, 1945-

    2013-01-01

    Intervjuu Pärnus hariduskonverentsil "Õnnelik õpilane, õnnelik õpetaja" esinenud Tallinna ülikooli lektori Ene-Silvia Sarvega, kes rääkis oma ettekandes, milline paistab tänapäeva kool õpilaste silme läbi ja mis mõjutab koolikliimat kõige enam

  2. Estonia and Finland are fertile grounds for each other's enterprise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves rääkis Soome presidendi Tarja Haloneni poolt tema auks korraldatud lõunasöögil Soome ja Eesti sidemetest läbi ajaloo. Vabariigi President riigivisiidil Soome Vabariiki 14.-16.03.2007

  3. Structural and functional analysis of the kid toxin protein from E. coli Plasmid R1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hargreaves, D.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Giraldo, R.; Sabariegos-Jareño, R.; de la Cueva-Méndez, G.; Boelens, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070151407; Díaz-Orejas, R.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined the structure of Kid toxin protein from E. coli plasmid R1 involved in stable plasmid inheritance by postsegregational killing of plasmid-less daughter cells. Kid forms a two-component system with its antagonist, Kis antitoxin. Our 1.4 Å crystal structure of Kid reveals a 2-fold

  4. Comparison of Lateral Flow Assay, Kidney Inhibition Swab, and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Penicillin G Residues in Sow Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Chakrabarty, Shubhashis; Smith, David J

    2017-03-01

    Sows (n = 126) were administered penicillin G; urine, collected at slaughter, was screened by kidney inhibition swab (KIS; 4 h testing time) and then stored at -80 °C (∼1200 days) until analysis by lateral flow assay (LF, ∼5 min testing time) and tandem quadrupole LC-MS/MS (TQ) analysis. The stability of penicillin in urine during storage was verified using TQ analyses. Quantitative results were well-correlated (R 2 = 0.98) with only a ∼10% decrease in penicillin concentration during the 3-year storage period. KIS retesting of stored samples returned results consistent with the original analyses. Lateral flow assay results were highly correlated with the KIS and TQ results. A KIS positive sample, which was not confirmed by TQ or LF, was assayed by Triple-TOF LC-MS to determine the cause of the apparent false positive. This study suggests LF can be used to quickly and efficiently screen for penicillin G residues before slaughter.

  5. Elamise tornist fantaasiamaastikuni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Vitra Disainimuuseumi avanäitus taani disainer Verner Pantoni loomingust: ühes tükis täisplastist tooli looja, mööbel-skulptuurid, elukeskkonna mõtestamine, kolmemõõtmelise ruumi täielik ekspluateerimine

  6. Taagepera avastas mõned loodusseadused / Margus Välja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Välja, Margus, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti teadlane Rein Taagepera rääkis Los Angelese Eesti Majas kolmest ühiskondlikust loodusseadusest, mille avastamisel võis olla määrav tähtsus, et talle anti 2008. a. Uppsala ülikooli Skytte sihtasutuse väljaantav Skytte auhind

  7. Estonia's minds key, says president / David Williamson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves rääkis oma külaskäigul Walesi Eesti majanduslikust ja infotehnoloogilisest arengust, Venemaa kasvavast autoritaarsusest, rahvusvahelise õiguse tähtsusest väikeriikide kaitsel. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ühendkuningriigis 15.-17.10.2008

  8. President Ilves külas Tampa, Floridas / Jüri Linask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linask, Jüri

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest Lõuna-Florida Tampa ülikoolis (University of South Florida School of Business). Riigipea rääkis Eesti majandustõusust ja tehnoloogilisest arengust, NATO küberkaitsekeskuse asutamisest Tallinnas ning vastas kuulajate küsimustele. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  9. Rapid assessment of drug use and sexual HIV risk patterns among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-injection drug use (mainly cannabis, methaqualone, crack cocaine and crystal methamphetamine) and injection drug use (mainly heroin) was occurring in these cities. Drug users report selling sex for money to buy drugs, and CSWs used drugs before, during and after sex. Most (70%) of the drug-using KIs offered HIV ...

  10. Põhjamaade kunsti korraliku välimääraja leiab Kumust / Siram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siram, pseud., 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Näitus "I Love Malmö" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 17. jaanuarini 2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Maria-Kristiina Soomre. Eksponeeritakse valikut Malmö kunstimuuseumi kogudest. Andy Warholilt on näitusel neli Mao Zedongi siiditrükis portreed. Joseph Beuys'i loomingust eksponeeritakse "Haisuskulptuuri". Nimetatud eksponeeritud töid ja nende autoreid

  11. Põhjamaisus puust ja punaseks / Jarmo Kauge, Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kauge, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Näitus "New Nordic - Architecture and Identity" ("Uus põhjamaisus: arhitektuur ja identiteet") Louisiana Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis Humblebækis 29.06.-4.10.2012. Peakuraator Kjeld Kjeldsen. Näitus "Show Me Your Model" ("Näita mulle oma maketti") Taani arhitektuurikeskuses Kopenhaagenis 22.06.-21.10.2012

  12. Keskkonnasäästlikkus ja ühiskondlik vastutus kujundavad mainet / Eneken Laasme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasme, Eneken

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse mõistest ja keskkonnasäästlikkuse teadvustamisest. AS Triip trükiste tootmine põhineb loodussäästlikul trükitehnoloogial ja loodussõbralikel materjalidel. Lisa: Kaubamärgi "Roheline Trükis" identiteet. Tabelid: RT kasv aastate jooksul; RT plussid ja miinused; RT sihtgrupid vastavate tunnuste alusel

  13. Scorsese uus ametipost / Martin Scorsese ; interv. Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scorsese, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Martin Scorsese asutas koos teiste režissööridega 1990. aastal filmifondi The Film Foundation, mille eesmärgiks on vanade filmide restaureerimine ja säilitamine. Režissöör rääkis ajakirjanikega 2006. aasta Rooma filmifestivalil

  14. Hingessorkimise meistriklassid : Vadi, Vahing ja Jungi tulemine / Valle-Sten Maiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maiste, Valle-Sten, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Vadi, Urmas. Mängi, inimene (ei ole trükis ilmunud, ettelugemine toimus Eesti Draamateatris 27. veebr. 2007) ; Vahing, Vaino. Päevaraamat. I : [1968-1973]. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2006 ; Hall, Calvin S., Nordby, Vernon J. Sissejuhatus Jungi psühholoogiasse / eestind. Ingrid Vooglaid. Tartu : Väike Vanker, 2007

  15. Tshto v imeni tebe mojom? / Leonid Surkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Surkov, Leonid

    1998-01-01

    Liivi sõjas langenud Mustpeadele püstitatud mälestusmärgist Tallinnas Marta tänava ääres ja epitaafist Kiek in de Kökis, autoriks Tallinna meister Lambert Glandorf. Asula ja Magdaleena tänavatest Tallinnas : hoonetest

  16. Prantsusmaa silub Ida-Euroopga suhteid / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Prantsusmaa peaminister Jean-Pierre Raffarin kohtus Pariisis Ida-Euroopa ajakirjanikega ja rääkis EL-i riikide suhetest ja majanduskoostööst. Vt. samas: Andres Kasekamp. Näpuga viibutamise aeg on möödas. Lisa: Jean-Pierre Raffarin (55)

  17. Consultancy and innovation the business service revolution in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Consultancy and Innovation links two important aspects of European economic development in the past thirty years: the pace of technical and management innovation, and the growing significance of technical and business consultancy. This book includes detailed studies of consultancy activities or 'knowledge intensive services' (KIS) in eight EU countries, written by national experts in the field.

  18. Kõne EV aastapäeva aktusel / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Läti kirikus peetud Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva aktusel rääkis Karl Altau Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee nimel kommunismi ohvrite mälestussamba ehitamise alustamisest Washingtoni kesklinna 2006. aastal, koostööst kõigi baltlaste vahel ja võimalusest annetada, üleskutsest toetada Valgevene rahvast teel demokraatiale

  19. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  20. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) switched from using the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test (FAST) for screening animal tissues for penicillin to using the Charm-Kidney Inhibition Swab test (KIS). The switch provided a quicker test and lower detection limits for penicillin when used o...

  1. Sirje Eelmale auhind Jaapanist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tokyo 4. väikegraafika triennaalist. Eksponeeritakse 3700 eri tehnikas tööd 81 maalt. Grand prix' pälvis slovakkia kunstnik Katarina Vavrova, auhinna sai ka Sirje Eelma fotoklishee- ja kuivnõeltrükis leht "Moment"

  2. Tallinna Merepäevade turismikonverents

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    13. juulil Lennusadama angaarides toimunud turismikonverentsist "Lennukad ideed Lennusadamas", kus esinesid Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aas, Tallinna Sadama ärisuunajuht Ahto Ader, müügijuht Aare Maurer, EHTE arenduse ja uuringute osakonna juhataja Ain Hinsberg, kes rääkis projektist "Cultural Tourism 2011", Tallinna Lennujaama juhatuse esimees Rein Loik, Lennusadama tegevjuht Ott Sarapuu

  3. Balti riigid vajavad rakette

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja, kindralleitnant Riho Terras rääkis ajalehele Financial Times, et ebapiisav õhutõrjevõimekus muudab Balti regiooni Venemaa välkrünnakule haavatavaks ning NATO peaks kaaluma regioonis baseeruvate sõjalennukite arvu suurendamist, võttes plaani Patriot-rakettide paigutamise Balti riikidesse

  4. Filmikurioosumid : Kõige, kõige, kõige filmid : Zorrod läbi aegade / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2002-01-01

    1919. aastal ilmunud Johnston McCulley jutustus "Capistrano needus" pani aluse lugematutele vaeste eest maskis ja pimeduse varjus kättemaksva Zorro lugudele trükisõnas ja kinolinal. Samast tüvest on pärit ka Batmani (looja Bob Kane) ja Supermani lood

  5. Interdisciplinary Content, Contestations of Knowledge and Informational Transparency in Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sarah; Hassan, Tarek; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    With the introduction of key information sets (KIS) for all university programmes in the UK from 2012, the character, content and delivery of university degrees may be increasingly used by potential students to differentiate between degree programmes. Therefore, developments in curricula and the relationship to the profession are of growing…

  6. Ekspert : Pärnul tuleks jutustada oma lugu / Anu Jürisson, Karin Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Anu, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise kultuuriturismi konverentsist Pärnus ja kultuurianalüütik doktor Dragan Klaici soovitustest ning nägemusest omanäolise Pärnu kultuurielu elavdamiseks. Ants Johanson rääkis Viljandi folkmuusika festivali korraldamisest, külalised Tuula Rintala-Gardin ja Mikael Ahlerup ka teemaparkide loomisest

  7. Internet, technology help Estonia's transformation / James Thorner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thorner, James

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest Lõuna-Florida Tampa ülikoolis. Riigipea rääkis Eesti edust ja e-riigi arengust. Artiklis on antud ka lühiülevaade president T. H. Ilvese elukäigust. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  8. Välisminister Paet asus eestivenelaste infovälja laiendama / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narva Postiljon 6. sept. lk. 1. Välisminister Urmas Paet rääkis Narvas energeetikutele eestlaste ja venelaste infovälja erinevusest ning nende ühitamise vajadusest. Ministrile esitatud küsimused puudutasid peamiselt Gruusia konflikti

  9. Ritualnõi skandal / Mark Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Rakvere teatrifestival "Baltoscandal 2000" : New Yorgi Wyoming Dance Theatre Projecti all tegutseva Pat Creminsi tantsuõhtu, inglase Pit Upponi kehastatud Hitler monotükis "Adolf", Oskaras Korshunovas Theatre, Marius von Mayenburgi "Tule nägu" ("The Face of Fire"), lavastaja Oskaras Korshunovas, jt.

  10. Intel vahetab Pentiumi uute protsessorite vastu / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. juuni, lk. 14. Maailma suurim protsessoritootja kavatseb aasta jooksul pea täielikult üle minna mitme tuumaga protsessorite tootmisele, rääkis Inteli firma Euroopa turundusjuht Alex Roessler

  11. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  12. Ilves urges global unity / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Henrik Ilves rääkis ÜRO Peaassambleel New Yorgis 24. septembril 2010 peetud kõnes Eesti abist Afganistanile, inimõigustest, küberkuritegevusest ja kinnitas Eesti toetust Gruusiale. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 20.-27.09.2010

  13. Russo : töötajatel peab lõbus olema / Mariliis Pinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pinn, Mariliis

    2007-01-01

    SAS-i instituudis inimressursside asepresidendina töötanud David Russo esines Baltimaade tegevjuhtide seminaril "Peidetud väärtus" kus ta rääkis, et töötajatest tuleb hoolida ja lasta neid loominguline olla

  14. SWANEA (Southwest Asia-Northeast Africa): A Climatological Study. Volume 1. The Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Trough axes (interior Africa and Indian axes. West of the Ethiopian Highlands, the. convergent Ocean) can temporarily link tip along the Horn or Af~rica...FeqecisofVsibties in B pedo M kis, YemndHglns and p~~revailing di rectionfo Yemen u Haig (hlands. n piadwa ylni ufo rmteRba Musai), ana, ndT iz.Eatery ompnetsfor

  15. Noored filmilinnas Rakveres / Sulev Teinemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teinemaa, Sulev, 1947-

    1999-01-01

    Põhja- ja Baltimaade noorte videofilmifestival "Visions of Light" 2. okt.-ni Rakveres. Võisteldi vanusekategooriates 18-25 ja 7-17 aastased. Festivali parimad Roar Uthaug & Espen Egeland Norrast. Eestist said auhinna Kaspar Jancis, Katrin Kissa, Aleks Adamov. Videofilmide tegemise võimalustest Eestis. Raivo Kelomees rääkis võrguvideo lihtsamatest vormidest.

  16. Ansip : tööturu paindumatus on Eestis suurim probleem / Kaisa Tahlfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 11. Äripäeva konverentsil "Äriplaan 2009" rääkis peaminister Andrus Ansip tööturu paindumatusest ja ekspordi olulisusest Eesti majandusele, ettevõtja Jüri Käo hinnangul päästavad majanduse Eesti ettevõtjad. Diagramm: Maksutulude laekumine

  17. Eesti arhitektid kuurordis suvitamas : 20.-21. augustil 2005 / Pille Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Pille

    2005-01-01

    Narva-Jõesuu sanatooriumis ja lähiümbruses toimunud Eesti Arhitektide Liidu IV suvepäevadest. Narva-Jõesuu ajaloost rääkis Epi Tohvri, ekskursiooni juhtis Mart Kalm. Seminaril "Tuleviku tehnoloogiad ja protsessid" esinenud John H. Frazeri, Inga Raukase, Dmitri Brunsi, Heiki Meose, suvepäevade peasponsori, Tšehhi klaasifirma Glaverbel esindaja Pavel Cumpeliku ettekannetest

  18. Estonia's President Sounds the Alarm / Nikolaus von Twickel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Twickel, Nikolaus von

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves rääkis oma telefoniintervjuus Eesti suhetest Venemaaga, eelseisvatest presidendivalimistest Venemaal, Eesti suunatusest Läände, Nõukogude okupatsiooni kuritegudest, arvustas Venemaa sõbralikke suhteid ebademokraatlike riikidega ja Euroopa huvidele vaenulikku välispoliitikat

  19. Iraani ähvardamine sõjaga varjutab kõnelusi tuumatüli üle / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Prantsusmaa välisministri Bernard Kouchner rääkis raadios ja televisioonis sõja võimalikkusest Iraaniga, kui Iraan peaks jätkuvalt eirama ÜRO ettekirjutusi ning jätkama uraani rikastamist. Iraani välisministeeriumi esindaja Mohammad Ali Hosseini ja ÜRO IAEA juhi Mohamed ElBaradei reageeringuid

  20. Effects of radiochemical impurities on measurements of transfer constants for [14C]sucrose permeation of normal and injured blood-brain barrier of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, E; Foster, D O; Mills, P A

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabeled sucrose is often used to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury in the rat, but published transfer constants (K[i]s) for sucrose permeation of the intact BBB (control K[i]s) are highly discrepant. A potential problem with the commonly used tracer, [14C(U)]sucrose, is radiolytic generation, preuse, of radiocontaminants that might readily penetrate the BBB. How such contaminants might affect measurements of sucrose K(i)s was examined for both the intact and the ischemically injured BBB. Three stocks of [14C(U)]sucrose were studied: newly purchased ("new"), 4-year-old, and 7-year-old. A high purity (99.9%) "new" and a 2-year-old stock of [3H(fructose-1)]sucrose were also tested. Pentobarbital-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.v. with each tracer separately (six to eight rats) and K(i)s in five brain regions were measured by the multiple-time graphical method. The "new" 14C-, "new" 3H-, and 2-year-old 3H-sucrose yielded comparable K(i)s , ranging from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 nl x g(-1) x s(-1) (mean +/- SE) across the regions. The two old stocks of 14C-sucrose yielded significantly higher regional K(i)s : 5.1-6.3 (4-year-old) and 8.4-9.7 (7-year-old). Thin-layer chromatography of the three 14C-tracers revealed that each contained radioimpurities (ca. 2% in both the "new" and 4-year-old, and 9% in the 7-year-old), but that the old stocks contained larger amounts of relatively mobile (more lipophilic) impurities, which can be suspected as the main cause of the elevated K(i)s obtained. Additional rats were subjected to 10 min of cerebral ischemia, which effects a delayed BBB injury, and 6 h later the "new" 3H- and the 4-year-old 14C-sucrose were injected together. The K(i)s for both tracers were elevated by like, absolute amounts (deltaK[i]s), but by very different percentages, over their disparate baseline values in uninjured rats (for striatum and hippocampus, the most injured regions, deltaK(i)s were 3.9 to 4.4 nl x g[-1] x s[-1

  1. INITIAL DATA RELEASE OF THE KEPLER-INT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Martín, E. L.; Groot, P. J.; Verbeek, K.; Jonker, P. G.; Scaringi, S.; Irwin, M. J.; González-Solares, E.; Greimel, R.; Knigge, C.; Østensen, R. H.; Drew, J. E.; Farnhill, H.; Drake, J.; Wright, N. J.; Ripepi, V.; Southworth, J.; Still, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the first data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) that covers a 116 deg 2 region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler field is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. Despite the fact that the Kepler mission provides superior time-series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability, its field lacks optical photometry complete to the confusion limit of the Kepler instrument necessary for selecting various classes of targets. For this reason, we follow the observing strategy and data reduction method used in the IPHAS and UVEX galactic plane surveys in order to produce a deep optical survey of the Kepler field. This initial release concerns data taken between 2011 May and August, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, Hα, reaching down to a 10σ limit of ∼20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering ∼50 deg 2 , thus about half of the field, passed our quality control thresholds and constitute this first data release. We derive a global photometric calibration by placing the KIS magnitudes as close as possible to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) photometry. The initial data release catalog containing around 6 million sources from all the good photometric fields is available for download from the KIS Web site (www.astro.warwick.ac.uk/research/kis/) as well as via MAST (KIS magnitudes can be retrieved using the MAST enhanced target search page http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/kepler_fov/search.php and also via Casjobs at MAST Web site http://mastweb.stsci.edu/kplrcasjobs/).

  2. INITIAL DATA RELEASE OF THE KEPLER-INT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Gaensicke, B. T. [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics group, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry (United Kingdom); Martin, E. L. [INTA-CSIC Centro de Astrobiologia, Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28550 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Groot, P. J.; Verbeek, K.; Jonker, P. G.; Scaringi, S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. [Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Greimel, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Karl-Franzen Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Knigge, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ostensen, R. H. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Drew, J. E.; Farnhill, H. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Drake, J.; Wright, N. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Still, M., E-mail: s.greiss@warwick.ac.uk [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-40, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15

    This paper describes the first data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) that covers a 116 deg{sup 2} region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler field is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. Despite the fact that the Kepler mission provides superior time-series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability, its field lacks optical photometry complete to the confusion limit of the Kepler instrument necessary for selecting various classes of targets. For this reason, we follow the observing strategy and data reduction method used in the IPHAS and UVEX galactic plane surveys in order to produce a deep optical survey of the Kepler field. This initial release concerns data taken between 2011 May and August, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, H{alpha}, reaching down to a 10{sigma} limit of {approx}20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering {approx}50 deg{sup 2}, thus about half of the field, passed our quality control thresholds and constitute this first data release. We derive a global photometric calibration by placing the KIS magnitudes as close as possible to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) photometry. The initial data release catalog containing around 6 million sources from all the good photometric fields is available for download from the KIS Web site (www.astro.warwick.ac.uk/research/kis/) as well as via MAST (KIS magnitudes can be retrieved using the MAST enhanced target search page http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/kepler{sub f}ov/search.php and also via Casjobs at MAST Web site http://mastweb.stsci.edu/kplrcasjobs/).

  3. Laboratory and numerical investigations of kinetic interface sensitive tracers transport for immiscible two-phase flow porous media systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A number of theoretical approaches estimating the interfacial area between two fluid phases are available (Schaffer et al.,2013). Kinetic interface sensitive (KIS) tracers are used to describe the evolution of fluid-fluid interfaces advancing in two phase porous media systems (Tatomir et al., 2015). Initially developed to offer answers about the supercritical (sc)CO2 plume movement and the efficiency of trapping in geological carbon storage reservoirs, KIS tracers are tested in dynamic controlled laboratory conditions. N-octane and water, analogue to a scCO2 - brine system, are used. The KIS tracer is dissolved in n-octane, which is injected as the non-wetting phase in a fully water saturated porous media column. The porous system is made up of spherical glass beads with sizes of 100-250 μm. Subsequently, the KIS tracer follows a hydrolysis reaction over the n-octane - water interface resulting in an acid and phenol which are both water soluble. The fluid-fluid interfacial area is described numerically with the help of constitutive-relationships derived from the Brooks-Corey model. The specific interfacial area is determined numerically from pore scale calculations, or from different literature sources making use of pore network model calculations (Joekar-Niasar et al., 2008). This research describes the design of the laboratory setup and compares the break-through curves obtained with the forward model and in the laboratory experiment. Furthermore, first results are shown in the attempt to validate the immiscible two phase flow reactive transport numerical model with dynamic laboratory column experiments. Keywords: Fluid-fluid interfacial area, KIS tracers, model validation, CCS, geological storage of CO2

  4. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  5. Natural flavonoids as antidiabetic agents. The binding of gallic and ellagic acids to glycogen phosphorylase b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efthimios; Stravodimos, George A; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-07-08

    We present a study on the binding of gallic acid and its dimer ellagic acid to glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor with Kis of 13.4 and 7.5 μM, in contrast to gallic acid which displays Kis of 1.7 and 3.9 mM for GPb and GPa, respectively. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate, glucose-1-phoshate, and non-competitive to the allosteric activator, AMP. However, only ellagic acid functions with glucose in a strongly synergistic mode. The crystal structures of the GPb-gallic acid and GPb-ellagic acid complexes were determined at high resolution, revealing that both ligands bind to the inhibitor binding site of the enzyme and highlight the structural basis for the significant difference in their inhibitory potency. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SMULKIŲ PREKYBOS ĮMONIŲ VERSLININKŲ VERSLUMO GERINIMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kairienė, Rasa

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Rasa Kairienė Improvement of Entrepreneurship of Small Sales Businesses Master’s studies final thesis, 67 pages, 10 figures, 11 tables, 47 references, 2 appendices, in Lithuanian. KEY Words: businessman, entrepreneurship, human capital, small sales companies, external factors, internal factors. Object of investigation: businessmen of Radviliškis District small sales companies in 2003–2005. Subject of investigation: businessmen entrepreneurship. Aim of the work: to analyse entrepreneur...

  7. ERÜ 1993 : kroonika / Reet Olevsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olevsoo, Reet, 1956-

    1994-01-01

    8. veebr. : [taotlus ETARi direktorile personaalpalga määramiseks]; 15. veebr.-12. märts : [T. Reimo stažeeris Göttingeni Ülikooli Rmtk-s]; 25. märts : [kohvikuõhtu ETARis. A. Normak rääkis Potsdami Ülikooli STN Koolituskeskuse seminarist]; 1.-15. juuni : [M. Triipan õppereisil Saksamaal]; 29. okt. : [lahtiste uste päevad ETARis]; 3. nov. : [A. Valmas esitati Eesti Kultuurifondi aastapreemia saamiseks

  8. President Ilves spoke about e-Estonia at the University of South Florida in Tampa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest Lõuna-Florida Tampa ülikoolis. Riigipea rääkis Eesti edust ja e-riigi arengust. Pärast loengut vastas Eesti president kuulajate küsimustele küberturvalisuse, ID-kaardi kasutusvõimaluste, Eesti osalemise kohta NATO sõjalistel operatsioonidel, Eesti valimissüsteemi ja Eesti rolli kohta Euroopa Liidus. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  9. Kõnelused Tartus / Anne Untera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Untera, Anne, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    8.-10. V Tartus toimunud eesti, läti ja saksa kunstiteadlaste ühisseminarist. Alexander Knorre rääkis Karl August Senffi, Ilona Audere Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli, Mai Levin Karl Alexander von Winkleri, Kristiana Abele Johann Walter-Kurau (1869-1932), Anne Untera Konstantin ja Sally von Kügelgeni, Epp Preem Julie Hagen-Schwartzi, Friedrich Gross Eduard von Gebhardti ja Katharina Hadding Ida Kerkoviuse (1879-1970) loomingust

  10. Tähelepanu, rahuldus, tähendusetus = Attention, satisfaction, meaninglessness / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline rühmanäitus "TL;DR" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis. Kuraator Stacey May Koosel. Digitaalkeskkonna ja infoliiasuse teemat vaagisid Varvara Guljajeva & Mar Canet, Pille Riin Jaik ja Eva Sepping läbi videoinstallatsioonide, Erki Kasemets ja Maris Karjatse fotoinstallatsiooniga, Sten Saarits heliinstallatsiooniga, Andres Lõo läbi heli ja stereograafia, Kiwa läbi trükisõna, Jesus Maria Rodriguez Santos grafitiga galerii akendel

  11. Posjolok / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Marta, Magdaleena ja Asula tänavate hoonestusajaloost. Ajaloolistest sündmustest, mida on meenutamas kõrge paekivirist Marta tänava ääres. Mälestusmärk püstitati 1560. a. Liivi sõjas langenud Tallinna raehärra Blasius Hochgrave mälestuseks. Selles lahingus hukkunud mustpeade mälestuseks maalitud Kiek in de Kökis asuvast pilt-epitaafist. Epitaafi autor on Lambert Glandorf

  12. The project of installing a ZIMPOL_3 polarimeter at GREGOR in Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Bianda; Renzo Ramelli; Jan Olof Stenflo; Svetlana Berdyugina; Daniel Gisler; Ivan Defilippis; Nazaret Bello Gonzáles

    2013-01-01

    A project of collaboration between Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik KIS and Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno IRSOL includes the installation of a ZIMPOL_3 high resolution polarimeter at the 1.5 meter aperture solar telescope GREGOR in Tenerife. Important scientific topics are expected to be investigated in particular in the case of events showing faint amplitude polarization signatures like scattering polarization effects and the Hanle effect. This project has also a technical importance...

  13. Estoniju zhdut v Shengenskoi zone / Aleksandr Shegedin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shegedin, Aleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni asepresident Franco Frattini külastas Eestit ja kohtus siseminister Kalle Laanetiga, kus põhitähelepanu koondus Schengeni infosüsteemi teise põlvkonna (SIS II) arendamisega seotud probleemidele. Siseministeeriumis peetud ettekandes rääkis Frattini ka ülemaailmsest kuritegevusest ja terrorismiohust. Tema kinnitusel ei saa Eesti ja Venemaa vahel puuduv piirileping takistuseks Eesti liitumisele Schengeni õigusruumiga ning Euroopa Liit üritab ühtlasi veenda Venemaad lepet sõlmima

  14. Kremli hirmud / ref. Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 11. Kokkuvõte Venemaa naftakompanii Jukos endise juhi Mihhail Hodorkovski advokaadi Robert Amsterdami esinemisest Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituudis, kus ta rääkis Venemaa võimude tegevusest meeleavalduste laialiajamisel ja kritiseeris president Vladimir Putini poliitikat ning Saksamaa endise kantsleri Gerhard Schröderi koostööd Venemaaga Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme projektis

  15. Do services reduce gender inequality in labor markets? The service sector, knnowledge-intensive services and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Dueñas, Diego; Iglesias, Carlos; Llorente, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of services and the dissemination of information technologies and communication are identified as important factors that can improve employment opportunities for women, reducing labor by gender differences. The objective of the study is to determine the extent to which services and especially those most closely linked with the knowledge and ICTs such as Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS) are changing some of the basics of labor gender differences. To do it: a), we first measure ...

  16. Aukštaitijos ir Žemaitijos paribio dainuojamojo folkloro ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Račiūnaitė-Vyčinienė, Daiva

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the subject, which has remained almost unstudied by ethnomusicologists, i. e. the peculiarities of the traditional sung folklore of the region of the borderline between the Upper Lithuania and Samogitia. Most attention is dedicated to the “Samogitian” character of the peripheral Upper Lithuania. The article emphasizes that the folklore singing traditions of the peripheral Upper Lithuania (Radviliškis, Šiauliai, Pakruojis and adjacent areas) may be characterized by peculi...

  17. Effect of acute and chronic tramadol on [3H]-5-HT uptake in rat cortical synaptosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti, Pietro; Buriani, Alessandro; Cima, Lorenzo; Lipartiti, Maria

    1997-01-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, the efficacy and potency of which is only five to ten times lower than that of morphine. Opioid, as well as non-opioid mechanisms, may participate in the analgesic activity of tramadol.[3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake in rat isolated cortical synaptosomes was studied in the presence of tramadol, desipramine, fluoxetine, methadone and morphine. Methadone and tramadol inhibited synaptosomal [3H]-5-HT uptake with apparent Kis o...

  18. Küberrünnakuid tehti nii Lapimaalt kui Iisraelist / Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Riigi Infosüsteemide Arenduskeskuse osakonnajuhataja Hillar Aarelaid rääkis küberkaitset puudutaval seminaril maikuus Eestit põhiliselt Venemaalt tabanud küberrünnakute tõrjumisest, kus aitasid kaasa ka parajasti Viru hotellis konverentsi pidanud 200 välismaist IT-spetsialisti. Rahvusvahelise firma Cisco esindaja, arvutiturbe tippspetsialisti Ivica Ostojici esinemisest. Vt. samas: Häkkimine kahe sekundiga

  19. Sestava in lastnosti mikrobne združbe jabolčnega in balzamičnega kisa

    OpenAIRE

    Šiškovič, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Namen diplomskega dela je bil opisati lastnosti ocetnokislinskih bakterij ter mikrobno združbo v jabolčnem in balzamičnem kisu. Kis je razredčena raztopina ocetne kisline, ki nastane po biološkem postopku z zaporednima fermentacijama. Najprej poteče alkoholna fermentacija, pri kateri kvasovke pretvorijo fermentativne sladkorje v etanol, zatem pa še ocetnokislinska fermentacija, kjer ocetnokislinske bakterije iz etanola proizvedejo ocetno kislino. Poglaviten pomen v proizvodnem procesu in posl...

  20. Matemaatiline juhtimine / Stephen Baker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baker, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Autori raamat "Numeraadid" tutvustab matemaatikavõlureid, kes tuhnivad meie andmetes. Numeraatide üks paljutõotavamaid laboreid on töökohad, kus saab uurida iga klahvivajutust, hiireklõpsu ja meilisõnumit. Peatükis "Töötajad" vaatleb autor IBMi, kus matemaatikud loovad omaenda kolleegide käitumist prognoosivaid mudeleid. Lisa: Juhtimise teadus. Stopperist matemaatiliste mudeliteni; Viited

  1. Lauryno Masiulio Gucevičiaus veikla Kupiškėnų psichoemocinės pasaulėjautos fone

    OpenAIRE

    Minkevičius, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    The psycho-emotional formation of the architect Laurynas Masiulis Gucevičius as a personality was based on his peasant, rural origins in Kupiškis and the environment of valuebased education ethics and dynamic folk art traditions. In terms of creativity, he was characterised by courage in opposing restrictive formalist norms, while seeking architectural moderation and simplicity, spiritual, emotional warmth and serene harmony, respect to the natural environment and treating household construct...

  2. Gorod na ladoni / Iosef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Iosef

    2005-01-01

    Linnade makettide valmistamisest Euroopas ja Tallinna makettidest. Säilinud on Paul von Esseni ja Erik Dahlberghi algatusel valmistatud Tallinna makett. Eksponeeritakse Stockholmis ja koopiat Kiek in de Kökis Tallinnas. 1825. a. valminud Tallinna fassaadide albumi põhjal õpilaste poolt 2003. a. valmistatud makett on Raekoja pööningul. Brüsseli Mini-Euroopas avati Tallinna linnamüüri makett Paksu Margareeta ja Suure Rannaväravaga

  3. Riiklus, homogeensus ja sallivus / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Presidendi mõttekoda, Avatud Eesti Fond ja Pärnu Konverentsid korraldasid 10. oktoobril 2007. a. Pärnus väitluspäeva. Kokkuvõte esinemisest presidendi mõttekoja esimesel avalikul üritusel Presidendi Kärajad. Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja rääkis Eesti riigifilosoofiast ja põhiseaduse vaimsusest, rahva heterogeensusest või homogeensusest ja selle mõjust demokraatiale

  4. Riiklus, homogeensus ja sallivus / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Presidendi mõttekoda, Avatud Eesti Fond ja Pärnu Konverentsid korraldasid 10. oktoobril 2007. a. Pärnus väitluspäeva. Ettekanne presidendi mõttekoja esimesel avalikul üritusel Presidendi Kärajad. Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja rääkis Eesti riigifilosoofiast ja põhiseaduse vaimsusest, rahva heterogeensusest või homogeensusest ja selle mõjust demokraatiale

  5. Järelkaja Talsinki linnaaktivismi aruteluõhtule / Kaija-Luisa Kurik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurik, Kaija-Luisa

    2010-01-01

    7. juunil 2010 räägiti Uue Maailma seltsimajas Helsingi linnaplaneerimisest ja linnaaktivismist ning mõeldi, mida oleks Tallinnal naaberlinnalt õppida, millisel tasandil on olemas Tallinna ja Helsingi vaheline suhtlus. Tallinn-Helsingi kaksiklinnast Talsinki. Helsingi linnaplaneerimisest rääkis Kristi Grišakov, DODO-nimelisest keskkonnaorganisatsioonist Elisa Niemi, DEMOSe nimelisest organisatsioonist ja noorteorganisatsioonist ORANSSi Kaija-Luisa Kurik

  6. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  8. Inhibition of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes by lapatinib, pazopanib, regorafenib and sorafenib: Implications for hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, John O; Chau, Nuy; Rowland, Andrew; Burns, Kushari; McKinnon, Ross A; Mackenzie, Peter I; Tucker, Geoffrey T; Knights, Kathleen M; Kichenadasse, Ganessan

    2017-04-01

    Kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a rapidly expanding class of drugs used primarily for the treatment of cancer. Data relating to the inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes by KIs is sparse. However, lapatinib (LAP), pazopanib (PAZ), regorafenib (REG) and sorafenib (SOR) have been implicated in the development of hyperbilirubinemia in patients. This study aimed to characterise the role of UGT1A1 inhibition in hyperbilirubinemia and assess the broader potential of these drugs to perpetrate drug-drug interactions arising from UGT enzyme inhibition. Twelve recombinant human UGTs from subfamilies 1A and 2B were screened for inhibition by LAP, PAZ, REG and SOR. IC 50 values for the inhibition of all UGT1A enzymes, except UGT1A3 and UGT1A4, by the four KIs were enzyme identified to date. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation indicates that inhibition of UGT1A1 contributes significantly to the hyperbilirubinemia observed in patients treated with REG and SOR, but not with LAP and PAZ. Inhibition of other UGT1A1 substrates in vivo is likely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kaizen: a method of process improvement in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gregory H; McCoin, Nicole Streiff; Lescallette, Richard; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M

    2009-12-01

    Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the

  10. Pengembangan Model Sosialisasi Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional Melalui Peran Opinion Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Lestarini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of socialization of the National Health Insurance through the role of Opnion Leader. The development of socialization model of National Health Insurance through the role of Opinion Leader is important because with the inclusion of communication technology in Rural areas has led to the emergence of social distance between opinion leaders (Opinion Leader with the community. Although acknowledged that opinion leaders in Indonesia are still very instrumental in influencing the attitude and behavior of followers in the village. This research is also important to assist the Ponorogo Regency Government in implementing the National Health Insurance (JKN Act organized by Social Security Administering Board (BPJS. This research is a continuation of research of Opnion Leader role which shows that its role is very high in socialization about Naional Health Insurance in the village. This research uses qualitative research paradigm. Data collection techniques used are in-depth interviews, observation and dukumentasi.Teknik Determination Informants using snowball technique, ie without determining the number of informants but based on information provided in accordance with the data required. Then the method of data analysis using Interactive Analysis Model. The results of research and discussion can be concluded that the Government set a target that in 2019 all Indonesian people have registered and have a card of National Health Insurance - Kartu Indonesia Sehat (JKN-KIS. So it has become a necessity for the socialization model that can really touch the people so that the target of the government can be achieved. Because JKN-KIS has become the thing that is needed by the society in carrying out their life to be healthy and prosperous and has been poured in Government regulation, the socialization model used belongs to the Represif socialization model. This socialization runs in one direction from one person to another. The

  11. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  12. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  13. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-02-01

    Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  14. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Gheibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Results: Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50 werecomparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  15. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. Materials and Methods The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.. The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1, J1 (JT-5B / Power-1, K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4, and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4. The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05. The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Conclusions Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  16. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang-Won; Moon, Young-Mi; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  17. Effective Social Media Practices for Communicating Climate Change Science to Community Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.; DeBenedict, C.; Bruce, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) uses an action research approach to increase climate knowledge and informed decision-making among key influential (KI) leaders in San Diego county. Social media has been one method for disseminating knowledge. During CEP's project years, social media use has proliferated. To capitalize on this trend, CEP iteratively developed a strategic method to engage KIs. First, as with all climate education, CEP identified the audience. Three primary Facebook and Twitter audiences were CEP's internal team, local KIs, and strategic partner organizations. Second, post contents were chosen based on interest to CEP key audiences and followed CEP's communications message triangle, which incorporates the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI). This message triangle focuses on San Diegan's valued quality of life, future challenges we face due to the changing climate, and ways in which we are working together to protect our quality of life for future generations. Third, an editorial calendar was created to carefully time posts, which capitalize on when target audiences were using social media most and to maintain consistency. The results of these three actions were significant. Results attained utilizing Facebook and Twitter data, which tracks post reach, total followers/likes, and engagement (likes, comments, mentions, shares). For example we found that specifically mentioning KIs resulted in more re-tweets and resulted in reaching a broader audience. Overall, data shows that CEP's reach to audiences of like-minded individuals and organizations now extends beyond CEP's original local network and reached more than 20,000 accounts on Twitter this year (compared with 460 on Twitter the year before). In summary, through posting and participating in the online conversation strategically, CEP disseminated key educational climate resources and relevant climate change news to educate and engage target audience and amplify our work.

  18. Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-03-15

    A high activity α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified from various tissues of the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. The new enzyme, denominated lwCA, has a catalytic activity for the physiologic CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate reaction, similar to that of the high activity human isoform hCA II, with a k(cat) of 1.1×10(6) s(-1), and a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.4×10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme was highly inhibited by cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic/phenylarsonic acids (K(I)s in the range of 46-100 μM). Many clinically used sulfonamides, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and benzolamide were low nanomolar inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 5.7-67 nM. Dichlorophenamide, zonisamide, saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were weaker inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 513-5390 nM. The inhibition profile with anions and sulfonamides of the seal enzyme was rather different from those of the human isoforms hCA I and II. The high sensitivity to bicarbonate inhibition of lwCA, unlike that of the human enzymes, may reflect an evolutionary adaptation to the deep water, high CO(2) partial pressure and hypoxic conditions in which Weddell seals spend much of their life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Radiological knowledge management with the help of departmental wikis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, A; Brachthäuser, D; Mansour, M; Alfke, H

    2016-09-01

    In times of RIS (radiology information system) and KIS (hospital information system) systems, patient-related data are at the radiologist's disposal at the push of a button. However, this is not the case for other important data. The increasing complexity of modern medicine demands that up-to-date information like protocols, SOPs (Standards of Practice), news and modifications are constantly accessible to all employees. This aspect of quality assurance becomes increasingly important in the context of certification. For such knowledge management purposes we have built a wiki in our department. Here we report our positive experiences with this technology.

  20. Karistus unelma eest : Guntars Godiņši ja Doris Kareva vestlus 30. jaanuaril / Guntars Godinsh, Doris Kareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Godiņš, Guntars, 1958-

    2000-01-01

    Läti Vabariigi aastapäeva puhul näidati Tallinna Kinomajas läti 1994. a. dokumentaalfilmi 'Karistus unelma eest' (režissöör Andris Rozenbergs, stsenarist Inta Geile), mis keskendus 1950. aastate algul Riias koos käinud 'prantsuse grupi' saatusele ja 17. XI 1999-20. I 2000 oli Kiek in de Kökis Kurts Fridrihsonsi näitus 'Passaazhid'. K. Fridrihsonsi elust ja loomingust, 'prantsuse grupist' (tõlgid Maija Silmale, Ieva Lase, Milda Grinfelda jt.) jm. K. Fridrihsonsi pärandit hoiab Gundega Repshe

  1. Estonie 2006-2007 : L'ombre du soldat de bronze / Antoine Chalvin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade olulisematest poliitilistest sündmustest Eestis aastatel 2006-2007: presidendi- ja parlamendivalimistest, integratsiooniprobleemidest, Tõnismäe pronkssõduri ümberpaigutamisega kaasnenud rahutustest ning küberrünnakutest. Alapeatükis "Une election presidentielle mouvementee" on antud ülevaade Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Arnold Rüütli konkureerimisest presidendivalimistel. Tabel: Põhilised majandusnäitajad 1999-2006. Vt. samas: Poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia juuni 2006 - juuni 2007; Viimased valimistulemused; Valitsuse koosseis

  2. The synthesis and alkylation of p-tetrakischloro-calix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ivanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of a chlorination of a calixarenes and a testing of the methods for their preparation to investigate the biological activity of the obtained compounds. New convinient undescribed in the literature methods of the chlorination using sulphuryl chloride or sodium hypochlorite were designed. By the using de-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, containing lower rin the ethoxy(hydroxycarbonyl metoxy groups, as the starting compounds in the same reactin l aed to mixture of the produts. The reaction of the calix[4]arene and the sulfuryl chloride led to the tetra-kis-chlorocalix[4]arene with good yield (95 %.

  3. Noortalunik üllatas õpetajaid raamatuga / Silvia Paluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paluoja, Silvia, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Täna annab MTÜ Eesti Noortalunikud juhatuse liige Karel Tölp Audru Keskkoolile üle paarkümend põllumajandust käsitlevat raamatut, seega on trükis tema vahendusel jõudnud maakonna igasse keskkooli ja gümnaasiumi. Raamatu pealkiri on ́ђجEU Enlargement, discovering the Agriculture of the new Member Statéђح, trükise on välja andnud Euroopa noortalunike organisatsioon (CEJA) Euroopa Komisjoni toetusel. Vestlusest K. Tölbiga

  4. On the Divergence of N(o)rlund Logarithmic Means of Walsh-Fourier Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gy(o)rgy GAT; Ushangi GOGINAVA

    2009-01-01

    It is well known in the literature that the logarithmic means1/log n n-1∑k=1 Sk(f)/kof Walsh or trigonometric Fourier series converge a.e. to the function for each integrable function on the unit interval. This is not the case if we take the partial sums. In this paper we prove that the behavior of the so-called N(o)rlund logarithmic means1/log n n-1∑k=1 Sk(f)/n-kis closer to the properties of partial sums in this point of view.

  5. 1995. aastal TPÜ infoteaduste eriala lõpetanute diplomitööd : [nimestik koos annotatsioonidega] / koostaja Taimi Niine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niine, Taimi

    1995-01-01

    Kirjanduse alalt: Ajaots, Merle. Kirjandusarvustus ajakirjades 'Looming' ja 'Vikerkaar' a. 1986-1994 / Juh. prof. M. Aasmets; Hüva, Aulike. Rudolf Põldmäe personaalnimestik / Juh. prof. M. Aasmets; Kindel, Kristi. Eesti raamatukogutegelane Mall Jürma (1901-1984) / Juh. prof. M. Aasmets; Ristmägi, Ruth. Otto Aleksander Webermanni elu ja tegevus / Juhendaja kirjandusteadlane E. Teder; Ruuben, Liis. Prantsuse kirjandus eesti keeles / Juh. magistrand I. Vaaro; Zimmermann, Rita. Pagulastrükis ja selle ilmumise kajastamine aastatel 1944-1946 pagulasajalehtedes / Juh. V. Kelder

  6. JAKOKESKUKSEN ASENNUKSET

    OpenAIRE

    Ollila, Heli

    2012-01-01

    Kirjallisuus ei ota kantaa mitenkään siihen, miten keskukseen lisätään kalusteita tai mitä sinne voi lisätä. Jakokeskuksen asennukset ovat liikaa ns. perinnetietoa, joka kulkee asentajalta toiselle kisälliperiaatteella. Tässä työssä perehdyttiin jakokeskukseen ja sen asennuksiin sähköasentajan kannalta. Samalla tämän työn tarkoitus oli olla pohjatyönä jakokeskuksia koskevalle oppimateriaalille. Tarkoitus on saada aikaan sähköasentajaksi opiskeleville yhtenäinen ja kattava teos jakokeskusasenn...

  7. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Fei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a KI=KIS of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM, and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a KI of 0.9 μM, KIS of 0.5 μM, and an IC50 of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Bioethanol Production from Corn Stover and Immobilized Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost and abundant corn stover in yeast fermentation can reduce product costs. In this study, bioethanol was produced from a hydrolysate of corn stover using immobilized yeast. A kinetic model was established for the total reducing sugar consumption and the production of bioethanol. The parameter estimation for kinetic modeling considered the main process variables during bioethanol production from corn stover. Total reducing sugar concentrations decreased exponentially in the bioethanol fermentation for 6 h; consumption was more than 90%. To use kinetic modelling of yeast growth for bioethanol fermentation, the value of μmax reached 0.2891 h-1, and the matrix inhibition constant (KIS and production inhibition constant (KIP were 8.9154 g/dm3 and 0.00676 g/dm3, respectively. To use kinetic modelling of fermentation time on bioethanol, the maximum ratio of bioethanol production rate (qmax reached 1.427 g/g•L. However, KIS was 2.813 g/dm3, and KIP was 0.0149 g/dm3.

  9. Further development of the environment related sustainability indicators and environment core indicator system for balancing the progress in the German sustainability strategy; Weiterentwicklung der umweltbezogenen Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren und des Umwelt-Kernindikatorensystems zur Bilanzierung der Fortschritte in der deutschen Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Pieck, Sonja [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The Core Set of Environmental Indicators (KIS) presented by the Federal Environment Agency aims to inform policy makers and the interested public in an updated and concise form about environmental progress for a sustainable development in Germany. The Core Set completes the environmental indicators of the National Sustainability Indicator Set by several additional indicators describing environmental impacts and their causes. New legal regulations and political programs as well as innovations in the field of indicator development on the international and national level make a revision of the over ten-years-old Core Set of Environmental Indicators necessary. The project makes structural and content related proposals for such a revision. Following these proposals the Core Indicators shall cover a broader spectrum of environmental themes and problems in order to display cause-and-effect relationships in a more detailed way. The indicator set, which is proposed for the revised edition of KIS, comprises a total of 92 indicators, 49 out of them are directly focused on environmental issues. 43 indicators describe the activities of different economic sectors having relevant impacts on the environment. Furthermore the project offers a new thematic structure for the indicator set and a new classification of the indicators which shall facilitate the orientation and more effective search for themes and indicators within the system. A proposal for a metadata information system consisting of indicators and data factsheets was elaborated to better handle flow of information within the Federal Environment Agency.

  10. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  12. Understanding resilience in industrial symbiosis networks: insights from network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Khanna, Vikas

    2014-08-01

    Industrial symbiotic networks are based on the principles of ecological systems where waste equals food, to develop synergistic networks. For example, industrial symbiosis (IS) at Kalundborg, Denmark, creates an exchange network of waste, water, and energy among companies based on contractual dependency. Since most of the industrial symbiotic networks are based on ad-hoc opportunities rather than strategic planning, gaining insight into disruptive scenarios is pivotal for understanding the balance of resilience and sustainability and developing heuristics for designing resilient IS networks. The present work focuses on understanding resilience as an emergent property of an IS network via a network-based approach with application to the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis (KIS). Results from network metrics and simulated disruptive scenarios reveal Asnaes power plant as the most critical node in the system. We also observe a decrease in the vulnerability of nodes and reduction in single points of failure in the system, suggesting an increase in the overall resilience of the KIS system from 1960 to 2010. Based on our findings, we recommend design strategies, such as increasing diversity, redundancy, and multi-functionality to ensure flexibility and plasticity, to develop resilient and sustainable industrial symbiotic networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carcar Chicharon: A Potential for Tourism Impact Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Christian P. Cosido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the economic potential of chicharon business in Carcar City, Cebu, Philippines. It answers these objectives to: (1 check its profile with reference to: capitalization, volume of products, types of products, marketing, profit and number of workers; (2 ascertain its problems; (3 assess its economic potential to different stakeholders, namely: business owners, workers, vendors, and the community; and (4 evaluate its effects to the other sectors of the city.This study used an ethnographic design with naturalistic observation, interviews of key informants, field notes, and supported with secondary data. KIs were interviewed through interview guides, during their most convenient time. To observe ethics, names of KIs and other stakeholders were held confidentially. The findings were validated through expert triangulation. The chicharon business contributed to Carcar’s small scale industry. Despite various challenges faced; it continued to grow, contributing to the socio-economic development. Its potential cascaded to other economic sectors, especially for the city’s viability as a tourism hub. For further investigation, these are hereby recommended: culture and heritage advocates may continue to find ways to preserve the city’s centuries old delicacy; adoption of new technologies to make the products competitive in local and global markets; and follow up studies to sustain the business’ economic potentiality. Government agencies may continue its present programs to sustain the business; strong financial assistance; improved environmental sanitations; programs and trainings, efficient machinery to help the business prosper and make Carcar a potential tourist destination.

  14. Specificity of the trypanothione-dependent Leishmania major glyoxalase I: structure and biochemical comparison with the human enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Antonio; Vickers, Tim J; Greig, Neil; Armour, Kirsten A; Dixon, Mark J; Eggleston, Ian M; Fairlamb, Alan H; Bond, Charles S

    2006-02-01

    Trypanothione replaces glutathione in defence against cellular damage caused by oxidants, xenobiotics and methylglyoxal in the trypanosomatid parasites, which cause trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. In Leishmania major, the first step in methylglyoxal detoxification is performed by a trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase I (GLO1) containing a nickel cofactor; all other characterized eukaryotic glyoxalases use zinc. In kinetic studies L. major and human enzymes were active with methylglyoxal derivatives of several thiols, but showed opposite substrate selectivities: N1-glutathionylspermidine hemithioacetal is 40-fold better with L. major GLO1, whereas glutathione hemithioacetal is 300-fold better with human GLO1. Similarly, S-4-bromobenzylglutathionylspermidine is a 24-fold more potent linear competitive inhibitor of L. major than human GLO1 (Kis of 0.54 microM and 12.6 microM, respectively), whereas S-4-bromobenzylglutathione is >4000-fold more active against human than L. major GLO1 (Kis of 0.13 microM and >500 microM respectively). The crystal structure of L. major GLO1 reveals differences in active site architecture to both human GLO1 and the nickel-dependent Escherichia coli GLO1, including increased negative charge and hydrophobic character and truncation of a loop that may regulate catalysis in the human enzyme. These differences correlate with the differential binding of glutathione and trypanothione-based substrates, and thus offer a route to the rational design of L. major-specific GLO1 inhibitors.

  15. The Orthoptera species (Insecta from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations that were made in the last 10 years and the review of scientific literature who relived studies made on grasshoppers, cricket and bush cricket species from Romania and especially from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (D.D.B.R. territory indicate the presence of 80 taxa belonging to Orthoptera order (ClassInsecta, an important number from a total of 187 taxa at national level. In the same time D.D.B.R. is characterized by some interesting elements of orthoptera fauna – one endemic species [Isophya dobrogensis (Kis 1994] on Popina Island, one new species for this territory [Metrioptera (Zeuneriana amplipennis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882] and two species (Isophya dobrogensis (Kis, 1994 and Saga pedo (Pallas, 1771 from Red List of plant and animal species from D.D.B.R. Over 40% orthoptera species from Romania characterize through their presence Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve having a diverse geographical spreading, fact that is correlated with the diversity of dobroudjean climate. This is characterized by unique elements in Romania being an interface area between different types of climate.

  16. Challenges of medicines management in the public and private sector under Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashigbie, Paul G; Azameti, Devine; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2016-01-01

    Ghana established its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2003 with the goal of ensuring more equitable financing of health care to improve access to health services. This qualitative study examines the challenges and consequences of medicines management policies and practices under the NHIS as perceived by public and private service providers. This study was conducted in health facilities in the Eastern, Greater Accra and Volta regions of Ghana between July and August 2014. We interviewed 26 Key Informants (KIs) from a purposively selected sample of public and private sector providers (government and mission hospitals, private hospitals and private standalone pharmacies), pharmaceutical suppliers and NHIS district offices. Data was collected using semi-structured interview guides which covered facility accreditation, reimbursement practices, medicines selection, purchasing and pricing of medicines, and utilization of medicines. Codes for data analysis were developed based on the study questions and also in response to themes that emerged from the transcripts and notes. Most KIs agreed that the introduction of the NHIS has increased access to and utilization of medicines by removing cost barriers for patients; however, some pointed out the increased utilization could also be corollary to moral hazard. Common concerns across all facilities were the delays in receiving NHIS reimbursements, and low reimbursement rates for medicines which result in providers asking patients to pay supplementary fees. KIs reported important differences between private and public sectors including weak separation of prescribing and dispensing and limited use of drugs and therapeutic committees in the private sector, the disproportionate effects of unfavorable reimbursement prices for medicines, and inadequate participation of the private sector providers (especially pharmacies and licensed chemical sellers) in the NHIS. Health providers generally perceive the NHIS to have had a

  17. [Digitalization, archival storage and use of image documentation in the GastroBase-II system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocna, P

    1997-05-14

    "GastroBase-II" is a module of the clinical information system "KIS-ComSyD"; The main part is represented by structured data-text with an expert system including on-line image digitalization in gastroenterology (incl. endoscopic, X-ray and endosonography pictures). The hardware and software of the GastroBase are described as well as six-years experiences with application of digitalized image data. An integration of a picture into text, reports, slides for a lecture or an electronic atlas is documented with examples. Briefly are reported out experiences with graphic editors (PhotoStyler), text editor (WordPerfect) and slide preparation for lecturing with the presentation software PowerPoint. The multimedia applications on the CD-ROM illustrate a modern trend using digitalized image documentation for pregradual and postgradual education.

  18. Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring = Open Society Forum Discussion Panel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    6. novembril 2008 toimunud Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumil arutlesid president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu aseesimees Martti Ahtisaari, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi nõukogu esimees George Soros, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu liige, politoloogiaprofessor Aleksander Smolar ja Rahvusvahelise Kaitseuuringute Keskuse juhataja Kadri Liik suhete üle Venemaaga. Vestlust juhtis Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor Andres Kasekamp. President T. H. Ilves rääkis paradigma muutusest Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetes pärast Venemaa agressiooni Gruusia vastu, ühiselt jagatud väärtustel põhineva julgeolekuorganisatsiooni tähtsusest, autoritaarse ja demokraatliku kapitalismi vastuolust

  19. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part II: application of kidney inhibition swab tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Lupton, Sara J; Newman, David J; Larsen, Steven; Smith, David J

    2014-07-30

    Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues (injection site, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle) or body fluids (serum and urine) were screened for penicillin G using the KIS test, recently adopted by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. The IM administration patterns had no discernible effect on penicillin G depletion. Residues were depleted more rapidly from liver and skeletal muscle and more slowly from kidney and urine. Kidney was the most sensitive and suitable tissue for detecting penicillin G residues on-site, with two positive results after a 39-day withdrawal period. Urine was the most suitable ante-mortem surrogate to predict the results of kidney tests.

  20. Organizational changes and automation: By means of a customer-oriented policy the so-called 'island culture' disappears: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Automation offers great opportunities in the efforts of energy utilities in the Netherlands to reorganize towards more customer-oriented businesses. However, automation in itself is not enough. First, the organizational structure has to be changed considerably. Various energy utilities have already started on it. The restructuring principle is the same everywhere, but the way it is implemented differs widely. In this article attention is paid to different customer information systems. These systems can put an end to the so-called island culture within the energy utility organizations. The systems discussed are IRD of Systema and RIVA of SAP (both German software businesses), and two Dutch systems: Numis-2000 of Multihouse and KIS/400 of NUON Info-Systemen

  1. 120 aastat professor Nikolai Maimi sünnist / Väino J. Riismandel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riismandel, Väino, 1920-2017

    2004-01-01

    Professor Maim (26. veeb. 1884 Tartus - 10. jaan. 1976 USA) on lõpetanud Moskva ülikooli õigusteaduskonna (1909), Tartu Ülikooli riigiõiguse erialal (1915). Ta on töötanud Vene keisririigi siseministeeriumi teenistuse eriülesandeis ametnikuna, Eesti Vabriigis siseministri abina, välisministeeriumi juriskonsultina. Maimi peamiseks ülesandeks kujunes korraldamisjärgus oleva Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna organiseerimine. Peale 1944. aastal Eestist põgenemist oli ta õppejõuks Marburgi ülikoolis riigiteaduse ja riigiõiguse alal. LL.M. (George Washingtoni ülikool) Väino J. Riismandel on District of Columbia advokatuuri liige, oli professor Maimi õpilane ja töökaaslane Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisatud: professor Maimi trükis ilmunud tööd lk. 65

  2. Õpetamine kõrgkoolis / Marge Kõrvits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrvits, Marge

    2001-01-01

    6.-14. aug. 2001 toimus Tartus esimene osa suveülikoolist "Õpetamine kõrgkoolis". Peakorraldajaks oli Tartu Ülikooli avatud ülikool koostöös Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooliga, eesmärgiks õppejõudude täienduskoolitus. Aktiivõpet, rühmatööd, vastava koolituse kavandmist ja hindamist tutvustas Jude Carroll (Oxford Brooke University), aktiivõppe tutvustamist jätkas Kristi Lonka (Helsingi Ülikool), kaugkoolituse mudelitest, telekonverentsidest ja e-õppest rääkis Taani Kaugkoolitusliidu president J℗ırgen Bang (Aarhusì Ülikool), avaliku kõne olemust lahkas Tõnu Lehtsaar (TÜ)

  3. Újraosztó fiskális politika nyitott gazdaságban

    OpenAIRE

    Szilágyi, Katalin

    2006-01-01

    A tanulmány az expanzív fiskális politika hatását vizsgálja egy kis, nyitott gazdaság kétszektoros reálmodelljében. A költségvetési politika a modellben újraosztja a forrásokat: költekezõ jellegű (expanzív) az állami költségvetés akkor, ha fokozza a redisztribúciót. Megmutatom, hogy ebben az esetben – az újraelosztás károsultjainak és kedvezményezettjeinek fogyasztási szerkezetére tett valószerű feltevések mellett – egy kétszektoros reálmodell számos, az irodalomban szokásosnak...

  4. Molecular mechanism of ERK dephosphorylation by striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Kang-shuai; Su, Jing; Chen, Lai-Zhong; Xu, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hong-Mei; Gong, Zheng; Cui, Guo-Ying; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Yao, Wei; Xin, Tao; Li, Min-Yong; Xiao, Kun-Hong; An, Xiao-fei; Huo, Yuqing; Xu, Zhi-gang; Sun, Jin-Peng; Pang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is an important regulator of neuronal synaptic plasticity, and its abnormal level or activity contributes to cognitive disorders. One crucial downstream effector and direct substrate of STEP is extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), which has important functions in spine stabilisation and action potential transmission. The inhibition of STEP activity toward phospho-ERK has the potential to treat neuronal diseases, but the detailed mechanism underlying the dephosphorylation of phospho-ERK by STEP is not known. Therefore, we examined STEP activity toward pNPP, phospho-tyrosine-containing peptides, and the full-length phospho-ERK protein using STEP mutants with different structural features. STEP was found to be a highly efficient ERK tyrosine phosphatase that required both its N-terminal regulatory region and key residues in its active site. Specifically, both KIM and KIS of STEP were required for ERK interaction. In addition to the N-terminal KIS region, S245, hydrophobic residues L249/L251, and basic residues R242/R243 located in the KIM region were important in controlling STEP activity toward phospho-ERK. Further kinetic experiments revealed subtle structural differences between STEP and HePTP that affected the interactions of their KIMs with ERK. Moreover, STEP recognised specific positions of a phospho-ERK peptide sequence through its active site, and the contact of STEP F311 with phospho-ERK V205 and T207 were crucial interactions. Taken together, our results not only provide the information for interactions between ERK and STEP, but will also help in the development of specific strategies to target STEP-ERK recognition, which could serve as a potential therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:24117863

  5. Development and Open Pilot Trial of an HIV-Prevention Intervention Integrating Mobile-Phone Technology for Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.

  6. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Supuran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3 × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5 × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM. The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM. Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets.

  7. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Ware, Jennifer J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Cole, Christopher B; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nollen, Nikki; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Schnoll, Robert A; Hawk, Larry W; Cinciripini, Paul M; George, Tony P; Lerman, Caryn; Knight, Joanne; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-03-01

    The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent. Our current aim was to identify novel genetic influences on the NMR in AA smokers using genome-wide approaches. Genome-wide association study (GWAS). Multiple sites within Canada and the United States. AA smokers from two clinical trials: Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment (PNAT)-2 (NCT01314001; n = 504) and Kick-it-at-Swope (KIS)-3 (NCT00666978; n = 450). Genome-wide SNP genotyping, the NMR (phenotype) and population substructure and NMR covariates. Meta-analysis revealed three independent chromosome 19 signals (rs12459249, rs111645190 and rs185430475) associated with the NMR. The top overall hit, rs12459249 (P = 1.47e-39; beta = 0.59 per C (versus T) allele, SE = 0.045), located ~9.5 kb 3' of CYP2A6, remained genome-wide significant after controlling for the common (~10% in AA) non-functional CYP2A6*17 allele. In contrast, rs111645190 and rs185430475 were not genome-wide significant when controlling for CYP2A6*17. In total, 96 signals associated with the NMR were identified; many were not found in prior NMR GWASs in individuals of European descent. The top hits were also associated with the NMR in a third cohort of AA (KIS2; n = 480). None of the hits were in UGT or OCT2 genes. Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers. The hits identified may contribute to inter-ethnic variability in nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviours and tobacco-related disease risk

  8. A DICOM based PACS for nuclear medicine; Ein DICOM-basiertes PACS fuer die Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2002-02-01

    The installation of a radiology information system (RIS) connected to a hospital information system (HIS) and a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) seems mandatory for a nuclear medicine department in order to guarantee a high patient throughput. With these systems a fast transmission of reports, images to the in- and out-patients' wards and private practitioners is realized. Therefore, since April 2000, at the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Wuerzburg a completely DICOM based PACS has been implemented in addition to the RIS. With this system a DICOM based workflow is realized throughout the department of nuclear medicine for reporting and archiving. The PACS is connected to six gamma-cameras, a PET scanner, a bone densitometry system and an ultrasound device. The volume of image data archived per month is 4 GByte. Patient demographics are provided to the modalities via DICOM-Worklist. With these PACS components a department specific archive purely based on DICOM can be realized. During the installation process problems occurred mainly because of the complex DICOM standard for nuclear medicine. Related to that is the problem that most of the software implementations still contain bugs or are not adapted to the needs of a nuclear medicine department (particularly for PET). A communication software for the distribution of nuclear medicine reports and images based on techniques used for the worldwide web is currently tested. (orig.) [German] Fuer eine nuklearmedizinische Klinik ist ein Klinikinformationssystem (KIS) gekoppelt mit einem Radiologieinformationssystem (RIS) sowie einem Bildarchivierungs- und Verteilungssystem (PACS) unabdingbar, um einen schnellen Patientendurchsatz sowie die zeitnahe Uebermittlung von Befunden inklusive nuklearmedizinischen Bildern an zuweisende Stationen, Ambulanzen und externe Zuweiser zu gewaehrleisten. Daher wurde im April 2000 an der Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Universitaet

  9. Childhood disability in Malawi: a population based assessment using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataryn, Myroslava; Polack, Sarah; Chokotho, Linda; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Kayange, Petros; Banks, Lena Morgon; Noe, Christiane; Lavy, Chris; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-11-28

    Epidemiological data on childhood disability are lacking in Low and Middle Income countries (LMICs) such as Malawi, hampering effective service planning and advocacy. The Key Informant Method (KIM) is an innovative, cost-effective method for generating population data on the prevalence and causes of impairment in children. The aim of this study was to use the Key Informant Method to estimate the prevalence of moderate/severe, hearing, vision and physical impairments, intellectual impairments and epilepsy in children in two districts in Malawi and to estimate the associated need for rehabilitation and other services. Five hundred key informants (KIs) were trained to identify children in their communities who may have the impairment types included in this study. Identified children were invited to attend a screening camp where they underwent assessment by medical professionals for moderate/severe hearing, vision and physical impairments, intellectual impairments and epilepsy. Approximately 15,000 children were identified by KIs as potentially having an impairment of whom 7220 (48%) attended a screening camp. The estimated prevalence of impairments/epilepsy was 17.3/1000 children (95% CI: 16.9-17.7). Physical impairment (39%) was the commonest impairment type followed by hearing impairment (27%), intellectual impairment (26%), epilepsy (22%) and vision impairment (4%). Approximately 2100 children per million population could benefit from physiotherapy and occupational therapy and 300 per million are in need of a wheelchair. An estimated 1800 children per million population have hearing impairment caused by conditions that could be prevented or treated through basic primary ear care. Corneal opacity was the leading cause of vision impairment. Only 50% of children with suspected epilepsy were receiving medication. The majority (73%) of children were attending school, but attendance varied by impairment type and was lowest among children with multiple impairments (38

  10. The Impacts of Genistein and Daidzein on Estrogen Conjugations in Human Breast Cancer Cells: A Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Poschner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effect of dietary soy food intake, especially for women diagnosed with breast cancer, is controversial, as in vitro data has shown that the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein may even stimulate the proliferation of estrogen-receptor alpha positive (ERα+ breast cancer cells at low concentrations. As genistein and daidzein are known to inhibit key enzymes in the steroid metabolism pathway, and thus may influence levels of active estrogens, we investigated the impacts of genistein and daidzein on the formation of estrogen metabolites, namely 17β-estradiol (E2, 17β-estradiol-3-(β-D-glucuronide (E2-G, 17β-estradiol-3-sulfate (E2-S and estrone-3-sulfate (E1-S in estrogen-dependent ERα+ MCF-7 cells. We found that both isoflavones were potent inhibitors of E1 and E2 sulfation (85–95% inhibition at 10 μM, but impeded E2 glucuronidation to a lesser extent (55–60% inhibition at 10 μM. The stronger inhibition of E1 and E2 sulfation compared with E2 glucuronidation was more evident for genistein, as indicated by significantly lower inhibition constants for genistein [Kis: E2-S (0.32 μM < E1-S (0.76 μM < E2-G (6.01 μM] when compared with those for daidzein [Kis: E2-S (0.48 μM < E1-S (1.64 μM < E2-G (7.31 μM]. Concomitant with the suppression of E1 and E2 conjugation, we observed a minor but statistically significant increase in E2 concentration of approximately 20%. As the content of genistein and daidzein in soy food is relatively low, an increased risk of breast cancer development and progression in women may only be observed following consumption of high-dose isoflavone supplements. Further long-term human studies monitoring free estrogens and their conjugates are therefore highly warranted to evaluate the potential side effects of high-dose genistein and daidzein, especially in patients diagnosed with ERα+ breast cancer.

  11. Small scale migration along the interoceanic highway in Madre de Dios, Peru: an exploration of community perceptions and dynamics due to migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kelly E; Naik, Nehal N; O'Neal, Christina; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Riley-Powell, Amy R; Lee, Gwenyth O; Hartinger, Stella M; Bausch, Daniel G; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2018-02-12

    Madre de Dios, a southern state in the Peruvian Amazon basin, has experienced rapid development as well as an influx of migrants since the construction of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) connecting Brazil, Bolivia, and the Peruvian coast. We explored perceptions of migration and development in up to eight communities along the IOH in Madre de Dios following construction of the highway. We conducted a multiple methods study involving focus group (FG) discussions and interviews with key informants (KIs) in eight communities in Madre de Dios. The data was used to develop and apply a survey on demographics, financial, personal, social, human, and physical capital in four communities between February 2014 and March 2015. We conducted 12 FGs and 34 KI interviews. A total of 522 people participated in the survey. Comparing migrants (those who had moved to the area after construction of the IOH) and non-migrants, we found no difference in food security or access to health services. The majority (67.6%) of respondents from both groups reported that illness was their primary threat to well-being. Non-migrants owned more land than migrants (p < 0.001), were more likely to have piped water directly in their home (p = 0.046), and were more likely to participate in community groups (p = 0.012). Looking at perceptions about migrants, KIs and FGs discussed both positive perceptions of migrants (increased cultural exchange and new technology) and negative perceptions (increased drugs and alcohol in their communities and a lack of investment in the community). Both migrants and non-migrants reported trusting the local government more than the national government. Although we hypothesized that migrants would have decreased access to food, water, health services, and land relative to non-migrants, our results show that the only significant differences were in land ownership and water access. Efforts to improve community infrastructure should be carried out at the local

  12. Railway Station Built In The Interwar Period In Telšiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Dabašinskienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important and biggest railway station in Telšiai as a part of one of the first railroads Kretinga – Telšiai – Kužiai built in the interwar period is examined in this article. A variety of elements of the station’s infrastructure with special attention to passenger stations, houses for railway workers and warehouses (pakhauze are revealed in the article. The significance of Lietūkis warehouses founded in the territory of the station and their connections with the railroad are discussed. Moreover, the arrangement of Telšiai Station buildings in the territory are analyzed and compared to the preserved site plan of the station and photo of the situation dated back to the Second World War taken by Germans from the air. While comparing the available sources, urban developments of the station area are discussed. The analysis material is based on archival sources, the interwar documentary publications and research of the location.

  13. Rytų aukštaičių vilniškių pakraštinių šnektų kirčiavimo ypatumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Urbanavičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ACCENTUATION PECULIARITIES OF PERIPHERAL SUBDIALECTS OF EAST HIGHLANDERS OF THE VILNIUS DIALECTSummaryThe paper sets out to overview the accentuation features of the Svirkos subdialect (Adutiškis parish, district of Švenčionys located in the area of frequent Lithuanian-Slavic contacts. The features include the relics of oxytone and barytone accentuation, columnal accentuation, the double-peaked and secondary stress types.The accentuation system of the Svirkos subdialect has been found to be rather close to other peripheral subdialects of the Vilnius dialect (Gervėčiai, Dieveniškės etc.. The parameters that help identify the closeness of the subdialects are as follows: 1 well-preserved barytone and oxytone accentuation patterns; 2 the impact of Slavic languages on prosody (violations of the Saussure-Fortunatov law, the stress placement is not related to the tone of the word, columnal accentuation. The author suggests that the double-peaked stress and the secondary phonological stress in northern dialects are stronger (in the area of the Utena dialect, whereas in southern dialects (southern highlanders weaker than in peripheral subdialects of the Vilnius dialect. Secondary non-phonological stresses, though optional, perform important functions: contribute to the rhythmic arrangement of the phrase (rhythmic stress, make up for the loss of ending or help preserve the full ending (morphemic stress. The accentuation systems of Vilnius dialect idioms are less different than their vocalisms.

  14. Galeriid - Tallinna kunstisoonel / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Valgusfestival Tallinnas, Angelika Schneideri joonistuste näitus "Valgest mustani" Estonia Kontserdisaali fuajees, Liina Vedleri näitus "Raskolnikova saar" EKA galeriis, Maria Valdma näitus "Fiktsioonid" Tallinna Linnagaleriis, Eveli Variku näitus "Armuke" Kunstihoone galeriis, Tarmo Roosimöldri näitus "Paus" ning Kaarina Ormio, Jaan Pärnamäe ja Elin T. Sorenseni installatsioon "Mäng" G-galeriis, šveitsi-soome fotograafi Peter Strebeli näitus "Maroko Anti-Atlase mäestiku motiivid" Kiek in de Kökis, Jaan Künnapi Tallinna panoraam näitusel "Tallinn, inimesed ja linn 1878-2002" Raevangla Fotomuuseumis, TPÜ üliõpilaste fotonäitus "Fotofinish" fotokeldris Lee, TPÜ kunstiosakonna üliõpilaste näitus "Tehnika ja lüürika" Viviann Napa galeriis, näitus "Juugendstiil Lätis", Pille Kivihalli, Maarja Unduski ja Tiina Piisangu näitus "Altar raamatule" rahvusraamatukogus, Toomas Keldri mälestusnäitus disaini- ja arhitektuurigaleriis, Irina Ishina näitus Vene saatkonna galeriis, Vladimir Baciu näitus Haus galeriis, Vassili Gretshko näitus Artline'i galeriis, Jana Wiebe ja Tjika Rebase "Surnuaia kogumik vol. 1" Hobusepea galeriis, Kadi Kurema näitus "Imeasjad" Ühispanga galeriis ja "Pisiasjad" Galeriis 36

  15. Simulating solar MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schüssler

    Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.

  16. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 2.: External dose calculation with relevant countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kis, Z.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Gil, J.; Voigt, G.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of the collective dose and averted collective dose after applying countermeasures in an industrial environment has been divided in two parts. In the first part (Kis et al. 2002) separate Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport resulted in the air kermas per photon per unit area due to the industrial surfaces contaminated by 1 37C s at specific points using the so-called local approach. In the local approach the air kerma rates due to specific intervention elements at the evaluation locations in the whole environment are determined (Gutierrez et al. 2000). In this way the collective and averted collective dose due to the radiation from a particular intervention element (e.g. the roof of a building) can be obtained. It can, therefore, provide a ranking of the specific intervention elements based on their contribution to collective dose as well. The deposition pattern and the long-term behaviour of deposited radionuclides vary widely in natural circumstances; therefore the number of the photons emitted from the various surfaces per unit area and time can differ significantly. This means the results of the Monte Carlo simulations have to be weighted according to the number of emitted photons so that the actual radiation field can be set up. For this purpose, a dose calculation code has been developed in the framework of the TEMAS project (Gutierrez et al. 2000) which allows to calculate collective doses for different environments. This code has been applied in the present work

  17. Improvement way for mobile X-ray examinations by rule revision about safety management of diagnosis radiation occurrence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Gu; Kim, Gyeong Su; Kim, Byeong Gi; Ahn, Nam Jun; Kim, Hyeong Sun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lim, Si Eun

    2007-01-01

    A safety management rule of the diagnosis radiation system which opened a court 2006 February 10th was promulgated for safety of the radiation worker, patients and patients' family members. The purpose of this study is to minimize injury by radiation that can happen to patients and people around a sick ward when managing mobile X-ray system. This study analyzed sickroom environment of mobile X-ray examination and the statistical data of the Konkuk medical Information System (KIS) and the Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS). This study also investigated patient conditions, infection, relation information and related data, when the sickroom mobile X-ray examination is used. Through data analysis, many problems were expected such as restriction of space side, manpower and expense of business side, satisfaction degree decline of patient and protector of operation side. Therefore, we tried to restrict examination of multi bed sickroom, and to use treatment room in each ward to solve problem mentioned. As a result, the whole sickroom mobile X-ray examination rate decreased to near 50%, and mobile X-ray examination rate for inpatients decreased to more than 85%. This study shows that several attempts we did should be helpful for manpower, patients satisfaction and expenses. Also, they should protect patients in sickroom from unnecessary radiation exposure and could minimize inconvenience of patients and their family members from x-ray examination

  18. Chick lit as the new woman’s fiction: inscriptions in Marian Keyes’s novel Watermelon. Naujųjų moterų literatūra: atspindžiai Marian Keys romane Arbūzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ragaišienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje aptariama nauja tendencija moterų literatūroje. Ši tendencija apibūdinama kaip komerciniu požiūriu sėkmingų romanų protrūkis. Šiuo romanus vienijanti tema – jaunų moterų pastangos suderinti sėkmingą karjerą ir emancipuotos moters asmeninius poreikius. Kritinėje šios literatūros recepcijoje vyrauja dvi nuomonės. Vieni kritikai naująjį žanrą tapatina su meilės romanu, skirtu vartojiškumo dvasios apimtai skaitytojų auditorijai, kiti teigia, kad šis žanras įkūnija realistinio romano sugrįžimą ir nurodo akivaizdžias sąsajas su jo žanrinėmis variacijomis. Šiuo požiūriu ši literatūra atspindi svarbiausius laikmečio faktorius, lemiančius tapatybės raidą. Marian Keyes romane Arbūzas pastebimi charakteringiausi aptariamojo naujojo literatūros žanro bruožai, straipsnyje analizuojami pasitelkiant šio žanro tyrinėtojų vertinimus.

  19. Avrupa Birliği hukukunun önceliği ilkesi kapsamında Avrupa Birliğinde temel hak koruması

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGİN, Azime Aslı

    2011-01-01

    TEZ ÖZETİBirlik için bir çok açıdan önemi haiz bir konu olan temel hak korumasının Avrupa Birliğinin (Birlik) oluşumundan bugüne geçirdiği evreleri ve temel hak koruması konusundaki gelişmelerin Birlik hukukunun vazgeçilmezi öncelik ilkesi ile olan ilişkisini ele aldığımız çalışmamız üç ana bölümden oluşmaktadır.İlk bölümde temel hak korumasını Divan ve ulusal mahkelemeler arasındaki tartışmanın merkezine yerleştiren ve oluşumdan itibaren temel hak ile olan ilişkis...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Urek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.

  1. Etude structurale et vibrationnelle d'un nouveau composé complexe de cobalt: [Co(imidazole)4Cl]Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbel, Amira; Mhiri, Tahar; Graia, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    In the title complex, chlorido-tetra-kis-(1H-imidazole-κN (3))cobalt(II) chloride, [CoCl(C3H4N2)4]Cl, the Co(II) cation has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. It is coordinated by four N atoms of four imidazole (Im) groups in the basal plane, and by a Cl atom in the apical position. It is isostructural with [Cu(Im)4Cl]Cl [Morzyk-Ociepa et al. (2012 ▸). J. Mol. Struct. 1028, 49-56] and [Cu(Im)4Br]Br [Hossaini Sadr et al. (2004 ▸). Acta Cryst. E60, m1324-m1326]. In the crystal, the [CoCl(C3H4N2)4](+) cations and Cl(-) anions are linked via N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (010). These layers are linked via C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π and π-π [inter-centroid distance = 3.794 (2) Å] inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional framework. The IR spectrum shows vibrational bands typical for imidazol groups. The monoclinic unit cell of the title compound emulates an ortho-rhom-bic cell as its β angle is close to 90°. The crystal is twinned, with the refined ratio of twin components being 0.569 (1):0.431 (1).

  2. Assessment of a school-based mass treatment for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Capiz, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Taylor, Laura; Macatangay, Bernard Jonas C; Veldkamp, Peter; Belizario, Vicente Y

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the War on Worms in the Western Visayas (WOW-V) school-based mass treatment strategy in Capiz, the Philippines by assessing potential determinants of program acceptance among parents, teachers, and local health and education officials involved. Written surveys were distributed to parents and teachers assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Associations between data were examined using the Fisher's exact test (alpha = 0.05). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were employed to analyze teacher survey results. Local health and education officials participated in key-informant interviews (KIs) to evaluate their attitudes and practices regarding WOW-V; data was qualitatively analyzed and grouped. A strong association was observed between parental consent during the first two rounds of treatment and willingness to do so again. Most parents gave consent for their child to receive treatment at least once and demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding STH infections. The majority of teachers had positive attitudes toward their role in the program. Many identified lack of training and a fear of side effects as barriers to higher coverage. Lack of funding, program monitoring difficulties and insufficient parental education were identified by local officials as barriers. Proper planning and design is important to achieve high initial consent for program acceptance. The results correlate with studies showing relationships between health education and treatment acceptance. The implementation of health education and monitoring measures has the potential to greatly improve both treatment coverage and program infrastructure.

  3. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Conclusion Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents. PMID:23497178

  4. Synthesis of 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamides and their carbonic anhydrase inhibitory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Halise Inci; Kucukoglu, Kaan; Yamali, Cem; Bilginer, Sinan; Yuca, Hafize; Ozturk, Iknur; Taslimi, Parham; Gulcin, Ilhami; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamides were synthesized by microwave irradiation and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)CNMR, and HRMS. Ketones used were: Acetophenone (S1), 4-methylacetophenone (S2), 4-chloroacetophenone (S3), 4-fluoroacetophenone (S4), 4-bromoacetophenone (S5), 4-methoxyacetophenone (S6), 4-nitroacetophenone (S7), 2-acetylthiophene (S8), 2-acetylfuran (S9), 1-indanone (S10), 2-indanone (S11). The compounds S9, S10 and S11 were reported for the first time, while S1-S8 was synthesized by different method than literature reported using microwave irradiation method instead of conventional heating in this study. The inhibitory effects of 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives (S1-S11) against hCA I and II were studied. Cytosolic hCA I and II isoenzymes were potently inhibited by new synthesized sulphonamide derivatives with Kis in the range of 1.79 ± 0.22-2.73 ± 0.08 nM against hCA I and in the range of 1.72 ± 0.58-11.64 ± 5.21 nM against hCA II, respectively.

  5. Effect of field-aligned-beam in parallel diffusion of energetic particles in the Earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Otsuka, F.; Kis, A.; Lemperger, I.; Hada, T.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is one of the plausible acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. In the standard DSA model the partial density of the accelerated particles, diffused into upstream, exponentially decreases as the distance to the shock increases. Kis et al. (GRL, 31, L20801, 2004) examined the density gradients of energetic ions upstream of the bow shock with high accuracy by using Cluster data. They estimated the diffusion coefficients of energetic ions for the event in February 18, 2003 and showed that the obtained diffusion coefficients are significantly smaller than those estimated in the past statistical study. This implies that particle acceleration at the bow shock can be more efficient than considered before. Here, we focus on the effect of the field-aligned-beam (FAB) which is often observed in the foreshock, and examine how the FAB affects the efficiency of diffusion of the energetic ions by performing test particle simulations. The upstream turbulence is given by the superposition of parallel Alfven waves with power-law energy spectrum with random phase approximation. In the spectrum we further add a peak corresponding to the waves resonantly generated by the FAB. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the presence of the FAB as well as total energy of the turbulence, power-law index of the turbulence, and intensity of FAB oriented waves are discussed.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Ethanol Extract from Rhus verniciflua Stokes Wood on the Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xia Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes wood were made using decompressing inner ebullition, and a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize extraction conditions to produce an extract that inhibited tyrosinase activity. The chemical compositions and inhibition rates were determined in extracts made with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and an aqueous fractionation. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic content and inhibition rates. The main flavonoids in this fraction were 0.531% fisetin, 7.582% fustin, 0.848% sulfuretin, and 0.272% butein. The effects of the extract on the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied using the Lineweaver-Burk equation to determine the effect of the extract on inhibition of tyrosinase activity. The results showed that the extract inhibited both the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of the enzyme. The IC50 of the ethyl acetate extract was 308 μg/mL, with the lag period of the enzyme being obviously lengthened; it was estimated to be 2.45 min in the absence of the inhibitor and extended to 9.63 min in the presence of 500 μg/mL of extract. The ethyl acetate extract acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The KI was less than the KIS, which demonstrates that the [ESI] is less stable than [EI], suggesting that the extract could easily combine with free enzyme in the enzyme catalysis system, thus affecting enzyme catalysis on the substrate.

  7. Aknu steatozes radioloģiskās ainas korelācija ar lipīdu frakcijām un koronāro artēriju kalcinozi

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovičs, Sergejs

    2016-01-01

    Tika izpētīti 140 pacientu datortomogrāfijas attēli, kuros tika izvērtēti aknu steatozes un koronāro artēriju kalcinozes klātbūtne. Mēŗkis ir noskaidrot abu slimību prevalenci starp dzimumiem un vecuma grupās, kā arī slimību savstarpējo saistību un saistību ar lipīdu frakciju izmaiņām, blakusslimībām un aknu bojājuma marķieriem. Aknu steatoze un koronāro artēriju kalcinoze biežāk vērojama vīriešiem vecuma grupā ≥50 gadu vecuma. Ir vērojama lielāka koronāro artēriju kalcinozes prevalence pacie...

  8. Labor Union Effects on Innovation and Commercialization Productivity: An Integrated Propensity Score Matching and Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongphil Chun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research and development (R&D is a critical factor in sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage. Accurate measurement of R&D productivity and investigation of its influencing factors are of value for R&D productivity improvements. This study is divided into two sections. The first section outlines the innovation and commercialization stages of firm-level R&D activities. This section analyzes the productivity of each stage using a propensity score matching (PSM and two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA integrated model to solve the selection bias problem. Second, this study conducts a comparative analysis among subgroups categorized as labor unionized or non-labor unionized on productivity at each stage. We used Korea Innovation Survey (KIS data for analysis using a sample of 400 Korean manufacturers. The key findings of this study include: (1 firm innovation and commercialization productivity are balanced and show relatively low innovation productivity; and (2 labor unions have a positive effect on commercialization productivity. Moreover, labor unions are an influential factor in determining manufacturing firms’ commercialization productivity.

  9. Novel 6- and 7-Substituted Coumarins with Inhibitory Action against Lipoxygenase and Tumor-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of carboxamide derivatives of 6- and 7-substituted coumarins have been prepared by an original procedure starting from the corresponding 6- or 7-hydroxycoumarins which were alkylated with ethyl iodoacetate, and the obtained ester was converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids which were thereafter reacted with a series of aromatic/aliphatic/heterocyclic amines leading to the desired amides. The new derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of two enzymes, human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs and soy bean lipoxygenase (LOX. Compounds 4a and 4b were potent LOX inhibitors, whereas many effective hCA IX inhibitors (KIs in the range of 30.2–30.5 nM were detected in this study. Two compounds, 4b and 5b, showed the phenomenon of dual inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins did not significantly inhibit the widespread cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II, whereas they were weak hCA IV inhibitors, making them hCA IX-selective inhibitors. As hCA IX and LOX are validated antitumor targets, these results are promising for the investigation of novel drug targets involved in tumorigenesis.

  10. Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Takashi; Oshima, Kokichi

    2014-09-19

    We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic α-phase and the antiferromagnetic α'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the α-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.

  11. Quantitative autoradiographic distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenamyre, J.T.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of L-[3H]glutamate-binding sites in the rat central nervous system. Autoradiography was carried out in the presence of Cl- and Ca2+ ions. Scatchard plots and Hill coefficients of glutamate binding suggested that glutamate was interacting with a single population of sites having a K-D of about 300 nM and a capacity of 14.5 pmol/mg of protein. In displacement studies, ibotenate also appeared to bind to a single class of non-interacting sites with a KI of 28 microM. However, quisqualate displacement of [3H]glutamate binding revealed two well-resolved sites with KIS of 12 nM and 114 microM in striatum. These sites were unevenly distributed, representing different proportions of specific glutamate binding in different brain regions. The distribution of glutamate-binding sites correlated very well with the projection areas of putative glutamatergic pathways. This technique provides an extremely sensitive assay which can be used to gather detailed pharmacological and anatomical information about L-[3H]glutamate binding in the central nervous system

  12. Ühistegevuse alus - ühised väärtused / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne soome-ugri rahvaste 5. maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis 28. juunil 2008. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Kuningas Toomas Hendrik I. Eesti Päevaleht suhtub kriitiliselt president T. H. Ilvese demonstratiivsesse saalist väljamarssimisse Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Lisatud karikatuur president T. H. Ilvesest ja Venemaa presidendist Dmitri Medvedevist. Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja 1. juuli 2008, lk. 11, pealk.: Ühistegevuse alus on ühised väärtused (lüh.); Meie Kodu 16. juuli 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Ilves rääkis euroopalike väärtuste, keelekaitse tähtsusest; Eesti Elu 4. juuli 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi President soome-ugri rahvaste 5. maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis 28. juunil 2008 (lüh.); ingl. k. Vaba Eesti Sõna 24. juuli 2008, lk. 12, pealk.: European values are also useful east of the Urals

  13. TÜKETİCİLERİN FUTBOL İLE İLGİLENİM SEVİYELERİNE GÖRE KÜMELENMESİ VE KÜMELER ARASINDAKİ FARKLILIKLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı DUMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde rekabetin çok yoğun olduğu sektörlerin başında futbol sektörü gelmektedir. Başta oyuncu bonservis ve ücret giderleri olmak üzere çok yüklü operasyonel giderleri bulunan futbol kulüplerinin, yoğun rekabete ayak uydurmak adına lisanslı ürün satışı gelirlerini artırmaları gerekmektedir. Futbol kulüplerinin taraftarlarının futbol maçlarına ilgi seviyelerine göre hangi kümelere (segmentlere ayrıl- dıklarını bilmelerinin pazarlama stratejilerini oluştururken fayda sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma futbol maçlarına ilgi seviyesi farklı düzeylerde olan tüketicilerin demografik özellikleri, satınalma niyeti, taraftarı oldukları takımı algıladıkları marka kişiliği, taraftarı oldukları takıma ait lisanslı ürün satınalma sıklıkları ve futbol ile ilgili faaliyetlere katılımlarına göre farklılık gösterip göstermediklerini araştırmaktadır. Çalışmada, tüketicileri futbol ile ilgilerine göre gruplandırabilmek amacıyla hiyerarşik olmayan kümeleme analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek amacıyla, faktör, ki-kare ve anova analizleri kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda katılımcıların futbol ile ilgilerine göre iki küme oluşturdukları ve iki kümenin bazı lisanslı ürünlerin satınalma sıklığı, satınalma niyeti, taraftarı oldukları takımın marka kişiliğini algılamaları ve futbol ile ilgili faaliyetlere katılımda farklılaştıkları tespit edilmiştir.

  14. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    Influentials described themselves as concerned about climate change, they believed only 10% of their peers were equally concerned. Results from a public opinion survey of 1001 San Diego residents exhibited two clear trends: San Diegans were consistently more attuned and concerned about climate change and its impacts than nationwide average; and similar to the KI findings, they do not believe others are as concerned as they are. Further, mediation analysis of results supported TIMSI, showing that climate change education that promotes efficacy, identity and values endorsed by a concerned community are most likely to result in engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. All CCEP-I activities informed and directed the design of our Phase II Strategic plan and will provide baseline data for assessing changes that occur as we implement the educational plan. Implementation strategies for the next Phase will emphasize (1) presenting local climate science and unique climate impacts, (2) working with Key Influentials in diverse ways, including educational both formal and informal dialogues for this non-traditional audience, developing climate education messages to be delivered by KIs to their peers and their communities, and engaging certain KIs to be the portal to their constituents; and (3) using social media to connect educators and their audiences.

  15. Spatio-seasonal variability of chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption and responses to photobleaching in a large shallow temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encina Aulló-Maestro, María; Hunter, Peter; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Mercatoris, Pierre; Kovács, Attila; Horváth, Hajnalka; Preston, Tom; Présing, Mátyás; Torres Palenzuela, Jesús; Tyler, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The development and validation of remote-sensing-based approaches for the retrieval of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations requires a comprehensive understanding of the sources and magnitude of variability in the optical properties of dissolved material within lakes. In this study, spatial and seasonal variability in concentration and composition of CDOM and the origin of its variation was studied in Lake Balaton (Hungary), a large temperate shallow lake in central Europe. In addition, we investigated the effect of photobleaching on the optical properties of CDOM through in-lake incubation experiments. There was marked variability throughout the year in CDOM absorption in Lake Balaton (aCDOM(440) = 0. 06-9.01 m-1). The highest values were consistently observed at the mouth of the main inflow (Zala River), which drains humic-rich material from the adjoining Kis-Balaton wetland, but CDOM absorption decreased rapidly towards the east where it was consistently lower and less variable than in the westernmost lake basins. The spectral slope parameter for the interval of 350-500 nm (SCDOM(350-500)) was more variable with increasing distance from the inflow (observed range 0.0161-0.0181 nm-1 for the mouth of the main inflow and 0.0158-0.0300 nm-1 for waters closer to the outflow). However, spatial variation in SCDOM was more constant exhibiting a negative correlation with aCDOM(440). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was strongly positively correlated with aCDOM(440) and followed a similar seasonal trend but it demonstrated more variability than either aCDOM or SCDOM with distance through the system. Photobleaching resulting from a 7-day exposure to natural solar UV radiation resulted in a marked decrease in allochthonous CDOM absorption (7.04 to 3.36 m-1, 42 % decrease). Photodegradation also resulted in an increase in the spectral slope coefficient of dissolved material.

  16. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  17. Information Interaction Criteria Among Students in Process of Task-Based Information Searching (Role of Objective Complexity and Type of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Saeedizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  human-information interactions must be considered in order to be able to interactively design Information Retrieval Systems (IRS. In this regard, study of users’ interactions must be based on their socio-cultural context (specifically work tasks. Accordingly, this paper aims to explore the use of information-interaction criteria among students in the information searching process according to different kinds of their work tasks.  Methodology: This research is applied qualitative method using exploratory study. The research population consisted of MSc students of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad enrolled in 2012-13  academic year. In 3 stages of sampling (random stratified, quota, and voluntary sampling, 30 cases were selected. Each of these cases searched 6 different types of simulated work tasks. Interaction criteria were extracted ? Content analysis of aloud thinking reports. Validity of tools was verified through Faculties of KIS at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. Also,0.78  Kripendorff’s alpha ratio based on an agreement between the inter – coder indicates the Dependability  of content analysis. Findings: The findings show that in addition to ‘topic’ criteria, other interaction criteria impact on information- interaction of users, such as: ‘search results ranking’, ‘domain knowledge of user’, ‘layout’, ‘type of information resource’ and etc. based on the level of objective complexity and product of  work tasks, information-interaction criteria change. Conclusion: the users pay attention to different information-interaction criteria in process of information searching, considering to variety of work tasks (level of objective complexity and product. So, it is necessary to pay attention to work task characteristics in order to design interactive and personalized IR systems.

  18. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  19. Implementation Processes and Pay for Performance in Healthcare: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli K; Damberg, Cheryl L; Mendelson, Aaron; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Freeman, Michele; O'Neil, Maya; Relevo, Rose; Low, Allison; Kansagara, Devan

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, various pay-for-performance (P4P) programs have been implemented to improve quality in health systems, including the VHA. P4P programs are complex, and their effects may vary by design, context, and other implementation processes. We conducted a systematic review and key informant (KI) interviews to better understand the implementation factors that modify the effectiveness of P4P. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL through April 2014, and reviewed reference lists. We included trials and observational studies of P4P implementation. Two investigators abstracted data and assessed study quality. We interviewed P4P researchers to gain further insight. Among 1363 titles and abstracts, we selected 509 for full-text review, and included 41 primary studies. Of these 41 studies, 33 examined P4P programs in ambulatory settings, 7 targeted hospitals, and 1 study applied to nursing homes. Related to implementation, 13 studies examined program design, 8 examined implementation processes, 6 the outer setting, 18 the inner setting, and 5 provider characteristics. Results suggest the importance of considering underlying payment models and using statistically stringent methods of composite measure development, and ensuring that high-quality care will be maintained after incentive removal. We found no conclusive evidence that provider or practice characteristics relate to P4P effectiveness. Interviews with 14 KIs supported limited evidence that effective P4P program measures should be aligned with organizational goals, that incentive structures should be carefully considered, and that factors such as a strong infrastructure and public reporting may have a large influence. There is limited evidence from which to draw firm conclusions related to P4P implementation. Findings from studies and KI interviews suggest that P4P programs should undergo regular evaluation and should target areas of poor performance. Additionally, measures and incentives should align

  20. Withdrawal of anticancer therapy in advanced disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G; Johnston, S; Corrie, P; Kuhn, I; Barclay, S

    2015-11-11

    Current guidelines set out when to start anticancer treatments, but not when to stop as the end of life approaches. Conventional cytotoxic agents are administered intravenously and have major life-threatening toxicities. Newer drugs include molecular targeted agents (MTAs), in particular, small molecule kinase-inhibitors (KIs), which are administered orally. These have fewer life-threatening toxicities, and are increasingly used to palliate advanced cancer, generally offering additional months of survival benefit. MTAs are substantially more expensive, between £2-8 K per month, and perceived as easier to start than stop. A systematic review of decision-making concerning the withdrawal of anticancer drugs towards the end of life within clinical practice, with a particular focus on MTAs. Nine electronic databases searched. PRISMA guidelines followed. Forty-two studies included. How are decisions made? Decision-making was shared and ongoing, including stopping, starting and trying different treatments. Oncologists often experienced 'professional role dissonance' between their self-perception as 'treaters', and talking about end of life care. Why are decisions made? Clinical factors: disease progression, worsening functional status, treatment side-effects. Non-clinical factors: physicians' personal experience, values, emotions. Some patients continued treatment to maintain 'hope', often reflecting limited understanding of palliative goals. When are decisions made? Limited evidence reveals patients' decisions based upon quality of life benefits. Clinicians found timing withdrawal particularly challenging. Who makes the decisions? Decisions were based within physician-patient interaction. Oncologists report that decisions around stopping chemotherapy treatment are challenging, with limited evidence-based guidance outside of clinical trial protocols. The increasing availability of oral MTAs is transforming the management of incurable cancer; blurring boundaries between

  1. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian - Bathonian) of the Mecsek Mountains, Southern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory D.; Főzy, István; Galácz, András

    2018-04-01

    A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian-Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary). The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian-Bathonian δ13C variation.

  2. Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Targeted Therapy Era: The University of Rochester Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, James E; Youn, Paul; Peterson, Carl R; Usuki, Kenneth Y; Walter, Kevin A; Okunieff, Paul; Milano, Michael T

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy remains the standard approach for brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Kinase inhibitors (KI) have become standard of care for metastatic RCC. They also increase the radiosensitivity of various tumor types in preclinical models. Data are lacking regarding the effect of KIs among RCC patients undergoing radiotherapy for brain metastases. We report our experience of radiotherapy for brain metastatic RCC in the era of targeted therapy and analyzed effects of concurrent KI therapy. We retrospectively analyzed 25 consecutive patients who received radiotherapy for brain metastases from RCC with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or both. Kaplan-Meier rates of overall survival (OS) and brain progression-free survival (BPFS) were calculated and univariate analyses performed. Lower diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) score and multiple intracranial metastases were associated with decreased OS and BPFS on univariate analysis; DS-GPA is also a prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. There was no significant difference in OS or BPFS for SRS compared with WBRT or WBRT and SRS combined. The concurrent use of KI was not associated with any change in OS or BPFS. This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests among patients with brain metastatic RCC treated with the most current therapies, those selected to undergo SRS did not experience significantly different survival or control outcomes than those selected to undergo WBRT. From our experience to date, limited in patient numbers, there seems to be neither harm nor benefit in using concurrent KI therapy during radiotherapy. Given that most patients progress systemically, we would recommend considering KI use during brain radiotherapy in these patients.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperini, Claudia; Cecchi, Alessandro; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-02-01

    Thiazide and high ceiling diuretics were recently shown to inhibit all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) with a very different profile as compared to classical inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and ethoxzolamide. Some of these structurally related compounds have a very different behavior against the widespread isozyme CA II, with chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide being efficient inhibitors against CA II (K(I)s of 65-138 nM), whereas indapamide is a much weaker one (K(I) of 2520 nM). Furthermore, some of these diuretics are quite efficient (low nanomolar) inhibitors of other isoforms, for example, chlorthalidone against hCA VB, VII, IX, and XIII; indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII, and XIII, trichloromethiazide against CA VII and IX, and furosemide against CA I and XIV. Examining the four X-ray crystal structures of their CA II adducts, we observed several (2-3) active site water molecules interacting with the chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide scaffolds which may be responsible for this important difference of activity. Indeed, indapamide bound to CA II has no interactions with active site water molecules. Chlorthalidone bound within the CA II active site is in an enolic (lactimic) tautomeric form, with the enolic OH also participating in two strong hydrogen bonds with Asn67 and a water molecule. The newly evidenced binding modes of these diuretics may be exploited for designing better CA II inhibitors as well as compounds with selectivity/affinity for various isoforms with medicinal chemistry applications.

  4. [Glucose-6-phosphatase from nuclear envelope in rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mujica, Freddy

    2008-06-01

    Nuclear envelope (NE) and microsomal glucosa-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activities were compared. Intact microsomes were unable to hydrolyze mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P), on the other hand, intact NE hydrolyzes this substrate. Galactose-6-phosphate showed to be a good substrate for both NE and microsomal enzymes, with similar latency to that obtained with M-6-P using microsomes. In consequence, this substrate was used to measure the NE integrity. The kinetic parameters (Kii and Kis) of the intact NE G-6-Pase for the phlorizin inhibition using glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and M-6-P as substrates, were very similar. The NE T1 transporter was more sensitive to amiloride than the microsomal T1. The microsomal system was more sensitive to N-ethylmalemide (NEM) than the NE and the latter was insensitive to anion transport inhibitors DIDS and SITS, which strongly affect the microsomal enzyme. The above results allowed to postulate the presence of a hexose-6-phosphate transporter in the NE which is able to carry G-6-P and M-6-P, and perhaps other hexose-6-phosphate which could be different from that present in microsomes or, if it is the same, its activity could by modified by the membrane system where it is included. The higher PPi hydrolysis activity of the intact NE G-6-Pase in comparison to the intact microsomal, suggests differences between the Pi/PPi transport (T2) of both systems. The lower sensitivity of the NE G-6-Pase to NEM suggests that the catalytic subunit of this system has some differences with the microsomal isoform.

  5. Costs of insensitive acetylcholinesterase insecticide resistance for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae homozygous for the G119S mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The G119S mutation responsible for insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides has recently been reported from natural populations of Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. These reports suggest there are costs of resistance associated with this mutation for An. gambiae, especially for homozygous individuals, and these costs could be influential in determining the frequency of carbamate resistance in these populations. Methods Life-history traits of the AcerKis and Kisumu strains of An. gambiae were compared following the manipulation of larval food availability in three separate experiments conducted in an insecticide-free laboratory environment. These two strains share the same genetic background, but differ in being homozygous for the presence or absence of the G119S mutation at the ace-1 locus, respectively. Results Pupae of the resistant strain were significantly more likely to die during pupation than those of the susceptible strain. Ages at pupation were significantly earlier for the resistant strain and their dry starved weights were significantly lighter; this difference in weight remained when the two strains were matched for ages at pupation. Conclusions The main cost of resistance found for An. gambiae mosquitoes homozygous for the G119S mutation was that they were significantly more likely to die during pupation than their susceptible counterparts, and they did so across a range of larval food conditions. Comparing the frequency of G119S in fourth instar larvae and adults emerging from the same populations would provide a way to test whether this cost of resistance is being expressed in natural populations of An. gambiae and influencing the dynamics of this resistance mutation.

  6. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  7. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian – Bathonian of the Mecsek Mountains, Southern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Gregory D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian–Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian–Bajocian boundary. The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian–Bathonian δ13C variation.

  8. Kinetics of thermophilic acidogenesis of typical Brazilian sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mirian Harumi; Araújo Júnior, Moacir Messias; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the acidogenic phase during anaerobic digestion of sugarcane vinasse in differential reactors containing immobilized cells was investigated. The maximum substrate conversion rate (r_m_a_x), substrate saturation constant (K_s) and constant of inhibition by excess substrate (K_i_s) were determined using vinasse with and without pH adjustment. Simulation and scaling-up of a thermophilic-hydrogen production system were performed. The r_m_a_x values obtained at different pH were similar and near 0.9 mg-Total carbohydrates g-VS"−"1 h"−"1. The K_s obtained from the system without pH adjustment was 10,762.3 mg-Total carbohydrates L"−"1 (i.e., 2.5 times higher than the system with pH adjustment). No inhibition by excess substrate was achieved in the system without pH adjustment, indicating that sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without input costs. The simulation revealed that hydrogen production is a sensitive process that requires careful balancing of various operational parameters. The payback for the investment in system implementation is 4.4 years. - Highlights: • Sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without pH adjustment. • Excess substrate inhibition was observed when vinasse with pH adjusted was used. • A careful balancing of operational conditions is required to produce hydrogen. • The payback for the investment in system implementation is four years.

  9. Exercise Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older People in Care Facilities: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hee Sun

    2017-02-01

    Falls in older people are a common problem, often leading to considerable morbidity. However, the overall effect of exercise interventions on fall prevention in care facilities remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the rate of falls and number of fallers in care facilities. A meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials published up to December 2014. Eight databases were searched including Ovid-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and KisTi. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were selected, that included 5,540 participants. Fifteen studies included exercise as a single intervention, whereas the remaining six included exercise combined with two or more fall interventions tailored to each resident's fall risk (i.e., medication review, environmental modification or staff education). Meta-analysis showed that exercise had a preventive effect on the rate of falls (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97). This effect was stronger when exercise combined with other fall interventions on the rate of falls (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72) and on the number of fallers (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95). Exercise interventions including balance training (i.e., gait, balance, and functional training; or balance and strength) resulted in reduced the rate of falls. Sensitivity analyses indicated that exercise interventions resulted in reduced numbers of recurrent fallers (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.97). This review provides an important basis for developing evidence-based exercise intervention protocols for older people living in care facilities. Exercise programs, which are combined with tailored other fall interventions and challenge balance training to improve balance skills, should be applied to frail older people with functional limitations in institutional settings. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Kolics

    Full Text Available Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  11. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  12. Assessment of state- and territorial-level preparedness capacity for serving deaf and hard-of-hearing populations in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Engelman, Alina; Neuhauser, Linda; Huang, Debbie; Gurung, Sidhanta

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that emergency preparedness and response efforts are not effectively reaching populations with functional and access needs, especially barriers related to literacy, language, culture, or disabilities. More than 36 million Americans are Deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH). These groups experienced higher risks of injury, death, and property loss in recent disasters than the general public. We conducted a participatory research study to examine national recommendations on preparedness communication for the Deaf/HH. We assessed whether previous recommendations regarding the Deaf/HH have been incorporated into state- and territorial-level emergency operations plans (EOPs), interviewed state- and territorial-level preparedness directors about capacity to serve the Deaf/HH, and proposed strategies to benefit Deaf/HH populations during emergencies. We analyzed 55 EOPs and 50 key informant (KI) interviews with state directors. Fifty-five percent of EOPs mentioned vulnerable populations; however, only 31% specifically mentioned Deaf/HH populations in their plan. Study findings indicated significant relationships among the following factors: a state-level KI's familiarity with communication issues for the Deaf/HH, making relay calls (i.e., calls to services to relay communication between Deaf and hearing people), and whether the KI's department provides trainings about serving Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. We found significant associations between a state's percentage of Deaf/HH individuals and a KI's familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues and provision by government of any disability services to Deaf/HH populations in emergencies. Further, we found significant relationships between KIs attending training on serving the Deaf/HH and familiarity with Deaf/HH communication issues, including how to make relay calls. This study provides new knowledge that can help emergency agencies improve their preparedness training, planning, and capacity

  13. Outros homens, outros tempos e outros lugares : os livros dos outros e os outros nos livros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All human beings are different. Unique. Something always remains to prove that everyone is irreplaceable. Centuries of books, crossing worlds, have been touching mankind in both clear and unsuspected ways. One thing we can say for sure: writers and readers cannot live apart. Those who traveled in time and lived in unbelievable places, coming right from the writer’s imagination, can easily be part of our lives. It is absolutely true that for a large variety of reasons, many times we feel such a perfect identification with some characters, that their existence becomes «real». Saint-John Perse, Italo Calvino, Roald Dahl, Nikos Kazantzákis and Victor Hugo, among uncountable names, gave us much of what we are today. But what do they search, undercovered, multiplying themselves in characters, some of them living forever in our memory? What do they look for? Is there a reason for their existence? What did Hermann Hesse and Romain Gary, for instance, think about happiness and love? Words, in our particular case written words, have been powerful enough to eliminate every obstacle, possessing our inner selves in ways far from consciousness. The reader becomes «the other». Inside and outside the book there are no differences. Who are we? Amazing, fantastic, terrifying, although nonexistent libraries, from more than a dozen novels, are the main theme of the present reflection. Because we believe that all words, all books, all libraries can be eternal – it depends on us wanting to become «the other» – there is no place for oblivion.

  14. TÜKETİCİLERİN MARKALARIN LOGO YA DA AMBLEMLERİNE KARŞI TUTUMLARININ MARKA TERCİHLERİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda DENEÇLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Özet Tüketicilerin markaların logo ya da amblemlerine karşı tutumlarının marka tercihleri üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmeye çalışıldığı bu araştırma kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle 127 kişi üzerinde gerçekleş- tirilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında Türkiye pazarında en popüler olan, biri logo biri de amblem kullanan uluslararası iki spor giyim markası ele alınmıştır. Araştırmada tüketicilerin logo ve amblem kullanan mar- kaların logo ve amblemlerine ilişkin tutumları ile marka tercihleri arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemek amacıyla korelasyon analizi; tüketicilerin markaların logo ve amblemlerine karşı tutumlarının marka tercihleri üzerindeki etkisini belirlemek amacıyla ise çoklu regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Bu şekilde markanın  logo ya da amblem kullanımının marka tercihi üzerindeki etkisi; logoyu kullanan markayı kullanan ya da kullanmayan bireyler ve amblem kullanan markayı kullanan ya da kullanmayan bireyler dikkate alınarak karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz edilmiştir.

  15. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction

  16. Diurnal cycling of urban aerosols under different weather regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Asta; Drinovec, Luka; Močnik, Griša; Remškar, Maja; Vaupotič, Janja; Stanič, Samo

    2016-04-01

    A one month measurement campaign was performed in summer 2014 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia (population 280,000), aiming to study temporal and spatial distribution of urban aerosols and the mixing state of primary and secondary aerosols. Two background locations were chosen for this purpose, the first one in the city center (urban background - KIS) and the second one in the suburban background (Brezovica). Simultaneous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number size distribution of submicron aerosols (PM1) were conducted at both locations. In the summer season emission from traffic related sources is expected to be the main local contribution to BC concentration. Concentrations of aerosol species and gaseous pollutants within the planetary boundary layer are controlled by the balance between emission sources of primary aerosols and gases, production of secondary aerosols, chemical reactions of precursor gases under solar radiation and the rate of dilution by mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as well as with tropospheric air. Only local emission sources contribute to BC concentration during the stable PBL with low mixing layer height, whereas during the time of fully mixed PBL, regionally transported BC and other aerosols can contribute to the surface measurements. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol at the urban and suburban background location under different weather regimes. Particles in three size modes - nucleation (humidity, wind speed and direction), diurnal profile differs for sunny, cloudy and rainy days. Nucleation mode particles were found to be subjected to lower daily variation and only slightly influenced by weather, as opposed to Aitken and accumulation mode particles. The highest correlation between BC and particle number concentration is observed during stable atmospheric conditions in the night and morning hours and is attributed to different particle size modes, depending on the

  17. Investigation of the Crust of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary Using Low-Altitude CHAMP Horizontal Gradient Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Kis, Karoly I.; Puszta, Sandor; Wittmann, Geza; Kim, Hyung Rae; Toronyi, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Pannonian Basin is a deep intra-continental basin that formed as part of the Alpine orogeny. It is some 600 by 500 km in area and centered on Hungary. This area was chosen since it has one of the thinnest continental crusts in Europe and is the region of complex tectonic structures. In order to study the nature of the crustal basement we used the long-wavelength magnetic anomalies acquired by the CHAMP satellite. The SWARM constellation, scheduled to be launched next year, will have two lower altitude satellites flying abreast, with a separation of between ca. 150 to 200 km. to record the horizontal magnetic gradient. Since the CHAMP satellite has been in orbit for eight years and has obtained an extensive range of data, both vertically and horizontally there is a large enough data base to compute the horizontal magnetic gradients over the Pannonian Basin region using these many CHAMP orbits. We recomputed a satellite magnetic anomaly map, using the spherical-cap method of Haines (1985), the technique of Alsdorf et al. (1994) and from spherical harmonic coefficients of MF6 (Maus et aI., 2008) employing the latest and lowest altitude CHAMP data. We then computed the horizontal magnetic anomaly gradients (Kis and Puszta, 2006) in order to determine how these component data will improve our interpretation and to preview what the SW ARM mission will reveal with reference to the horizontal gradient anomalies. The gradient amplitude of an 1000 km northeast-southwest profile through our horizontal component anomaly map varied from 0 to 0.025 nT/km with twin positive anomalies (0.025 and 0.023 nT/km) separated by a sharp anomaly negative at o nT/km. Horizontal gradient indicate major magnetization boundaries in the crust (Dole and Jordan, 1978 and Cordell and Grauch, 1985). Our gradient anomaly was modeled with a twodimensional body and the anomaly, of some 200 km, correlates with a 200 km area of crustal thinning in the southwestern Pannonian Basin.

  18. Playing hide and seek with repeats in local and global de novo transcriptome assembly of short RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Sinaimeri, Blerina; Sacomoto, Gustavo; Lopez-Maestre, Helene; Marchet, Camille; Miele, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France; Lacroix, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The main challenge in de novo genome assembly of DNA-seq data is certainly to deal with repeats that are longer than the reads. In de novo transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq reads, on the other hand, this problem has been underestimated so far. Even though we have fewer and shorter repeated sequences in transcriptomics, they do create ambiguities and confuse assemblers if not addressed properly. Most transcriptome assemblers of short reads are based on de Bruijn graphs (DBG) and have no clear and explicit model for repeats in RNA-seq data, relying instead on heuristics to deal with them. The results of this work are threefold. First, we introduce a formal model for representing high copy-number and low-divergence repeats in RNA-seq data and exploit its properties to infer a combinatorial characteristic of repeat-associated subgraphs. We show that the problem of identifying such subgraphs in a DBG is NP-complete. Second, we show that in the specific case of local assembly of alternative splicing (AS) events, we can implicitly avoid such subgraphs, and we present an efficient algorithm to enumerate AS events that are not included in repeats. Using simulated data, we show that this strategy is significantly more sensitive and precise than the previous version of KisSplice (Sacomoto et al. in WABI, pp 99-111, 1), Trinity (Grabherr et al. in Nat Biotechnol 29(7):644-652, 2), and Oases (Schulz et al. in Bioinformatics 28(8):1086-1092, 3), for the specific task of calling AS events. Third, we turn our focus to full-length transcriptome assembly, and we show that exploring the topology of DBGs can improve de novo transcriptome evaluation methods. Based on the observation that repeats create complicated regions in a DBG, and when assemblers try to traverse these regions, they can infer erroneous transcripts, we propose a measure to flag transcripts traversing such troublesome regions, thereby giving a confidence level for each transcript. The originality of our work when

  19. Water insecurity in Canadian Indigenous communities: some inconvenient truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Hanrahan, Maura; Hudson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Canada has the second highest per capita water consumption in the world. However, little is known about complex socio-economic and cultural dynamics of water insecurities in Indigenous communities and the multiple health consequences. Most studies have concentrated on a simplified interpretation of accessibility, availability and quality issues, including some common water-borne infections as the only health outcomes. Thus, several government initiatives on potable water supply, particularly for remotely located communities, have failed to sustain and promote a healthy lifestyle. The objective was to explore the water insecurity, coping strategies and associated health risks in a small and isolated sub-Arctic Indigenous (Inuit) community in Canada. The study was based on a community-based survey (2013) in one of the most remote Inuit communities of Labrador. In-depth, open-ended key informant (KI) interviews (community leader (1), woman (1), nurse (1), teacher (1), and elder (1)) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community leaders (5), community members (25), women (5), and high school students (8). Convenience sampling was followed in selection of the subjects for FGDs and approached some KIs. All the water sources (five in April and seven in October) were visited and tested for their physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The FGDs and KI interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. In the analysis, the data (qualitative and quantitative) were broadly categorized into (a) water sources, access and quality, (b) coping, (c) health risks and (d) challenges to run a public water system. The community did not have any piped water supply. Their regular sources of water consisted of several unmonitored local streams, brooks, and ponds. The public water system was not affordable to the majority of community members who solely depended on government aid. Animal fecal contamination (in natural sources such as streams, brooks, and ponds

  20. Withdrawal of anticancer therapy in advanced disease: a systematic literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, G.; Johnston, S.; Corrie, P.; Kuhn, I.; Barclay, S.

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines set out when to start anticancer treatments, but not when to stop as the end of life approaches. Conventional cytotoxic agents are administered intravenously and have major life-threatening toxicities. Newer drugs include molecular targeted agents (MTAs), in particular, small molecule kinase-inhibitors (KIs), which are administered orally. These have fewer life-threatening toxicities, and are increasingly used to palliate advanced cancer, generally offering additional months of survival benefit. MTAs are substantially more expensive, between £2-8 K per month, and perceived as easier to start than stop. A systematic review of decision-making concerning the withdrawal of anticancer drugs towards the end of life within clinical practice, with a particular focus on MTAs. Nine electronic databases searched. PRISMA guidelines followed. Forty-two studies included. How are decisions made? Decision-making was shared and ongoing, including stopping, starting and trying different treatments. Oncologists often experienced ‘professional role dissonance’ between their self-perception as ‘treaters’, and talking about end of life care. Why are decisions made? Clinical factors: disease progression, worsening functional status, treatment side-effects. Non-clinical factors: physicians’ personal experience, values, emotions. Some patients continued treatment to maintain ‘hope’, often reflecting limited understanding of palliative goals. When are decisions made? Limited evidence reveals patients’ decisions based upon quality of life benefits. Clinicians found timing withdrawal particularly challenging. Who makes the decisions? Decisions were based within physician-patient interaction. Oncologists report that decisions around stopping chemotherapy treatment are challenging, with limited evidence-based guidance outside of clinical trial protocols. The increasing availability of oral MTAs is transforming the management of incurable cancer; blurring

  1. Prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e de parasitoses intestinais em crianças do Parque Indígena do Xingu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Escobar-Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e sua associação com parasitoses intestinais em crianças da comunidade indígena do Parque Indígena do Xingu. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 245 crianças indígenas entre 2 e 9 anos, de seis aldeias da região do rio Xingu, afluente do Amazonas. H. pylori foi detectado pelo teste respiratório com ureia-13C. Foram coletadas amostras de ar expirado, em jejum e 30 minutos após a ingestão de 50 mg de ureia-13C diluída em 100 mL de água aromatizada com suco de maracujá. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes de 202/245 (82,4% crianças para exame protoparasitológico. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do H. pylori foi de 73,5%. Foi observada associação significativa do H. pylori com maior idade entre as diferentes aldeias e etnias. Resultaram positivas para a presença de parasitas 97,5% (198/202 das amostras de fezes, sem associação com a infecção por H. pylori. Encontrou-se, na análise multivariada, uma relação entre a infecção por giárdia e o H. pylori. As etnias Kisêjê [odds ratio (OR = 3,36] e Kaibi (OR = 4,00, e as aldeias Tuiararé (OR = 8,10, Ngojwere (OR = 4,10, Capivara (OR = 4,88, Diauarum (OR = 1,85 e Pavuru (OR = 1,40 foram fatores de risco para a infecção por H. pylori. CONCLUSÕES: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de H. pylori e de parasitose intestinal em crianças nas comunidades presentemente investigadas. No entanto, houve diferença significativa na prevalência do H. pylori entre as diversas aldeias estudadas. Verificou-se associação entre a presença de giárdia e a infecção por H. pylori.

  2. Mixed Inhibition of Adenosine Deaminase Activity by 1,3-Dinitrobenzene: A Model for Understanding Cell-Selective Neurotoxicity in Chemically-Induced Energy Deprivation Syndromes in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipei; Liu, Xin; Schneider, Brandon; Zverina, Elaina A.; Russ, Kristen; Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J.; Fierke, Carol A.; Richardson, Rudy J.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are acutely sensitive to 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) while adjacent neurons are relatively unaffected, consistent with other chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes. Previous studies have investigated the role of astrocytes in protecting neurons from hypoxia and chemical injury via adenosine release. Adenosine is considered neuroprotective, but it is rapidly removed by extracellular deaminases such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). The present study tested the hypothesis that ADA is inhibited by 1,3-DNB as a substrate mimic, thereby preventing adenosine catabolism. ADA was inhibited by 1,3-DNB with an IC50 of 284μM, Hill slope, n = 4.8 ± 0.4. Native gel electrophoresis showed that 1,3-DNB did not denature ADA. Furthermore, adding Triton X-100 (0.01–0.05%, wt/vol), Nonidet P-40 (0.0015–0.0036%, wt/vol), or bovine serum albumin (0.05 mg/ml or changing [ADA] (0.2 and 2nM) did not substantially alter the 1,3-DNB IC50 value. Likewise, dynamic light scattering showed no particle formation over a (1,3-DNB) range of 149–1043μM. Kinetics revealed mixed inhibition with 1,3-DNB binding to ADA (KI = 520 ± 100μM, n = 1 ± 0.6) and the ADA-adenosine complex (KIS = 262 ± 7μM, n = 6 ± 0.6, indicating positive cooperativity). In accord with the kinetics, docking predicted binding of 1,3-DNB to the active site and three peripheral sites. In addition, exposure of DI TNC-1 astrocytes to 10–500μM 1,3-DNB produced concentration-dependent increases in extracellular adenosine at 24 h. Overall, the results demonstrate that 1,3-DNB is a mixed inhibitor of ADA and may thus lead to increases in extracellular adenosine. The finding may provide insights to guide future work on chemically-induced energy deprivation. PMID:22106038

  3. Unexpected effects of peripherally administered kynurenic acid on cortical spreading depression and related blood–brain barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gáspár Oláh,1 Judit Herédi,1 Ákos Menyhárt,1 Zsolt Czinege,2 Dávid Nagy,1 János Fuzik,1 Kitti Kocsis,1 Levente Knapp,1 Erika Krucsó,1 Levente Gellért,1 Zsolt Kis,1 Tamás Farkas,1 Ferenc Fülöp,3 Árpád Párdutz,4 János Tajti,4 László Vécsei,4 József Toldi1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, 2Department of Software Engineering, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and MTA-SZTE Research Group for Stereochemistry, 4Department of Neurology and MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Cortical spreading depression (CSD involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate release and by changes in the brain microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA and dizocilpine, on CSD and the related blood–brain barrier (BBB permeability in rats. In intact animals, KYNA hardly crosses the BBB but has some positive features as compared with its precursor L-Kynurenine, which is frequently used in animal studies (KYNA cannot be metabolized to excitotoxic agents such as 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. We therefore investigated the possible effects of peripherally administered KYNA. Repetitive CSD waves were elicited by the application of 1 M KCl solution to the cortex. Direct current-electrocorticograms were measured for 1 hour. Four parameters of the waves were compared. Evans blue dye and fluorescent microscopy were used to study the possible changes in the permeability of the BBB. The results demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can reduce the number of CSD waves and decrease

  4. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  5. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    vollstaendige Erfassung der applizierten Dosen aller Modalitaeten und Optimierung der radiologischen Untersuchungen, was eine Senkung der applizierten Dosis zur Folge haben soll. Erreicht werden kann dies durch automatisierte Systeme, welche nicht nur die Erfassung der Dosisparameter uebernehmen, sondern auch die Bewertung und Analyse dieser Daten. Mit Warnlevels versehen, sollte ein solches System den Anwender (und weitere Personen) ueber moegliche bereits erfolgte und im besten Fall auch ueber zukuenftige Ueberschreitungen informieren und warnen koennen. Abhaengig von der bereitgestellten Information der Modalitaet koennen Dosismanagementsysteme auf verschieden tiefen Ebenen im Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiologie-/Krankenhausinformationssystem (RIS/KIS) oder auf die Headerinformation der Digital-Imaging-and-Communications-in-Medicine(DICOM)-Bilddaten zugreifen und auswerten. Ein praxistauglicher Einsatz solcher Systeme ist nur in enger Zusammenarbeit von medizinischem Personal, Medizinphysikern und IT-Administratoren moeglich. Es sind verschiedene Systeme kommerziell oder frei erhaeltlich, jedoch abhaengig von den Anforderungen der radiologischen Praxis bzw. Klinik ist eine individuelle Adaptierung sinnvoll und noetig. (orig.)

  6. Exfoliated epithelial cells: potentials to explore gastrointestinal maturation of preterm infants Células epiteliais exfoliadas: potencial para investigar a maturação gastrointestinal em crianças pré-termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Kaeffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated epithelial cells represent valuable source of information on the physiopathological state of the mucosa. However, the interpretation of data obtained from exfoliated cells is complicated by the conditions of isolation as well as the health of the subject. Exfoliation is either: a a natural loss of body cells implying a molecular signal related to the turnover of terminally differentiated cells and to the progressive mobilization of proliferative as well as stem cells or b the result of manual exfoliation by applying mechanical constraints like scraping. Depending on the methodology of isolation, exfoliated epithelial cells are believed to be either in apoptosis or in anoïkis. Most studies are using microscopic examination to demonstrate the presence of typical cells along with measurements on a limited number of biomarkers. Only few studies using proteomics or transcriptomics are available and they open discussion about tissue references and normalization. The main advantage of measures realized on exfoliated epithelial cells is that they are strictly non-invasive and open the possibility to evaluate maturation of gastric and intestinal tissues in long-term experiments performed on the same animal or in translational research on samples recovered from preterm infants.Células epiteliais exfoliadas são uma fonte de informação valiosa sobre o estado fisiológico da mucosa. Contudo, a interpretação dos dados obtidos de células exfoliadas é complicado pelas condições de isolamento e da saúde do sujeito. A exfoliação é: a uma perda natural de células implicando um sinal molecular relacionado ao turnover terminal de células diferenciadas e à progressiva mobilização de células proliferativas e de células tronco ou b o resultado de aplicação de fatores mecânicos como raspagem. Dependendo do método de islolamento, acredita-se que podem estar em apoptose ou em anoikis. A maior parte dos estudos tem utilizado exame

  7. Human right, disability and family life Mannréttindi, fötlun og fjölskyldulíf. Í tilefni yfirfærslu málefna fatlaðs fólks til sveitarfélaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björg Sigurjónsdóttir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Samningur Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi fatlaðs fólks var undirritaður af Íslandi í mars 2007, en með undirrituninni skuldbinda íslensk stjórnvöld sig til að gera ekkert sem gengur gegn efni samningsins. Um allan heim er nú litið til þessa samnings sem leiðarljóss í málefnum fatlaðs fólks og þjóðir heims, Ísland þar með talið, eru nú óðum að staðfesta samninginn og aðlaga lagaumhverfi sitt að honum. Eitt af lykilatriðunum við yfirfærslu málefna fatlaðra til sveitarfélaganna er kynning á þessum nýja samningi og mannréttindaáherslum sem þar er að finna, en þekking á innihaldi samningsins er nauðsynleg forsenda þess að jafnrétti og mannréttindi fatlaðs fólks hér á landi verði tryggð. Þessi grein fjallar um einn hóp fatlaðs fólks, foreldra með þroskahömlun, og rétt þeirra til fjölskyldulífs sem dæmi um breyttan skilning á stöðu fatlaðs fólks í samfélaginu og þá þjónustu sem það á rétt á. Rakið er hvernig réttur foreldra til samvista við börn sín hefur þróast á undanförnum áratugum í mannréttindasáttmálum og dómsúrskurðum. Niðurstöður sýna að ef foreldrar með þroskahömlun eiga að njóta þeirrar réttarverndar sem samræmist markmiðum stjórnarskrár íslenska lýðveldisins, mannréttindasáttmála Evrópu um friðhelgi fjölskyldulífs og samnings Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi fatlaðs fólks er ljóst að þörf er á verulegu átaki og viðhorfsbreytingum innan stofnana ríkis og sveitarfélaga, sem hafa með höndum málefni fatlaðs fólks, barnaverndar og félagslegs stuðnings, svo og dómskerfisins alls, til að tryggja að foreldrar með þroskahömlun standi jafnfætis öðrum foreldrum.

  8. Opening the black box of transfer systems in public sector health services in a Western state in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Martineau, Tim; Sheikh, Kabir

    2016-08-22

    Limited research on Posting and Transfer (P&T) policies and systems in the public sector health services and the reluctance for an open debate on the issue makes P&T as a black box. Limited research on P&T in India suggests that P&T policies and systems are either non-existent, weak, poorly implemented or characterized by corruption. Hence the current study aimed at opening the "black box" of P&T systems in public sector health services in India by assessing the implementation gaps between P&T policies and their actual implementation. This was a qualitative study carried out in Department of Health, in a Western State in India. To understand the extant P&T policies, a systems map was first developed with the help of document review and Key Informant (KI) Interviews. Next systems audit was carried out to assess the actual implementation of transfer policies by interviewing Medical Officers (MOs), the group mainly affected by the P&T policies. Job histories were constructed from the interviews to understand transfer processes like frequencies of transfers and to assess if transfer rules were adhered. The analysis is based on a synthesis of document review, 19 in-depth interviews with MOs working with state health department and five in-depth interviews with Key Informants (KIs). Framework analysis approach was used to analyze data using NVIVO. The state has a generic transfer guideline applicable to all government officers but there is no specific transfer policy or guideline for government health personnel. The generic transfer guidelines are weakly implemented indicating a significant gap between policy and actual implementation. The formal transfer guidelines are undermined by a parallel system in which desirable posts are attained, retained or sometimes given up by the use of political connections and money. MOs' experiences of transfers were marked by perceptions of unfairness and irregularities reflected through interviews as well as the job histories. The

  9. Validation of two fluoro-analogues of N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethyl-phenylthio)benzylamine as serotonin transporter imaging agents using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarkas, Nachwa; Voll, Ronald J.; Williams, Larry [Department of Radiology, Emory CSI, WWHC, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Goodman, Mark M., E-mail: mgoodma@emory.ed [Department of Radiology, Emory CSI, WWHC, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Carbon-11 (C-11) N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4'-hydroxymethyl-phenylthio)benzylamine ([{sup 11}C]HOMADAM) has been reported as highly specific and selective positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer showing fast kinetics for the human brain serotonin transporter (SERT). In our continued effort to develop appropriate PET SERT radioligand that can be labeled with either C-11 or fluorine-18 (F-18), two new C-11 labeled analogues of HOMADAM, [{sup 11}C]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-5'-fluoro-4'-hydroxymethyl-phenylthio) benzylamine ([{sup 11}C]-(2)) and [{sup 11}C]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-4-fluoro-4'-hydroxymethyl-phenylthio) benzylamine ([{sup 11}C]-(3)) have been synthesized and evaluated along the previously reported [{sup 11}C]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2'-amino-5-fluoro-4'-hydroxymethyl-phenylthio) benzylamine ([{sup 11}C]-(1)). Methods: The in vitro competitive binding assays were performed in cells transfected with human SERT (hSERT), human dopamine transporter (hDAT), and human norepinephrine transporter (hNET). [{sup 11}C]-(2) and [{sup 11}C]-(3) were prepared by methylation of their monomethylbenzylamine precursors 13 and 22 with cyclotron produced [{sup 11}C]iodomethane ([{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I), respectively. Uptake and kinetics of [{sup 11}C]-(2) and [{sup 11}C]-(3) in the brain regions of interest were determined in anesthetized rhesus monkeys using Concorde microPET P4. Results: 2 and 3 displayed moderate and high affinity for the SERT with Kis (SERT) = 5.45 and 1.10 nM (vs [{sup 3}H]citalopram), respectively. After High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) purification, [{sup 11}C]-(2) and [{sup 11}C]-(3) were obtained in 23 and 9% radiochemical yield (RCY) and log Ps{sub 7.4} of 1.77 and 1.91, respectively. The microPET images of [{sup 11}C]-(2) and [{sup 11}C]-(3) showed clear localization in the monkey brain regions rich in SERT with midbrain to cerebellum ratios of 1.75 and 3.86 at 85 min post

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse

    1991-04-01

    övel, V. Heeschen (eds. - M. Heins, K. Epskamp, Populaire cultuur op de planken; Theater, communicatie en Derde Wereld. Den Haag: CSEO Paperback no. 6, 1989., R. van ‘t Rood (eds. - Huub de Jonge, Thomas Höllman, Tabak in Südostasien; Ein ethnographisch-historischer Überblick, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1988. Bibl., tab., ill., append., 233 pp., - Nico de Jonge, Jowa Imre Kis-Jovak, Banua Toraja; Changing patterns in architecture and symbolism among the Sa’dan Toraja, Sulawesi - Indonesia. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1988, 135 pp., Hetty Nooy-Palm, Reimar Schefold (eds. - L. Laeyendecker, Jeffrey C. Alexander, Durkheimian sociology: Cultural analysis, Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 227 pp. - Thomas Lindblad, W.A.I.M. Segers, Changing economy in Indonesia. A selection of statistical source material from the early 19th century up to 1940. Vol 8. Manufacturing industry 1870-1942. Amsterdam, 1987. 224 pp. - C.L.J. van der Meer, Akira Suehiro, Capital accumulation in Thailand 1855-1985, The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, Tokyo, 1989. xviii + 427 pp., maps, figs, app. - Niels Mulder, Nancy Eberhardt, Gender, power, and the construction of the moral order: Studies from the Thai periphery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Monograph 4, 1988. viii + 100 pages, softcover. - Gert Oostindie, Jan Nederveen Pieterse, Wit over zwart; Beelden van Afrika en zwarten in de Westerse populaire cultuur. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Insituut voor de Tropen, 1990. 259 pp., ills. - Gert Oostindie, Raymond Corbey, Wildheid en beschaving; De Europese verbeelding van Afrika. Baarn: Ambo, 1989. 182 pp., ills. - R. Ploeg, Inga Clendinnen, Ambivalent conquests; Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1517-1570, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xi + 243 pp. - S.O. Robson, Luigi Santa Maria, Papers from the III European Colloquium on Malay and Indonesian Studies. Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici

  11. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    phosphorothioates and phosphorodithioates (e.g., parathion and azinphosmethyl, respectively) to the more toxic oxons (P = O(S to O)). In some cases, P-450 isozymes catalyze the oxidative cleavage of P-O-aryl bonds (e.g., parathion, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, and diazinon) to form inactive water-soluble alkyl phosphates and aryl leaving groups that are readily conjugated with glucuronic or sulfuric acids and excreted. In addition to the P-450 isozymes, mammalian tissues contain ('A' and 'B') esterases capable of reacting with OPs to produce hydrolysis products or phosphorylated enzymes. 'A'-esterases hydrolyze OPs (i.e., oxons), while 'B'-esterases with serine at the active center are inhibited by OPs. OPs possessing carboxylesters, such as malathion and isofenphos, are hydrolyzed by the direct action of 'B'-esterases (i.e., carboxylesterase, CaE). Metabolic pathways shown for isofenphos, parathion, and malathion define the order in which these reactions occur, while Michaelis-Menten kinetics define reaction parameters (Vmax, K(m)) for the enzymes and substrates involved, and rates of inhibition of 'B'-esterases (kis, bimolecular rate constants) by OPs and their oxons. OPs exert their insecticidal action by their ability to inhibit AChE at the cholinergic synapse, resulting in the accumulation of acetylcholine. The extent to which AChE or other 'B'-esterases are inhibited in workers is dependent upon the rate the OP pesticide is activated (i.e., oxon formation), metabolized to nontoxic products by tissue enzymes, its affinity for AChE and other 'B'-esterases, and esterase concentrations in tissues. Rapid recovery of OP BChE inhibition may be related to reactivation of inhibited forms. AChE, BChE, and CaE appear to function in vivo as scavengers, protecting workers against the inhibition of AChE at synapses. Species sensitivity to OPs varies widely and results in part from binding affinities (Ka) and rates of phosphorylation (kp) rather than rates of activation and detoxif

  12. Lithuanian Cluster of Sea Economics – Instrument of Sustainable Regional Development Lietuvos jūrų ūkio klasteris – darnios regiono plėtros instrumentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Grublienė

    2011-02-01

    ;">Pasaulio ir Lietuvos ekonomikoje vyksta gilūs ir fundamentalūs pokyčiai, iš esmės keičiantys nusistovėjusias tarptautinės konkurencijos žaidimo taisykles. Klasterių reiškinys nagrinėjamas, klasteriai sąmoningai formuojami jau beveik du dešimtmečius. Todėl pagrindinis klasterių politikos objektas yra ne pavienės įmonės, bet visos regiono pramonės sistemos, palaikančios produktyvius veikėjų ryšius, sukūrimas. Pasaulinė patirtis rodo, kad klasterių požiūriu grindžiama politika atspindi besikeičiantį valstybės vaidmenį pramonės politikoje iš tiesioginės intervencijos į netiesioginę įtaką. Tokios šalys kaip Lietuva, įgyvendindamos klasterių politiką, susiduria su papildomomis problemomis. Klasterių politika reikalauja visiškai kitokios viešojo administravimo kompetencijos kokybės nei buvo įprasta pastaraisiais 50 metų. Klasterizacijos svarbą lemia pati ekonominės veiklos ir bendrųjų pramonės ir verslo raidos tendencijų logika. Lietuvoje šiuo metu egzistuojanti ūkio struktūra lemia tai, kad įmonėms neišvengiamai teks suderinti dvi kokybes: gebėjimą konkuruoti žemesne kaina ir novatoriškumą. Šiuo metu Lietuvos ūkis yra tokiame raidos etape, kuriame sėkmę visų pirma lemia efektyvumas ir valdymo kokybė. Straipsnio tikslas aptarti Lietuvos jūrų žuvininkystės sektoriaus būklę, įvertinti klasterio suformavimo galimybę darnios regiono plėtros kontekste.

  13. Short-term fluid, heat, and solute transport in deep 'georeservoirs' likely to become 'EGS': some challenges to ICDP hydrogeologists who might like using artificial tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Huenges, Ernst; Rose, Peter; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    reactive tracers: Theory and applications. Ph D Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 551 pp. Rose P, Mella M, Kasteler C, Johnson S (2004) The estimation of reservoir pore volume from tracer data. Procs 29th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, SGP-TR-175 (pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/pdf/IGAstandard/SGW/2004/Rose.pdf) Schaffer M, Maier F, Licha T, Sauter M (2013) A new generation of tracers for the characterization of interfacial areas during supercritical carbon dioxide injections into deep saline aquifers: kinetic interface-sensitive (KIS) tracers. Intl J Greenhouse Gas Control, 14: 200-208. Tomich J F, Dalton R L Jr, Deans H A, Shallenberger L K (1973) Single-Well Tracer Method to Measure Residual Oil Saturation. J Petrol Technol Transact, 255: 211-218. Ghergut I, Behrens H, Sauter M (2013) Can Peclet numbers depend on tracer species? going beyond SW test insensitivity to advection or equilibrium exchange. Procs 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, SGP-TR-198 (pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/pdf/IGAstandard/SGW/2013/Ghergut5.pdf) Acknowledgements: The Göttingen group gratefully acknowledges financial support (to developing tracer SW methods for petrothermal-reservoir testing) from Baker Hughes (Celle) and the Lower-Saxonian Government within the interdisciplinary research project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  14. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    -IR observations. This is first of all because the terrestrial atmosphere, the telescopes, their mounts and, not least, the complicated optics system needed to guide the beams the long way from the telescopes to the MIDI instrument all glow bright at mid-IR wavelengths. Thus, even the most luminous mid-IR stellar sources "drown" in this bright background, calling for highly refined observational methods and data reduction procedures. Fainter objects with large telescopes : This is the first time telescopes with mirrors as large as these have been used for mid-IR interferometry. The use of the VLT giants at Paranal now allows observing much fainter objects than before. Sharper images with Interferometry : The distance between ANTU and MELIPAL during these observations, 102 metres, is a new world record for interferometry at this wavelength. The achieved angular resolution is indeed the one theoretically possible with this instrumental configuration, about 0.01 arcsec, better than what has ever been achieved before from ground or space at this wavelength. MIDI is the first of two instruments that will be placed at the focus of the VLT Interferometer. It is a collaborative project between several European research institutes: * European Southern Observatory (ESO) * Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg, Germany) * Netherlands Graduate School for Astronomy (NOVA) (Leiden, The Netherlands) * Department of Astronomy - Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) * Kapteyn Astronomical Institute (Groningen, The Netherlands) * Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University (The Netherlands) * Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) (Dwingeloo, The Netherlands) * Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON) (Utrecht, Groningen; The Netherlands) * Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (TLS) (Germany) * Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS) (Freiburg, Germany) * Observatoire de Paris (OBSPM) (Paris, Meudon, Nancay; France) * Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA