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Sample records for kinshasa

  1. monographie de la ville de kinshasa

    D'une manière générale, le relief de la ville de Kinshasa peut être caractérisé par quatre ...... propriétaires le soin de la construction. Mais celle-ci était inscrite ... ainsi que d'un circuit macadamisé de pénétration primaire qui étaient assurés.

  2. Characteristics of Urban Food insecurity: The Case of Kinshasa

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    household food consumption in Kinshasa carried out by various surveys. ... of Economics and Rural Development at Gembloux Agricultural University (ULg - GxABT) since 1992. His ..... The most widely consumed beverages in these areas are.

  3. Quality control of conventional radiographic facilities in Kinshasa

    Woto, M.L.; Lukanda, M.V.; Mulumba, L.C.P.; Palangu

    2009-01-01

    The continuous development of medical applications of ionizing radiation, due to the benefit derived by diagnostic or therapeutic patients, their diversity, ease of implementation, explains the importance of medical exposure. The latter is currently the leading cause of human exposure to artificial origin. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the optimization of radiographic facilities in the city of Kinshasa. This study has revealed that city of Kinshasa has an average of 122 medical training with conventional radiology facilities distributed in six districts of health. Of the 122 facilities, only 30 (or 24.59%) are controlled from the point of view of quality assurance. Some generators and X-ray tubes are respectively controlled adjustment and de centered, and other devices are cannibalized. So, nationally and particularly in Kinshasa, quality control equipment and diagnostic facilities is at a generally delayed compared with international recommendations of X W. Major efforts must be made at government level to raise awareness and establish a quality assurance program in diagnostic radiology. An awareness of the entire medical profession and the competent administrative authorities of medical devices could be beneficial to the quality of care delivered to patients, limiting radiation exposure and improving image quality and only the financial balance of the health sector. The delivery of quality care passes through the justification of acts, the development and dissemination of good practice references and the establishment of quality control radiological installations.

  4. [African mobilization against AIDS. After the Kinshasa Conference].

    Poissonnier, A

    The AIDS epidemic in Africa has become too massive to ignore. A sign of increasing awareness of the AIDS threat was the attendance of some 1200 participants at the 5th international conference on AIDS in Africa held in Kinshasa, Zaire, in October 1990. An African society to combat AIDS has been formed and is based in Nairobi. The new association will be responsible for organization of coming conferences to be held in Africa rather than in Europe. Sub-Saharan Africa contains less than 10% of the world's population but 2/3 of adult AIDS cases and almost 90% of maternal and child cases. The epidemic is even more worrisome because it has brought with it a recrudescence of other illnesses such as tuberculosis. The World Health Organization estimates that 5 million Africans were seropositive in 1990 vs 2.5 million in 1987. Predictions are necessary and allow planning to begin for the care of the 10 million orphans who will be found in Africa by the year 2000 and for other serious problems created by the disease. But the situation is already very dire. There has been a certain stabilization in the number of cases in countries such as that Congo, Zaire, or the Central African Republic. As yet the stabilization cannot be explained. The pessimistic view is that the pause results from a purely statistical phenomenon due to increased mortality. The optimistic view is that sexual behavior is responding to health information campaigns. Although the experts had expected the AIDS epidemic to be limited to urban zones in Africa, rural rates already approach urban rates in several countries such as the Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda. Mother-infant contamination is the greatest worry of health officials. The number of infants infected during pregnancy or birth is expected to double to 1 million by 1992 and reach nearly 10 million in 2000. Some 20-25 million Africans will be seropositive by 2000. A cure for AIDS is unlikely in the near future. Products delaying the onset of

  5. Qualitative evaluation of same insecticides sold in Kinshasa and users behavior survey

    Basilua, K.; Essassi El, M.; Himmi, O.; Said Gmouh; Watsenga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem in the tropical countries and particularly into Kinshasa. Anopheles gambiae sl. is the mean vector of this illness. The use of impregnated bednets is the national strategy; the chemical insecticides are used too in figthing the malaria vectors. The survey carried out on 144 households randomly selected in Kinshasa have showed that 61,1% are favourable with using bednets insecticide impregnated and 96,5% of these households use too chemical insecticides, meanly the pyrethroids one (90,5%) and the organophosphates (9,5%). Mass spectrometer analysis revealed that 87,5% of identified insecticides, essentially pyrethroinids have tetramethrine as active substance; the dichlorvos is the only one to be detected as organophosphate and that in some insecticides, the detected molecules are not avowed or different from those avowed or different from those avowed by the manufacturer.

  6. The provision of emergency contraception in Kinshasa's private sector pharmacies: experiences of mystery clients.

    Hernandez, Julie H; Mbadu, Muanda Fidèle; Garcia, Mélissa; Glover, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Recent programmatic and research efforts on addressing gaps in health systems of low-income countries increasingly see task shifting, i.e. the provision of healthcare by non-medically trained personnel, as a possible solution to increase the availability of specific services and commodities. In Kinshasa, private-sector pharmacies are the primary and preferred provider of family planning (FP) methods, and thus constitute a potential resource for expanding access to specific contraceptives. The objective of this study is to explore selected pharmacies' readiness to serve women seeking emergency contraception (EC). This study used a mystery client (MC) methodology to visit 73 pharmacies in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Trained interviewers posed as novice EC users and asked specific questions to evaluate the pharmacy staff's technical knowledge of EC and their attitudes towards EC clients. The results of the MC visit were recorded immediately after the MC left the pharmacy. Findings indicate that more than two-thirds of EC providers were knowledgeable about EC dosage, timeframe, and side effects, and 90% were deemed helpful towards novice EC users. Rare but glaring misconceptions about EC timeframe (20% of providers) and long-term side effects (4% of providers), as well as frequent stock-out (22%) and cost issues highlight priorities for programmatic improvements. As new service delivery strategies are explored to complement the uneven network of health structures in DRC, this study suggests that, given proper training and integration in FP programming, private-sector pharmacies have the potential to meet specific contraceptive needs for women living in Kinshasa. Private pharmacies included in study sample in Kinshasa (DRC) have adequate family planning (FP) service skills to provide clients with emergency contraceptive pills. These higher-end outlets constitute an opportunity for expanding access to FP, although, under total market approaches, a more

  7. Complications of childbirth and maternal deaths in Kinshasa hospitals: testimonies from women and their families

    Gourbin Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kinshasa is high despite near universal availability of antenatal care and hospital delivery. Possible explanations are poor-quality care and by delays in the uptake of care. There is, however, little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. This study describes and compares the circumstances of survivors and non survivors of severe obstetric complications. Method Semi structured interviews with 208 women who survived their obstetric complication and with the families of 110 women who died were conducted at home by three experienced nurses under the supervision of EK. All the cases were identified from twelve referral hospitals in Kinshasa after admission for a serious acute obstetric complication. Transcriptions of interviews were analysed with N-Vivo 2.0 and some categories were exported to SPSS 14.0 for further quantitative analysis. Results Testimonies showed that despite attendance at antenatal care, some women were not aware of or minimized danger signs and did not seek appropriate care. Cost was a problem; 5 deceased and 4 surviving women tried to avoid an expensive caesarean section by delivering in a health centre, although they knew the risk. The majority of surviving mothers (for whom the length of stay was known had the caesarean section on the day of admission while only about a third of those who died did so. Ten women died before the required caesarean section or blood transfusion could take place because they did not bring the money in time. Negligence and lack of staff competence contributed to the poor quality of care. Interviews revealed that patients and their families were aware of the problem, but often powerless to do anything about it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that women with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of survival in Kinshasa if they have cash, go directly to a functioning referral hospital and have some leverage when dealing

  8. PIG FARMING AT KINSHASA IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    IKEYA, Kazunobu

    2015-01-01

    Pig farming has been gaining attention in recent years in African countries south of the Sahara as a source of urban farmers’ cash income. This study was undertaken to explain what types of pigs are raised, how and where they are raised, and how pork is distributed in Kinshasa of the DRC . The results indicated that six households had begun pig farming in the past 14 years, two of which had nonetheless lost their pigs to disease. All of the pig farmers surveyed raised their animals in pigpens...

  9. Cholera ante portas – The re-emergence of cholera in Kinshasa after a ten-year hiatus

    Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholera is an endemic disease in certain well-defined areas in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The west of the country, including the mega-city Kinshasa, has been free of cases since mid 2001 when the last outbreak ended. Methods and Findings: We used routinely collected passive surveillance data to construct epidemic curves of the cholera cases and map the spatio-temporal progress of the disease during the first 47 weeks of 2011. We compared the spatial distribution of disease spread to that which occurred in the last cholera epidemic in Kinshasa between 1996 and 2001. To better understand previous determinants of cholera spread in this region, we conducted a correlation analysis to assess the impact of rainfall on weekly health zone cholera case counts between December 1998 and March 2001 and a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) regression analysis to identify factors that have been associated with the most vulnerable health zones within Kinshasa between October 1998 and June 1999. In February 2011, cholera reemerged in a region surrounding Kisangani and gradually spread westwards following the course of the Congo River to Kinshasa, home to 10 million people. Ten sampled isolates were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, resistant to trimethoprim-sulfa, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxaole, and streptomycin, and intermediate resistant to Chloramphenicol. An analysis of a previous outbreak in Kinshasa shows that rainfall was correlated with case counts and that health zone population densities as well as fishing and trade activities were predictors of case counts. Conclusion: Cholera is particularly difficult to tackle in the DRC. Given the duration of the rainy season and increased riverine traffic from the eastern provinces in late 2011, we expect further increases in cholera in the coming months and especially within the mega-city Kinshasa. We urge all partners involved in the response to remain

  10. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    Aimé Kazadi Lukusa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females. Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality.

  11. Feasibility of iFISH patterns in hematologic malignancies among Congolese patients at Kinshasa University clinics

    Mireille Solange Nganga Nkanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the feasibility of detecting Ph1 in leukemia patients in the Kinshasa University Clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo, at KU Leuven, Belgium. Methods: Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples with chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia or acute leukocytes leukemia were obtained from 32 patients in Kinshasa University clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo and transferred to KU Leuven in Belgium for iFISH feasibility. Ph1 was detected by using a remote analysis of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH. Results: Out of the 32 patients involved in this study, 65.6% (n = 21 of the cases were successfully tested, of which 52.4% (n = 11 were iFISH positives for the variant t(9;22 (presence of Ph1 in chronic myeloid leukemia samples and 47.6% (n = 10 negatives in all subtypes of hematological malignancies. However, there was a female predominance in chronic myeloid leukemia samples Ph1-positives by iFISH, whereas no sexual influence was observed on acute subtypes of leukemia. Conclusions: iFISH analysis is feasible on samples obtained from remote sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, the optimization of the sample storage is necessary to further improve iFISH's performance. Keywords: iFISH, Ph1, Democratic Republic of Congo, Leukemia, Bone marrow, Blood

  12. HIV seroprevalence among hospital workers in Kinshasa, Zaire: lack of association with occupational exposure

    Mann, J.M.; Francis, H.; Quinn, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study of seroprevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus involving 2384 (96%) of Mama Yemo Hospital's (Kinshasa, Zaire) 2492 personnel found 152 (6.4%) to be seropositive. Prevalence was higher among women than among men (8.1% vs 5.2%); in women peak seroprevalence (13.9%) occurred in 20 to 29-year-olds. Workers most likely to be seropositive were those who were relatively young, those who were unmarried, those reporting a blood transfusion or hospitalization during the previous ten years, and those receiving medical injections during the previous three years. Medical, administrative, and manual workers had similar seroprevalence (6.5%, 6.4%, and 6.0%, respectively), and seropositivity was not associated with any measure of patient, blood, or needle contact. These findings are consistent with other hospital-based studies indicating low risks for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

  13. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: high seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Doudou, Yobi; Renaud, Piarroux; Coralie, L'Ollivier; Jacqueline, Franck; Hypolite, Situakibanza; Hypolite, Muhindo; Patrick, Mitashi; Andreia, Inocêncio da Luz Raquel; Van Sprundel, Marc; Marleen, Boelaert; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Pascal, Lutumba

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among female prostitutes in Kinshasa.

    Nzila, N; Laga, M; Thiam, M A; Mayimona, K; Edidi, B; Van Dyck, E; Behets, F; Hassig, S; Nelson, A; Mokwa, K

    1991-06-01

    In 1988, 1233 prostitutes from different geographic areas of Kinshasa participated in a cross-sectional survey on HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Despite relatively good knowledge about AIDS and STDs, the reported preventive behaviour was poor. Only 12% of the women reported regular use of condoms, while greater than 50% of the women reported regular use of antibiotics and 38% reported doing nothing specific to prevent STDs. Thirty-five per cent of the women were HIV-positive compared with 27% in a similar survey in Kinshasa in 1986. The prevalence of other STDs was very high, ranging from 5% for genital ulcer disease (GUD) to 23% for gonococcal infection. HIV-positive women were older than HIV-negative women (26.9 versus 25.4 years; P less than 0.001), had a significantly lower level of reported condom use (9 versus 14%, P = 0.009), and reported more frequent use of antibiotics to prevent STDs (55 versus 42%, P = less than 0.001). The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis was not higher in HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. However, HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of GUD (9 versus 3%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi (82 versus 57%, P less than 0.001), antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 (96 versus 76%, P less than 0.001), condylomata accuminata (5 versus 1%, P = 0.003) and cytologic evidence of human papilloma virus on Papaniclaou cervical smear (11 versus 5%, P = 0.006). This study confirms the high incidence of HIV and other STDs among prostitutes in Africa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Stockouts of HIV commodities in public health facilities in Kinshasa: Barriers to end HIV.

    Tinne Gils

    Full Text Available Stockouts of HIV commodities increase the risk of treatment interruption, antiretroviral resistance, treatment failure, morbidity and mortality. The study objective was to assess the magnitude and duration of stockouts of HIV medicines and diagnostic tests in public facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. This was a cross-sectional survey involving visits to facilities and warehouses in April and May 2015. All zonal warehouses, all public facilities with more than 200 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART (high-burden facilities and a purposive sample of facilities with 200 or fewer patients (low-burden facilities in Kinshasa were selected. We focused on three adult ART formulations, cotrimoxazole tablets, and HIV diagnostic tests. Availability of items was determined by physical check, while stockout duration until the day of the survey visit was verified with stock cards. In case of ART stockouts, we asked the pharmacist in charge what the facility coping strategy was for patients needing those medicines. The study included 28 high-burden facilities and 64 low-burden facilities, together serving around 22000 ART patients. During the study period, a national shortage of the newly introduced first-line regimen Tenofovir-Lamivudine-Efavirenz resulted in stockouts of this regimen in 56% of high-burden and 43% of low-burden facilities, lasting a median of 36 (interquartile range 29-90 and 44 days (interquartile range 24-90 until the day of the survey visit, respectively. Each of the other investigated commodities were found out of stock in at least two low-burden and two high-burden facilities. In 30/41 (73% of stockout cases, the commodity was absent at the facility but present at the upstream warehouse. In 30/57 (54% of ART stockout cases, patients did not receive any medicines. In some cases, patients were switched to different ART formulations or regimens. Stockouts of HIV commodities were common in the visited facilities

  16. Etude de l'exploitation et du marché des produits forestiers non ligneux à Kinshasa

    Biloso, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Non Woody Forest Products Exploitation and Market in Kinshasa. In spite of the considerable number of ethnobotanic studies carried out in many regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo, almost no information is available on the exploitation and commerce of the wild products (non woody forest products, "produits forestiers non ligneux" – PFNL of the Congolese provinces in general and the urban province of Kinshasa in particular. Nevertheless, these products are largely used and marketed. Therefore, direct observations in situ, and socio-economic and ethnoecologic investigations (including interviews were organized in the urban province of Kinshasa to analyse various aspects of consumption of these wild products. The purpose of these investigations was to collect information regarding the use and the marketing of PFNL products by the populations living in the zones surrounding the urban area. The analysis of the various types of exploitation and use of the PFNL has shown twelve categories of PFNL use: energy, food, construction of music instruments, saw mill applications, drink, drugs, dye, packing, construction of baskets, textile fabrication, construction and ornamentation. The majority of these PFNL originate not only from the secondary forests and from forest galleries, but from shrubby savannas and the marshes as well. The exploitations and uses of the PFNL vary rather largely with the level of income, the purchasing power, the attachment with food practices and with local traditions. The various levels of semi-monthly income by owner of the PFNL are estimated for the following plants which were used as vegetables: Gnetum africanum Welw., (275.0 $; Pteridium aquilinium Hieron. (166.7 $; Dracaena camerooniana Baker. (75.5 $; Dioscorea praehensilis (Benth. (71.0 $; Psophocarpus scandens (Endl. Verdc. (58.7 $. The average income resulting from the firewood sale was estimated at 80 $ per month and per person, for a group of 25 owners

  17. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  18. Black water fever associated with acute renal failure among Congolese children in Kinshasa

    Joseph M Bodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is reported in some severe forms of malaria such as black water fever (BWF. It is associated with a high mortality rate and can be managed effectively with adequate renal replacement. A prospective survey of children with dark urine after a malarial infection with Plasmodium falciparum was coupled with a chart review study of patients managed in the past 11 years in the Pediatrics′ Kinshasa University Hospital. Eighty-nine cases of ARF were identified, but data from only 63 patients were available, of whom 44 (69.8% had severe malaria (39 with BWF and 5 with cerebral malaria. The mean age of the patients was 8.2 ± 1.73 years. Of the 39 cases of BWF, an association with quinine ingestion was observed in 32 children (82%. Urea and creatinine levels were elevated in all cases (135.4 ± 88.2 and 3.83 ± 2.81 mg/dL, respectively. Oligo-anuria was observed in 44.4%, severe metabolic acidosis (bicarbonate <15 mEq/L in 61.5% and hyponatremia (<130 mEq/L in 33.3%. Peritoneal dialysis was required in 36 patients, including 20 with BWF. The remaining patients were managed with conservative treatment. Twenty-eight children (44.4%, including 20 on dialysis, fully recovered and 14 died (22.2%, including eight cases of BWF. Our study suggests that ARF is commonly associated with BWF in Congolese children. Elevated urea and creatinine and severe metabolic acidosis were observed more often than other clinical/metabolic disturbances. Severe renal impairment remains a significant complication with a high mortality rate in low-resource settings.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV infection and AIDS among healthy factory workers and their wives, Kinshasa, Zaire.

    Irwin, K; Bertrand, J; Mibandumba, N; Mbuyi, K; Muremeri, C; Mukoka, M; Munkolenkole, K; Nzilambi, N; Bosenge, N; Ryder, R

    1991-01-01

    As a first step in designing an AIDS prevention program at a large factory in Kinshasa, Zaire, we collected information on attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from factory foremen and their wives. Trained moderators conducted twelve focus group discussions (from November through December 1987) that addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV infection and AIDS. In general, participants were familiar with HIV infection and AIDS and considered these conditions leading health problems in Kinshasa. Although participants had a fairly accurate understanding of the causes of HIV infection, modes of transmission and preventive measures, many myths and misconceptions existed. Many participants did not believe that condom use would consistently prevent infection through sexual intercourse. Participants strongly favored the counseling of seropositive persons but showed less consensus about whether the spouse of a seropositive person should be notified of the partner's test result. Participants predicted that couples in which one member is seropositive and the other is not would experience marital discord and friction with family, neighbors and co-workers. These findings were applied to the development of a counseling and educational program for seropositive factory employees and their spouses.

  20. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p early child neurodevelopment and temperament. Children exposed to lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels <10 μg/dl, suggesting the need for preventive and intervention measures to reduce lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  1. A GIS-based estimation of soil erosion parameters for soil loss potential and erosion hazard in the city of Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Tshikeba Kabantu, Martin; Muamba Tshimanga, Raphael; Onema Kileshye, Jean Marie; Gumindoga, Webster; Tshimpampa Beya, Jules

    2018-05-01

    Soil erosion has detrimental impacts on socio economic life, thus increasing poverty. This situation is aggravated by poor planning and lack of infrastructure especially in developing countries. In these countries, efforts to planning are challenged by lack of data. Alternative approaches that use remote sensing and geographical information systems are therefore needed to provide decision makers with the so much needed information for planning purposes. This helps to curb the detrimental impacts of soil erosion, mostly emanating from varied land use conditions. This study was carried out in the city of Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo with the aim of using alternative sources of data, based on earth observation resources, to determine the spatial distribution of soil loss and erosion hazard in the city of Kinshasa. A combined approach based on remote sensing skills and rational equation of soil erosion estimation was used. Soil erosion factors, including rainfall-runoff erosivity R), soil erodibility (K), slope steepness and length (SL), crop/vegetation and management (C) were calculated for the city of Kinshasa. Results show that soil loss in Kinshasa ranges from 0 to 20 t ha-1 yr-1. Most of the south part of the urban area were prone to erosion. From the total area of Kinshasa (996 500 ha), 25 013 ha (2.3 %) is of very high ( > 15 t ha-1 yr-1) risk of soil erosion. Urban areas consist of 4.3 % of the area with very high ( > 15 t ha-1 yr-1) risk of soil erosion compared to a very high risk of 2.3 % ( > 15 t ha-1 yr-1) in the rural area. The study shows that the soil loss in the study area is mostly driven by slope, elevation, and informal settlements.

  2. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    Muswema, J.L.; Ekoko, G.B.; Lukanda, V.M.; Lobo, J.K.-K.; Darko, E.O.; Boafo, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  3. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    Muswema, J.L., E-mail: jeremie.muswem@unikin.ac.cd [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Ekoko, G.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lukanda, V.M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Democratic Republic of the Congo' s General Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box AE1 (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lobo, J.K.-K. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Darko, E.O. [Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Boafo, E.K. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ONL1 H7K4 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  4. Controlling the level of radioactivity of cigarettes sold in Kinshasa: Case Tumbaco light and Embassy

    Woto, M.L.; Lukanda, M.V.; Mulumba, L.C.P.; Musibondo-Eyul'Anki, D.; Kabangu, Y.; Disila, L.A.; Dizono, Z.R.B.

    2009-01-01

    At the anti-smoking, which continues to grow now in the world with positive results on the chemical vectors: tar and nicotine, as we know the harm in North America and Europe, nowadays, radioactivity is added. This second vector radiation-induced lung cancer, radon is hazardous and radioactive daughters 210P b and 210P o that Big Tobacco had hid the truth for 40 years. The surgeon C. Everett Ko op, a pioneer of Modern Pediatrics (Philadelphia, USA) showed that the radioactivity found in many tobacco 210P o, and that rather than derivatives of tar and nicotine, account for 90% of all lung cancers of smokers recounted. These assertions have prompted the current authors to control the level of alpha and beta radioactivity in cigarettes Tumbaco Embassy and light manufactured by Tabac Congo. These products are commonly consumed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly in the city of Kinshasa. Following this study, we present quantitative data related to lead the health authorities of the Democratic Republic of Congo to take necessary measures or to enact laws prohibiting smoking in public places and for monitoring production these cigarettes. Thus, the mean mass activities for gross alpha and beta measured for the cigarette lighter Tumbaco and Embassy appear respectively as follows: 11.32Bq/kg and 7.08Bq/kg for alpha cons 38.34Bq/kg and 29.5Bq/kg (Table 10). In addition, the estimated average effective dose for an annual consumption of cigarettes one pack per year worth 0.0726 mSv/ year (0.05 mSv/ hour) and light Tumbaco 0.04574 mSv/ year (0.02μSv/hour) for Embassy. These values are lower than the hourly limit or permissible annual dose for members of the public (or 1mSv/an 0.5μSv/hour) following radiation protection standards of the international Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). This means that these dose rates are below the threshold for non-stochastic effects, and these limits do not apply to stochastic or random effects (Tables

  5. [Supporting the intermediate level of health care in urban health areas in Kinshasa (1995-2005), DR Congo].

    Mbeva, Jean-Bosco Kahindo; Schirvel, Carole; Karemere, Hermès; Porignon, Denis

    2012-06-08

    As a result of the decentralization of health systems, some countries have introduced intermediate (provincial) levels in their public health system. This paper presents the results of a case study conducted in Kinshasa on health system decentralization. The study identified a shift from a focus on regulation compliance assessment to an emphasis on health system coordination and health district support. It also highlighted the emergence of a?managerial (as opposed to a bureaucratic) approach to health district support. The performance of health districts in terms of health care coverage and health service use were also found to have improved. The results highlight the importance of intermediate levels in?the health care system and the value of a more organic and managerial rationality in supporting health districts faced with the complexity of urban environments and the integration of specialized multi-partner programs and interventions.

  6. Task shifting in the management of hypertension in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Lulebo, Aimée M; Kaba, Didine K; Atake, Silvestre E-H; Mapatano, Mala A; Mafuta, Eric M; Mampunza, Julien M; Coppieters, Yves

    2017-12-04

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized by a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and a high proportion of uncontrolled HTN, which is indicative of poor HTN management. Effective management of HTN in the African region is challenging due to limited resources, particularly human resources for health. To address the shortage of health workers, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends task shifting for better disease management and treatment. Although task shifting from doctors to nurses is being implemented in the DRC, there are no studies, to the best of our knowledge, that document the association between task shifting and HTN control. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between task shifting and HTN control in Kinshasa, DRC. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kinshasa from December 2015 to January 2016 in five general referral hospitals (GRHs) and nine health centers (HCs). A total of 260 hypertensive patients participated in the study. Sociodemographic, clinical, health care costs and perceived health care quality assessment data were collected using a structured questionnaire. To examine the association between task shifting and HTN control, we assessed differences between GRH and HC patients using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Almost half the patients were female (53.1%), patients' mean age was 59.5 ± 11.4 years. Over three-fourths of patients had uncontrolled HTN. There was no significant difference in the proportion of GRH and HC patients with uncontrolled HTN (76.2% vs 77.7%, p = 0.771). Uncontrolled HTN was associated with co-morbidity (OR = 10.3; 95% CI: 3.8-28.3) and the type of antihypertensive drug used (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.3-16.1). The mean healthcare costs in the GRHs were significantly higher than costs in the HCs (US$ 34.2 ± US$3.34 versus US$ 7.7 ± US$ 0.6, respectively). Uncontrolled HTN was not associated with the type of health facility. This finding suggests that the

  7. Occurrence des traumatismes alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa: deuxième partie, étude préliminaire de 93 cas

    Foche, Adelin Nzudjom; Bushabu, Fidele Nyimi; Mana, Charles Mfutu; Haruna, Ramazani; Masin, Steve Sekele; Nsudila, Monique; Alifi, Paul Bobe; Muinamiyi, Pierre Muyembi; Burley, Jean Paul Sekele Isourady

    2018-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était d'analyser les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques des fractures alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa/RDC. Méthodes Étude transversale de 7 ans, réalisée dans le département d'odontostomatologie, service de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale/cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2014. Résultats Sur les 93 dossiers colligés, le sexe masculin était prédominant (66,7%) et l'âge le plus prévalent se situait entre 20 ans et 29 ans. Les causes les plus fréquentes ont été les agressions/rixes (52,7%) et la luxation dentaire a été le type des lésions la plus fréquente avec 52,7%. La RX retro-alvéolaire été réalisée dans 75,7%, et le blocage mono-maxillaire fut le type de traitement le plus réalisé (60,2%). Conclusion L'analyse de profil clinique des traumatismes alvéolo-dentaires aux cliniques universitaires de Kinshasa est celui d'un adulte jeune de sexe masculin, présentant des luxations dentaires des maxillaires dont les causes sont les agressions/rixes. PMID:29875931

  8. Enjeux fonciers, exploitation des ressources naturelles et Forêts des Communautés Locales en périphérie de Kinshasa, RDC

    Vermeulen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land issues, exploitation of natural resources, and Forests of Rural Communities in the periphery of Kinshasa, DRC. Peri-urban forests are under strong anthropic pressure. Any activity needs a previous identification of stakeholders, landscape perception, socio-economic trends in local communities and their relationships with land and natural resources. Kinshasa (capital of Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC is a 10 millions inhabitants city with rapid growth and increasing impacts on surrounding villages linked with forest natural resources. This paper describes the relationship amongst local communities stakeholders and their relations with land areas and wood resources. Two areas surrounding Kinshasa (Bas-Congo and Bateke Plateaux are considered as major fuel-wood and charcoal supply zones for the city. Those two areas are different in terms of land pressure (very high in Bas-Congo and focused on riparian forests on Bateke Plateaux, but show the same pattern of overuse of the forest and woody natural resources. In both areas, local management of forest resources by the traditional authorities (heads of village or lineage has failed. Local population willingness for reforestation and forest restoration activities is much more important in Bas-Congo than on Bateke Plateaux. In both areas, shifting cultivation due to slash and burn practices for agricultural and charcoal practices are more and more quick. This has strong negative impact on the potential of regeneration process with local forest species. Sustainability of forest natural resources management by communities is discussed in regard to the on going negotiations on community based forest management regulations.

  9. High prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease among at-risk population in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Krzesinski Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD among high risk populations, especially in the developing countries. We report our study of testing for CKD in at-risk subjects. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 527 people from primary and secondary health care areas in the city of Kinshasa were studied from a random sample of at-risk out-patients with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or HIV+. We measured blood pressure (BP, blood glucose level, proteinuria, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by MDRD equation using calibrated creatinine levels based on one random measurement. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria and kidney function (2 were also examined. Results The prevalence of CKD in this study was 36%, but only 12% were aware of their condition. 4% of patients had stage 1 CKD, 6% stage 2, 18% stage 3, 2% stage 4, and 6% had stage 5. 24 hour quantitative proteinuria (>300 mg/day was found in 19%. In those with the at-risk conditions, the % of CKD was: 44% in patients with hypertension, 39% in those with diabetes; 16% in the obese and 12% in those who were HIV+. 82% of those with a history of diabetes had elevated serum glucose levels at screening (≥ 126 mg/dl. Only 6% of individuals with hypertension having CKD had reduced BP to lower than 130/80 mmHg. In multivariate analysis, diabetes, proteinuria and hypertension were the strongest determinants of CKD 3+. Conclusion It appears that one out of three people in this at-risk population has undiagnosed CKD and poorly controlled CKD risk factors. This growing problem poses clear challenges to this developing country. Therefore, CKD should be addressed through the development of multidisciplinary teams and improved communication between traditional health care givers and nephrology services. Attention to CKD risk factors must become a priority.

  10. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  11. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study.

    Yotebieng, Marcel; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Labbok, Miriam; Behets, Frieda

    2013-10-01

    Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included "heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

  12. Factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Matonda-Ma-Nzuzi, Thierry; Mampunza Ma Miezi, Samuel; Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Mvumbi, Diane Muanza; Aloni, Michel Ntentani; Malendakana, Fanny; Mpaka Mbeya, Davin; Lelo, Gilbert Mananga; Charlier-Mikolajczak, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in children with epilepsy (CWE). In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about these comorbidities particularly their relationships with socioeconomic features. The goal of this study was to identify clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in CWE of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). This cross-sectional hospital-based study had included 104 CWE aged 6 to 17years. Behavioral problems were assessed by the child behavior checklist. The Wechsler nonverbal scale of ability was used to assess cognitive impairment. At least one behavioral problem was found in 34.6% of CWE. Internalized problems were increasing with father's age (p=0.034). Externalized problems were increasing with the decreased of mother's age (p=0.009) and with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.032). Total behavioral problems were increasing with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.029). Cognitive impairment was present in 73.3% of CWE. It was more common in boys (p=0.013), and it was increasing with a low household daily expenses (p=0.034), with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.041), with an early onset of epileptic seizures (p=0.042), and with a high frequency of epileptic seizures (p=0.011). Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in CWE. Multivariate analysis has shown that behavioral problems were associated with socioeconomic features only. Contrariwise, cognitive impairment was associated with both socioeconomic factors and clinical features. There is a need of more studies to improve knowledge of these comorbidities in the sub-Saharan Africa context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  14. Perceptions and types of support coming from families caring for patients suffering from advanced illness in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Lofandjola, Jacques Masumbuku; Sumaili, Ernest Kiswaya; Mairiaux, Philippe; Petermans, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Perceptions of families who take care of patients suffering from advanced illness are rarely considered in Kinshasa medical practices; nevertheless, these families are the main actors involved in such care. The objective of this present study was to illustrate, in a Congolese context, the perceptions of families on the care of patients suffering from advanced illness, and to identify the possible aids provided by healthcare facilities. A qualitative study was performed among focus groups in six hospitals in Kinshasa. Each group included eight members. We gathered factors that could negatively influence the care of a patient suffering from advanced disease. Such factors included: scarcity of and inaccessibility to painkillers, economic resilience, poor quality treatment, lack of psychological counselling, seeking alternative solutions and poor communication between caregivers and patients. In contrast, the study also showed that relatives caring for these patients often receive support from the wider family and from cult members. This study focuses on the miscommunication between healthcare workers and patients, poor management in advanced illness as well as a lack of psychological support from caregivers. The findings can serve as basis for further research in palliative care.

  15. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of incident hematologic malignancy. These findings highlight the importance of aging, pollution, the dry season, El Nino and La Nina as related to global warming as determinants of hematologic malignancies among African patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Cancer registries in DRC and other African countries will provide more robust database for future researches on

  16. Brief Report: Decentralizing ART Supply for Stable HIV Patients to Community-Based Distribution Centers: Program Outcomes From an Urban Context in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Vogt, Florian; Kalenga, Lucien; Lukela, Jean; Salumu, Freddy; Diallo, Ibrahim; Nico, Elena; Lampart, Emmanuel; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Shah, Safieh; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zachariah, Rony; Van Griensven, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision for stable patients with HIV congests health services in resource-limited countries. We assessed outcomes and risk factors for attrition after decentralization to community-based ART refill centers among 2603 patients with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Death, loss to follow-up, and transfer out were 0.3%, 9.0%, and 0.7%, respectively, at 24 months. Overall attrition was 5.66/100 person-years. Patients with >3 years on ART, >500 cluster of differentiation type-4 count, body mass index >18.5, and receiving nevirapine but not stavudine showed reduced attrition. ART refill centers are a promising task-shifting model in low-prevalence urban settings with high levels of stigma and poor ART coverage.

  17. Uterine fibroids and urinary disorders: An analysis using the medical imaging of 72 cases in Kinshasa University Clinics from 1998 to 2003

    Ndaye, B.; Ntandu, U.; Maswapi, K.; Djamba, O.; Kitenge, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cross sectional study of 672 cases with clinical analysis and medical imaging whose average age is 44,5 years. This analysis looked at 672 cases of women's diagnosed with fibroids 1 january 1998 to 1 january 2003 in the department of obstetrics gynecology in the oncology and radiology of the university clinics in Kinshasa. All cases with diagnosis, using the clinical and medical imaging (ultrasound and hysterosalpingography and or intravenous urography) had fibroids were reviewed to identify the consequences of these on the urinary tract. The most frequent clinical signs were menorrhagia (22%), the menometrorrhagia (21,1%) and pelvic heaviness (20%). Radiological signs seen on intravenous urography were compressing the bladder dome (34,7%), bilateral ureteral diversion (15,2%) with hydronephrosis upstream (15,2%)

  18. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  19. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Vivi Maketa

    Full Text Available In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health

  20. The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Ndjinga Julie K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most prominent disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2006 to combat the disease. However, the success of this bed net campaign depends on sufficient bed net use in all age groups. This study was designed to examine the factors affecting bed net use in villages outside of Kinshasa. Methods Two villages along the Congo River, totalling 142 households with 640 residents, were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. The interview determined the number, ages, and sexes of family members; the education level of the family head; the number, colour, and type of nets owned; and the number of nets used in the previous night. The size of house was also measured, and numbers of rooms and beds were recorded. These variables were examined to reveal important factors that affect bed net use. Results A total of 469 nets were counted, and nearly all nets were white LLINs. Of these nets, 229 (48.8% nets were used by 284 (44.4% residents. Bed nets were used by over 90% of children 5 to 15 years of age, whereas less than 50% of the residents in other age groups used bed nets. The important variables affecting bed net use were numbers of beds and rooms in the house and the education level of the family head of household. Conclusion Education was the most important factor affecting bed net use in the villages outside Kinshasa. Development of an educational programme, particularly one directed toward parents, is necessary to reduce misconceptions and increase prevalence of bed net use among all age groups.

  1. Local differences in human immunodeficiency virus prevalence: a comparison of social venue patrons, antenatal patients, and sexually transmitted infection patients in eastern kinshasa.

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F; McClamroch, Kristi; Bollinger, Robert; Ryder, Robert W; Weir, Sharon S

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with that of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment and antenatal clinic (ANC) patients in the same area. ANC patients, STI clinic patients, and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample on-site, and provided with information about obtaining test results. Every patron at identified social venues in the study area was invited to participate. One thousand one hundred sixteen pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested for HIV. HIV prevalence differed by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sex workers at social venues (29%) was higher than HIV prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships in the past four weeks (19%) and higher than HIV prevalence among female patrons denying sex work (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than among the smaller group of sex workers (23 vs. 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one and no new sexual partner in the past year. Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sex workers but who have high rates of new sexual partnership formation.

  2. Factors associated with gender equality among church-going young men in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Edin, Kerstin E

    2017-12-11

    While women and girls are made vulnerable by inequitable and violent versions of masculinities, there is increasing evidence that gender equality will not be achieved without partnering with men. The aim of this study was to assess gender-equitable norms and their determinants among church-going young men in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 289 church-going young men, aged 18-24 years, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality and responses to issues related to the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) scale. Logistic regression was applied to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes and the GEM scale. The findings provide evidence of attitudes and beliefs that act as barriers to gender equality. For instance, the majority of church-going young men (83.74%) agreed that a man is the only decision maker in the home and about half (50.87%) of the respondents supported the statement "There are times a woman deserves to be beaten". Similarly, around half of the participants agreed with the idea of men's uncontrollable sex drive (50.87%) and men's toughness (50.17%). Close to half of the participants (44.29%) agreed that it is women's responsibility to prevent pregnancy. These attitudes co-existed with a few gender-equitable norms as 82.70% agreed on the importance of joint decisions concerning family planning. An association between education, certain places of residence, being single or separated, and supportive attitudes towards gender equality was found with higher scores for the GEM. Our study findings indicate that a high proportion of church-going young men do not endorse gender-equitable norms. Therefore, churches urgently need comprehensive gender equality and masculinity policies and programmes to influence young men's attitudes and behaviours. The promotion of gender equality in

  3. Carence en fer, anémie et anémie ferriprive chez les donneurs de sang à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Nzengu-Lukusa, Franck; Yuma-Ramazani, Sylvain; Sokolua-Mvika, Eddy; Dilu-Keti, Angèle; Malenga-Nkanga, Blanchard; Shuli, Jean Baptiste; Nzongola-Nkasu, Donatien Kayembe; Mbayo-Kalumbu, Ferdinand; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), plus d'un million de don de sang ont été réalisés entre 2007 et 2011. Cependant, aucun bilan portant sur la carence en fer et l'anémie ferriprive, conséquence d'un don de sang chez les donneurs de sang (DS), n'est disponible dans ce pays. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de la carence en fer, de l'anémie et de l'anémie ferriprive chezles DS au Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) à Kinshasa en RDC. Méthodes Entre Décembre 2012 et Août 2013, une étude transversale a été menée au CNTS où des DS éligibles au don de sang ont été inclus. Les informations socio démographiques et des prélèvements sanguins ont été collectés de manière simultanée au don de sang. La ferritine sérique a été dosée pour évaluer la carence en fer en utilisant la technique ELISA. L'hémogramme a été réalisé en vue d’évaluer et mettre au point l'anémie. Résultats Au total 386 DS ont été inclus dans cette étude. La prévalence de la carence en fer et de l'anémie ferriprive étaient respectivement de 63,2% (244/386) et 25,9% (100/386) des DS. Une anémie a été trouvée chez 36.5% (141/386) au moment du don de sang. Conclusion La carence en fer, l'anémie et l'anémie ferriprive demeurent très fréquentes chez les DS à Kinshasa. Ces résultats suggèrent la révision des tests biologiques utilisés dans le recrutement des DS au CNTS. Par ailleurs le dosage de la ferritine s'impose en routine chez les DS rég PMID:27303590

  4. [The behavioral determinants for health centers in health districts of urban Africa: results of a survey of households in Kinshasa, Congo].

    Manzambi, J K; Tellier, V; Bertrand, F; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y; Van Balen, E H

    2000-08-01

    This study analyses the choice determinants of the population for health centres through a survey of the behaviour of families in a representative sample of 1,000 households in the health districts of Kinshasa, Congo in 1997. For the most recent episode of illness, the respondents turned to seven types of care: the health centre (37%), private dispensaries (26.5%), self-medication through a pharmacy (23.9%), traditional practitioner (21%), traditional self-medication (16.9%), private outpatients' clinic (16.7%) and a reference hospital (10.4%). Past logistics have shown that patients resort to a health centre rather than another type of care structure (P = 0.05) when looking for quality care, reasonable prices and the availability of varied services. On the other hand, concern about the geographical proximity in relation to the family's residence calls for using the private dispensary. When looking for a doctor or the existence of a 'convention', families are more inclined to choose a private officially recognized outpatients' clinic. Those who had been looking for a solution to a special type of illness opted primarily for a traditional practitioner. In conclusion, the results of this study show that if people choose the care offered by health centres, it is because they judge it to be of good quality. The integrated care offered by the same technician, with a required training, is a major asset in the acceptability of the first line of primary health care in Kinshasa. This study suggests that it would no doubt be beneficial to integrate non-official private care structures into the primary health care system, as far as it is possible for them to achieve a level of quality comparable to that of the health centres. In order that the traditional practitioner might play an important complementary role in the realization of primary health care, even in urban areas, the possibility of promoting sites of communication should be studied. Moreover, considering the weak

  5. Individual and household characteristics of persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sites with varying endemicities in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Levitz, Lauren; Thwai, Kyaw L; Parr, Jonathan B; Goel, Varun; Janko, Mark; Tshefu, Antoinette; Emch, Michael; Meshnick, Steven R; Carrel, Margaret

    2017-11-09

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites. Across seven sites, 242 households and 1591 individuals are participating in the study. Results of the enrollment questionnaire, rapid diagnostic tests and PCR testing of dried blood spots are presented. Overall malaria prevalence in the study cohort is high, 27% by rapid diagnostic test and 31% by polymerase chain reaction, and malaria prevalence is highly varied across very small geographic distances. Malaria prevalence is highest in children aged 6-15. While the majority of households own bed nets, bed net usage is less than 50%. The study cohort will provide an understanding of how malaria persists in populations that have varying environmental exposures, varying community-level malaria, and varying access to malaria control efforts.

  6. Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach.

    Bass, Judith K; Ryder, Robert W; Lammers, Marie-Christine; Mukaba, Thibaut N; Bolton, Paul A

    2008-12-01

    To determine if a post-partum depression syndrome exists among mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by adapting and validating standard screening instruments. Using qualitative interviewing techniques, we interviewed a convenience sample of 80 women living in a large peri-urban community to better understand local conceptions of mental illness. We used this information to adapt two standard depression screeners, the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. In a subsequent quantitative study, we identified another 133 women with and without the local depression syndrome and used this information to validate the adapted screening instruments. Based on the qualitative data, we found a local syndrome that closely approximates the Western model of major depressive disorder. The women we interviewed, representative of the local populace, considered this an important syndrome among new mothers because it negatively affects women and their young children. Women (n = 41) identified as suffering from this syndrome had statistically significantly higher depression severity scores on both adapted screeners than women identified as not having this syndrome (n = 20; P depression and validated instruments to screen for this disorder. As the importance of compromised mental health in developing world populations becomes recognized, the methods described in this report will be useful more widely.

  7. Kinshasa, 1974: Fania All Stars o el imaginario africanista en la salsa neoyorquina de la década de 1970

    Brais D. Outes-León

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo del histórico concierto de Fania All Stars en Kinshasa (1973, en  este ensayo analizaré cómo la compañía discográfica Fania Records  desarrolla durante la década de 1970 una estrategia comercial que reivindica, no la base afro-antillana de la salsa, sino su filiación africana. Esta  reivindicación de África en materiales visuales como la revista Latin NY y el documental Salsa! (1976 desvela la emergencia de una nueva geografía cultural de la hibridez en la cual la salsa se erigió en lo que Homi Bhabha define como un “tercer espacio” sónico que une las periferias del Caribe, el África subsahariana y las comunidades latinas de Nueva York en una visión sónica del Sur Global avant la lettre.

  8. Analyse qualitative de l'intégration de l'éducation sexuelle des jeunes dans les médias audio-visuels à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo.

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi

    2014-01-01

    L'éducation sexuelle par les médias de masse contribue positivement à la prévention des infections sexuellement transmissibles (IST)/VIH et des grossesses précoces auprès des jeunes. L'objectifs de cette étude sont d'appréhender le niveau d'intégration de l'éducation sexuelle dans les émissions de santé à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo et d'identifier les facteurs facilitant et limitant l'éducation sexuelle des jeunes dans les programmes audio-visuels congolais. Une triangulatio...

  9. High levels of faecal contamination in drinking groundwater and recreational water due to poor sanitation, in the sub-rural neighbourhoods of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Kayembe, John M; Thevenon, Florian; Laffite, Amandine; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mubedi, Josué I; Poté, John

    2018-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of developing countries, shallow wells and untreated water from urban rivers are used for domestic purposes, including drinking water supply, population bathing and irrigation for urban agriculture. The evaluation and monitoring of water quality are therefore necessary for preventing potential human risk associated with the exposure to contaminated water. In this study, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were assessed in an urban river (named Kokolo Canal/Jerusalem River) draining the municipality of Lingwala (City of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and in two shallow wells used as drinking water supplies, during the wet and dry seasons in order to estimate the seasonal variation of contamination. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated strains (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT)) from water and surface sediment, were characterized for human-specific bacteroides by molecular approach. The results revealed very high faecal contamination of water from the shallow wells, and of water and sediments from the river, during both wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, E. coli reached the values of 18.6 × 10 5 and 4.9 × 10 5  CFU 100 mL -1 in Kokolo Canal and shallow wells, respectively; and Enterococcus reached the values of 7.4 × 10 4 and 2.7 × 10 4  CFU 100 mL -1 . Strong mutually positive correlation was observed between E. coli and ENT, with the range of R-value being 0.93 water but also on groundwater contamination. The water samples from the shallow wells and Kokolo Canal were highly polluted with faecal matter in both seasons. However, the pollution level was significantly higher during the wet season compared to the dry season. Physicochemical analysis revealed also very high water electrical conductivity, with values much higher than the recommended limits of the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water. These results highlight the

  10. Accumulation of toxic metals and organic micro-pollutants in sediments from tropical urban rivers, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Grandjean, Dominique; Mulaji, Crispin K; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The increasing contamination of fresh water resource by toxic metals and Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs) is a major environmental concern globally. In the present investigation, surface sediments collected from three main rivers named, Makelele, Kalamu and Nsanga, draining through the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were performed to determine metal source and pollution status. The results highlighted high concentration of toxic metals in all sediment samples, reaching the values (mg kg -1 ) of 325 (Cu), 549 (Zn), 165 (Pb) and 1.5 (Cd). High values of PCBs and OCPs were detected in sediment samples, e.g. in Makelele river, PCB values ranged from 0.9 to 10.9 with total PCBs (∑7 PCBs × 4.3): 169.3 μg kg -1 ; OCPs from 21.6 to 146.8 with ∑OCPs: 270.6 μg kg -1 . The PBDEs concentrations were higher in investigated rivers comparatively with values detected in many rivers from Sub-Saharan Africa. The ΣPAHs value ranged from 22.6 to 1011.9 μg kg -1 . River contamination may be explained by local intense domestic activities, urban and agricultural runoff, industrial and hospital wastewaters discharge into the rivers without prior treatment. This research provides not only a first baseline information on the extent of contamination in this tropical ecosystem but also represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in the river receiving systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of pathogenic bacteria in water and sediment from a water reservoir under tropical conditions (Lake Ma Vallée), Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Tshibanda, Joseph B; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess potential human health risks presented by pathogenic bacteria in a protected multi-use lake-reservoir (Lake Ma Vallée) located in west of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Water and surface sediments from several points of the Lake were collected during summer. Microbial analysis was performed for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus (ENT), Pseudomonas species and heterotrophic plate counts. PCR amplification was performed for the confirmation of E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from samples. The results reveal low concentration of bacteria in water column of the lake, the bacterial quantification results observed in this study for the water column were below the recommended limits, according to WHO and the European Directive 2006/7/CE, for bathing water. However, high concentration of bacteria was observed in the sediment samples; the values of 2.65 × 10(3), 6.35 × 10(3), 3.27 × 10(3) and 3.60 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) of dry sediment for E. coli, ENT, Pseudomonas spp. and heterotrophic plate counts, respectively. The results of this study indicate that sediments of the Lake Ma Vallée can constitute a reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms which can persist in the lake. Possible resuspension of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens would affect water quality and may increase health risks to the population during recreational activities. Our results indicate that the microbial sediment analysis provides complementary and important information for assessing sanitary quality of surface water under tropical conditions.

  12. The Quality of Medicines Used in Children and Supplied by Private Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Survey.

    Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of "poor-quality" if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment's efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research.

  13. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  14. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    2014-01-01

    Background As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. This focused on 14 to 24 old young people using phone calls on a radio program raising concerns related to sexuality. The radio program was jointly run by a journalist and a health professional who were required to reply immediately to questions from young people. All sexual health concerns were recorded and analyzed. Results Forty programs were broadcast in six months and 1,250 messages and calls were recorded: 880 (70%) from girls and 370 (30%) from boys, which represents an average of 32 interventions (of which 10 calls and 22 messages) per broadcast. Most questions came from 15-19- and 20-24-year-old girls and boys. Focus of girls’ questions: menstrual cycle calculation and related concerns accounted for the majority (24%); sexual practices (16%), love relationships (15%) and virginity (14%). Boys’ concerns are masturbation (and its consequences) (22%), sexual practices (19%), love relationships (18%) and worries about penis size (10%). Infections (genital and STI) and topics regarding HIV represent 9% and 4% of the questions asked by girls against 7% and 10% by boys. Concerns were mainly related to knowledge, attitudes and competences to be developed. Conclusions Concerns and sexual practices raised by teens about their sexual and emotional life have inspired the design of a practical guide for youth self-training and have steered the second phase of this interactive program towards supporting

  15. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people's sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi

    2014-01-01

    As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. This focused on 14 to 24 old young people using phone calls on a radio program raising concerns related to sexuality. The radio program was jointly run by a journalist and a health professional who were required to reply immediately to questions from young people. All sexual health concerns were recorded and analyzed. Forty programs were broadcast in six months and 1,250 messages and calls were recorded: 880 (70%) from girls and 370 (30%) from boys, which represents an average of 32 interventions (of which 10 calls and 22 messages) per broadcast. Most questions came from 15-19- and 20-24-year-old girls and boys. Focus of girls' questions: menstrual cycle calculation and related concerns accounted for the majority (24%); sexual practices (16%), love relationships (15%) and virginity (14%). Boys' concerns are masturbation (and its consequences) (22%), sexual practices (19%), love relationships (18%) and worries about penis size (10%). Infections (genital and STI) and topics regarding HIV represent 9% and 4% of the questions asked by girls against 7% and 10% by boys. Concerns were mainly related to knowledge, attitudes and competences to be developed. Concerns and sexual practices raised by teens about their sexual and emotional life have inspired the design of a practical guide for youth self-training and have steered the second phase of this interactive program towards supporting their responsible sexuality.

  16. Individually Linked Household and Health Facility Vaccination Survey in 12 At-risk Districts in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: Methods and Metadata.

    Burnett, Eleanor; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ngoie Mwamba, Guillaume; Yolande, Masembe; Guylain, Kaya; Muriel, Nzazi Nsambu; Cathy, Nzuzi; Patrice, Tshekoya; Wilkins, Karen; Yoloyolo, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    Health facility (HF) and household (HH) data can complement each other to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to vaccination status. In 12 zones with low vaccination coverage within Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, we conducted 2 surveys: (1) a linked HH and HF survey among 6-11-month-old infants, and (2) a HH survey among 12-23-month-old children. Linked survey objectives were to identify factors associated with vaccination status and to explore methodological considerations for linked survey implementation. To provide linked HH and HF data, we enrolled 6-11-month-old infants in HH clusters in each zone and then surveyed HFs located within the 12 zones and cited by caregivers of the enrolled infants as the most recent HF visited for vaccination or curative care. To provide vaccination coverage estimates for the 12-zone area, we enrolled 12-23-month-old children in every fourth HH. Of the HHs with a child aged 6-23 months, 16% were ineligible because they had resided in the neighborhood for one of the 182 surveyed HFs. For the coverage survey, 710 children aged 12-23 months participated. Home-based vaccination cards were available for 1210 of 1934 children (63%) surveyed. The surveys were successful in assessing HH information for 2 age groups, documenting written vaccination history for a large proportion of 6-23-month-old children, linking the majority of infants with their most recently visited HF, and surveying identified HFs. The implementation of the individually linked survey also highlighted the need for a comprehensive list of HFs and an analysis plan that addresses cross-classified clusters with only 1 child. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. The Quality of Medicines Used in Children and Supplied by Private Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Survey

    Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J.; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of “poor-quality” if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment’s efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research. PMID:29313479

  18. Analysis of the Technical/Economic Performance of Four Cropping Systems Involving Jatropha curcas L. in the Kinshasa Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Minengu, JD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared: cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and without fertilisers, a combination of J. curcas with subsistence crops (maize ­ Zea mays L., the common bean ­ Phaseolus vulgaris L. with and without fertilisers. The major attacks by pests (mainly Aphthona sp. suffered by J. curcas plants in the region make it vital to conduct at least two insecticide treatments per year. Dry seed yields of J. curcas obtained in the 4th year of cultivation amounted to 753 kg ha­1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop without fertilisers, 797 kg ha­1 for intercropping without fertilisers, 1158 kg ha­1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop with fertilisers and 1173 kg ha­1 for intercropping with fertilisers. Yields from the two annual crops were not improved by the application of mineral fertilisers on the J. curcas plants. They amounted to an average of 815 kg ha­1 for maize and 676 kg ha­1 for the beans. It is more profitable to cultivate J. curcas with maize and beans than to cultivate it as a sole crop. By combining crops in this way, a one­ hectare farm can earn 1102 USD ha­1 without fertilisers and 1049 USD ha­1 with fertilisers. Sustainable cultivation of J. curcas under the test conditions requires the development of efficient weed/pest control methods and improved soil fertility management, in order to minimise the use of mineral fertilisers as well as strong improvement of labour productivity for seed harvesting.

  19. Apport des arbres fruitiers à la sécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain tropical: cas de la commune de Limete- Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Luyindula, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit Trees Contribution to Food Security in Tropical Urban Environment: Instance of Commune of Limete in Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. Problems of hunger and malnutrition in urban environnements force the populations to exploit all the food resources available. This work investigates the contribution to the diet of the population of the edible fruits produced by the 19 species of trees found in a district of Kinshasa. An investigation carried out in 1.09% of the 18,475 household plots of the commune of Limete permitted to estimate at approximately 47,000 feet the number of trees planted there and their annual production at approximately 4.087 tons. The six main species (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis and Musa paradisiaca account on their own for an approximate total of 36,400 feet. The contribution of these species to the population alimentation was estimated respectively at 10.9 g, 6.1 g, 4.5 g, 4.4 g, 1.8 g and 0.6 g of fruits per person and per day. The control of certain environmental- friendly techniques and environmental education relating to the trees in urban environment should increase the importance of this contribution.

  20. "The co-authors of pregnancy": leveraging men's sense of responsibility and other factors for male involvement in antenatal services in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Gill, Michelle M; Ditekemena, John; Loando, Aimé; Ilunga, Vicky; Temmerman, Marleen; Fwamba, Franck

    2017-12-06

    Despite efforts to improve male involvement (MI), few male partners typically attend antenatal care (ANC). MI in ANC and interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the HIV-positive mother and her child. This study aimed to explore factors influencing partner attendance and highlight interventions with potential to improve MI within a Congolese context. This was an exploratory, qualitative study conducted in two urban and two semi-urban catchment areas of Kinshasa, DRC in June-September 2016. Two women-only and two men-only focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; participants were recruited from ANC clinics and surrounding communities. Key informants purposively selected from health facility leadership and central government were also interviewed. Guide topics included MI barriers and facilitators, experiences with couples' ANC attendance and perceptions of MI interventions and how to improve them. Data from FGDs and interviews were analyzed to determine three interventions that best addressed the identified MI facilitators and barriers. These interventions were explored further through dialogues held with representatives from community organizations. This study included 17 female and 18 male FGD participants, 3 key informants and 21 community dialogue participants. Receipt of clinic staff advice was the most commonly-reported factor facilitating male attendance. No time off work was the most commonly-reported barrier. Only men identified responsibility, referring to themselves as "authors of the pregnancy," and wanting to be tested for HIV as facilitators. The most promising interventions perceived by FGD and interview participants were male partner invitation letters, couple- and male-friendly improvements to ANC, and expert peer-to-peer outreach. Community dialogue participants provided further detail on these approaches, such as invitation letter content and counseling messages targeting men attending

  1. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  2. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Maketa, Vivi; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Zanga, Josué; Lubiba, Joachim; Kalonji, Albert; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-18

    Malaria is preventable and treatable when recommended interventions are properly implemented. Thus, diagnosis and treatment focus on symptomatic individuals while asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (PI) plays a role in the sustainability of the transmission and may also have an impact on the morbidity of the disease in terms of anaemia, nutritional status and even cognitive development of children. The objective of this study was to assess PI prevalence and its relationship with known morbidity factors in a vulnerable but asymptomatic stratum of the population. A simple random sample, household survey in asymptomatic children under the age of five was conducted from April to September 2012 in two health areas of the health zone of Mont Ngafula 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The PI prevalence were 30.9% (95% CI: 26.5-35.9) and 14.3% (95% CI: 10.5-18.1) in Cité Pumbu and Kindele health areas, respectively, (OR: 2.7; p <0.001). All were Plasmodium falciparum infected and 4% were co-infected with Plasmodium malariae. In Cité Pumbu and Kindele, the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) was 61.6% (95% CI: 56.6-66.5) and 39.3% (95% CI: 34.0-44.6), respectively, (OR: 2.5; p <0.001). The health area of Cité Pumbu had 32% (95% CI: 27.5-37.0) of chronic malnutrition (HAZ score ≤ -2SD) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 2.8-7.6) in Kindele. PI was predictor factor for anaemia (aOR: 3.5, p =0.01) and within infected children, there was an inverse relationship between parasite density and haemoglobin level (β = -5*10(-5), p <0.001). Age older than 12 months (aOR: 3.8, p = 0.01), presence of anaemia (aOR: 3.4, p =0.001), chronic malnutrition (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.01), having a single parent/guardian (aOR: 1.6, p =0.04), and the non-use of insecticide-treated nets (aOR: 1.7, p = 0.04) were all predictors for PI in the overall population. PI in asymptomatic children was correlated with anaemia and chronic malnutrition and was thus a harmful condition in the study

  3. [Combining microcredit, microinsurance, and the provision of health care can improve access to quality care in urban areas of Africa: Results of an experiment in the Bandalungwa health zone in Kinshasa, the Congo].

    Manzambi Kuwekita, J; Gosset, C; Guillaume, M; Balula Semutsari, M-P; Tshiama Kabongo, E; Bruyere, O; Reginster, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on a survey conducted in 2008, examines how combining microcredit, microinsurance, and health care provision can improve access to quality care in the health zone of Bandalungwa, in Kinshasa. The bivariate analysis showed a significant association between increased purchasing power and earnings (p = 0.001), between earnings and savings (p = 0.000), and between health insurance and improved access to health care. These results show that 68.8% of borrowers reported an increase in their purchasing power, of whom 82% reported profits. Those with savings were 24.7 times more likely to purchase health insurance than those without; and 72% of those who regularly made health insurance payments improved their access to care. Combining microcredit, health microinsurance, and health care can improve access to quality health care at lower cost. This suggests that health insurance could usefully be integrated into the primary health-care system.

  4. Les accidents du travail dans le transport urbain en commun de la ville province de Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo: une étude transversale descriptive

    Wangata, Jemima; Elenge, Myriam; De Brouwer, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le transport en commun urbain constitue un secteur où les travailleurs sont très exposés aux accidents du travail. Cette étude visait une description épidémiologique des accidents du travail dans le secteur informel du transport en commun à Kinshasa en vue d'apporter les pistes d'amélioration de la sécurité des travailleurs dans cette activité. Méthodes Un questionnaire sur les accidents du travail, administré en Décembre 2012 a permis d'explorer les tendances significatives entre les accidents et leurs circonstances, leurs facteurs associés, leurs conséquences au sein d'une population des travailleurs (n = 472) du transport en commun à Kinshasa. Résultats Durant les 12 derniers précédant l’étude 76.5% des travailleurs ont connu au moins un accident du travail, 54,8% ont connu un arrêt d'au moins 1jour. Les accidents liés à la circulation routière étaient plus important suivis des chutes. Les facteurs ayant montré des différences significatives étaient le travail sous l'influence de l'alcool et le port des équipements de protection individuelle. Les plaies (46,3%) et les contusions (39,4%) étaient les lésions les plus courantes. Les membres supérieurs (51,3%) et inférieurs (30,7%) étaient les plus atteints. 76,6% des travailleurs ont assumé seuls leur prise en charge médicale. Conclusion L'incidence des accidents du travail dans ce secteur est très élevée. La mise en place d'une politique de prévention et gestion de différents facteurs associés ainsi qu'un système de déclaration d'accidents est nécessaire dans ce secteur. Les patrons ainsi que les politiques devraient veiller à une prise en charge médicale correcte pour des travailleurs accidentés. PMID:25667703

  5. Enterocytozoon bieneusi Identification Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in HIV-Infected Humans from Kinshasa Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Wumba, Roger; Jean, Menotti; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Madone, Mandina; Fabien, Kintoki; Josué, Zanga; Jean, Sala; Eric, Kendjo; AC, Guillo-Olczyk; Marc, Thellier

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and the genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool specimens from HIV patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kinshasa hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Detection of microsporidia including E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis was performed in 242 HIV-infected patients. Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA ITS region of E. bieneusi. PCRRFLP generated with two restriction enzymes (Nla III and Fnu 4HI) in PCR-amplified ITS products for classifying strains into different lineages. The diagnosis performance of the indirect immune-fluorescence-monoclonal antibody (IFI-AcM) was defined in comparison with real-time PCR as the gold standard. Results. Out of 242 HIV-infected patients, using the real-time PCR, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 7.9% (n = 19) among the 19 E. bieneusi, one was coinfected with E. intestinalis. In 19 E. bieneusi persons using PCR-RFLP method, 5 type I strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) and 5 type IV strains of E. bieneusi (26.3%) were identified. The sensitivity of IFI-AcM was poor as estimated 42.1%. Conclusion. Despite different PCR methods, there is possible association between HIVinfection, geographic location (France, Cameroun, Democratic Republic of Congo), and the concurrence of type I and type IV strains. PMID:22811884

  6. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Matangila, Junior R; Lufuluabo, Jean; Ibalanky, Axel L; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel A; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-02

    In areas of high malaria transmission, Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is characterized by malaria-related anaemia, placental malaria and does not always result in clinical symptoms. This situation is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection, its relation with anaemia as well as the most cost-effective technique for its diagnosis in healthy pregnant women living in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In a cross-sectional study design, information on socio-demographic characteristics and cost data were collected in healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care consultations. Plasmodium falciparum infection was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was also determined. In total, 332 pregnant women were enrolled. RDT and microscopy data were available for all the blood samples and 166 samples were analysed by PCR. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection using microscopy, RDTs and PCR, were respectively 21.6%, 27.4% and 29.5%. Taking PCR as a reference, RDTs had a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 94.9% to diagnose asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. The corresponding values for microscopy were 67.3% and 97.4%. The prevalence of anaemia was 61.1% and asymptomatic malaria increased five times the odds (p anaemia. RDTs were more cost-effective compared to microscopy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 63.47 per microscopy adequately diagnosed case. These alarming results emphasize the need to actively diagnose and treat asymptomatic malaria infection during all antenatal care visits. Moreover, in DRC, malaria and anaemia control efforts should be strengthened by promoting the use of insecticide-treated nets, intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron and folic acid supplements.

  7. Understanding, preventing urban violence in Kinshasa | IDRC ...

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... ... are exploring the underlying dynamics of life in the capital city and analyzing how they ... poverty, and inequality that holds the key to understanding the links between ... Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence?

  8. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat from public markets, meat from ... Material and sampling: Seventy-two samples of fresh fish, 120 samples of meat (beef, ..... prevalence and number of. Salmonella in sausages and their destruction.

  9. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and qualitative studies to assess acceptability and feasibility, and (6) disseminating the findings to family planning stakeholders. Before the pilot, Sayana Press was relatively unknown in the DRC, and there was no precedent for medical and nursing students providing family planning methods or giving injections at the community level. In less than 12 months, the approach gained legitimacy and acceptance. The key Ministry of Health decision maker orchestrated the closing session of the dissemination meeting on next steps, paving the way for pilot tests of 3 new task-shifting approaches: insertion of Implanon NXT by medical and nursing students, self-injection for Sayana Press with supervision by students, and injection of Sayana Press by community health workers with no formal clinical training. PMID:27979874

  10. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-12-23

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception-medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and qualitative studies to assess acceptability and feasibility, and (6) disseminating the findings to family planning stakeholders. Before the pilot, Sayana Press was relatively unknown in the DRC, and there was no precedent for medical and nursing students providing family planning methods or giving injections at the community level. In less than 12 months, the approach gained legitimacy and acceptance. The key Ministry of Health decision maker orchestrated the closing session of the dissemination meeting on next steps, paving the way for pilot tests of 3 new task-shifting approaches: insertion of Implanon NXT by medical and nursing students, self-injection for Sayana Press with supervision by students, and injection of Sayana Press by community health workers with no formal clinical training. © Binanga and Bertrand.

  11. Radiological profile of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV: concerning 171 observations in Kinshasa

    Djamba, O.N.; Mukaya, J.; Kayembe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective descriptive study was conducted in Depistage center of the Tuberculosis treatment of Kabinda during a period of three months, had as objectives to study the radiological profile of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV and HIV- patients, then to compare the frequency of different radiological abnormalities between the two groups to determine some characteristics of co-infection HIV/TP+. Among 171 patients with contagious pulmonary tuberculosis, 50 patients had positive serology for HIV, a prevalence of 29,2%. The intrathoracic lymph nodes, localized lesions only in the lower field were more observed in HIV, as well as pleurisy and the absence of radiological abnormality. The only one case of miliary was HIV positive. By contrast, excavations and localized lesions in the upper field were predominant in HIV-. Atypical radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis were more common in patients with HIV infection.

  12. Awareness and Perceptions of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Among Women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Hernandez, Julie H; Muanda, Mbadu; Garcia, Mélissa; Matawa, Grace

    2017-09-01

    Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives. After facilitators explained emergency contraceptive pills' mechanism of action and other characteristics, participants were asked about the potential benefits and risks of making the method more widely available. Transcripts were analyzed using an iterative approach. Women reported employing a wide range of postcoital contraceptive behaviors, albeit often using inappropriate products, and generally agreed that emergency contraceptive pills seemed to be a potentially effective solution to their family planning needs. Perceived benefits and limitations of the method were almost always framed in reference to other, better-known contraceptives, and women expressed strong preferences for pharmacy-based provision that aligned with their usual behaviors for obtaining contraceptives. Participants were reluctant to see the method available for free. Emergency contraceptive pills have the potential to address gaps in the family planning method mix in the DRC. Assessing whether women have incomplete or erroneous information about family planning methods can provide better understanding of women's contraceptive choices in low-income countries.

  13. Natural recharge of groundwater captured in the hilly area of Kinshasa: Hydrochemical and isotopic approaches

    Mabiala, M.P.; Nlandu, W.J.; Ndembo, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    The stable isotopic content of daily precipitation sampled at Mount Amba (CGEA) shows large variations principally due to climatic conditions during rain events and to the type of air masses, which generaed the precipitation. The isotopic values of groundwater suggest, throughout the study zone, a rapid and easy recharge of the aquifers by direct infiltration precipitation. In some places, isotopic enrichment content could be attributed to evaporation processes during precipation. Groundwater is generally of chloride and sodium type. They are chemically good for drinking water, but localised high concentrations in nitrates indicate a risk of pollution of the aquifer.

  14. Comprendre et prévenir la violence urbaine à Kinshasa | CRDI ...

    13 nov. 2015 ... Elle décompose la dynamique entre la migration des milieux ruraux vers les milieux urbains, la pauvreté et l'inégalité, qui est la clé permettant de comprendre les liens qui existent entre l'urbanisation sans précédent et la hausse de la criminalité et de la violence dans les grandes villes de l'Afrique ...

  15. Measurement of radioactivity in building materials: The case of Portland cement used in Kinshasa

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Karisa, N.; Solo, K.; Poloto, I.C.; Bashike, K.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The study deals with the measurement of radioactivity in some cement samples from the national manufacture of cement of the west area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The geological materials used in the cement manufacture process may contain some naturel radioactive elements such as U, Th and K. To do so, direct gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector has been performed. Detected radioisotopes from the three main radioactive families have been quantitatively determined. The U, Th and K contents are of the same order of magnitude as in terrestrial crust

  16. Le dictionnaire de chimie en lingála pour les élèves de Kinshasa

    Résumé: Pour réaliser un dictionnaire spécialisé dans une langue bien documentée, le lexico- graphe dépouille les documents disponibles, il en extrait des termes candidats et, éventuellement, leurs définitions et des exemples pertinents. Cette approche n'est pas adaptée pour des langues dont les documents ...

  17. The relevance of human capital to firm performance: A focus on the retail industry in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Boris Urban

    2015-03-01

    Implications: Research into human capital and links to performance in Africa and emerging markets is valuable as recent research has found that the matching of entrepreneurial human capital with opportunities for growth is the essence of economic development.

  18. KONZO : the IBRO Africa Regional Committee (ARC) organizes its first Global Advocacy Workshop for Neuroscience in Kinshasa

    Diasolua Ngudi, Delphin

    2014-01-01

    Neurological diseases such as epilepsy, konzo, or neurolathyrism are not well understood or even accepted as major causes of disability. It is important that the public – from parents and children to politicians and policymakers – be informed about the importance of brain research and how it can help understand the causes and develop cures or, at least, alleviate the symptoms of neurological diseases.

  19. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi

    2014-01-01

    Background: As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods: This healthcare intervention was conducte...

  20. Opening address [Symposium on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in Africa, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the), 28 July - 1 August 1969

    Mustafa, A. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo, United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    1970-01-15

    The symposium has particular importance, not only because it is the first of its kind to be held in Africa, but also because it deals with a relatively new technology that is considered to have far-reaching potentialities for the future scientific, economic, industrial and social development of the developing countries. Few technical developments in history have attracted the attention and raised the hopes of mankind as much as the development of nuclear energy, which gives promise in a wide and varied number of fields. For the continent of Africa, which has suffered a long era of foreign domination and under-development, and which is now passing through a phase of active development of its resources and the application of modern technology to the welfare and prosperity of its people, 'nuclear technology' represents an important source of vast potentialities which should be carefully assessed and fully exploited.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following oral treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kinshasa DRC

    Wesche David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many malaria-endemic countries, increasing resistance may soon compromise the efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for intermittent preventative treatment (IPT of malaria in pregnancy. Artemisinin-based IPT regimens represent a promising potential alternative to SP. Pharmacokinetic and safety data supporting the use of artemisinin derivatives in pregnancy are urgently needed. Methods Subjects included pregnant women with asymptomatic falciparum parasitaemia between 22-26 weeks (n = 13 or 32-36 weeks gestation (n = 13, the same women at three months postpartum, and 25 non-pregnant parasitaemic controls. All subjects received 200 mg orally administered AS. Plasma total and free levels of AS and its active metabolite DHA were determined using a validated LC-MS method. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using standard methods. Results All pregnant women delivered live babies. The median birth weight was 3025 grams [range 2130, 3620]; 2 of 26 babies had birth weights less than 2500 grams. Rates of parasite clearance by 12 hours post-dose were high and comparable among the groups. Rapid elimination of AS was observed in all three groups. The 90% CI for the pregnancy:postpartum ratio of geometric means for total and free AUC fell within the pre-specified 0.66 - 1.50 therapeutic equivalence interval. However, more pronounced pharmacokinetic differences were observed between the pregnancy and control subjects, with the 90% CI for the pregnancy:control ratio of geometric means for both total 0.68 (90% CI 0.57-0.81 and free AUC 0.78 (90% CI 0.63-0.95 not fully contained within the 0.66 - 1.50 interval. All subjects cleared parasites rapidly, and there was no difference in the percentage of women who were parasitaemic 12 hours after dosing. Conclusions A single dose of orally administered AS was found to be both effective and without adverse effects in this study of second and third trimester pregnant women in the DRC. Although DHA AUC during pregnancy and postpartum were similar, the AUC for the pregnant group was less than the non-pregnant controls. The findings of this study suggest that additional studies on the pharmacokinetics of AS in pregnant women are needed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00538382

  2. Ageing Management of the Kinshasa Trico II Research Reactor Components and Structures. A Case Study of the 5 Tonne Overhead Travelling Crane and the Ventilation System Inlet and Outlet

    Kombele, D. G.; Kankunku-K, P.; Mwamba, V. L.; Kobakozete, J. I.; Kiamana, M. M.; Lukibanza, J. W.; Kalala, A. T.; Mfinda, D. M.; Bilulu, T. L.; Ilunga, S. T. [Reactor Service Technical Department, Regional Nuclear Research Centre of Kinshasa (CREN-K), Atomic Energy General Commission (CGEA), Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the)

    2014-08-15

    The cable isolation sheath of the overhead traveling crane became fragile and brittle on a length of more than two meters. This degradation of the sheath has been caused by the ageing of the cable and the effects of heat, with changeable ambient temperatures in the reactor hall combined with the Joule effect, in relation to the cyclic use of the crane. This ageing effect was discovered when a failure occurred at the end of a nearly completed routine operation of displacing slightly radioactive spent ion exchange resins into waste storage. During the return of the hoist to its rest position, a severe short circuit happened between the cable and the mass of the hoist motor support, followed by a strong detonation that produced sparks and immobilized the overall system. A visual examination of the cable showed a change of its physical properties as mentioned above. A further investigation showed that two master contacts of the hoist were also burned. The bridge crane was inspected and certified in January 2010 by a competent authority eleven months before the event. On the other hand, the reactor ventilation system started presenting its limits in the late 1990s after more than 17 years of operation. Many failures occurred in the extraction motors and the air conditioning system, causing both a temperature increase and a lack of negative pressure in the reactor hall. The crane problem was solved after replacing the damaged cable and the two burned contacts. A review of the overall status of the bridge crane by the licensing authority is scheduled before the end of 2011. The paper also describes steps related to the renewal of the air inlet system and the restoration of negative pressure in the reactor hall. (author)

  3. [Education for self-administered antibiotic therapy: a pragmatic and ethical alternative for the treatment of STDs for the street youth of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (RDC)].

    Leyka, Mukandu Basua Babintu; Baum, Prof Mylène; Diadié, Maiga; Kiyombo, Mbela; Mupenda, Bavon

    2009-01-01

    All healthcare providers decide in someone else's place, for someone else. In doing so, they take their place in a long long tradition, that of medical paternalism. Patients are treated as children, incapable of making decisions about themselves. How then are we supposed to deal with patients like the street children of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who are not part of our health-care system, who refuse care and prescriptions? Their refusal of caregivers forces us to seek strategies to dispel the conflicts, adapt outselves to the situation (self-medication, drug sales outside of dispensaries, etc.), but especially to rethink the relation between caregivers and patients. This does not mean abandoning the authoritarian patriarchal model for total relativism; the use of drugs such as antibiotics is and must remain surrounded by all the precautions necessary to avoid the further development of resistance; it does mean training and informing. The task facing us is that of health education and promotion, a long and continuous process, centered on patients and integrated with their care, aimed at making them capable of managing their disease. This procedure is part of a pragmatic approach: beyond the asymmetry involved in any relationship of power, it is essential to establish informed confidence, to look for adhesion and not constraint. Only this pragmatism can incite young people with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to use modern medicine and comply with the dosage instructions. Effective treatment of STDs is, according to WHO, one of the most powerful weapons in the battle against AIDS transmission.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ...

    FOMCS2

    factors described as risk factors for ADHD in high-income countries were not identified in this study. ... According to the Ministry of Education, Kinshasa ... In primary schools, there is one teacher per class ...... rion in Brazilian adolescents.

  5. Conflicting discourses of church youths on masculinity and sexuality ...

    Hendrew Lusey

    2014-07-07

    Jul 7, 2014 ... Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, ..... address sexuality issues in French rather than in Lingala where sexual terms are perceived ..... socioeconomic hardships of Kinshasa.

  6. Origin and putative colonization routes for invasive rodent taxa in the ...

    The first is via the western seaport at Kinshasa where specimens of M. m. ... where specimens of R. rattus appear linked to Arab and southeast Asian haplotypes. Future work should consider more comprehensive sampling throughout the DRC ...

  7. Study of vegetative growth and phytochemical analysis of Jatropha curcas L. grown on the soil of Mount Amba

    Nyembo, K.; Mbaya, N.; Luyindula, N.; Onyembe, P.M.L.; Bulubulu, O.; Muambi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. plant species (Euphorbiaceae) easily fits with the agro-ecological conditions of Mount Amba (Kinshasa) and offers the first harvest after 13 or 14 months of culture. The fat content of seeds amounts to 49.7% and those of total nitrogen of limbs and seed cake are respectively 2.8% and 5.8%.

  8. 2289-IJBCS-Article-Samuel Christian Tsakem

    hp

    1Ecole Régionale Post-Universitaire d'Aménagement et de Gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires. Tropicaux (ERAIFT), Kinshasa ... champ dans un périmètre où elles maîtrisent le contrôle. ... suscite le besoin de comprendre la dynamique.

  9. Nose and throat complications associated with passive smoking ...

    Objective: To assess associations between nose-throat (NT) diseases and passive smoking prevalence among school children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a randomized multistage sample of 381 school children (50.9% males, aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years) from Kinshasa town. Parents and children were ...

  10. Composition chimique, dégradabilité in sacco et produits de ...

    SARAH

    30 juil. 2013 ... alimentation du bétail. MATÉRIELS ET ... Animal et ration alimentaire : Un bélier castré de race. Texel mixte ..... vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa. (Democratic ...

  11. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... dans l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) dont la récolte non contrôlée des ... Effect of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with ..... fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa.

  12. Producing Woodfuel for Urban Centers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Path Out of Poverty for Rural Households?

    Schure, J.M.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with good potential for climate change mitigation. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the sector employs over 300,000 people for the supply of Kinshasa alone, but the benefits to the poor are often unknown. This paper analyzes the contribution of

  13. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  14. The impact of soil texture on the selection of nesting sites by the ...

    The first granulometrical analysis of soil samples from nesting banks of the Malachite KingfisherAlcedo cristata is reported. In total 56 samples from the Kinshasa area were analysed. Three standardised particle size fractions were determined in all groups of samples (percentage of sand, clay and silt). Mean particle ...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa National Company of Electricity. A representative sample of 333 employees was screened. Tobacco, alcohol use and level of physical activity ...

  16. African Journal of Neurological Sciences 2012 - Vol. 31, No 1 http ...

    AJNS WEBMASTERS

    ultérieure 3 à 11 fois supérieur à celui de la population générale (14, 20). ... 71 mois ayant consulté dans les centres de soins de santé primaire à Kinshasa pour ..... MPAKA S, TSHILOLO L. Médecine et santé en République Démocratique du.

  17. Divisive Matters : Aesthetic difference and authority in a Congolese spiritual movement 'from Japan'

    Lambertz, P.

    2015-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of alternative spirituality in the densely populated city of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The perspective is oriented from the vantage point of the followers of a Japanese ‘spiritual movement’ (Sekai Kyûseikyô, Church of World Messianity,

  18. Browse Title Index

    Items 451 - 500 of 1034 ... Vol 47, No 6 (2005), High school students\\' attitudes, practices and ... Vol 54, No 3 (2012), How children access antiretroviral treatment at Kgapane ... Vol 50, No 2 (2008), Immunisation-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Abstract PDF.

  19. 1661-IJBCS-Article-Victor Kimpouni

    hp

    Victor KIMPOUNI *, Paul MBOU,Gabriel GAKOSSO et Marcel MOTOM. École Normale Supérieure, Université Marien ...... Kinshasa- Brazzaville. Jardin Botanique. National de Belgique : Bruxelles. Peters CM. 1997. Exploitation soutenue de produits forestiers autres que le bois en forêt tropicale humide : manuel d'initiation ...

  20. Subjektiivselt ja objektiivselt / Donald Tomberg

    Tomberg, Donald, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmide olemusest. Festivalil "DocPoint" linastuvatest mõningatest dokumentaalfilmidest - "Viinavabrik" (Rootsi, rež. Jerzy Sladkowski), "Roheline laine" (Saksamaa, rež. Ali Samadi Ahadi), "Surematuse deklaratsioon" (Poola, rež. Marcin Koszalka), "Play God" (Soome, rež. Teemu Nikki) ja "Kinshasa sümfoonia" (Saksamaa, rež. Martin Baer ja Claus Wischmann)

  1. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    GB

    METHODS: Data on 23,487 inpatients from Kinshasa hospitals were gathered and analyzed using. EpiData and SPSS. ... before needed changes may occur. KEYWORDS: Case fatality rates, Mortality, Socioeconomic status, Funding policies .... the number of hospital beds per nurse and malnutrition among inpatients.

  2. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  3. Study of atmospheric aerosols in Zaire by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Matamba, K.; Ronneau, C.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy were applied to the determination of trace element abundances in airborne particulate matter collected throughout Kinshasa, Zaire. Statistical treatment of the resulting data was used to assess the variations between sites and to identify the sources of the pollutants. 10 refs, 5 tabs

  4. Panelists' biographies

    Corey Piccioni

    Dr. Shomba Kinyamba is a Full Professor and Chair of Methodology, Epistemology and Scienfic Research at the. University of Kinshasa. He is a specialist in the field of sociology of development, with a focus on social change. He has coordinated a number of major projects on issues such as mobilizing wealth for the poor, ...

  5. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical and computed tomography findings in predicting in-hospital mortality in Central Africans

    Michel Lelo Tshikwela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH constitutes now 52% of all strokes. Despite of its deadly pattern, locally there is no clinical grading scale for ICH-related mortality prediction. The first objective of this study was to develop a risk stratification scale (Kinshasa ICH score by assessing the strength of independent predictors and their association with in-hospital 30-day mortality. The second objective of the study was to create a specific local and African model for ICH prognosis. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, smoking, alcohol intake, and neuroimaging data from CT scan (ICH volume, Midline shift of patients admitted with primary ICH and follow-upped in 33 hospitals of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from 2005 to 2008, were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 185 adults and known hypertensive patients (140 men and 45 women were examined. 30-day mortality rate was 35% (n=65. ICH volume>25 mL (OR=8 95% CI: 3.1-20.2; P 7 mm, a consequence of ICH volume, was also a significant predictor of mortality. The Kinshasa ICH score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: Presence of coma coded 2 (2 × 2 = 4, absence of coma coded 1 (1 × 2 = 2, ICH volume>25 mL coded 2 (2 × 2=4, ICH volume of ≤25 mL coded 1(1 × 2=2, left hemispheric site of ICH coded 2 (2 × 1=2, and right hemispheric site of hemorrhage coded 1(1 × 1 = 1. All patients with Kinshasa ICH score ≤7 survived and the patients with a score >7 died. In considering sex influence (Model 3, points were allowed as follows: Presence of coma (2 × 3 = 6, absence of coma (1 × 3 = 3, men (2 × 2 = 4, women (1 × 2 = 2, midline shift ≤7 mm (1 × 3 = 3, and midline shift >7 mm (2 × 3 = 6. Patients who died had the Kinshasa ICH score ≥16. Conclusion: In this study, the Kinshasa ICH score seems to be an accurate method for distinguishing those ICH patients who need continuous and special management

  6. HIV epidemiology. The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations.

    Faria, Nuno R; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Baele, Guy; Bedford, Trevor; Ward, Melissa J; Tatem, Andrew J; Sousa, João D; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Pépin, Jacques; Posada, David; Peeters, Martine; Pybus, Oliver G; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-10-03

    Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. 2166-IJBCS-Article- Dr Odette Kabena Ngandu

    hp

    végétales pour résoudre le problème de santé primaire. Le but de ce travail a été d'identifier les plantes utilisées par des femmes à Kinshasa/République Démocratique du Congo, pour les soins intimes et de déterminer leurs caractéristiques écologiques. L'enquête ethnobotanique a concerné trois cents personnes.

  8. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  9. Perception des adolescents et jeunes en matière de santé sexuelle et reproductive, République Démocratique du Congo.

    Vodiena, Gabriel Nsakala; Coppieters, Yves; Lapika, Bruno Dimonfu; Kalambayi, Patrick Kayembe; Gomis, Dominique; Piette, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents and young people have specific concerns about issues related to sexual and reproductive health. The purpose of this study, conducted in an urban setting of the DRC, was to identify the needs and perceptions of adolescents and young people in the area of sexual and reproductive health with a view to informing policy. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups conducted in three cities of the DRC (Kinshasa, Goma and Matadi). The study focused on adoles...

  10. Utilisation et gestion des pesticides en cultures maraîchères : cas de ...

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2017 ... Tony M. Muliele1*, Constantine M. Manzenza1, Léon W. Ekuke1, Cécile P. Diaka2, Dieudonné M. Ndikubwayo3, Olivier M. Kapalay1 & Aimé N. Mundele4. 1 Institut National pour l'Étude et la Recherche Agronomiques (INERA). B.P. 2037, Kinshasa I, RD Congo. 2 World Vision, Kasangulu Integrated ...

  11. La politique publique de la gestion des espaces verts par l'hôtel de ...

    Sur le plan urbanistique de la ville de Kinshasa (capitale de la RDC), les colons, avaient prévu les espaces verts pour un cadre de vie urbain, verdoyant et permettant de se détendre et embellir la ville. De 1960 à 1980, la même politique publique urbanistique a été respectée. Mais actuellement, avec l'explosion ...

  12. Verbe et poéticité dans l'oeuvre musicale de Félix Wazekwa ...

    Résumé L'étude analyse les chansons sorties de 1994 à 1998 par Félix Wazekwa. Cet artiste de la musique congolaise (Kinshasa) moderne a pris goût à la musique à force de composer des textes des chansons des grandes vedettes. Il se décida à se lancer dans la carrière musicale avec la sortie en 1994 de son premier ...

  13. Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio ...

    Sci-Nat

    Située à proximité de Kinshasa, la province du Bas-Congo (R.D. Congo) est l'une des principales pourvoyeuses en produits vivriers de cette ville. Par conséquent, l'augmentation de la pression sur les ressources naturelles s'accentue. L'analyse diachronique du paysage peut servir à montrer l'effet des actions ...

  14. Pauvreté, croissance démographique et violence chez les jeunes ...

    28 avr. 2016 ... Les résultats de la recherche, financée par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI), menée à l'Université de Kinshasa, en République démocratique du Congo, montrent qu'une croissance démographique non contrôlée — moyenne de 10 naissances par femme — combinée à ...

  15. Production of animal protein in the Congo Basin, a challenge for the future of people and wildlife

    Moula, Nassim; Hornick, Jean-Luc; Ruppol, Patrick; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Leroy, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Protein needs are considerable in the Congo Basin, a vast territory dominated by forest and inhabited by tens of millions of people. Whereas over 85% of the DRC’s population of the Basin live in the forest, the situation is different in other countries where the majority is urban (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo and Gabon). This paper presents several achievements of the Centre for Tropical Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine in Kinshasa (CAVTK), which aims since 2001 to conduct pil...

  16. Epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients

    Wumba R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Wumba,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Jean Menotti,3,4 Madone Mandina,5 Fabien Kintoki,5 Nani Hippolyte Situakibanza,1,5 Marie Kapepela Kakicha,6 Josue Zanga,1 Kennedy Mbanzulu-Makola,1 Tommy Nseka,1 Jean Pierre Mukendi,1 Eric Kendjo,7 Jean Sala,1 Marc Thellier7,81Department of Tropical Medicine, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Department of Parasitology, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Public Assistance-Hospitals of Paris, Paris, France; 4Faculty of Medicine, Lariboisière-Saint-Louis, University of Paris VII, Paris, France; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 6Department of Pediatrics, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 7National Center for Malaria Research, AP-HP, CHU Pitie Salpêtrière, Paris, France; 8Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Public Assistance-Hospitals of Paris, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FranceBackground: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and Cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. We also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in HIV patients.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, carried out in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, stool samples were collected from 242 HIV patients (87 men and 155 women with referred symptoms and risk factors for opportunistic intestinal parasites. The analysis of feces specimen were performed using Ziehl

  17. Research

    abp

    13 avr. 2016 ... National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) à Kinshasa en RDC. Méthodes: Entre Décembre 2012 et Août 2013, une étude transversale a été menée au CNTS où des DS éligibles au don de sang ont été inclus. Les informations socio démographiques et des prélèvements sanguins ont été collectés de ...

  18. The Second Shaban War the French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978

    1989-06-02

    Kaymanyola Division was a new concept for the FAZ. Activated under North Korean instructors, the unit was a melting pot of all tribes and walks of life in...OF KOLVEZI BASE CAMP; 1230 ZULU MAY 17; Paul Emmanuel,"We Will Return to Kolvezi’, BRUSSELS SPECIAL. 14 June 1978. 50-53(translated in Jnj). t...STATUS REPORT CIS EVACUATION OF KOLTMEZI BASE CAMP AS OF 0939 ZULU ;Message. AMEMBASSY KINSHASA TO SECSTATE WASHDC, 04902. DTG. 171129Z MAY 78, SHABA

  19. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  20. Sacrococcygeal teratoma in a female newborn with clinical features of trisomy 13: a case report from Central Africa

    Lubala TK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Toni Kasole Lubala,1,2 Olivier Mukuku,1 Mick Pongombo Shongo,1,2 Augustin Mulangu Mutombo,1 Nina Lubala,1 Oscar Numbi Luboya,1 Prosper Lukusa-Tshilobo3 1Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, 3Department of Paediatrics and Centre for Human Genetics, University Hospital, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo Introduction: The objective of this report is to describe the first patient presenting clinical features of trisomy 13 in association with a sacrococcygeal teratoma. Case presentation: We present the case of a Congolese female infant born with bilateral cleft lip and palate, hypotelorism, microcephaly, and capillary hemangioma on her face. She presented with a large sacrococcygeal mass (15.0 cm ×12.0 cm ×5.0 cm with a cystic consistency and a positive transillumination. Conclusion: This observation suggests that overexpression of certain genes on chromosome 13 may lead to tumor formation from remnant cells of Hensen’s node. Keywords: Patau syndrome, Hensens’s Node, sacrococcygeal, teratoma  

  1. Fractional dosing of yellow fever vaccine to extend supply: a modelling study.

    Wu, Joseph T; Peak, Corey M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lipsitch, Marc

    2016-12-10

    The ongoing yellow fever epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in July-August, 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidation of the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission. We estimate the effective reproductive number for yellow fever in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of yellow fever transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) with various levels of transmissibility and 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios, ie, random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible, and the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July-August, 2016, with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines. We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (ie, a proportion of vaccine recipients receive complete protection [VE] and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can greatly reduce infection attack rate as long as VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (ie, the susceptibility of each vaccine recipient is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (2 years) provides the largest reduction in infection attack rate if the efficacy of 5-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%. Dose fractionation is an effective strategy for reduction of the infection attack rate that would be robust with a

  2. Fractional Dosing of Yellow Fever Vaccine to Extend Supply: A Modeling Study

    Peak, Corey M.; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing yellow fever (YF) epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in July–August 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidating the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission. Methods We estimate the effective reproductive number for YF in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of YF transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (IAR, the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) under varying levels of transmissibility and five-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios: (i) random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible; (ii) the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July–August 2016 with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines. Findings We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (i.e. a proportion VE of vaccinees receives complete and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can dramatically reduce IAR as long as efficacy VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (i.e. the susceptibility of each vaccinee is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy VE). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by the WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (namely, 2 years) provides the largest reduction in IAR if the efficacy of five-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%. Interpretation Dose fractionation is a very effective strategy for reducing infection attack rate that would be robust with a large margin for error in case

  3. Do anti-malarials in Africa meet quality standards? The market penetration of non quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy in eight African countries.

    Newton, Paul N; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    Quality of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is important for ensuring malaria parasite clearance and protecting the efficacy of artemisinin-based therapies. The extent to which non quality-assured ACT (non-QAACT), or those not granted global regulatory approval, are available and used to treat malaria in endemic countries is poorly documented. This paper uses national and sub-national medicine outlet surveys conducted in eight study countries (Benin, Kinshasa and Kantanga [Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC], Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) between 2009 and 2015 to describe the non-QAACT market and to document trends in availability and distribution of non-QAACT in the public and private sector. In 2014/15, non-QAACT were most commonly available in Kinshasa (83%), followed by Katanga (53%), Nigeria (48%), Kenya (42%), and Uganda (33%). Non-QAACT accounted for 20% of the market share in the private sector in Kenya, followed by Benin and Uganda (19%), Nigeria (12%) and Zambia (8%); this figure was 27% in Katanga and 40% in Kinshasa. Public sector non-QAACT availability and distribution was much lower, with the exception of Zambia (availability, 85%; market share, 32%). Diverse generics and formulations were available, but non-QAACT were most commonly artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA PPQ), in tablet formulation, imported, and distributed in urban areas at either pharmacies or drug stores. The number of unique manufacturers supplying non-QAACT to each country ranged from 9 in Uganda to 92 in Nigeria. Addressing the availability and distribution of non-QAACT will require effective private sector engagement and evidence-based strategies to address provider and consumer demand for these products. Given the variation in non-QAACT markets observed across the eight study countries, active efforts to limit registration, importation and distribution of non-QAACT must be tailored to the country context

  4. Testing times: trends in availability, price, and market share of malaria diagnostics in the public and private healthcare sector across eight sub-Saharan African countries from 2009 to 2015.

    Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-19

    The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors. Repeated national cross-sectional quantitative surveys were conducted among a sample of outlets stocking anti-malarial medicines and/or diagnostics. In total, 169,655 outlets were screened. Availability of malaria blood testing among all screened public health facilities increased significantly between the first survey wave in 2009/11 and the most recent in 2014/15 in Benin (36.2, 85.4%, p sector in Zambia (90.9%), Benin (90.3%), Madagascar (84.5%), Katanga (74.3%), mainland Tanzania (73.5%), Uganda (71.8%), Nigeria (68.4%), Kenya (53.2%) and Kinshasa (51.9%). In the anti-malarial stocking private sector, significant increases in availability of diagnostic tests among private for-profit facilities were observed between the first and final survey rounds in Kinshasa (82.1, 94.0%, p sector price of RDT for a child was equal to the price of pre-packaged quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) treatment for a two-year old child in some countries, and 1.5-2.5 times higher in others. Median private sector QAACT price for an adult varied from having parity with an RDT for an adult to being up to 2 times more expensive. The exception was in both Kinshasa and Katanga, where the median price of QAACT was less expensive than RDTs. Significant strides have been made in the availability of testing, mainly through the widespread distribution of RDT, and especially in public

  5. Pre-pregnancy high-risk factors at first antenatal visit: how predictive are these of pregnancy outcomes?

    Tandu-Umba B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barthélémy Tandu-Umba, Muela Andy Mbangama, Kitenge Marc Brunel Kamongola , Tchawou Armel Georges Kamgang, Mawamfumu Perthus Kivuidi, Munene Sam Kasonga, Meke Irène Kambashi, Kabasele Oscar Kapuku, Bituemi Jackson Kondoli, Kibundila Rolly Kikuni, Kuzungu Simon KasikilaDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo Objective: To determine relationships between pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking and pregnancy outcomes.Study design: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving women admitted for singleton delivery from July 1 until October 31 (3 months, 2013, at nine major maternity clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. All women were checked for hereditary, community, and personal medical/surgical risk situations and mother/infant problems in previous pregnancies. Maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy were analyzed according to pre-pregnancy risk factors in order to establish their prediction concerning maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy (odds ratios. Results are given with 95% confidence intervals, and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The study sample comprised 2,086 women. Primiparity (36.5%, single relationship status (26.4%, and maternal age ≥35 years (18.3% were the most important non-pathologic risk factors, while arterial hypertension in family (34.3%, previous miscarriage (33.2%, overweight/obesity (21.9%, diabetes in family (21.1%, previous cesarean section (15.7%, previous postpartum hemorrhage (13.1%, low birth weight (10%, previous macrosomia (10%, and previous premature rupture of membranes (6.2% predominated among pathologic risk factors. Major adverse outcomes recurred in some women, with recurrence rates of 21/37 (57%, 111/208 (53%, 74/208 (36%, 191/598 (32%, 132/466 (28%, 24/130 (18%, and 4/65 (6% for prematurity

  6. High rate of sickle cell anaemia in Sub-Saharan Africa underlines the need to screen all children with severe anaemia for the disease.

    Kadima, Bertin Tshimanga; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René Makwala; Ekulu, Pépé Mfutu; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal screening for sickle cell anaemia is not common practice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and we determined the prevalence in children with unknown electrophoresis of haemoglobin and anaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in the country's capital Kinshasa. We screened 807 patients with anaemia (Hb history of hand foot syndrome, in children who had received more than three transfusions and in children up to 36 months of age at their first transfusion. The high prevalence of sickle cell anaemia in children in Sub-Saharan Africa underlines the need for neonatal screening or, if that is not possible, screening of all children with severe anaemia to identify patients with the disease and provide early management. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chemical composition of the mineral waters of the Congo River

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Lobo, K.K.; Tshisumpa, M.; Wembo, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been applied to river Congo waters for a global monitoring of trace element contents. 15 elements Ag, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples collected at 2 sites along the river Congo. Results are compared with those observed in other river waters collected in Kinshasa and elsewhere and for compliance with the international quality standards elaborated by the Who, USA and SSRU. The waters of river Congo have been found less mineralized than those of river Niger. They are of the same order of magnitude than those observed in some local rivers such as Ndjili, Lubudi, Funa, Tshangu and Tshenke.

  8. Pediatric pleural empyema: one of the management challenges in children of Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Simbi, Kibwe Alphonse; Kazadi, Valentin; Aissi, Louis-Marie; Katsuva, François Mbahewaka; Luboya, Numbi Oscar; Tshilolo, Léon; Zanardo, Vincenzo

    2017-06-23

    Empyema is a serious complication characterized by purulent exudate and bacteria in the pleural space, which may progress to necrosis, cavitations or fistulas in the thoracic cavity. It remains a major challenge throughout low-income countries. Objectives were to emphasize the role of basic medical and radiologic approach and to resolve a severe lung complication when facilities are inadequate. A five-year-old female was referred with distress respiratory to the Emergency Unit of Monkole, a large public-private missionary hospital in Kinshasa, Congo. Chest X-ray showed a massive empyema that was resolved by immediate drainage and antibiotiocs. Results were rapid improvement and discharge after 3 weeks. A classic medical and imaging approach is a winning return in low-income countries. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, pleural effusion with compromising respiratory function can be managed by drainage and antibiotics.

  9. Clinical phenotypes and the biological parameters of Congolese patients suffering from sickle cell anemia: A first report from Central Africa.

    Mikobi, Tite M; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel N; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Mvumbi-Lelo, Georges; Mbuyi-Muamba, Jean Marie

    2017-11-01

    The influence of phenotype on the clinical course and laboratory features of sickle cell anemia (SCA) is rarely described in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa. A clinical phenotype score was built up. The following definitions were applied: asymptomatic clinical phenotype (ACP; score≤5), moderate clinical phenotype (MCP; score between 6 and 15), and severe clinical phenotype (SCP; score≥16). ANOVA test were used to compare differences among categorical variables. We have studied 140 patients. The mean body mass index (BMI) value of three groups was lower (Sickle cell patients with ACP have a high mean steady-state hemoglobin concentration compared to those with MCP and SCP (Psickle cell anemia clinical and biological variability in our midst. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

    Bobineau Julien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

  11. Stroke characterization in Sun Saharan Africa: Congolese population.

    Limbole, Emmanuel Bakilo; Magne, Julien; Lacroix, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide and over than 80% of deaths occurs in developing countries. However, its characteristics in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are poorly defined. This study aimed to describe the key features of stroke in a hospital population of Kinshasa in DRC and to assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and their impact on target organs. A descriptive study was carried out from three hospitals in Kinshasa between January and April 2013. Cardiovascular risk factors, clinical and biological data were collected during the study period. The study involved 166 patients aged 18years and over. The mean age of patients was 59.6±12.3years, the sex ratio for male of 1.9. Stroke was ischemic in 66% of cases. Hypertension was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor (84.3%), followed by high blood cholesterol (45.2%).The etiologies of ischemic stroke (TOAST classification) were dominated by lacunas (38.5%) and embolic heart diseases (12.8%). The origin was unknown in 45.9% of cases. Coma was observed in 37% of patients on admission and was the main independent prognostic factor of mortality, which was 19.3%. Left ventricular hypertrophy and renal failure were found respectively in 64.7% and 34% of patients. This study found a growing increase of ischemic stroke in a society where hemorrhagic type used to be the most common, a high rate of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, indicative of a fast epidemiological transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Inaccurate information about the size of the penis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: about 21 information sources].

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Penis size is a huge topic of anxiety for a lot of men. Some of them are unhappy with their penis size as shown in the study conducted by Tiggemann in 2008. There are relatively few studies on erect penis size. This may reflect cultural taboos of researchers or doctors interacting with men who are in a state of sexual arousal. On the other hand, it is important for people who announce details on penis size to give the average penis size first and then sizes suggested by the researchers. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the two major urban centres of the Democratic Republic of Congo namely Kinshasa and Lubumbashi over a period of two years from May 2014 to May 2016. A total of 21 information sources constituted our sample, 8 in Kinshasa and 13 in Lubumbashi. We found it sufficient because in our culture discussing about sexual matter is rare. The parameters studied were: the nature of the source, the accuracy of the measurement method, the presence of bibliographical reference, the announced penis size. The majority of information sources used were radio or television broadcastings (23,8%); this can be explained by the fact that there are an increasing number of radio and television stations in our country and especially in large cities. With regard to accuracy of information about penis measurement method when sharing the message about penis size, our study showed that the majority of information sources did not indicate it when they announced penis size to the public (85,7%). Several sources did not report bibliographical references (57,1%). Announced data analysis on penis size showed that the average penis size was: 14 cm (28,6%), 15 cm (23,8%) and 15-20 cm (19%). All these results are intended to offer a warning to all players responsible for diffusing information on sexual health (penis size): scientific rigor consists in seeking information from reliable sources.

  13. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  14. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  15. Opportunities for Hydrologic Research in the Congo Basin

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E., II; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; Spencer, R. G.; O'Loughlin, F.

    2014-12-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and find that there are historic data, ongoing measurement recording efforts, and important model results. Annual rainfall is ~2000 mm/yr along an east-west trend, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. While some studies show rain gauges at specific locations with declines in P greater than 10% from 1960 to 1990, other studies suggest that basin wide decreases from 1951 to 1993 are modest at 4.5% or that the trend is minimal. Studies during the 1950s using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential ET varies little across the basin at a 1100 mm/yr to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data has been collected at 100s of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Discharge of the Congo River at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during 1960-1970 in comparison to background values of the previous decades and of today. There does not appear to be a long-term discharge trend over the century of record. Satellite altimetry measurements collected during high and low flows show that the Cuvette Centrale wetland water levels are consistently 0.5m to 3m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about 1m whereas the Congo is typically less than 15m deep everywhere upstream of Kinshasa. The wetlands do not appear to be marked by sizable channels such that the flows are diffusive. CO2 and CH4 evasion from the Congo waters directly to the atmosphere are estimated at 1.6 to 3.2 Tg/yr for CH4 from the Cuvette wetland waters and 105 to 204 g C/m2/yr for CO2 from waters of the Oubangui River. Using these published results, we suggest seven hypotheses that may lead to important water and carbon cycle discoveries. These hypotheses focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how those waters leave the wetland; on river discharge generated by historic

  16. Classification of very high resolution satellite remote sensing data in a pilot phase of the forest cover classification of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Forêts d'Afrique Central Evaluées par Télédetection (FACET) product

    Singa Monga Lowengo, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) based in Kinshasa, serves as the focal point of the GOFC-GOLD network for Central Africa. OSFAC's long term objective is building regional capacity to use remotely sensed data to map forest cover and forest cover change across Central Africa. OSFAC archives and disseminates satellite data, offers training in geospatial data applications in coordination with the University of Kinshasa, and provides technical support to CARPE partners. Forêts d'Afrique Centrale Évaluées par Télédétection (FACET) is an OSFAC initiative that implements the UMD/SDSU methodology at the national level and quantitatively evaluates the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest cover in Central Africa. The multi-temporal series of FACET data is a useful contribution to many projects, such as biodiversity monitoring, climate modeling, conservation, natural resource management, land use planning, agriculture and REDD+. I am working as Remote Sensing and GIS Officer in various projects of OSFAC. My activities include forest cover and lands dynamics monitoring in Congo Basin. I am familiar with the use of digital mapping software, GIS and RS (Arc GIS, ENVI and PCI Geomatica etc.), classification and spatial Analysis of satellite images, 3D modeling, etc. I started as an intern at OSFAC, Assistant Trainer (Professional Training) and Consultant than permanent employee since October 2009. To assist in the OSFAC activities regarding the monitoring of forest cover and the CARPE program in the context of natural resources management, I participated in the development of the FACET Atlas (Republic of Congo). I received data from Matt Hansen (map.img), WRI and Brazzaville (shapefiles). With all these data I draw maps of the ROC Atlas and statistics of forest cover and forest loss. We organize field work on land to collect data to validate the FACET product. Therefore, to assess forest cover in the region of Kwamouth and Kahuzi-Maiko Biega

  17. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  18. Start-up of a multi-stage system for biogas production and solid waste treatment in low-tech countries.

    Biey, E M; Musibono, E D; Verstraete, W

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable fruit garden wastes were treated anaerobically using a multistage Dranco system. The digesters were composed of three 50 L vessels kept in mesophilic conditions. They were operating at 14.5-17% TS. By controlling the pH in the system, the start-up for biogas production was shortened to 60 days. The pH correction was a buffering which enhanced methanogenic activity in the digesters. With a loading rate of 4.1 kg VS/m3 reactor/day, the production of biogas was 5 m3/m3 reactor/ day, and 60-70% methane content. This allowed making a multisystem by starting every 3 weeks with new vessels in order to maintain biogas production, to be used in industries or in local communities in low-tech countries. The designed model was started in Kinshasa (Congo) where a project is expected to treat one ton of solid waste on a daily basis, for a production of 100 m3 biogas. This cost effectiveness of the system is demonstrated and presents the opportunity for biowaste treatment coupled with environmental protection and substantial energy recovery.

  19. The Impact of Implementation Fidelity on Mortality Under a CD4-Stratified Timing Strategy for Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Tuberculosis.

    Patel, Monita R; Westreich, Daniel; Yotebieng, Marcel; Nana, Mbonze; Eron, Joseph J; Behets, Frieda; Van Rie, Annelies

    2015-05-01

    Among patients with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, CD4-stratified initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended, with earlier ART in those with low CD4 counts. However, the impact of implementation fidelity to this recommendation is unknown. We examined a prospective cohort study of 395 adult patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus between August 2007 and November 2009 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ART was to be initiated after 1 month of tuberculosis treatment at a CD4 count of implementation fidelity on 6-month mortality. Observed implementation fidelity was low (46%); 54% of patients either experienced delays in ART initiation or did not initiate ART, which could be avoided under perfect implementation fidelity. The observed mortality risk was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2, 15.7); under complete (counterfactual) implementation fidelity, the mortality risk was 7.8% (95% CI: 2.4, 12.3), corresponding to a risk reduction of 4.2% (95% CI: 0.3, 8.1) and a preventable fraction of 35.1% (95% CI: 2.9, 67.9). Strategies to achieve high implementation fidelity to CD4-stratified ART timing are needed to maximize survival benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  1. Mayombian ethnic, vegetables low intake, insulin treatment, diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy are determinants of blindness in diabetic Africans

    Moise, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Enoch, Cibanda Yokobo; Igor, Longo Phemba

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency and causes of blindness in diabetic Africans. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out among known black diabetics consecutively admitted at the Teaching Hospital, University of Kinshasa, between 2005 and 2007. Examination methods included interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, eye examinations (visual acuity, tonometry, funduscopy), and fasting plasma glycaemia test. RESULTS Of the 227 patients examined, 15.9% had blindness. Univariate analyses showed significant association between female, severity of diabetic retinopathy, Mayombian ethnic group, use of insulin treatment, low intake of vegetables, diabetic nephropathy, open angle glaucoma and blindness in all diabetics. After logistic regression, only diabetic nephropathy, use of insulin treatment, macular oedema, Mayombian ethnic group and vegetables low intake were the independent risk factors of blindness in all diabetics. However, after logistic regression in the sub-group with diabetic retinopathy, only open angle glaucoma and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were the independent determinants of blindness. CONCLUSION The majority of the causes of blindness in these diabetic Africans are avoidable. It is recommended that appropriate diabetes care, nutrition education, periodic eye examination and laser photocoagulation facilities should be provided for treating diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24195057

  2. Role of Mediterranean diet, tropical vegetables rich in antioxidants, and sunlight exposure in blindness, cataract and glaucoma among African type 2 diabetics

    Moïse, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Doris, Tulomba Mona; Dalida, Kibokela Ndembe; Augustin, Nge Okwe

    2012-01-01

    AIM To assess whether regular Mediterranean diet and regular intake of vegetables may reduce the risk of blindness, cataract, and glaucoma in these type 2 diabetics. METHODS A cross-sectional design was carried out among known black diabetics admitted at the diabetic clinics of Kinshasa, between October 2008 and March 2009. The Mediterranean-style dietary score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the study population using the Harvard semi quantitative FFQ adapted for Africa. RESULTS Five hundred Type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study (48% of males; 40% aged ≥60 years). There was a significant association between blindness, cataract and aging; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.05), glaucoma (P<0.05), and physical inactivity; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.01) and high SES, and a very significant association between blindness (P<0.0001), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.0001) and exposure to sunlight. There was also a significant association between blindness, glaucoma, and male sex. Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, Musa acuminata reduced significantly the risk of blindness, cataract and glaucoma. CONCLUSION Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, and Musa acuminata may significantly reduce the risk of blindness or its major causes among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Africa. PMID:22762057

  3. Intake of Gnetum Africanum and Dacryodes Edulis, Imbalance of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Central Africans

    Moise, Mvitu-Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Etienne, Mokondjimobe; Thierry, Gombet; Ndembe Dalida, Kibokela; Doris, Tulomba Mona; Samy, Wayiza Masamba

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of DR and to correlate cardiometabolic, sociodemographic, and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance data to the prevalence of DR. Design This case-control study included type 2 DM (T2 DM) patients with DR (n = 66), T2 DM patients without DR (N = 84), and healthy controls (n = 45) without DR, in Kinshasa town. Diet, albuminemia, serum vitamins, and 8-isoprostane were examined. Results No intake of safou (OR = 2.7 95% CI 1.2–5.8; P = 0.014), low serum albumin <4.5 g/dL (OR-2.9 95% CI 1.4–5.9; P = 0.003), no intake of fumbwa (OR = 2.8 95% CI 1.2–6.5; P = 0.014), high 8-isoprostane (OR = 14.3 95% CI 4.5–46; P<0.0001), DM duration ≥5 years (OR = 3.8 95% CI 1.6–9.1; P = 0.003), and low serum vitamin C (OR = 4.5 95% CI 1.3–15.5; P = 0.016) were identified as the significant independent determinants of DR. Conclusion The important role of oxidant/antioxidant status imbalance and diet is demonstrated in DR. PMID:23226496

  4. NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa

    Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

  5. Status of Radiotherapy around the World: Sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 25.3

    Kigula Mugambe, J.B.; Kavuma, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is faced with numerous socioeconomic and political challenges. These significantly influence the delivery of health services, including radiotherapy. The availability of radiotherapy service in a country does not necessarily mean that its population can access that service. Financial constraints, lack of awareness and poor road infrastructure influence accessibility. For example, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a vast country with only one centre in Kinshasa, and it is very difficult for people in the eastern part of the country to access it. Late presentation of patients for cancer management is another formidable challenge, aggravated by the issues mentioned above. The countries in this region have to address the problem of increasing cancer burden and the increasingly important role of radiotherapy in cancer management. There is an urgent need for the establishment of radiotherapy centres that are distributed widely across the region, accompanied by the training of more personnel. On the positive side, several countries in this region, e.g. Eritrea, Malawi and Niger, are in the process of establishing radiotherapy facilities in cooperation with the IAEA. Others, such as Ghana, Nigeria and the United Republic of Tanzania, are in the process of expanding the existing services. The countries in this region should address the late presentation problem by increasing awareness and establishing effective prevention and early detection programmes as part of their national cancer control strategies. They should also develop appropriate cancer policies with the continued support of international organizations such as the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO).

  6. Development and deployment of a Desktop and Mobile application on grid for GPS studie

    Ntumba, Patient; Lotoy, Vianney; Djungu, Saint Jean; Fleury, Rolland; Petitdidier, Monique; Gemünd, André; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    GPS networks for scientific studies are developed all other the world and large databases, regularly updated, like IGS are also available. Many GPS have been installed in West and Central Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multiplidisciplinary Analysis), IHY (International heliophysical Year)and many other projects since 2005. African scientists have been educated to use those data especially for meteorological and ionospheric studies. The annual variations of ionospheric parameters for a given station or map of a given region are very intensive computing. Then grid or cloud computing may be a solution to obtain results in a relatively short time. Real time At the University of Kinshasa the chosen solution is a grid of several PCs. It has been deployed by using Globus Toolkit on a Condor pool in order to support the processing of GPS data for ionospheric studies. To be user-friendly, graphical user interfaces(GUI) have been developed to help the user to prepare and submit jobs. One is a java GUI for desktop client, the other is an Android GUI for mobile client. The interest of a grid is the possibility to send a bunch of jobs with an adequate agent control in order to survey the job execution and result storage. After the feasibility study the grid will be extended to a larger number of PCs. Other solutions will be in parallel explored.

  7. Causes of visual disability among Central Africans with diabetes mellitus.

    Mvitu Muaka, M; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) remains a common and one of the major causes of blindness in the developed and western societies. The same situation is shown in emerging economic areas (5,6). In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, the issues of visual disability due to diabetes mellitus (DM) are overshadowed by the presence of the prevalent and common nutritional deficiency diseases and eye infections This clinic-based study was conducted to determine whether diabetic retinopathy is independently related to visual disability in black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) from Kinshasa, Congo. A total of 299 urban patients with DM and low income including 108 cases of visual disability and matched for time admission and DM type to 191 controls, were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and ophthalmic data were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Age ≥60 years, female sex, presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), proliferative DR, shorter DM duration, glaucoma, macular oedema, diabetic nephropathy were the univariate risk factors of visual disability. Using logistic regression model, visual disability was significantly associated with female sex and diabetic retinopathy. The risk of visual disability is 4 times higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and 2 times higher in females with DM. Therefore, to prevent further increase of visual disability, the Congolese Ministry of Health should prioritize the eye care in patients with DM.

  8. Factors Associated with Growth Retardation in Children Suffering from Sickle Cell Anemia: First Report from Central Africa

    Aimé Lukusa Kazadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate and determine the risk factors associated with poor growth among SCA children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, the capital’s country. The nutritional status was assessed using the Z scores of the anthropometric indices. Results. We gathered data on the 256 patients, 138 females (53.9%, who entered the study. The mean age at presentation was 8.4 ± 4.9 years of age. Underweight, stunting, and wasting were found, respectively, in 47.7%, 10.5%, and 50.3% of SCA children. A history of hand-foot syndrome, more than 3 blood transfusions, being less than 12 months of age when receiving the first transfusion, more than two severe sickle crises per year, a medical history of severe infections, and the presence of hepatomegaly were associated with poor growth. When comparing sickle cell patients under 12 years of age (n=159 to a group of 296 age-matched children with normal Hb-AA, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with stunting and underweight were found among SCA. Conclusion. Nutritional status encountered in Congolese sickle cell children has been described for the first time in this study. A high prevalence of poor growth in SCA children was found in our study.

  9. Validity of simple clinical and biological parameters as screening tool for sickle cell anemia for referral to tertiary center in highly resource constraints.

    Kadima, Bertin Tshimanga; Gini-Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Mbutiwi, Fiston Ikwa Ndol; Bahati, John Tunda; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2017-11-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of sickle cell anemia (SCA) is estimated around 40 000 neonates per year. However, it is notoriously difficult to perform conventional electrophoresis in all hospitals and laboratories, especially at peripheral levels and rural area. A panel of multiple clinical and laboratory features that would enhance sickle cell disease were assessed for the detection of the disease in highly resource-scarce settings. A prospective study was conducted in Kinshasa. Venous blood samples were drawn from each study participant in order to determine the hematologic parameters, the peripheral smears, and the hemoglobin electrophoresis. We used Cohen's κ statistic to examine the agreement of each variable and diagnosis of sickle cell disease. A total of 807 patients were screened for sickle cell disease. Among these 807 children, 36 (4.5%) were homozygous for Hb S disease. The presence of at least 8% erythroblasts (PPV: 91%, NPV: 99%, sensitivity: 83.3%, specificity: 99.6%, κ value: .86) and sickle cells (PPV:100%, NPV: 98%, sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 100%, κ value: .66) in the peripheral blood smear had an acceptable agreement for sickle cell disease. These two biological markers may guide the clinician in the decision-making to initiate the management of the children as a sickle cell patient, pending confirmation of the disease by electrophoresis techniques. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Spatial reference in a bonobo gesture.

    Genty, Emilie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-07-21

    Great apes frequently produce gestures during social interactions to communicate in flexible, goal-directed ways [1-3], a feature with considerable relevance for the ongoing debate over the evolutionary origins of human language [1, 4]. But despite this shared feature with language, there has been a lack of evidence for semantic content in ape gestures. According to one authoritative view, ape gestures thus do not have any specific referential, iconic, or deictic content, a fundamental difference versus human gestures and spoken language [1, 5] that suggests these features have a more recent origin in human evolution, perhaps caused by a fundamental transition from ape-like individual intentionality to human-like shared intentionality [6]. Here, we revisit this human uniqueness claim with a study of a previously undescribed human-like beckoning gesture in bonobos that has potentially both deictic and iconic character. We analyzed beckoning in two groups of bonobos, kept under near natural environmental and social conditions at the Lola Ya Bonobo sanctuary near Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in terms of its linguistic content and underlying communicative intention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cobalt

    Slack, John F.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Shedd, Kim B.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses based on certain key properties, including ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and production of intense blue colors when combined with silica. Cobalt is used mostly in cathodes in rechargeable batteries and in superalloys for turbine engines in jet aircraft. Annual global cobalt consumption was approximately 75,000 metric tons in 2011; China, Japan, and the United States (in order of consumption amount) were the top three cobalt-consuming countries. In 2011, approximately 109,000 metric tons of recoverable cobalt was produced in ores, concentrates, and intermediate products from cobalt, copper, nickel, platinum-group-element (PGE), and zinc operations. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]) was the principal source of mined cobalt globally (55 percent). The United States produced a negligible amount of byproduct cobalt as an intermediate product from a PGE mining and refining operation in southeastern Montana; no U.S. production was from mines in which cobalt was the principal commodity. China was the leading refiner of cobalt, and much of its production came from cobalt ores, concentrates, and partially refined materials imported from Congo (Kinshasa).The mineralogy of cobalt deposits is diverse and includes both primary (hypogene) and secondary (supergene) phases. Principal terrestrial (land-based) deposit types, which represent most of world’s cobalt mine production, include primary magmatic Ni-Cu(-Co-PGE) sulfides, primary and secondary stratiform sediment-hosted Cu-Co sulfides and oxides, and secondary Ni-Co laterites. Seven additional terrestrial deposit types are described in this chapter. The total terrestrial cobalt resource (reserves plus other resources) plus past production, where available, is calculated to be 25.5 million metric tons. Additional resources of

  12. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  13. Continuous quality improvement interventions to improve long-term outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in women who initiated therapy during pregnancy or breastfeeding in the Democratic Republic of Congo: design of an open-label, parallel, group randomized trial.

    Yotebieng, Marcel; Behets, Frieda; Kawende, Bienvenu; Ravelomanana, Noro Lantoniaina Rosa; Tabala, Martine; Okitolonda, Emile W

    2017-04-26

    Despite the rapid adoption of the World Health Organization's 2013 guidelines, children continue to be infected with HIV perinatally because of sub-optimal adherence to the continuum of HIV care in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics. To achieve the UNAIDS goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission, multiple, adaptive interventions need to be implemented to improve adherence to the HIV continuum. The aim of this open label, parallel, group randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) interventions implemented at facility and health district levels to improve retention in care and virological suppression through 24 months postpartum among pregnant and breastfeeding women receiving ART in MCH clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Prior to randomization, the current monitoring and evaluation system will be strengthened to enable collection of high quality individual patient-level data necessary for timely indicators production and program outcomes monitoring to inform CQI interventions. Following randomization, in health districts randomized to CQI, quality improvement (QI) teams will be established at the district level and at MCH clinics level. For 18 months, QI teams will be brought together quarterly to identify key bottlenecks in the care delivery system using data from the monitoring system, develop an action plan to address those bottlenecks, and implement the action plan at the level of their district or clinics. If proven to be effective, CQI as designed here, could be scaled up rapidly in resource-scarce settings to accelerate progress towards the goal of an AIDS free generation. The protocol was retrospectively registered on February 7, 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03048669 .

  14. Beyond the Cut Hunter: A Historical Epidemiology of HIV Beginnings in Central Africa.

    Rupp, Stephanie; Ambata, Philippe; Narat, Victor; Giles-Vernick, Tamara

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission. This initial host shift cannot explain the beginnings of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Instead, we must understand the processes by which the virus became transmissible, possibly between Sangha basin inhabitants and ultimately reached Kinshasa. A historical epidemiology of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, provides a much-needed corrective to the major shortcomings of the cut hunter. Based on 62 oral historical interviews conducted in southeastern Cameroon and archival research, we show that HIV emerged from ecological, economic, and socio-political transformations of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The gradual imposition of colonial rule built on and reoriented ecologies and economies, and altered older patterns of mobility and sociality. Certain changes may have contributed to the initial viral host shift, but more importantly, facilitated the adaptation of HIV-1M to human-to-human transmission. Our evidence suggests that the most critical changes occurred after 1920. This argument has important implications for public health policy, underscoring recent work emphasizing alternative pathways for zoonotic spillovers into human beings.

  15. Manuel de zootechnie comparée Nord-Sud

    Théwis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Diversity in Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp. in Vietnam and Their Potential for the Biocontrol of Pest Insects'. Les problèmes de sous-alimentation et de malnutrition en milieu urbain poussent les populations à exploiter toutes les ressources alimentaires disponibles. Ce travail s'intéresse à la contribution au régime alimentaire de la population des fruits comestibles produits par les 19 espèces d'arbres trouvés à Kinshasa. Une enquête réalisée dans 1,09% des 18.475 parcelles de la commune de Limete a permis d'estimer à environ 47.000 pieds le nombre d'arbres plantés dans celles-ci et leur production annuelle à environ 4.087 tonnes. Les six espèces majeures (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis et Musa paradisiaca comptent à elles seules pour un total approximatif de 36.400 pieds. La contribution de ces espèces à l'alimentation de la population a été estimée respectivement à 10,9 g; 6,1 g; 4,5 g; 4,4 g; 1,8 g et 0,6 g de fruits par personne et par jour. La maîtrise de certaines écotechniques et l'éducation environnementale relative aux "arbres en ville" devraient accroître l'importance de cette contribution.

  16. Effects of improved sanitation on diarrheal reduction for children under five in Idiofa, DR Congo: a cluster randomized trial.

    Cha, Seungman; Lee, JaeEun; Seo, DongSik; Park, Byoung Mann; Mansiangi, Paul; Bernard, Kabore; Mulakub-Yazho, Guy Jerome Nkay; Famasulu, Honore Minka

    2017-09-19

    The lack of safe water and sanitation contributes to the rampancy of diarrhea in many developing countries. This study describes the design of a cluster-randomized trial in Idiofa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, seeking evidence of the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhea for children under four. Of the 276 quartiers, 18 quartiers were randomly allocated to the intervention or control arm. Seven hundred and-twenty households were sampled and the youngest under-four child in each household was registered for this study. The primary endpoint of the study is diarrheal incidence, prevalence and duration in children under five. Material subsidies will be provided only to the households who complete pit digging plus superstructure and roof construction, regardless of their income level. This study employs a Sanitation Calendar so that the mother of each household can record the diarrheal episodes of her under-four child on a daily basis. The diary enables examination of the effect of the sanitation intervention on diarrhea duration and also resolves the limitation of the small number of clusters in the trial. In addition, the project will be monitored through the 'Sanitation Map', on which all households in the study area, including both the control and intervention arms, are registered. To avoid information bias or courtesy bias, photos will be taken of the latrine during the household visit, and a supervisor will determine well-equipped latrine uptake based on the photos. This reduces the possibility of recall bias and under- or over-estimation of diarrhea, which was the main limitation of previous studies. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the School of Public Health, Kinshasa University (ESP/CE/040/15; April 13, 2015) and registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: 10,419,317) on March 13, 2015.

  17. Mapping Water Level Dynamics over Central Congo River Using PALSAR Images, Envisat Altimetry, and Landsat NDVI Data

    Kim, D.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Tshimanga, R.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers and wetlands are very important for ecological habitats, and it plays a key role in providing a source of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). The floodplains ecosystems depend on the process between the vegetation and flood characteristics. The water level is a prerequisite to an understanding of terrestrial water storage and discharge. Despite the lack of in situ data over the Congo Basin, which is the world's third largest in size ( 3.7 million km2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge ( 40,500 m3 s-1 annual average between 1902 and 2015 in the main Brazzaville-Kinshasa gauging station), the surface water level dynamics in the wetlands have been successfully estimated using satellite altimetry, backscattering coefficients (σ0) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and, interferometric SAR technique. However, the water level estimation of the Congo River remains poorly quantified due to the sparse orbital spacing of radar altimeters. Hence, we essentially have limited information only over the sparsely distributed the so-called "virtual stations". The backscattering coefficients from SAR images have been successfully used to distinguish different vegetation types, to monitor flood conditions, and to access soil moistures over the wetlands. However, σ0 has not been used to measure the water level changes over the open river because of very week return signal due to specular scattering. In this study, we have discovered that changes in σ0 over the Congo River occur mainly due to the water level changes in the river with the existence of the water plants (macrophytes, emergent plants, and submersed plant), depending on the rising and falling stage inside the depression of the "Cuvette Centrale". We expand the finding into generating the multi-temporal water level maps over the Congo River using PALSAR σ0, Envisat altimetry, and Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. We also present preliminary estimates of the river

  18. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urbanization in Africa since independence.

    Tarver, J D

    1994-01-01

    Over 185 million inhabitants were added to the urban areas of Africa between 1950 and 1990. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland is the most highly urbanized, with 55% in 1990; while less than a quarter of Eastern Africa's population is living in urban centers. By the year 2015 more than half of Africa's population will be living in urban areas. Many parts of Africa have suffered prolonged droughts, overgrazing, locust infestations, and desertification. Millions have become refugees from natural disasters, political oppression, and rural poverty. The large exodus from Africa's rural areas has gone to cities but the large cities have attracted disproportionately large numbers of destitute migrants. Alexandria (1 million), Cairo (2.4 million) and the Witwatersrand in South Africa were the only African urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants in 1950. By 1990 the two Egyptian cities together had 12.7 million inhabitants and the Witwatersrand some 5 million, whereas the other 25 urban agglomerations with a million inhabitants each in 1990 had a total population of about 51 million. Lagos, Kinshasa, and Algiers ranged from 3 to 7.7 million. The capitals are the largest cities in at least 54 of the 59 countries and territories. Lagos, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam are disproportionately larger than the next most populous cities in their countries. The 28 urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants had a total population of 70 million in 1990, and are projected to reach 100 million in the year 2000. Overall, Africa's urban population is projected to increase by approximately 135 million in the 1990-2000 decade (from 217 million to 352 million). About 105 million of the growth probably will occur in the smaller urban centers. The total African urban population is likely to reach one billion inhabitants within the next 50 years. It stood at 32 million in 1950. Presently, the United Nations projects 912 million urban residents

  20. Skills of General Circulation and Earth System Models in reproducing streamflow to the ocean: the case of Congo river

    Santini, M.; Caporaso, L.

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of water resources in the context of climate change, it is still difficult to correctly simulate the freshwater cycle over the land via General Circulation and Earth System Models (GCMs and ESMs). Existing efforts from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) were mainly devoted to the validation of atmospheric variables like temperature and precipitation, with low attention to discharge.Here we investigate the present-day performances of GCMs and ESMs participating to CMIP5 in simulating the discharge of the river Congo to the sea thanks to: i) the long-term availability of discharge data for the Kinshasa hydrological station representative of more than 95% of the water flowing in the whole catchment; and ii) the River's still low influence by human intervention, which enables comparison with the (mostly) natural streamflow simulated within CMIP5.Our findings suggest how most of models appear overestimating the streamflow in terms of seasonal cycle, especially in the late winter and spring, while overestimation and variability across models are lower in late summer. Weighted ensemble means are also calculated, based on simulations' performances given by several metrics, showing some improvements of results.Although simulated inter-monthly and inter-annual percent anomalies do not appear significantly different from those in observed data, when translated into well consolidated indicators of drought attributes (frequency, magnitude, timing, duration), usually adopted for more immediate communication to stakeholders and decision makers, such anomalies can be misleading.These inconsistencies produce incorrect assessments towards water management planning and infrastructures (e.g. dams or irrigated areas), especially if models are used instead of measurements, as in case of ungauged basins or for basins with insufficient data, as well as when relying on models for future estimates without a preliminary quantification of model biases.

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research.

    Nkamba, Dalau; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Kilonga, Arlette Mavila; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Berrueta, Amanda Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Garcia-Elorrio, Ezequiel; Tshefu, Antoniette K; Chomba, Elwyn; Buekens, Pierre M; Belizan, Maria

    2017-08-14

    The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".

  2. Antiretroviral treatment program retention among HIV-infected children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    John Ditekemena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where the antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A review of medical records of HIV-infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%-90.8% at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%-87.6% at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%-82.8% at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%-78.5% at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. CONCLUSIONS: Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS.

  3. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    , Thailand, Pakistan, Algeria, Tanzania, Congo (Kinshasa, Malaysia, and Morocco.

  4. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Patou Masika Musumari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57% were food insecure, and 188 (20.9% were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38-3.09. We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15-3.32 and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11-0.83 odds of non-adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Integration and task shifting for TB/HIV care and treatment in highly resource-scarce settings: one size may not fit all.

    Van Rie, Annelies; Patel, Monita R; Nana, Mbonze; Vanden Driessche, Koen; Tabala, Martine; Yotebieng, Marcel; Behets, Frieda

    2014-03-01

    A crucial question in managing HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) concerns when and how to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The effectiveness of CD4-stratified ART initiation in a nurse-centered, integrated TB/HIV program at primary care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, was assessed. Prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the effect of CD4-stratified ART initiation by primary care nurses (513 TB patients, August 2007 to November 2009). ART was to be initiated at 1 month of TB treatment if CD4 count is 350 cells per cubic millimeter. ART uptake and mortality were compared with a historical prospective cohort of 373 HIV-infected TB patients referred for ART to a centralized facility and 3577 HIV-negative TB patients (January 2006 to May 2007). ART uptake increased (17%-69%, P vs 9.8%, P decentralized, nurse-initiated, CD4-stratified ART. Mortality among TB patients with CD4 count >100 cells per cubic millimeter was similar to that of HIV-negative TB patients (5.6% vs 6.3%, P = 0.65), but mortality among those with CD4 count <100 cells per cubic millimeter remained high (18.8%). Nurse-centered, CD4-stratified ART initiation at primary care level was effective in increasing timely ART uptake and reducing mortality among TB patients but may not be adequate to prevent mortality among those presenting with severe immunosuppression. Further research is needed to determine the optimal management at primary care level of TB patients with CD4 counts <100 cells per cubic millimeter.

  7. On the effects of wildfires on precipitation in Southern Africa

    De Sales, Fernando; Okin, Gregory S.; Xue, Yongkang; Dintwe, Kebonye

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of wildfire on the climate of Southern Africa. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer derived burned area fraction data was implemented in a set of simulations to assess primarily the role of wildfire-induced surface changes on monthly precipitation. Two post-fire scenarios are examined namely non-recovering and recovering vegetation scenarios. In the former, burned vegetation fraction remains burned until the end of the simulations, whereas in the latter it is allowed to regrow following a recovery period. Control simulations revealed that the model can dependably capture the monthly precipitation and surface temperature averages in Southern Africa thus providing a reasonable basis against which to assess the impacts of wildfire. In general, both wildfire scenarios have a negative impact on springtime precipitation. September and October were the only months with statistically significant precipitation changes. During these months, precipitation in the region decreases by approximately 13 and 9% in the non-recovering vegetation scenario, and by about 10 and 6% in the recovering vegetation wildfire scenario, respectively. The primary cause of precipitation deficit is the decrease in evapotranspiration resulting from a reduction in surface net radiation. Areas impacted by the precipitation reduction includes the Luanda, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville metropolitan areas, The Angolan Highlands, which are the source of the Okavango Rive, and the Okavango Delta region. This study suggests that a probable intensification in wildfire frequency and extent resulting from projected population increase and global warming in Southern Africa could potentially exacerbate the impacts of wildfires in the region's seasonal precipitation.

  8. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  9. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-01-01

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013–14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014–2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  10. Association between pregnancy at enrollment into HIV care and loss to care among women in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2006-2013.

    Ross, Jonathan; Edmonds, Andrew; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Anastos, Kathryn; Lelo, Patricia; Behets, Frieda; Yotebieng, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    Loss to care is high among asymptomatic HIV-infected women initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. However, whether pregnancy itself plays a role in the high loss to care rate is uncertain. We compared loss to care over seven years between pregnant and non-pregnant women at enrollment into HIV care in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of all ART-naive women aged 15-45 initiating HIV care at two large clinics in Kinshasa, DRC, from 2007-2013. Pregnancy status was recorded at care enrollment. Patients were classified as having no follow-up if they did not return to care after the initial enrollment visit. Among those with at least one follow-up visit after enrollment, we classified patients as lost to care if more than 365 days had passed since their last clinic visit. We used logistic regression to model the association between pregnancy status and no follow-up, and Cox proportional hazards regression to model the association between pregnancy status and time to loss to care. Of 2175 women included in the analysis, 1497 (68.8%) were pregnant at enrollment. Compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were less likely to be over 35 years of age (19.1% vs. 31.9%, p<0.0001) and less likely to be in WHO stage III or IV (9.0% vs. 26.3%, p<0.0001). Among pregnant women, 106 (7.1%) were not seen after enrollment, versus 25 (3.7%) non-pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio 2.01, 95% CI 1.24-3.24). Of the 2,044 women with at least one follow-up visit, 46.5% of pregnant women and 46.7% of non-pregnant women were lost to care by 5 years; hazards of loss to care were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant women (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26). In this large cohort of HIV-infected women, patients pregnant at care enrollment were more likely to never return for follow-up. Among those who attended at least one follow-up visit, loss to care was not different between pregnant and

  11. Hospital effluents are one of several sources of metal, antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial markers disseminated in Sub-Saharan urban rivers

    Amandine Laffite

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the occurrence of emerging biological contaminants such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB in aquatic environments in Sub-Saharan African countries is limited. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance remains a worldwide problem which may pose serious potential risks to human and animal health. Consequently, there is a growing number of reports concerning the prevalence and dissemination of these contaminants into various environmental compartments. Sediments provide the opportunity to reconstruct the pollution history and evaluate impacts so this study investigates the abundance and distribution of toxic metals, FIB, and ARGs released from hospital effluent wastewaters and their presence in river sediments receiving systems. ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and aadA, total bacterial load, and selected bacterial species FIB (E. coli, Enterococcus (ENT and Pseudomonas species (Psd were quantified by targeting species specific genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR in total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from 4 hospital outlet pipes (HOP and their river receiving systems in the City of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The results highlight the great concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching the values (in mg kg-1 of 47.9 (Cr, 213.6 (Cu, 1434.4 (Zn, 2.6 (Cd, 281.5 (Pb, and 13.6 (Hg. The results also highlight the highest (P˂0.05 values of 16S rRNA, FIB, and ARGs copy numbers in all sampling sites including upstream (control site, discharge point, and downstream of receiving rivers, indicating that the hospital effluent water is not an exclusive source of the biological contaminants entering the urban rivers. Significant correlation were observed between (i all analyzed ARGs and total bacterial load (16S rRNA 0.51 to 0.72 (p<0.001, n=65; (ii ARGs (except blaTEM and FIB and Psd 0.57 < r < 0.82 (p<0.001, n=65; and (iii ARGs (except blaTEM and toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Cu

  12. High Resolution Modelling of the Congo River's Multi-Threaded Main Stem Hydraulics

    Carr, A. B.; Trigg, M.; Tshimanga, R.; Neal, J. C.; Borman, D.; Smith, M. W.; Bola, G.; Kabuya, P.; Mushie, C. A.; Tschumbu, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a summer 2017 field campaign by members of the Congo River users Hydraulics and Morphology (CRuHM) project, and a subsequent reach-scale hydraulic modelling study on the Congo's main stem. Sonar bathymetry, ADCP transects, and water surface elevation data have been collected along the Congo's heavily multi-threaded middle reach, which exhibits complex in-channel hydraulic processes that are not well understood. To model the entire basin's hydrodynamics, these in-channel hydraulic processes must be parameterised since it is not computationally feasible to represent them explicitly. Furthermore, recent research suggests that relative to other large global rivers, in-channel flows on the Congo represent a relatively large proportion of total flow through the river-floodplain system. We therefore regard sufficient representation of in-channel hydraulic processes as a Congo River hydrodynamic research priority. To enable explicit representation of in-channel hydraulics, we develop a reach-scale (70 km), high resolution hydraulic model. Simulation of flow through individual channel threads provides new information on flow depths and velocities, and will be used to inform the parameterisation of a broader basin-scale hydrodynamic model. The basin-scale model will ultimately be used to investigate floodplain fluxes, flood wave attenuation, and the impact of future hydrological change scenarios on basin hydrodynamics. This presentation will focus on the methodology we use to develop a reach-scale bathymetric DEM. The bathymetry of only a small proportion of channel threads can realistically be captured, necessitating some estimation of the bathymetry of channels not surveyed. We explore different approaches to this bathymetry estimation, and the extent to which it influences hydraulic model predictions. The CRuHM project is a consortium comprising the Universities of Kinshasa, Rhodes, Dar es Salaam, Bristol, and Leeds, and is funded by Royal

  13. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa.

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  14. Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study.

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W; Atnafou, Rebkha; Chilet, Elisa; de Meyer, Sara; El-Gibaly, Omaima; Basu, Sharmistha; Bello, Bamidele; Maina, Beatrice; Zuo, Xiayun

    2017-10-01

    The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents. Researchers from each of the sites that had completed data collection were also elicited for their feedback on the key strengths, challenges, and lessons learned from conducting research among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the description of each of the methods that were used in GEAS, as well as the researchers' perspectives of using the methods among early adolescents in their sites. The GEAS is being implemented through a collaboration of university and nongovernmental institutions from 15 cities: Assiut (Egypt) Baltimore (U.S.), Blantyre (Malawi), Cape Town (South Africa), Cochabomba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador), Edinburgh (Scotland), Ghent (Belgium), Hanoi (Vietnam), Ile-Ife (Nigeria), Kinshasa (DRC), Nairobi (Kenya), New Delhi (India), Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Shanghai (China). Approximately 30 in-depth interviews among adolescents and 30 in-depth interviews with their parent/guardian were conducted at each site, with adults and adolescents interviewed separately. To build trust and increase engagement among the adolescent participants, we used two different visual research methods: (1) timeline exercise which was small group based and (2) the Venn diagram exercise which was conducted individually and used at the start of the in-depth interview. The visual aspects of both the timeline and the Venn diagrams not only helped to produce data for the purposes of the

  15. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  16. Conservation et anthropisation en Afrique centrale

    Vermeulen, C.

    2015-01-01

    environmental protection was never so important in our society as it is at the moment. Through their research, these young scientists offer potential solutions by demonstrating to what extent man is connected to this biodiversity and dependant upon it for his survival.By increasing the awareness of this dynamic, we dearly hope to mitigate the harm and facilitate a more accomodating future for the incredible natural resources of our planet. Let us appreciate that this publication would not have come about without the help of many renowned scientists, who agreed to make the selection and the review of the articles. We wish to specifically thank the following individuals :E. Arnhem (WCS, S. Carriere (IRD, N. Gami (ECOFAC V/RAPAC, B. Haurez (ULg/Gembloux, M.-C. Huynen (ULg, C. Julve (Nature+, J. Punga Kumanenge (Université de Kinshasa, C. Vermeulen (ULg/Gemblouxand J. Willie (Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp.

  17. Traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main dans les pays à ressources limitées ; notre expérience en république démocratique du Congo

    Kibadi, K.; Moutet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles de brûlures de la main sont encore fréquentes dans les pays à ressources limitées. Trente-deux patients, représentant 38 mains, ont été admis et traités, entre le 1er décembre 2010 et le 1er mai 2014 aux Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). nous avons observé 22 patients (69 %) dans le groupe de jeunes (patients âgés de moins de 18 ans), et 10 patients (31 %) chez les adultes (18 à 59 ans). Aucun patient dans le groupe de seniors (60 ans et plus) n’a été observé. Dans le groupe de jeunes, la tranche d’âge de 1 à 5 ans a été la plus atteinte avec 13 malades (40 %). l’accident à la maison était le plus fréquent (72 %). le mécanisme de la brûlure était le plus souvent thermique par flammes (51 %) ou par liquide chaud (34 %). les rétractions et brides sont les lésions le plus observées (84 %). la rétraction dorsale globale « main en griffe» est observée chez 40 % de patients traités, associée à des cicatrices hypertrophiques et chéloïdiennes dans 84 % de cas. Chez les 32 mains traitées chirurgicalement, des excision-greffes ont été réalisées dans 43,7 %, des lambeaux locaux dans 43,7 % et des lambeaux à distance dans 12,5 % de cas. A la sortie de l’hôpital, 84 % de « bons » résultats ont été observés. le suivi a été de 18 mois. le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main est possible dans ces pays, exemple de la rDC. Mais les défis à surmonter dans ces pays sont nombreux : la faible accessibilité aux techniques actuelles de la chirurgie plastique, la prise en charge initiale inadéquate des brûlures, la pauvreté. PMID:26668560

  18. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges.

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-03-21

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013-14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014-2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  19. Impact of Moringa oleifera lam. Leaf powder supplementation versus nutritional counseling on the body mass index and immune response of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: a single-blind randomized control trial.

    Tshingani, Koy; Donnen, Philippe; Mukumbi, Henri; Duez, Pierre; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2017-08-22

    To achieve effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes, adherence to an antiretroviral regimen and a good immunometabolic response are essential. Food insecurity can act as a real barrier to adherence to both of these factors. Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) treated with ART in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are faced with nutritional challenges. A significant proportion are affected by under nutrition, which frequently leads to therapeutic failure. Some HIV care facilities recommend supplementation with Moringa oleifera (M.O.) Lam. leaf powder to combat marginal and major nutritional deficiencies. This study aims to assess the impact of M.O. Lam. leaf powder supplementation compared to nutritional counseling on the nutritional and immune status of PLHIV treated with ART. A single-blind randomized control trial was carried out from May to September 2013 at an outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa (DRC). Sixty adult patients who were at stable HIV/AIDS clinical staging 2, 3 or 4 according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and were undergoing ART were recruited. After random allocation, 30 patients in the Moringa intervention group (MG) received the M.O. Lam. leaf powder daily over 6 months, and 30 in the control group (CG) received nutritional counseling over the same period. Changes in the body mass index (BMI) were measured monthly and biological parameters were measured upon admission and at the end of the study for the patients in both groups. The two study groups were similar in terms of long-term nutritional exposure, sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and biological features. At 6 months follow-up, patients in the MG exhibited a significantly greater increase in BMI and albumin levels than those in the CG. The interaction between the sociodemographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of patients in the two groups was not significant, with the exception of professional

  20. Niobium and tantalum

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Papp, John F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    mineral tantalite ((Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6), which is found as an accessory mineral in rare-metal granites and pegmatites that are also enriched in lithium and cesium (termed lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT)-type pegmatites).Brazil and Canada are the leading nations that produce niobium mineral concentrates, but Brazil is by far the leading producer, accounting for about 90 percent of production, which comes mostly from weathered material derived from carbonatites. Brazil and Canada also have the largest identified niobium resources; additional resources, although they are less well reported, occur in Angola, Australia, China, Greenland, Malawi, Russia, and South Africa. Australia and Brazil have been the leading producers of tantalum mineral concentrates, although recently Ethiopia and Mozambique have also been significant suppliers of tantalum. Artisanal mining of columbite-tantalite (also called coltan) is practiced in many countries, particularly Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]), Nigeria, Rwanda, and Uganda. Brazil has about 40 percent of the identified tantalum resources; other countries and regions with identified tantalum resources include, in decreasing order of resources, Australia, Asia, Russia and the Middle East, Africa, North America, and Europe. Identified niobium and tantalum resources in the United States are small, low grade, and difficult to recover and process, and are thus not commercially recoverable at current prices. Consequently, the United States meets its current and expected future needs for niobium and tantalum through imports of primary mineral concentrates and alloys and through recovery from foreign and domestic alloy scrap that contain the metals.Environmentally, the main issues related to niobium and tantalum mining are land disruptions, the volume of waste materials and their disposal, and the radioactivity of some tailings and waste materials that contain thorium and uranium. Because of the relative biological

  1. International dimension of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material

    Zaitseva, L.; Bunn, G.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    of nuclear material and radiation sources have been reported in many other countries. For example, uranium enriched to 19.9 percent was stolen from the Kinshasa research reactor in the Congo in mid-1990's. Part of the material was seized from an Italian smuggling network in 1998 and the rest remains missing. Uranium concentrate stolen from Indian uranium mines was seized in India on several occasions, some of it destined for Pakistan: Multiple thefts of ionizing radiation sources have been recorded in the United States. Another problem facing many countries is the illegal transport of contaminated scrap metal or radioactive waste. Russian customs official have been complaining about multiple illegal shipments of radioactive waste from China stopped at the Russian border. This paper will provide results of the analysis of the DSTO database and recommendations for strengthening international cooperation aimed at preventing illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material an a global scale. (author)

  2. [Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection

    Coulaud, J P

    1993-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by