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Sample records for kink dynamics stoichiometry

  1. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...

  2. Kink dynamics in a topological φ4 lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, A. B.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2001-09-01

    Recently proposed was a discretization for nonlinear Klein-Gordon field theories in which the resulting lattice preserves the topological (Bogomol'nyi) lower bound on the kink energy and, as a consequence, has no Peierls-Nabarro barrier even for large spatial discretizations (h~1.0). It was then suggested that these ``topological discrete systems'' are a natural choice for the numerical study of continuum kink dynamics. Giving particular emphasis to the φ4 theory, we numerically investigate kink-antikink scattering and breather formation in these topological lattices. Our results indicate that, even though these systems are quite accurate for studying free kinks in coarse lattices, for legitimate dynamical kink problems the accuracy is rather restricted to fine lattices (h~0.1). We suggest that this fact is related to the breaking of the Bogomol'nyi bound during the kink-antikink interaction, where the field profile loses its static property as required by the Bogomol'nyi argument. We conclude, therefore, that these lattices are not suitable for the study of more general kink dynamics, since a standard discretization is simpler and has effectively the same accuracy for such resolutions.

  3. Dynamics of Multi-kinks in the Presence of Wells and Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goatham, S.W.; Mannering, L.E.; Hann, R.; Krusch, S.

    2011-01-01

    Sine-Gordon kinks are non-dispersive solutions in a much studied integrable system. Recent studies on sine-Gordon kinks with space-dependent square-well-type potentials have revealed interesting dynamics of a single kink interacting with wells and barriers. In this paper, we study a class of smooth space-dependent potentials and discuss the dynamics of one kink in the presence of different wells. We also present values for the critical velocity for different types of barriers. Furthermore, we study two kinks interacting with various wells and describe interesting trajectories such as double-trapping, kink knock-out and double-escape. (authors)

  4. Kinks and vortex-twister dynamics in type-II superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.; Sémoroz, A.; Berseth, V.

    1997-02-01

    We report magneto-optical observations of moving helicoidal vortex structures in high purity YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single cyrstals. We found that the dynamics of these ‘vortex-twisters’ is mainly controlled by localized instabilities (kinks) which stream along the helices. The kinks allow the motion of the twisters, or the annihilation of twisters with opposite chirality.

  5. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-β NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, W.

    2004-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data

  6. Internal kink mode dynamics in high-β NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Zhu, W.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode non-linear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experiment. (author)

  7. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The two-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V.M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2004-01-01

    We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion-proton inte......We study discrete topological solitary waves (kinks and antikinks) in two nonlinear diatomic chain models that describe the collective dynamics of proton transfers in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks. The essential ingredients of the models are (i) a realistic (anharmonic) ion...... chain subject to a substrate with two optical bands), both providing a bistability of the hydrogen-bonded proton. Exact two-component (kink and antikink) discrete solutions for these models are found numerically. We compare the soliton solutions and their properties in both the one- (when the heavy ions...... principal differences, like a significant difference in the stability switchings behavior for the kinks and the antikinks. Water-filled carbon nanotubes are briefly discussed as possible realistic systems, where topological discrete (anti)kink states might exist....

  8. Sine-Gordon 2-pi-kink dynamics in the presence of small perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1983-01-01

    The influence of external driving forces on the 2π-kink solution to the sine-Gordon equation is examined. The analysis is based on the approach that the solution to the problem can be divided into a 2π-kink part and a background or vacuum part. The behavior of the 2π kink depends strongly...

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of the m=1 kink-tearing instability in a modified magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1995-01-01

    A theory is given for the nonlinear dynamical evolution of the collisionless m=1 kink-tearing instability, including the effects of electron inertia and electron pressure gradient in a generalized Ohm's law. It is demonstrated that electron pressure gradients can cause near-explosive growth in the nonlinear regime of a thin m=1 island. This near-explosive phase is followed by a rapid decay phase as the island width becomes comparable to the radius of the sawtooth region. An island equation is derived for the entire nonlinear evolution of the instability, extending recent work on the subject [X. Wang and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1627 (1993)] to include the effects of both electron inertia and electron pressure gradient. Comparisons are made with experimental data from present-day tokamaks. It is suggested that the present model not only accounts for fast sawtooth crashes, but also provides possible explanations for the problems of sudden onset and incomplete reconnection that have been, heretofore, unexplained features of observations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Impact of local order and stoichiometry on the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of Heusler compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steil, Daniel; Schmitt, Oliver; Fetzer, Roman; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko; Kubota, Takahide; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Rodan, Steven; Blum, Christian G F; Wurmehl, Sabine; Balke, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a wealth of information on ultrafast magnetization dynamics of thin ferromagnetic films exists in the literature. Information is, however, scarce on bulk single crystals, which may be especially important for the case of multi-sublattice systems. In Heusler compounds, representing prominent examples for such multi-sublattice systems, off-stoichiometry and degree of order can significantly change the magnetic properties of thin films, while bulk single crystals may be generally produced with a much more well-defined stoichiometry and a higher degree of ordering. A careful characterization of the local structure of thin films versus bulk single crystals combined with ultrafast demagnetization studies can, thus, help to understand the impact of stoichiometry and order on ultrafast spin dynamics.Here, we present a comparative study of the structural ordering and magnetization dynamics for thin films and bulk single crystals of the family of Heusler alloys with composition Co 2 Fe 1 − x Mn x Si. The local ordering is studied by 59 Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect gives access to the ultrafast magnetization dynamics. In the NMR studies we find significant differences between bulk single crystals and thin films, both regarding local ordering and stoichiometry. The ultrafast magnetization dynamics, on the other hand, turns out to be mostly unaffected by the observed structural differences, especially on the time scale of some hundreds of femtoseconds. These results confirm hole-mediated spin-flip processes as the main mechanism for ultrafast demagnetization and the robustness of this demagnetization channel against defect states in the minority band gap as well as against the energetic position of the band gap with respect to the Fermi energy. The very small differences observed in the magnetization dynamics on the picosecond time-scale, on the other hand, can be explained by considering the

  11. Kink dynamics in a parametric ϕ 6 system: a model with controllably many internal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, A.; Decker, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Christov, I. C.; Saxena, A.

    2017-12-01

    We explore a variant of the ϕ 6 model originally proposed in Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 1606 as a prototypical, so-called, "bag" model in which domain walls play the role of quarks within hadrons. We examine the steady state of the model, namely an apparent bound state of two kink structures. We explore its linearization, and we find that, as a function of a parameter controlling the curvature of the potential, an effectively arbitrary number of internal modes may arise in the point spectrum of the linearization about the domain wall profile. We explore some of the key characteristics of kink-antikink collisions, such as the critical velocity and the multi-bounce windows, and how they depend on the principal parameter of the model. We find that the critical velocity exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on the parameter controlling the curvature of the potential. For the multi-bounce windows, we find that their range and complexity decrease as the relevant parameter decreases (and as the number of internal modes in the model increases). We use a modified collective coordinates method [in the spirit of recent works such as Phys. Rev. D 94 (2016) 085008] in order to capture the relevant phenomenology in a semi-analytical manner.

  12. Alternating current-driven graphene superlattices: Kinks, dissipative solitons, dynamic chaotization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the solitary electromagnetic wave formation in graphene superlattice subjected to the electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The chaotic behavior of the electron subsystem in graphene superlattice is studied by Melnikov method. Dynamic chaos of electrons is shown to appear for certain intervals of frequencies of incident electromagnetic radiation. The frequency dependence of the radiation critical amplitude which determines the bound of chaos appearance is investigated. The values of radiation frequency at which the critical amplitude increases indefinitely were found

  13. Molecular Dynamics study of the effects of non-stoichiometry and oxygen Frenkel pairs on the thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichenko, Sergii; Staicu, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, calculations of the thermal conductivity of UO 2 were carried out applying classical Molecular Dynamics for the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) statistical ensemble, using the Green–Kubo approach. The thermal conductivity calculated for perfect stoichiometric UO 2 is in good agreement with the literature data over the temperature range corresponding to heat transfer by phonons (up to 1700 K). The effect of non-stoichiometry on the thermal conductivity was calculated taking into account the presence of polarons. It was found that for the same value of the stoichiometry deviation, the effect of oxygen vacancies (hypo-stoichiometry) is more pronounced than the effect of oxygen interstitials (hyper-stoichiometry). Then the influence of the oxygen Frenkel pairs on the thermal conductivity was calculated. The simultaneous impact of non-stoichiometry and OFP on the thermal conductivity was investigated and it was shown that the two effects can be combined using the interpretation obtained with the classical phonons scattering theory. Finally, simplified correlations were deduced for the calculation of the thermal conductivity of UO 2 taking into account the effect of non-stoichiometry and of Frenkel pairs, these two effects being present during irradiation

  14. Examining the Conservation of Kinks in Alpha Helices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor C Law

    Full Text Available Kinks are a structural feature of alpha-helices and many are known to have functional roles. Kinks have previously tended to be defined in a binary fashion. In this paper we have deliberately moved towards defining them on a continuum, which given the unimodal distribution of kink angles is a better description. From this perspective, we examine the conservation of kinks in proteins. We find that kink angles are not generally a conserved property of homologs, pointing either to their not being functionally critical or to their function being related to conformational flexibility. In the latter case, the different structures of homologs are providing snapshots of different conformations. Sequence identity between homologous helices is informative in terms of kink conservation, but almost equally so is the sequence identity of residues in spatial proximity to the kink. In the specific case of proline, which is known to be prevalent in kinked helices, loss of a proline from a kinked helix often also results in the loss of a kink or reduction in its kink angle. We carried out a study of the seven transmembrane helices in the GPCR family and found that changes in kinks could be related both to subfamilies of GPCRs and also, in a particular subfamily, to the binding of agonists or antagonists. These results suggest conformational change upon receptor activation within the GPCR family. We also found correlation between kink angles in different helices, and the possibility of concerted motion could be investigated further by applying our method to molecular dynamics simulations. These observations reinforce the belief that helix kinks are key, functional, flexible points in structures.

  15. Dressing up the kink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, Yoav; Bettencourt, Luis M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Many quantum field theoretical models possess nontrivial solutions which are stable for topological reasons. We construct a self-consistent example for a self-interacting scalar field--the quantum (or dressed) kink--using a two particle irreducible effective action in the Hartree approximation. This new solution includes quantum fluctuations determined self-consistently and nonperturbatively at the 1-loop resummed level and allowed to back react on the classical mean-field profile. This dressed kink is static under the familiar Hartree equations for the time evolution of quantum fields. Because the quantum fluctuation spectrum is lower lying in the presence of the defect, the quantum kink has a lower rest energy than its classical counterpart. However its energy is higher than well-known strict 1-loop results, where back reaction and fluctuation self-interactions are omitted. We also show that the quantum kink exists at finite temperature and that its profile broadens as temperature is increased until it eventually disappears

  16. Viscose kink and drift-kink modes in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Intristic kink modes in a tokamak are theoretically investigated taking account of longitudinal viscosity of ions and electrons and drift effect. It is marked that dispersion equation of investigated modes coinsides in form with that for ballooning modes. It is shown that five types of intrinsic kink instability may be distinguished in disregard of viscosity and drift effects. Effect of stabilizing quasiideal viscose kink and viscose resistive kink modes by finite Larmuir ion radius is investigated. A branch of viscose reclosure mode which instability is due to electron viscosity is pointed out. A series of other viscose and drift-kink tokamak modes is considered. Both general disperse equations of the above-mentioned kink instability varieties, taking account of viscose and drift ones, and disperse equations of separate branches are presented

  17. Enantiospecific kinking of DNA by a partially intercalating metal complex

    KAUST Repository

    Reymer, Anna; Nordé n, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Opposite enantiomers of [Ru(phenanthroline) 3] 2+ affect the persistence length of DNA differently, a long speculated effect of helix kinking. Our molecular dynamics simulations confirm a substantial change of duplex secondary structure produced

  18. Probing kink interactions with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.; Chakrabarti, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dilute gas of kinks exhibits strong but short-ranged intrinsic interactions. When these intrinsic interactions are supplemented by other ''extrinsic'' interactions, a phase transition can occur in which kinks and antikinks bind to form a gas of bounces. The extrinsic interactions arise from the coupling of kinks to an additional degree of freedom, which we take to be a fermion field. The class of quantum-mechanical models which we study includes examples of supersymmetry. The way in which kinks and antikinks bind depends in detail on aspects of the intrinsic interactions. This structure is probably shared by field-theoretic models

  19. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  20. Motion of dislocation kinks in a simple model crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lattice periodicity on kink motion, a molecular-dynamic simulation for a kink in a screw dislocation has been performed in a simple model lattice of diamond type. The Stillinger-Weber potential is assumed to act between atoms. Under applied stresses larger than 0.0027G, a long distance motion of a kink is possible, where G is the shear modulus. A moving kink emits lattice waves and loses its kinetic energy, which is compensated by the applied stress. The kink attains a terminal velocity after moving a few atomic distances. The kink velocity is not proportional to the applied stress, and exceeds the shear wave velocity when the applied stress is larger than 0.026G. The energy loss of the moving kink is one order of magnitude smaller than that of a moving straight dislocation and is about the same order of magnitude as the theoretical value of phonon-scattering mechanisms at room temperature

  1. Interplay between structure, stoichiometry, and electron transfer dynamics in SILAR-based quantum dot-sensitized oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Barceló, Irene; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa; Gómez, Roberto; Bonn, Mischa; Cánovas, Enrique

    2014-10-08

    We quantify the rate and efficiency of picosecond electron transfer (ET) from PbS nanocrystals, grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), into a mesoporous SnO2 support. Successive SILAR deposition steps allow for stoichiometry- and size-variation of the QDs, characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Whereas for sulfur-rich (p-type) QD surfaces substantial electron trapping at the QD surface occurs, for lead-rich (n-type) QD surfaces, the QD trapping channel is suppressed and the ET efficiency is boosted. The ET efficiency increase achieved by lead-rich QD surfaces is found to be QD-size dependent, increasing linearly with QD surface area. On the other hand, ET rates are found to be independent of both QD size and surface stoichiometry, suggesting that the donor-acceptor energetics (constituting the driving force for ET) are fixed due to Fermi level pinning at the QD/oxide interface. Implications of our results for QD-sensitized solar cell design are discussed.

  2. Kink and kink-like waves in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper theoretically investigates kink and kink-like waves propagating in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods. In the constitutive modeling, the Cauchy stress tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part and a dissipative part. The asymptotic method is adopted to simplify the nonlinear dynamic equations in the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength. Using the reductive perturbation method, we further derive the well-known far-field equation (i.e. the KdV-Burgers equation, to which two kinds of explicit traveling wave solutions are presented. Examples are given to show the influences of pre-stretch and viscosity on the wave shape and wave velocity. It is shown that pre-stretch could be an effective method for modulating the two types of waves. In addition, such waves may be utilized to measure the viscosity coefficient of the material. The competition between the effects of pre-stretch and viscosity on the kink and kink-like waves is also revealed.

  3. The stoichiometry of peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Stoichiometric principles have been developed and successfully applied to freshwater and marine ecosystems, which are characterized by short-lived, structurally simple organisms, simple food webs and an environment which allows rapid movement of water and elements. The application has been less successful in peatlands, and other terrestrial ecosystems: not surprising given their long-lived, structurally complex organisms, slow rates of organic matter decomposition, complex food webs and low hydraulic conductivities slowing water and element movement. I examine some aspects of what we know about stoichiometry in peatlands, especially involving nutrients such as C, N, P, K, Ca and Mg. I follow the cascade of stoichiometry from peatland plants through litter and into decomposing peat, drawing upon data from the Mer Bleue peatland and peatlands in Ontario. There are consistent patterns in stoichiometries, such as C:N, N:P and C:P across diverse peatlands, whereas patterns involving K, Ca and Mg show greater variability. Most of the changes in stoichiometry occur in the early stages of decomposition, from Von Post values 1 through 4. Peatlands are affected by disturbances, such as elevated atmospheric deposition of N and P, and I look at how these changes affect stoichiometric relationships. Finally, I present data on the changes in the stoichiometry of C, H and O, from plants through peat to coal beds. I conclude that while ecological stoichiometry in peatlands is not as 'simple' as in aquatic ecosystems, it offers contributions to our understanding of how peatlands function and respond to disturbance.

  4. Quantifying chaos for ecological stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2010-09-01

    The theory of ecological stoichiometry considers ecological interactions among species with different chemical compositions. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have shown the importance of species composition in the outcome of the population dynamics. A recent study of a theoretical three-species food chain model considering stoichiometry [B. Deng and I. Loladze, Chaos 17, 033108 (2007)] shows that coexistence between two consumers predating on the same prey is possible via chaos. In this work we study the topological and dynamical measures of the chaotic attractors found in such a model under ecological relevant parameters. By using the theory of symbolic dynamics, we first compute the topological entropy associated with unimodal Poincaré return maps obtained by Deng and Loladze from a dimension reduction. With this measure we numerically prove chaotic competitive coexistence, which is characterized by positive topological entropy and positive Lyapunov exponents, achieved when the first predator reduces its maximum growth rate, as happens at increasing δ1. However, for higher values of δ1 the dynamics become again stable due to an asymmetric bubble-like bifurcation scenario. We also show that a decrease in the efficiency of the predator sensitive to prey's quality (increasing parameter ζ) stabilizes the dynamics. Finally, we estimate the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractors for the stoichiometric ecological model.

  5. Probing the role of intercalating protein sidechains for kink formation in DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Sandmann

    Full Text Available Protein binding can induce DNA kinks, which are for example important to enhance the specificity of the interaction and to facilitate the assembly of multi protein complexes. The respective proteins frequently exhibit amino acid sidechains that intercalate between the DNA base steps at the site of the kink. However, on a molecular level there is only little information available about the role of individual sidechains for kink formation. To unravel structural principles of protein-induced DNA kinking we have performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations of five complexes that varied in their architecture, function, and identity of intercalated residues. Simulations were performed for the DNA complexes of wildtype proteins (Sac7d, Sox-4, CcpA, TFAM, TBP and for mutants, in which the intercalating residues were individually or combined replaced by alanine. The work revealed that for systems with multiple intercalated residues, not all of them are necessarily required for kink formation. In some complexes (Sox-4, TBP, one of the residues proved to be essential for kink formation, whereas the second residue has only a very small effect on the magnitude of the kink. In other systems (e.g. Sac7d each of the intercalated residues proved to be individually capable of conferring a strong kink suggesting a partially redundant role of the intercalating residues. Mutation of the key residues responsible for kinking either resulted in stable complexes with reduced kink angles or caused conformational instability as evidenced by a shift of the kink to an adjacent base step. Thus, MD simulations can help to identify the role of individual inserted residues for kinking, which is not readily apparent from an inspection of the static structures. This information might be helpful for understanding protein-DNA interactions in more detail and for designing proteins with altered DNA binding properties in the future.

  6. Kink effect in ultrathin FDSOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. J.; Bawedin, M.; Choi, H. G.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2018-05-01

    Systematic experiments demonstrate the presence of the kink effect even in FDSOI MOSFETs. The back-gate bias controls the kink effect via the formation of a back accumulation channel. The kink is more or less pronounced according to the film thickness and channel length. However, in ultrathin (MOSFETs.

  7. Kinks and antikinks of buckled graphene: A testing ground for the φ4 field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaletdinov, R. D.; Slipko, V. A.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2017-09-01

    Kinks and antikinks of the classical φ4 field model are topological solutions connecting its two distinct ground states. Here we establish an analogy between the excitations of a long graphene nanoribbon buckled in the transverse direction and φ4 model results. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the dynamics of a buckled graphene nanoribbon with a single kink and with a kink-antikink pair. Several features of the φ4 model have been observed including the kink-antikink capture at low energies, kink-antikink reflection at high energies, and a bounce resonance. Our results pave the way towards the experimental observation of a rich variety of φ4 model predictions based on graphene.

  8. Nitrate denitrification with nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products: Stoichiometry, kinetics and dynamics of stable isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A; Rytov, S V

    2015-09-01

    A kinetic analysis of nitrate denitrification by a single or two species of denitrifying bacteria with glucose or ethanol as a carbon source and nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products was performed using experimental data published earlier (Menyailo and Hungate, 2006; Vidal-Gavilan et al., 2013). Modified Monod kinetics was used in the dynamic biological model. The special equations were added to the common dynamic biological model to describe how isotopic fractionation between N species changes. In contrast to the generally assumed first-order kinetics, in this paper, the traditional Rayleigh equation describing stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation in nitrate was derived from the dynamic isotopic equations for any type of kinetics. In accordance with the model, in Vidal-Gavilan's experiments, the maximum specific rate of nitrate reduction was proved to be less for ethanol compared to glucose. Conversely, the maximum specific rate of nitrite reduction was proved to be much less for glucose compared to ethanol. Thus, the intermediate nitrite concentration was negligible for the ethanol experiment, while it was significant for the glucose experiment. In Menyailo's and Hungate's experiments, the low value of maximum specific rate of nitrous oxide reduction gives high intermediate value of nitrous oxide concentration. The model showed that the dynamics of nitrogen and oxygen isotope signatures are responding to the biological dynamics. Two microbial species instead of single denitrifying bacteria are proved to be more adequate to describe the total process of nitrate denitrification to dinitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enantiospecific kinking of DNA by a partially intercalating metal complex

    KAUST Repository

    Reymer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Opposite enantiomers of [Ru(phenanthroline) 3] 2+ affect the persistence length of DNA differently, a long speculated effect of helix kinking. Our molecular dynamics simulations confirm a substantial change of duplex secondary structure produced by wedge-intercalation of one but not the other enantiomer. This effect is exploited by several classes of DNA operative proteins. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  10. Reassessing molecular sieving by kinked carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhongqiang; Ding, Jianning; Cheng, Guanggui; Ling, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongwu; Zheng, Yonggang; Ye, Hongfei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jinbao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations for the transport of pure nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and their mixture in kinked single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), molecular sieving by the kinked model of SWCNTs is presented. The influences of gas pressure, temperature and the component ratio of N 2 in the mixture on gas separation are investigated. Considering the tradeoff between the permeability and the purity of O 2 , the results show that a large gas pressure, 300–500 K of gas temperature and a low component ratio of N 2 in the N 2 –O 2 mixture can be advantageous to the efficiency of gas separation. The purity of O 2 can be kept higher than 80% when the component ratio of N 2 is lower than 3/4, which will be advantageous to the design of multi-level gas separation mechanisms. The findings may provide theoretical references for the design and manufacture of molecular sieving devices in engineering applications

  11. Proliferation of sharp kinks on cosmic (super)string loops with junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by their effect on the gravitational wave signal emitted by cosmic strings, we study the dynamics of kinks on strings of different tensions meeting at junctions. The propagation of a kink through a Y junction leads to the formation of three 'daughter' kinks. Assuming a uniform distribution of the incoming wave vectors at the junction, we find there is a significant region of configuration space in which the sharpness of at least one of the daughter kinks is enhanced relative to the sharpness of the initial kink. For closed loops with junctions we show this leads to an exponential growth in time of very sharp kinks. Using numerical simulations of realistic, evolving cosmic string loops with junctions to calculate the distribution of kink amplitudes as a function of time, we show that loops of this kind typically develop several orders of magnitude of very sharp kinks before the two junctions collide. This collision, or other effects such as gravitational backreaction, may end the proliferation.

  12. Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zeeland, Michael Van [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, Feng [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.

  13. Stoichiometry and food chain dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, L.D.J.; Kooi, B.W.; Anderson, T.R.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional models of chemostat systems looking at interactions between predator, prey and nutrients have used only a single currency, such as energy or nitrogen. In reality, growth of autotrophs and heterotrophs may be limited by various elements, e.g. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous or iron. In this

  14. Properties of general relativistic kink solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.; Oliveira, L.C.S. de; Santos, F.C.

    1978-12-01

    Properties of the general relativistic kink solution of a nonlinear scalar field recently obtained, are discussed. It has been shown that the kink solution is stable against radical perturbations. Possible applications to Hadron physics from the geometrodynamic point of view are suggested [pt

  15. Feedback suppression of rotating external kink instabilities in the presence of noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Jeremy M.; De Bono, Bryan; James, Royce W.; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Mauel, Michael E.; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Shiraki, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    The authors report on the first experimental demonstration of active feedback suppression of rotating external kink modes near the ideal wall limit in a tokamak using Kalman filtering to discriminate the n=1 kink mode from background noise. The Kalman filter contains an internal model that captures the dynamics of a rotating, growing n=1 mode. Suppression of the external kink mode is demonstrated over a broad range of phase angles between the sensed mode and applied control field, and performance is robust at noise levels that render proportional gain feedback ineffective. Suppression of the kink mode is accomplished without excitation of higher frequencies as was observed in previous experiments using lead-lag loop compensation [A. J. Klein et al., Phys Plasmas 12, 040703 (2005)

  16. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  17. Small deformations of kinks and walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    A Rayleigh-Schrödinger type of perturbation scheme is employed to study weak self-interacting scalar potential perturbations occurring in scalar field models describing 1D domain kinks and 3D domain walls. The solutions for the unperturbed defects are modified by the perturbing potentials. An illustration is provided by adding a cubic potential to the familiar quartic kink potential and solving for the first order correction to the kink solution, using a "slab approximation". A result is the appearance of an asymmetric scalar potential with different, nondegenerate, vacuum values and the subsequent formation of vacuum bubbles.

  18. On the theory of internal kink oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Candy, J.; Berk, H.L.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors derive a time evolution equation for internal kink oscillations which is valid for both stable and unstable plasma regimes, and incorporates the nonlinear response of an energetic particle population. A linear analysis reveals a parallel between (i) the time evolution of the spatial derivative of the internal kink radial displacement and (ii) the time evolution of the perturbed particle distribution function in the field of an electrostatic wave (Landau problem). They show that diamagnetic drift effects make the asymptotic decay of internal kink perturbations in a stable plasma algebraic rather than exponential. However, under certain conditions the stable root of the dispersion relation can dominate the response of the on-axis displacement for a significant period of time. The form of the evolution equation naturally allows one to include a nonlinear, fully toroidal treatment of energetic particles into the theory of internal kink oscillations

  19. Degree of mapping for general relativistic kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriot, Tina A.; Williams, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Finkelstein-Misner metrical kinks of general relativity are homo topically nontrivial light cone configurations that can occur on space-time hypersurfaces. The number of kinks corresponds to the winding number of a timelike vector field that that is determined from the metric. This paper uses the usual Euclidean integral formula for degree of mapping as a starting point and so produces a covariant formula that can be applied to counting general relativistic kinks in any dimension. The kink number is calculated for some simple-to-visualize examples in 2 + 1 dimensions. These include hypersurfaces of differing topologies and so have relevance to mechanisms of topology change in semi-classical theories of quantum gravity

  20. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  1. Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2018-01-01

    Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton.

  2. Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Niemi, Antti J.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C α -trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C α backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual kinks are

  3. Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2013-01-01

    all outgoing radiation. As the kink shrinks toward r, before the collision, its motion is well described by a simple law derived from the conservation of energy. In two dimensions for r ≤ 2, the collision disintegrates the kink into a fast breather, while for r ≥ 4 we obtain a kink-breather metastable...... state where breathers are shed at each kink “return.” In three and higher dimensions d, an additional kink-oscillon state appears for small r. On the application side, the kink disintegration opens the way for new types of terahertz microwave generators....

  4. Structural dynamics of the box C/D RNA Kink-Turn and its complex with proteins: The role of the A-minor 0 interaction, long-residency water bridges, and structural ion-binding sites revealed by molecular simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špačková, Naďa; Réblová, Kamila; Šponer, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 32 (2010), s. 10581-10593 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB400040901; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040802; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : RNA-protein complex * molecular dynamics * kink-turn Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.603, year: 2010

  5. Nonlinear coupling of kink modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.

    1975-07-01

    The m = 2, n = 1 kink mode is shown to be capable of destabilizing the m = 1, n = 1 internal kink. A nonlinear Lagrangian theory is developed for the coupling of modes of different pitch, and it is applied to the interaction of these modes. The coupling to the m = 2 mode provides sufficient additional destabilization to the internal mode to permit it to account even quantitatively (where it had failed when considered by itself) for many of the features of the disruptive instability. (U.S.)

  6. Parametric study on kink instabilities of twisted magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Twisted magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) in the solar atmosphere have been researched extensively because of their close connection to many solar eruptive phenomena, such as flares, filaments, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we performed a set of 3D isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations, which use analytical twisted MFR models and study dynamical processes parametrically inside and around current-carrying twisted loops. We aim to generalize earlier findings by applying finite plasma β conditions. Methods: Inside the MFR, approximate internal equilibrium is obtained by pressure from gas and toroidal magnetic fields to maintain balance with the poloidal magnetic field. We selected parameter values to isolate best either internal or external kink instability before studying complex evolutions with mixed characteristics. We studied kink instabilities and magnetic reconnection in MFRs with low and high twists. Results: The curvature of MFRs is responsible for a tire tube force due to its internal plasma pressure, which tends to expand the MFR. The curvature effect of toroidal field inside the MFR leads to a downward movement toward the photosphere. We obtain an approximate internal equilibrium using the opposing characteristics of these two forces. A typical external kink instability totally dominates the evolution of MFR with infinite twist turns. Because of line-tied conditions and the curvature, the central MFR region loses its external equilibrium and erupts outward. We emphasize the possible role of two different kink instabilities during the MFR evolution: internal and external kink. The external kink is due to the violation of the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, while the internal kink requires a safety factor q = 1 surface inside the MFR. We show that in mixed scenarios, where both instabilities compete, complex evolutions occur owing to reconnections around and within the MFR. The S-shaped structures in current distributions

  7. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  8. Sapphire: A kinking nonlinear elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Kalidindi, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    Kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids are a recently identified large class of solids that deform fully reversibly by the formation of dislocation-based kink bands [Barsoum et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255508 (2004)]. We further conjectured that a high c/a ratio-that ensures that only basal slip is operative-is a sufficient condition for a solid to be KNE. The c/a ratio of sapphire is 2.73 and thus, if our conjecture is correct, it should be a KNE solid. Herein by repeatedly loading-up to 30 times-the same location of sapphire single crystals of two orientations-A and C-with a 1 μm radius spherical nanoindenter, followed by atomic force microscopy, we showed that sapphire is indeed a KNE solid. After pop-ins of the order of 100 nm, the repeated loadings give rise to fully reversible, reproducible hysteresis loops wherein the energy dissipated per unit volume per cycle Wd is of the order of 0.5 GJ/m3. Wd is due to the back and fro motion of the dislocations making up the incipient kink bands that are fully reversible. The results presented here strongly suggest that-like in graphite and mica-kink bands play a more critical role in the room temperature constrained deformation of sapphire than had hitherto been appreciated. Our interpretation is also in agreement with, and can explain most, recent nanoindentation results on sapphire.

  9. Continuous Ecosystem Stoichiometry (C:N:P) in a Large Spring-fed River Reveals Decoupled N and P Assimilatory Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. J.; Douglass, R. L.; Martin, J. B.; Thomas, R. G.; Heffernan, J. B.; Foster, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Diel variation in solutes offers insight into lotic ecosystem processes. Diel variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) is the standard method to estimate aquatic primary production (C fixation). Recently, diel variation in nitrate concentration was used to infer rates and pathways of N processing. From coupled C and N measurements, stoichiometric ratios of nutrient assimilation can be obtained, and variation therein linked back to environmental drivers and ecological changes. Here we present data obtained using an in situ phosphate sensor (Cycle-P, WetLabs, Philomath OR) that permits coupled high frequency C, N and P measurements. We collected hourly samples over 3 two-week deployments in the Ichetucknee River, a large (Q ~ 10 m3 s-1), productive (GPP ~ 6 g C m-2 d-1), entirely spring-fed river in north Florida. We observed average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations of 44, 41 and 45 µg/L for Dec-09, Feb-10 and Apr-10, respectively, and marked diel variation that averaged 6.7±0.9 µg/L. Observed river concentrations were consistently at or below the flow-weighted average input concentration of the 6 main springs that feed the river (49 µg/L) suggesting net SRP removal over the 5 km reach. Removal from co-precipitation with calcite or Fe-oxides is unlikely since variation in Fe and Ca is smaller than, and out of phase with, P variation. Since internal stores are presumed to be at steady-state given conditions of constant discharge, the balance of P export likely occurs as organic matter. Based on discharge during each deployment, diel variation of P concentrations indicate system-wide assimilation of 1505 ± 423 g P d-1, or 8.0 ± 2.3 mg P m-2 d-1 over the 17 ha of benthic surface area. Contemporaneous measurements of DO and nitrate implied average ecosystem stoichiometry (C:N:P) of 267:14:1, consistent with production dominated by submerged aquatic macrophytes rather than algae and other microflora. Of particular interest is the observation that diel variation in

  10. Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately

  11. Mixed lump-kink and rogue wave-kink solutions for a (3 + 1) -dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong-Cong; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Yuan, Yu-Qiang; Du, Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Under investigation is a (3 + 1) -dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, which describes the weakly dispersive waves in a fluid. Via the Hirota method and symbolic computation, we obtain the mixed lump-kink and mixed rogue wave-kink solutions. Through the mixed lump-kink solutions, we observe three different phenomena between a lump and one kink. For the fusion phenomenon, a lump and a kink are merged with the lump's energy transferring into the kink gradually, until the lump merges into the kink completely. Fission phenomenon displays that a lump separates from a kink. The last phenomenon shows that a lump travels together with a kink with their amplitudes unchanged. In addition, we graphically study the interaction between a rogue wave and a pair of the kinks. It can be observed that the rogue wave arises from one kink and disappears into the other kink. At certain time, the amplitude of the rogue wave reaches the maximum.

  12. Kinetic stability of internal kink mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Fogaccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to studies of the attainment of ignited operations on devices like ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the stability of the internal kink mode is re-investigated by taking into account the contribution of perpendicular compressibility, obtained by solving the drift kinetic equation. The resulting stability condition yields threshold values typically larger than the conventional Bussac criterion. For the case of ultra-flat safety factor profiles, the mode can be stable also in the absence of line-bending

  13. Electronic and transport properties of kinked graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Toft; Gunst, Tue; Bøggild, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Local curvature, or bending, of a graphene sheet is known to increase the chemical reactivity presenting an opportunity for templated chemical functionalisation. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the reaction barrier reduction for the ads......Local curvature, or bending, of a graphene sheet is known to increase the chemical reactivity presenting an opportunity for templated chemical functionalisation. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the reaction barrier reduction...... for the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at linear bends in graphene. We find a significant barrier lowering (≈15%) for realistic radii of curvature (≈20 Å) and that adsorption along the linear bend leads to a stable linear kink. We compute the electronic transport properties of individual and multiple kink lines......, and demonstrate how these act as efficient barriers for electron transport. In particular, two parallel kink lines form a graphene pseudo-nanoribbon structure with a semimetallic/semiconducting electronic structure closely related to the corresponding isolated ribbons; the ribbon band gap translates...

  14. One-loop corrections to classical masses of kink families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Gonzalez Leon, M.A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2004-01-01

    One-loop corrections to kink masses in a family of (1+1)-dimensional field theoretical models with two real scalar fields are computed. A generalized DHN formula applicable to potentials with and without reflection is obtained. It is shown how half-bound states arising in the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator for one-component topological kinks and the vacuum play a central role in the computation of the kink Casimir energy. The issue of whether or not the kink degeneracy exhibited by this family of models at the classical level survives one-loop quantum fluctuations is addressed

  15. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  16. Dirac-Born-Infeld action on the tachyon kink and vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2003-01-01

    The tachyon effective field theory describing the dynamics of a non-Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) D-brane in superstring theory has an infinitely thin but finite tension kink solution describing a codimension one BPS D-brane. We study the world-volume theory of massless modes on the kink, and show that the world volume action has precisely the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) form without any higher derivative corrections. We generalize this to a vortex solution in the effective field theory on a brane-antibrane pair. As in the case of the kink, the vortex is infinitely thin, has finite energy density, and the world-volume action on the vortex is again given exactly by the DBI action on a BPS D-brane. We also discuss the coupling of fermions and restoration of supersymmetry and κ symmetry on the world volume of the kink. The absence of higher derivative corrections to the DBI action on the soliton implies that all such corrections are related to higher derivative corrections to the original effective action on the world volume of a non-BPS D-brane or brane-antibrane pair

  17. Equilibrium of the kink source experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The kink source experiment (KSX) was conceived of as a method of injecting helicity into a spheromak making special use of the m = 1 helical Taylor state. It has a Z pinch as a helicity generating source, connected to a flux conserver through an entrance region. Since the entrance region is a long (length > diameter) cyclinder, the magnetic field should be close to the helical Taylor state, which is the minimum energy configuration of a magnetized plasma in an infinite cylinder with no net flux. This paper will be concerned with modeling the actual fields in the entrance region of the KSX using zero-beta ideal MHD equilibrium theory

  18. Hemolytic anemia caused by kinking of dacron grafts implanted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hemolytic anemia caused by a kinked Dacron graft is a rare complication after repair of acute aortic dissection. We present a case of hemolytic anemia due to kinking of previously implanted Dacron graft for ascending aorta dissection treated by surgery and replaced with new Dacron. Case Details: We report a ...

  19. Kinks in systems with cubic and quartic anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheev, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    For a classical system of interacting particles with on-site cubic or quartic anharmonicity explicit analytic solutions of the d'Alembert equation are obtained in the form of kinks in the presence of dissipation (viscous or Rayleigh) and a constant force. These kinks will be asymptotically stable in the case of quartic anharmonicity and unstable in the case cubic anharmonicity

  20. The relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2003-01-01

    Using a direct algebraic method, more new exact solutions of the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation are presented by formula form. Then a theorem concerning the relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations is given. Finally, the applications of the theorem to several well-known equations in physics are also discussed

  1. Near integrability of kink lattice with higher order interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun-Guo; Liu, Jia-Zhen; He, Song

    2017-11-01

    We make use of Manton’s analytical method to investigate the force between kinks and anti-kinks at large distances in 1+1 dimensional field theory. The related potential has infinite order corrections of exponential pattern, and the coefficients for each order are determined. These coefficients can also be obtained by solving the equation of the fluctuations around the vacuum. At the lowest order, the kink lattice represents the Toda lattice. With higher order correction terms, the kink lattice can represent one kind of generic Toda lattice. With only two sites, the kink lattice is classically integrable. If the number of sites of the lattice is larger than two, the kink lattice is not integrable but is a near integrable system. We make use of Flaschka’s variables to study the Lax pair of the kink lattice. These Flaschka’s variables have interesting algebraic relations and non-integrability can be manifested. We also discuss the higher Hamiltonians for the deformed open Toda lattice, which has a similar result to the ordinary deformed Toda. Supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014AQ007), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11403015, U1531105), S. He is supported by Max-Planck fellowship in Germany and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305235)

  2. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  3. Magnetic swirls and associated fast magnetoacoustic kink waves in a solar chromospheric flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, K.; Kayshap, P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Pascoe, D. J.; Jelínek, P.; Kuźma, B.; Fedun, V.

    2018-02-01

    We perform numerical simulations of impulsively generated magnetic swirls in an isolated flux tube that is rooted in the solar photosphere. These swirls are triggered by an initial pulse in a horizontal component of the velocity. The initial pulse is launched either (a) centrally, within the localized magnetic flux tube or (b) off-central, in the ambient medium. The evolution and dynamics of the flux tube are described by three-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved to reveal that in case (a) dipole-like swirls associated with the fast magnetoacoustic kink and m = 1 Alfvén waves are generated. In case (b), the fast magnetoacoustic kink and m = 0 Alfvén modes are excited. In both these cases, the excited fast magnetoacoustic kink and Alfvén waves consist of a similar flow pattern and magnetic shells are also generated with clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating plasma within them, which can be the proxy of dipole-shaped chromospheric swirls. The complex dynamics of vortices and wave perturbations reveals the channelling of sufficient amount of energy to fulfil energy losses in the chromosphere (˜104 W m-1) and in the corona (˜102 W m-1). Some of these numerical findings are reminiscent of signatures in recent observational data.

  4. Is the stoichiometry of the europium nitrate complexes with neutral organophosphorus extractants be anticipated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V.; Wipff, G.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in water on europium nitrate complexes with three neutral organophosphorus extractants (TBP, TPPO and CMPO) in order to determine on what criteria it is possible to obtain by simulations the experimental 1:3 stoichiometry in organic solution. This stoichiometry was investigated by progressive saturation of the cation coordination sphere. When the nitrate counter-ions are bidentate, the 1:3 stoichiometry corresponds to the degree of saturation where the interaction energy between europium and water becomes repulsive. Beyond this stoichiometry, complexes with TPPO and CMPO are unstable, although a 1:4 complex with TBP may exist but its formation appears to be energetically unfavored. (author)

  5. Kink bands in thrust regime: Examples from Srinagar–Garhwal area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinagar–Garhwal; kink bands; paleostress; shearing along kink planes; Himalaya; North Almora Thrust. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 5, October 2011, pp. 939–948 ..... The α>β geometry observed in kink bands suggest towards shearing as a common phenomenon along the kink planes. (Anderson 1964). Since considerable ...

  6. Scattering of the double sine-Gordon kinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Vakhid A.; Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi; Askari, Alidad; Belendryasova, Ekaterina; Saadatmand, Danial

    2018-04-01

    We study the scattering of kink and antikink of the double sine-Gordon model. There is a critical value of the initial velocity v_{{cr}} of the colliding kinks, which separates different regimes of the collision. At v_{in}>v_{cr} we observe kinks reflection, while at v_{in}kinks' velocities at which the oscillons do not escape, and the final configuration looks like a bound state of two oscillons.

  7. Learning stoichiometry: A comparison of text and multimedia instructional formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen L.

    Even after multiple instructional opportunities, first year college chemistry students are often unable to apply stoichiometry knowledge in equilibrium and acid-base chemistry problem solving. Cognitive research findings suggest that for learning to be meaningful, learners need to actively construct their own knowledge by integrating new information into, and reorganizing, their prior understandings. Scaffolded inquiry in which facts, procedures, and principles are introduced as needed within the context of authentic problem solving may provide the practice and encoding opportunities necessary for construction of a memorable and usable knowledge base. The dynamic and interactive capabilities of online technology may facilitate stoichiometry instruction that promotes this meaningful learning. Entering college freshmen were randomly assigned to either a technology-rich or text-only set of cognitively informed stoichiometry review materials. Analysis of posttest scores revealed a significant but small difference in the performance of the two treatment groups, with the technology-rich group having the advantage. Both SAT and gender, however, explained more of the variability in the scores. Analysis of the posttest scores from the technology-rich treatment group revealed that the degree of interaction with the Virtual Lab simulation was significantly related to posttest performance and subsumed any effect of prior knowledge as measured by SAT scores. Future users of the online course should be encouraged to engage with the problem-solving opportunities provided by the Virtual Lab simulation through either explicit instruction and/or implementation of some level of program control within the course's navigational features.

  8. Marginal Fermi liquid and kink structure of quasiparticles in cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Y.; Fulde, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the self-consistent projection operator method for nonlocal excitations, we show that a kink structure appears in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at low doping concentrations. It is caused by a mixing between the quasiparticle state and the excitations with short-range antiferromagnetic order. The results explain the kink in high-T c cuprates

  9. Kinks, chains, and loop groups in the CPn sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland, Derek

    2009-01-01

    We consider topological solitons in the CP n sigma models in two space dimensions. In particular, we study 'kinks', which are independent of one coordinate up to a rotation of the target space, and 'chains', which are periodic in one coordinate up to a rotation of the target space. Kinks and chains both exhibit constituents, similar to monopoles and calorons in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs and Yang-Mills theories. We examine the constituent structure using Lie algebras.

  10. Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode (δf code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the δf code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection

  11. Simulation of high-energy particle production through sausage and kink instabilities in pinched plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, Takayuki; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Masugata, Katsumi; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Makino, Nao; Ito, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    In an experimental plasma, high-energy particles were observed by using a plasma focus device, to obtain energies of a few hundred keV for electrons, up to MeV for ions. In order to study the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges, a numerical simulation was introduced. By use of a three-dimensional relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, the dynamics of a Z-pinch plasma, thought to be unstable against sausage and kink instabilities, are investigated. In this work, the development of sausage and kink instabilities and subsequent high-energy particle production are shown. In the model used here, cylindrically distributed electrons and ions are driven by an external electric field. The driven particles spontaneously produce a current, which begins to pinch by the Lorentz force. Initially the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy particles are observed

  12. Feedback scheme for kink instability in ERL based electron ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kink instability presents one of the limiting factors from achieving higher luminosity in ERL based electron ion collider (EIC). However, we can take advantage of the flexibility of the linac and design a feedback system to cure the instability. This scheme raises the threshold of kink instability dramatically and provides opportunity for higher luminosity. We studied the effectiveness of this system and its dependence on the amplitude and phase of the feedback. In this paper we present results of theses studies of this scheme and describe its theoretical and practical limitations. The main advantage of an energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron ion collider (EIC) over a ring-ring type counterpart is the higher achievable luminosity. In ERL-based version, one electron beam collides with the opposing ion beam only once so that the beam-beam parameter can largely exceed the usual limitation in an electron collider ring, while the beam-beam parameter for the ion beam remains small values. The resulting luminosity may be enhanced by one order of magnitude. The beam dynamics related challenges also arise as the luminosity boost in ERL based EIC due to the significant beam-beam effect on the electron beam. The effects on the electron beam include the additional large beam-beam tune shift and nonlinear emittance growth, which are discussed. The ion beam may develop a head-tail type instability, referred as 'kink instability', through the interaction with the electron beam. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of an active feedback system to mitigate the kink instability, by taking advantage of the flexibility of ERL. Throughout the paper, we will discuss the collision between proton and electron beam. Any other ion species can be scaled by its charge Z and ion mass A.

  13. Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.

  14. Scattering of sine-Gordon kinks on potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, Bernard; Zakrzewski, W J

    2007-01-01

    We study the scattering properties of sine-Gordon kinks on obstructions in the form of finite size potential 'wells'. We model this by making the coefficient of the cos(ψ) - 1 term in the Lagrangian position dependent. We show that when the kinks find themselves in the well they radiate and then interact with this radiation. As a result of this energy loss, the kinks become trapped for small velocities while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. However, the interaction with the radiation can produce 'unexpected' reflections by the well. We present two simple models which capture the gross features of this behaviour. Both involve standing waves either at the edges of the well or in the well itself

  15. Ghanaian Teacher Trainees' Conceptual Understanding of Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is a conceptual framework that encompasses other concepts such as the mole, writing of chemical equations in word and representative form, balancing of equations and the equilibrium concept. The underlying concepts enable students to understand relationships among entities of matter and required amounts for use when…

  16. A Note on the Kinks at the Mean Variance Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös, J.; Kriens, J.; Strijbosch, L.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the standard portfolio case with short sales restrictions is analyzed.Dybvig pointed out that if there is a kink at a risky portfolio on the efficient frontier, then the securities in this portfolio have equal expected return and the converse of this statement is false.For the existence of kinks at the efficient frontier the sufficient condition is given here and a new procedure is used to derive the efficient frontier, i.e. the characteristics of the mean variance frontier.

  17. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  18. Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.

    2017-08-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of 〈110〉 steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because 〈110〉 (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than 〈100〉 (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for 〈110〉 steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for 〈100〉-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of 〈110〉-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.

  19. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  20. Reflection, transmutation, annihilation, and resonance in two-component kink collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the study of collisions between kinks arising in the family of MSTB models is addressed. Phenomena such as elastic kink reflection, mutual annihilation, kink-antikink transmutation and inelastic reflection are found and depend on the impact velocity.

  1. On the simulation of kink bands in fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.D.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Jensen, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations of kink band formation in fiber reinforced composites are carried out using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A smeared-out, plane constitutive model for fiber reinforced materials is implemented as a user subroutine, and effects of fiber misalignment on elastic and plastic...

  2. A Note on the Kinks at the Mean Variance Frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vörös, J.; Kriens, J.; Strijbosch, L.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the standard portfolio case with short sales restrictions is analyzed.Dybvig pointed out that if there is a kink at a risky portfolio on the efficient frontier, then the securities in this portfolio have equal expected return and the converse of this statement is false.For the

  3. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs, some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function.

  4. On the jets, kinks, and spheromaks formed by a planar magnetized coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.C.; Bellan, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the various plasma configurations produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun provide insight into the magnetic topology evolution resulting from magnetic helicity injection. Important features of the experiments are a very simple coaxial gun design so that all observed geometrical complexity is due to the intrinsic physical dynamics rather than the source shape and use of a fast multiple-frame digital camera which provides direct imaging of topologically complex shapes and dynamics. Three key experimental findings were obtained: (1) formation of an axial collimated jet [Hsu and Bellan, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 334, 257 (2002)] that is consistent with a magnetohydrodynamic description of astrophysical jets (2) identification of the kink instability when this jet satisfies the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and (3) the nonlinear properties of the kink instability providing a conversion of toroidal to poloidal flux as required for spheromak formation by a coaxial magnetized source [Hsu and Bellan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 215002 (2003)]. An interpretation is proposed for how the n=1 central column instability provides flux amplification during spheromak formation and sustainment, and it is shown that jet collimation can occur within one rotation of the background poloidal field

  5. Subunit Stoichiometry of Human Muscle Chloride Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlke, Christoph; Knittle, Timothy; Gurnett, Christina A.; Campbell, Kevin P.; George, Alfred L.

    1997-01-01

    Voltage-gated Cl? channels belonging to the ClC family appear to function as homomultimers, but the number of subunits needed to form a functional channel is controversial. To determine subunit stoichiometry, we constructed dimeric human skeletal muscle Cl? channels in which one subunit was tagged by a mutation (D136G) that causes profound changes in voltage-dependent gating. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation experiments indicate that both monomeric and dimeric hClC-1 channels in their ...

  6. Stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinna; Yao, Jie; Fan, Chunyu; Tan, Lingzhao; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Xiuhai; von Gadow, Klaus

    2016-10-11

    This study evaluates stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum, a species characterized by a rare reproductive system where males and hermaphrodites coexist. Altogether 31 hermaphrodites and 29 male plants were harvested and samples of leaves, current-year shoots, branches and coarse roots were analyzed to explore gender differences in biomass, C, N and P concentrations of these four components. The nitrogen to phosphorus relationship of each component was examined using SMA estimates. Males had significantly greater amounts of leaf and coarse root dry matter content than hermaphrodites. C, N and P stoichiometry differed significantly between genders, especially in the newly emerging vegetative components (leaves and shoots). Males had higher C/N and C/P ratios in current-year shoots and lower C/P ratios in leaves and branches. Hermaphrodites had higher N/P ratios in the leaves and branches. Males had higher rates of increase in leaf P content than hermaphrodites. This study suggests that stoichiometry patterns may be significantly affected by gender.

  7. Stabilization of long wavelength sausage and kink modes of a Z-pinch by nonlinear radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Karlson, E.T.; Liberman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments with fiber-initiated dense Z-pinches, with compressional and gas-embedded Z-pinches, with imploding gas-puff Z-pinches and the straight Extrap configuration performed in the last decade demonstrated sufficiently improved stability of Z-pinch configurations. The striking stability with respect to the sausage modes can be explained, in principle, by ideal MHD theory as well as by finite plasma conductivity effects. The global kink mode can not be stabilized by the appropriate choice of the unperturbed profiles neither within the scope of the ideal MHD nor taking into account finite ion Larmor radius and viscous damping effects. In this report we shall demonstrate that stabilization of the global kink modes can be explained by the assumption that pinch is not in a stationary but in a dynamic equilibrium. (author) 12 refs., 2 figs

  8. Spatially resolved observation of the fundamental and second harmonic standing kink modes using SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We consider a coronal loop kink oscillation observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) which demonstrates two strong spectral components. The period of the lower frequency component being approximately twice that of the shorter frequency component suggests the presence of harmonics. Methods: We examine the presence of two longitudinal harmonics by investigating the spatial dependence of the loop oscillation. The time-dependent displacement of the loop is measured at 15 locations along the loop axis. For each position the displacement is fitted as the sum of two damped sinusoids, having periods P1 and P2, and a damping time τ. The shorter period component exhibits anti-phase oscillations in the loop legs. Results: We interpret the observation in terms of the first (global or fundamental) and second longitudinal harmonics of the standing kink mode. The strong excitation of the second harmonic appears connected to the preceding coronal mass ejection (CME) which displaced one of the loop legs. The oscillation parameters found are P1 = 5.00±0.62 min, P2 = 2.20±0.23 min, P1/ 2P2 = 1.15±0.22, and τ/P = 3.35 ± 1.45. A movie associated to Fig. 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Kink and tearing mode instabilities in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogutse, O.P.

    The continuous transition from a free-boundary-kink mode to a tearing mode in a current carrying plasma column is investigated. It is shown that in the real experimental situation, even for high temperatures in the plasma periphery, the kink mode exists due to electron inertia, the growth rate of the instability being at least a few times smaller than the growth rate with a free boundary. We find the dispersion relation allowing us to calculate the growth rate for plasma parameters of physical interest. It is shown that as the size of the current channel increases the growth rate falls, but the range of values of the safety factor where the mode is unstable broadens

  10. External kink (peeling) modes in x-point geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G T A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the separatrix on the stability of edge current driven external kink (peeling) modes has been studied. Two approaches have been compared: taking the limit towards the separatrix using linear ideal and resistive MHD stability codes and including the complete x-point geometry using a new resistive MHD code. A strong stabilizing effect has been observed for the ideal and the resistive peeling mode for instabilities driven by the edge current gradient. Both approaches are in good agreement. A new resistive instability remains unstable and is not significantly affected by the separatrix. This mode is a combination of a kink and a tearing type mode and could be called a peeling-tearing mode

  11. Stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M S; Okabayashi, M

    2010-01-01

    The pursuit of steady-state economic production of thermonuclear fusion energy has led to research on the stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode. Advances in both experiment and theory, together with improvements in diagnostics, heating and feedback methods have led to substantial and steady progress in the understanding and stabilization of these instabilities. Many of the theory and experimental techniques and results that have been developed are useful not only for the stabilization of the resistive wall mode. They can also be used to improve the general performance of fusion confinement devices. The conceptual foundations and experimental results on the stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode are reviewed. (topical review)

  12. Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.S. de.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Excitation of internal kink modes by trapped energetic beam ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; White, R.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1983-10-01

    Energetic trapped particles are shown to have a destabilizing effect on the internal kink mode in tokamaks. The plasma pressure threshold for the mode is lowered by the particles. The growth rate is near the ideal magnetohydrodynamic value, but the frequency is comparable to the trapped particle precission frequency. A model for the instability cycle gives stability properties, associated particle losses, and neutron emissivity consistent with the fishbone events observed in PDX

  14. Polarographic determination of uranium dioxide stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguie, J.; Uny, G.

    1966-10-01

    The method described allows the determination of small deviations from stoichiometry for uranium dioxide. It was applied to the study of surface oxidation of bulk samples. The sample is dissolved in phosphoric acid under an argon atmosphere; U(VI) is determined by polarography in PO 4 H 3 4.5 N - H 2 SO 4 4 N. U(IV) is determined by potentiometry. The detection limit is UO 2,0002 . The accuracy for a single determination at the 95% confidence level is ±20 per cent for samples with composition included between UO 2,001 and UO 2,01 . (authors) [fr

  15. Kink modes and surface currents associated with vertical displacement events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Janardhan; Boozer, Allen; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    The fast termination phase of a vertical displacement event (VDE) in a tokamak is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, qaxis, remains fixed and the qedge systematically decreases. At some point, the n = 1 kink mode is destabilized. Kink modes distort the magnetic field lines outside the plasma, and surface currents are required to nullify the normal component of the B-field at the plasma boundary and maintain equilibrium at finite pressure. If the plasma touches a conductor, the current can be transferred to the conductor, and may be measurable by the halo current monitors. This report describes a practical method to model the plasma as it evolves during a VDE, and determine the surface currents, needed to maintain equilibrium. The main results are that the onset conditions for the disruption are that the growth-rate of the n = 1 kink exceeds half the Alfven time and the associated surface current needed to maintain equilibrium exceeds one half of the core plasma current. This occurs when qedge drops below a low integer, usually 2. Application to NSTX provides favorable comparison with non-axisymmetric halo-current measurements. The model is also applied to ITER and shows that the 2/1 mode is projected to be the most likely cause of the final disruption.

  16. The molecular kink paradigm for rubber elasticity: Numerical simulations of explicit polyisoprene networks at low to moderate tensile strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David E.

    2011-08-01

    Based on recent molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations of small isoprene molecules, we propose a new ansatz for rubber elasticity. We envision a network chain as a series of independent molecular kinks, each comprised of a small number of backbone units, and the strain as being imposed along the contour of the chain. We treat chain extension in three distinct force regimes: (Ia) near zero strain, where we assume that the chain is extended within a well defined tube, with all of the kinks participating simultaneously as entropic elastic springs, (II) when the chain becomes sensibly straight, giving rise to a purely enthalpic stretching force (until bond rupture occurs) and, (Ib) a linear entropic regime, between regimes Ia and II, in which a force limit is imposed by tube deformation. In this intermediate regime, the molecular kinks are assumed to be gradually straightened until the chain becomes a series of straight segments between entanglements. We assume that there exists a tube deformation tension limit that is inversely proportional to the chain path tortuosity. Here we report the results of numerical simulations of explicit three-dimensional, periodic, polyisoprene networks, using these extension-only force models. At low strain, crosslink nodes are moved affinely, up to an arbitrary node force limit. Above this limit, non-affine motion of the nodes is allowed to relax unbalanced chain forces. Our simulation results are in good agreement with tensile stress vs. strain experiments.

  17. Near Surface Stoichiometry in UO2: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2 at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2 near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110 surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2 have been studied with density functional theory (DFT calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM, a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variation is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2 prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.

  18. Unpacking students' atomistic uderstanding of stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluyut, John Ysrael

    Despite the use by instructors of particulate nature of matter (PNOM) diagrams in the general chemistry classroom, misconceptions on stoichiometry continue to prevail among students tasked with conceptual problems on concepts of limiting and excess reagents, and reaction yields. This dissertation set out to explore students' understanding of stoichiometry at the microscopic level as they solved problems that using PNOM diagrams. In particular, the study investigated how students coordinated symbolic and microscopic representations to demonstrate their knowledge of stoichiometric concepts, quantified the prevalence and explained the nature of stoichiometric misconceptions in terms of dual processing and dual coding theories, and used eye tracking to identify visual behaviors that accompanied cognitive processes students used to solve conceptual stoichiometry problems with PNOM diagrams. Interviews with students asked to draw diagrams for specific stoichiometric situations showed dual processing systems were in play. Many students were found to have used these processing systems in a heuristic-analytic sequence. Heuristics, such as the factor-label method and the least amount misconception, were often used by students to select information for further processing in an attempt to reduce the cognitive load of the subsequent analytic stage of the solution process. Diagrams drawn by students were used then to develop an instrument administered over a much larger sample of the general chemistry student population. The robustness of the dual processing theory was manifested by response patterns observed with large proportions of the student samples. These response patterns suggest that many students seemed to rely on heuristics to respond to a specific item for one of two diagrams given for the same chemical context, and then used a more analytic approach in dealing with the same item for the other diagram. It was also found that many students incorrectly treated items

  19. Kink stability of a field-reversed ion layer in a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, A.; Sudan, R.N.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Engquist, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    By means of the two-fluid energy principle, the kink stability boundary of a field-reversed ion layer of arbitrary thickness immersed in a dense low-temperature background plasma is investigated theoretically. This system is found to have a stability window against kinks. The dependence of the kink stability regime on the equilibrium properties of the system is also shown. In the thin layer limit, a comparison is made between the previous theories and the present theory

  20. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C K; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D; Gregori, G; Norreys, P A; Rosenberg, M J; Follett, R K; Froula, D H; Koenig, M; Seguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Sio, H; Zylstra, A B; Petrasso, R D; Amendt, P A; Park, H S; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Wilks, S C; Betti, R; Frank, A; Hu, S X; Sangster, T C; Hartigan, P; Drake, R P; Kuranz, C C; Lebedev, S V; Woolsey, N C

    2016-10-07

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet.

  1. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  2. Micro-Mechanical Analysis About Kink Band in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Under Longitudinal Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Guan, Zhidong; Wang, Xiaodong; Du, Shanyi

    2017-10-01

    Kink band is a typical phenomenon for composites under longitudinal compression. In this paper, theoretical analysis and finite element simulation were conducted to analyze kink angle as well as compressive strength of composites. Kink angle was considered to be an important character throughout longitudinal compression process. Three factors including plastic matrix, initial fiber misalignment and rotation due to loading were considered for theoretical analysis. Besides, the relationship between kink angle and fiber volume fraction was improved and optimized by theoretical derivation. In addition, finite element models considering fiber stochastic strength and Drucker-Prager constitutive model for matrix were conducted in ABAQUS to analyze kink band formation process, which corresponded with the experimental results. Through simulation, the loading and failure procedure can be evidently divided into three stages: elastic stage, softening stage, and fiber break stage. It also shows that kink band is a result of fiber misalignment and plastic matrix. Different values of initial fiber misalignment angle, wavelength and fiber volume fraction were considered to explore the effects on compressive strength and kink angle. Results show that compressive strength increases with the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment angle, the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment wavelength and the increasing of fiber volume fraction, while kink angle decreases in these situations. Orthogonal array in statistics was also built to distinguish the effect degree of these factors. It indicates that initial fiber misalignment angle has the largest impact on compressive strength and kink angle.

  3. Mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length loaded in tension and bending: application to dentin and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Fracture toughness resistance curves describe a material's resistance against crack propagation. These curves are often used to characterize biomaterials like bone, nacre or dentin as these materials commonly exhibit a pronounced increase in fracture toughness with crack extension due to co-acting mechanisms such as crack bridging, crack deflection and microcracking. The knowledge of appropriate stress intensity factors which depend on the sample and crack geometry is essential for determining these curves. For the dental biomaterials enamel and dentin it was observed that, under bending and tensile loading, crack propagation occurs under certain constant angles to the initial notch direction during testing procedures used for fracture resistance curve determination. For this special crack geometry (a kink crack of finite length in a finite body) appropriate geometric function solutions are missing. Hence, we present in this study new mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length within samples of finite dimensions for two loading cases (tension and bending) which were derived from a combination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors of kink cracks with infinitely small kinks and of slant cracks. These results were further applied to determine the fracture resistance curves of enamel and dentin by testing single edge notched bending (SENB) specimens. It was found that kink cracks with finite kink length exhibit identical stress fields to slant cracks as soon as the kink length exceeds 0.15 times the initial straight crack or notch length. The use of stress intensity factor solutions for infinitely small kink cracks for the determination of dentin fracture resistance curves (as was done by other researchers) leads to an overestimation of dentin's fracture resistance of up to 30%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Edge kink/ballooning mode stability in tokamaks with separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, S Yu; Martynov, A A; Martin, Y R; Sauter, O; Villard, L

    2006-01-01

    Stability limits against external kink modes driven by large current density and pressure gradient values in the pedestal region are investigated for tokamak plasmas with separatrix. Stability diagrams for modes with different toroidal wave numbers under variations of pressure gradient and current density in the pedestal region are presented for several equilibrium configurations related to TCV. A scaling for the toroidal wave number of the most unstable mode is proposed. The influence of the plasma cross-section geometry on the stability limits is discussed

  5. Fifty Shades of Stigma: Exploring the Health Care Experiences of Kink-Oriented Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldura, Jessica F; Arora, Ishika; Randall, Anna M; Farala, John Paul; Sprott, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The term kink describes sexual behaviors and identities encompassing bondage, discipline, domination and submission, and sadism and masochism (collectively known as BDSM) and sexual fetishism. Individuals who engage in kink could be at risk for health complications because of their sexual behaviors, and they could be vulnerable to stigma in the health care setting. However, although previous research has addressed experiences in mental health care, very little research has detailed the medical care experiences of kink-oriented patients. To broadly explore the health care experiences of kink-oriented patients using a community-engaged research approach. As part of the Kink Health Project, we gathered qualitative data from 115 kink-oriented San Francisco area residents using focus groups and interviews. Interview questions were generated in collaboration with a community advisory board. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Themes relating to kink-oriented patients' experience with health and healthcare. Major themes included (i) kink and physical health, (ii) sociocultural aspects of kink orientation, (iii) the role of stigma in shaping health care interactions, (iv) coming out to health care providers, and (v) working toward a vision of kink-aware medical care. The study found that kink-oriented patients have genuine health care needs relating to their kink behaviors and social context. Most patients would prefer to be out to their health care providers so they can receive individualized care. However, fewer than half were out to their current provider, with anticipated stigma being the most common reason for avoiding disclosure. Patients are often concerned that clinicians will confuse their behaviors with intimate partner violence and they emphasized the consensual nature of their kink interactions. Like other sexual minorities, kink-oriented patients have a desire to engage with their health care providers in meaningful discussions about

  6. Coupled fermion-kink system in Jackiw-Rebbi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, A.; Mohammadi, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Jackiw-Rebbi model, in which a massless fermion is coupled to the kink of λφ"4 theory through a Yukawa interaction. In the original Jackiw-Rebbi model, the soliton is prescribed. However, we are interested in the back-reaction of the fermion on the soliton besides the effect of the soliton on the fermion. Also, as a particular example, we consider a minimal supersymmetric kink model in (1 + 1) dimensions. In this case, the bosonic self-coupling, λ, and the Yukawa coupling between fermion and soliton, g, have a specific relation, g = √(λ/2). As the set of coupled equations of motion of the system is not analytically solvable, we use a numerical method to solve it self-consistently. We obtain the bound energy spectrum, bound states of the system and the corresponding shape of the soliton using a relaxation method, except for the zero mode fermionic state and threshold energies which are analytically solvable. With the aid of these results, we are able to show how the soliton is affected in general and supersymmetric cases. The results we obtain are consistent with the ones in the literature, considering the soliton as background. (orig.)

  7. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF THE CORONAL KINK INSTABILITY WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, G. J. J.; Arber, T. D.; Srivastava, Abhishek K.

    2012-01-01

    It is known from numerical simulations that thermal conduction along magnetic field lines plays an important role in the evolution of the kink instability in coronal loops. This study presents the observational signatures of the kink instability in long coronal loops when parallel thermal conduction is included. The three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to simulate the evolution of a coronal loop that is initially in an unstable equilibrium. The loop has length 80 Mm, width 8 Mm, and an initial maximum twist of Φ = 11.5π, where Φ is a function of the radius. The initial loop parameters are obtained from a highly twisted loop observed in the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 171 Å wave band. Synthetic observables are generated from the data. These observables include spatial and temporal averaging to account for the resolution and exposure times of TRACE images. Parallel thermal conduction reduces the maximum local temperature by up to an order of magnitude. This means that different spectral lines are formed and different internal loop structures are visible with or without the inclusion of thermal conduction. However, the response functions sample a broad range of temperatures. The result is that the inclusion of parallel thermal conductivity does not have as large an impact on observational signatures as the order of magnitude reduction in the maximum temperature would suggest; the net effect is a blurring of internal features of the loop structure.

  8. Evolution of nutrient uptake reveals a trade-off in the ecological stoichiometry of plant-herbivore interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branco, P.; Stomp, M.; Egas, M.; Huisman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient limitation determines the primary production and species composition of many ecosystems. Here we apply an adaptive dynamics approach to investigate evolution of the ecological stoichiometry of primary producers and its implications for plant‐herbivore interactions. The model predicts a

  9. Structure, stoichiometry and spectroscopy of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C. N. R.

    In the new oxide superconductors, structure and oxygen stoichiometry play the most crucial role. Thus, all the high-temperature oxide superconductors are orthorhombic perovskites with low-dimensional features. Oxygen stoichiometry in YBa2Cu3O7-δ has an important bearing on the structure as well as superconductivity. This is equally true in the La3-xBa3+xCu 6O14+δ system of which only the 123 oxide (x = 1) with the orthorhombic structure shows high Tc. Orthorhombicity though not essential, is generally found ; it is necessary for the formation of twins. The nature of oxygen and copper in the cuprates has been examined by electron spectroscopy. Copper in these cuprates is only in 1 + and 2 + states. It seems likely that oxygen holes are responsible for superconductivity of the cuprates as well as Ba(Bi, Pb)O3. High Tc superconductivity is also found in oxides of the Bi-(Ca, Sr)-Cu-O and related oxides possessing Cu-O sheets. Dans les nouveaux oxydes supraconducteurs, la structure et la stoechiométrie de l'oxygène jouent un rôle absolument crucial. Ainsi, tous les oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique sont des pérovskites orthorhombiques possédant des propriétés de basse dimensionnalité. La stoechiométrie de l'oxygène dans YBa2Cu3O7- δ a une influence importante tant sur la structure que sur la supraconductibilité. Ceci est également valable pour les composés du type La3 -xBa3 + xCu 6O14 + δ parmi lesquels seul l'oxyde 123 (x = 1) à structure orthorhombique présente un grand T. Bien que ce ne soit pas essentiel, cette orthorhombicité est fréquente ; elle est nécessaire à la formation de macles. La nature de l'oxygène et du cuivre a été observée par spectroscopie électronique... Dans ces cuprates, le cuivre est dans les seuls états de valence + 1 et + 2. Vraisemblablement, les trous logés sur l'oxygène sont responsables de la supraconductibilité des cuprates comme de Ba(Bi, Pb)O3. La supraconductibilité existe aussi

  10. Measurements of the Canonical Helicity Evolution of a Gyrating Kinked Flux Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, J.; Sears, J.; Intrator, T.; You, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic structures in the solar corona and planetary magnetospheres are often modelled as magnetic flux ropes governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); however, inside these structures, as exhibited in reconnection, conversions between magnetic and kinetic energies occur over a wide range of scales. Flux ropes based on the flux of canonical momentum circulation extend the flux rope concept to include effects of finite particle momentum and present the distinct advantage of reconciling all plasma regimes - e.g. kinetic, two-fluid, and MHD - with the topological concept of helicity: twists, writhes, and linkages. This presentation shows the first visualization and analysis of the 3D dynamics of canonical flux ropes and their relative helicity evolution from laboratory measurements. Ion and electron canonical flux ropes are visualized from a dataset of Mach, triple, and Ḃ probe measurements at over 10,000 spatial locations of a gyrating kinked flux rope. The flux ropes co-gyrate with the peak density and electron temperature in and out of a measurement volume. The electron and ion canonical flux ropes twist with opposite handedness and the ion flux ropes writhe around the electron flux ropes. The relative cross helicity between the magnetic and ion flow vorticity flux ropes dominates the relative ion canonical helicity and is anti-correlated with the relative magnetic helicity. The 3D nature of the kink and a reverse eddy current affect the helicity evolution. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0010340 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program and prepared in part by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-735426

  11. Kink propagation and trapping in a two-dimensional curved Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2004-01-01

    for Josephson junctions of overlap type. A collective variable approach based on the kink position and the kink width depending on the transversal coordinate is developed. The latter allows to take into account both longitudinal and centrifugal forces which act on the nonlinear excitation moving in a region...

  12. Formation mechanisms for the dominant kinks with different angles in InP nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghuan; Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Yip, SenPo; Ho, Johnny C

    2014-01-01

    The morphologies and microstructures of kinked InP nanowires (NWs) prepared by solid-source chemical vapor deposition method were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Statistical analysis and structural characterization reveal that four different kinds of kinks are dominant in the grown InP NWs with a bending angle of approximately 70°, 90°, 110°, and 170°, respectively. The formation mechanisms of these kinks are discussed. Specifically, the existence of kinks with bending angles of approximately 70° and 110° are mainly attributed to the occurrence of stacking faults and nanotwins in the NWs, which could easily form by the glide of {111} planes, while approximately 90° kinks result from the local amorphorization of InP NWs. Also, approximately 170° kinks are mainly caused by small-angle boundaries, where the insertion of extra atomic planes could make the NWs slightly bent. In addition, multiple kinks with various angles are also observed. Importantly, all these results are beneficial to understand the formation mechanisms of kinks in compound semiconductor NWs, which could guide the design of nanostructured materials, morphologies, microstructures, and/or enhanced mechanical properties.

  13. On the algebraic theory of kink sectors: Application to quantum field theory models and collision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlingemann, D.

    1996-10-01

    Several two dimensional quantum field theory models have more than one vacuum state. An investigation of super selection sectors in two dimensions from an axiomatic point of view suggests that there should be also states, called soliton or kink states, which interpolate different vacua. Familiar quantum field theory models, for which the existence of kink states have been proven, are the Sine-Gordon and the φ 4 2 -model. In order to establish the existence of kink states for a larger class of models, we investigate the following question: Which are sufficient conditions a pair of vacuum states has to fulfill, such that an interpolating kink state can be constructed? We discuss the problem in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory which includes, for example, the P(φ) 2 -models. We identify a large class of vacuum states, including the vacua of the P(φ) 2 -models, the Yukawa 2 -like models and special types of Wess-Zumino models, for which there is a natural way to construct an interpolating kink state. In two space-time dimensions, massive particle states are kink states. We apply the Haag-Ruelle collision theory to kink sectors in order to analyze the asymptotic scattering states. We show that for special configurations of n kinks the scattering states describe n freely moving non interacting particles. (orig.)

  14. Calculation of quantum tunneling for a spatially extended defect: The dislocation kink in copper has a low effective mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; Sethna, J.P.; Cheong, S.-A.

    2001-01-01

    , and quantum tunneling rates fur dislocation kinks and jogs in copper screw dislocations. We find that jugs are unlikely to tunnel, but the kinks should have large quantum fluctuations. The kink motion involves hundreds of atoms each shifting a tiny amount, leading to a small effective mass and tunneling...

  15. ADDITIVE SELF-HELICITY AS A KINK MODE THRESHOLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanushenko, A.; Longcope, D. W.; Fan, Y.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that additive self-helicity, introduced by Longcope and Malanushenko, plays a role in the kink instability for complex equilibria, similar to twist helicity for thin flux tubes. We support this hypothesis by a calculation of additive self-helicity of a twisted flux tube from the simulation of Fan and Gibson. As more twist gets introduced, the additive self-helicity increases, and the kink instability of the tube coincides with the drop of additive self-helicity, after the latter reaches the value of H A /Φ 2 ∼ 1.5 (where Φ is the flux of the tube and H A is the additive self-helicity). We compare the additive self-helicity to twist for a thin subportion of the tube to illustrate that H A /Φ 2 is equal to the twist number, studied by Berger and Field, when the thin flux tube approximation is applicable. We suggest that the quantity H A /Φ 2 could be treated as a generalization of a twist number, when the thin flux tube approximation is not applicable. A threshold on a generalized twist number might prove extremely useful studying complex equilibria, just as the twist number itself has proven useful studying idealized thin flux tubes. We explicitly describe a numerical method for calculating additive self-helicity, which includes an algorithm for identifying a domain occupied by a flux bundle and a method of calculating potential magnetic field confined to this domain. We also describe a numerical method to calculate twist of a thin flux tube, using a frame parallelly transported along the axis of the tube.

  16. Theory of the m=1 kink mode in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.H. de.

    1990-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the stability problems arising in tokamak experiments. In part I of this thesis the internal m=1 kink instability in tokamak plasmas is considered within the confines of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD), in which model the pressure is considered to be isotropic, while state is assumed. Because irreversible processes are disregarded, there is an energy principle. By extremizing the energy associated with infinitesimal perturbations of the plasma, a normal mode is obtained. The m=n=1 mode is resonant at the q=1 surface, and therefore, equilibria with a broad region where q#approx = # 1 are expected to be particularly unstable. The m=1 instability is computed for these q profiles. In Part II of this thesis, the internal m=1 kink instability is considered in a stationary rotating tokamak plasma, in which the particle velocity distribution is allowed to be non-thermal. In a tokamak plasma that is intensely heated by neutron beams or radiofrequent waves, these features, which cannot be described with ideal MHD, may become important, especially in the cases with high m=1 growth rates found in Part I. The energy principle of a generalized fluid theory is applied in these cases, without specifying the equation of state of the plasma. Therefore the resulting energy functional for the m=1 mode is incomplete and not direct applicable, however, the result makes clear that a kinetic description of the plasma is required only to a first approximation, and can therefore be applied analytically. The guiding center approximation is applied, which neglects finite gyroradius effects and collisions. Application of the dispersion relation, that is obtained from kinetic theory, shows that compared to the ideal MHD case, growth rates are strongly reduced due to Landau damping while the stability boundaries are not changed. (author). 72 refs.; 11 figs

  17. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry across stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, A.; Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Kortelainen, P.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Johnes, P.; Dodds, W. K.; Johnson, S.; Brookshire, J.; Spencer, R.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Helton, A. M.; Barnes, R.; Argerich, A.; Haq, S.; Sullivan, P. L.; López-Lloreda, C.; Coble, A. A.; Daley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering carbon and nitrogen concentrations in surface waters globally. The stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen regulates important watershed biogeochemical cycles; however, controls on carbon and nitrogen ratios in aquatic environments are poorly understood. Here we use a multi-biome and global dataset (tropics to Arctic) of stream water chemistry to assess relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), providing a new conceptual framework to consider interactions between DOC and the multiple forms of dissolved nitrogen. We found that across streams the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) pool is comprised of very little ammonium and as DOC concentrations increase the TDN pool shifts from nitrate to DON dominated. This suggests that in high DOC systems, DON serves as the primary source of nitrogen. At the global scale, DOC and DON are positively correlated (r2 = 0.67) and the average C: N ratio of dissolved organic matter (molar ratio of DOC: DON) across our data set is approximately 31. At the biome and smaller regional scale the relationship between DOC and DON is highly variable (r2 = 0.07 - 0.56) with the strongest relationships found in streams draining the mixed temperate forests of the northeastern United States. DOC: DON relationships also display spatial and temporal variability including latitudinal and seasonal trends, and interactions with land-use. DOC: DON ratios correlated positively with gradients of energy versus nutrient limitation pointing to the ecological role (energy source versus nutrient source) that DON plays with stream ecosystems. Contrary to previous findings we found consistently weak relationships between DON and nitrate which may reflect DON's duality as an energy or nutrient source. Collectively these analyses demonstrate how gradients of DOC drive compositional changes in the TDN pool and reveal a high degree of variability in the C: N ratio

  18. "Why not stoichiometry" versus "stoichiometry--why not?" Part I: General context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The elementary concepts involved with stoichiometry are considered from different viewpoints. Some examples of approximate calculations made according to the stoichiometric scheme are indicated, and correct resolution of the problems involved is presented. The principles of balancing chemical equations, based on their apparent similarities with algebraic equations, are criticized. The review concerns some peculiarities inherent in chemical reaction notation and its use (and abuse) in stoichiometric calculations that provide inconsistent results for various reasons. This "conventional" approach to stoichiometry is put in context with the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) established by Michałowski. The article contains a number of proposals that could potentially be taken into account and included in the next edition of the Orange Book. Notation of ions used in this article is not, deliberately, in accordance with actual IUPAC requirements in this respect. This article is intended to be provocative with the hope that some critical debate around the important topics treated should be generated and creatively expanded in the scientific community.

  19. Effects of the finite pressure of plasma on internal kink mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M.G. de.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the stability of the Internal Kink and Central Kink modes in ideal MHD cylindrical plasma due to the pressure variations and the different current profiles. It was used the σ Euler equation derived by Goedbloed and Sakanaka. Its analysis is based on the boundary layer method, where the effects due to the plasma inertia are only considered in a boundary layer in the neighborhood of the surface where the perturbation is parallel to the field lines. For the internal Kink mode a numerical analysis is also done by integrating the Euler equation. It was calculated the growth rate of the two modes for the different pressure ans current profiles. It was verified that for both, the Internal Kink and Central Kink modes, the growth rate becomes larger as the derivative of these profiles increases. However, for the Internal Kink mode, one obtains a reduction of up to 50% in the growth rate calculated by Rosenbluth et al. For the Central Kink mode, one notices that the growth rate is proportional to β of the plasma and to the derivatives of the pressure and current. (author) [pt

  20. Head butting sheep: kink collisions in the presence of false vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto; Paranjape, M B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate numerically kink collisions in a 1 + 1 dimensional scalar field theory with multiple vacua. The domain wall model we are interested in involves two scalar fields and a potential term built from an asymmetric double well and (double) sine-Gordon potential together with an interaction term. Depending on the initial kink setup and impact velocities, the model allows for a wide range of scattering behaviours. Kinks can repel each other, annihilate, form true or false domain walls and reflect off each other. (paper)

  1. Kinked and retained nasogastric tube in polytrauma patient; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteral feeding is an important and preferred technique of feeding in head injury patient to provide nutrition. As inadequate nutrition causes decrease in physical ability, neurological impairment and takes a long time for improvement or delayed deterioratation. With our best knowledge kinked and retained nasogastric tube in stomach is a very rare complication of feeding in head injuries patients. Predisposing factors that can cause kinking is excess tube length, tube in situ for long time and small bore tube. We are reporting one such case of kinked and retained nasogastric tube in the stomach of a polytrauma patient which was retrieved by upper GI endoscope.

  2. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  3. The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Plasma Disruption Events in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event.

  4. Abduction of Arm Facilitates Correction of Kinked Peel-Away Sheath During Subclavian Central Line Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-12-01

    A tunneled central line catheter placement using a subclavian vein approach can be complicated by an occurrence of peel-away sheath kink which prevents the advancement of the catheter through the sheath. The kink is created due to the angular junction of subclavian and brachiocephalic veins which meet at 90 degree angle. A technique is described which corrects the peel-away sheath kink by extending the subclavian/brachiocephalic vein angle to greater than 90 degrees by abducting the patient's arm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinks in the σ Band of Graphene Induced by Electron-Phonon Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin; Yakimova, Rosita

    2013-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals pronounced kinks in the dispersion of the band of graphene. Such kinks are usually caused by the combination of a strong electron-boson interaction and the cutoff in the Fermi-Dirac distribution. They are therefore not expected for the band...... of graphene that has a binding energy of more than 3:5 eV. We argue that the observed kinks are indeed caused by the electron-phonon interaction, but the role of the Fermi-Dirac distribution cutoff is assumed by a cutoff in the density of states. The existence of the effect suggests a very weak coupling...

  6. Sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors of women from the "kink" community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehor, Jennifer Eve

    2015-05-01

    Unconventional sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors (herein referred to as kink behaviors) investigated by academia are based largely on clinical and criminal cases, and most published, peer-reviewed, quantitative research on these behaviors is based almost exclusively on male participants. For this study, information was collected and analyzed from 1580 female participants recruited from the kink community, using a non-clinical and non-criminal sample. We explored and described the preferences and diversity of more than 126 sensual, erotic, and sexual behaviors found among these participants, along with recommendations for continued research. Gaining a better understanding of the breadth and depth of activities engaged in by female kink practitioners could benefit educators, counselors, therapists, medical doctors, and other professionals when interacting with members of the kink community.

  7. The effect of energetic trapped particles on the resistive internal Kink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; White, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the ideal and resistive internal Kink mode is analyzed including diamagnetic effects. The relation between different approaches to the problem is discussed

  8. Stochastic quantization of the Kink solution of phi4 field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kates, R.; Rosenblum, A.

    1989-01-01

    The method of Parisi-Wu Stochastic quantization in quantum field theory is compared to earlier work in classical field equations. The method is applied to solve for the propagator for Phi 4 field theory by perturbing the Kink solution

  9. A phenomenological model on the kink mode threshold varying with the inclination of sheath boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    In nature and many laboratory plasmas, a magnetic flux tube threaded by current or a flux rope has a footpoint at a boundary. The current driven kink mode is one of the fundamental ideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in plasmas. It has an instability threshold that has been found to strongly depend on boundary conditions (BCs). We provide a theoretical model to explain the transition of this threshold dependence between nonline tied and line tied boundary conditions. We evaluate model parameters using experimentally measured plasma data, explicitly verify several kink eigenfunctions, and validate the model predictions for boundary conditions BCs that span the range between NLT and LT BCs. Based on this model, one could estimate the kink threshold given knowledge of the displacement of a flux rope end, or conversely estimate flux rope end motion based on knowledge of it kink stability threshold

  10. Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko, E-mail: matsui.yuka@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: horiguchi.kouichirou@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nitta.daisuke@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kuroyanagi.sachiko@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of physics and astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.

  11. Kinks in the σ band of graphene induced by electron-phonon coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin W; Yakimova, Rositza; Ulstrup, Søren; Miwa, Jill A; Balog, Richard; Bianchi, Marco; Leandersson, Mats; Adell, Johan; Hofmann, Philip; Balasubramanian, T

    2013-11-22

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals pronounced kinks in the dispersion of the σ band of graphene. Such kinks are usually caused by the combination of a strong electron-boson interaction and the cutoff in the Fermi-Dirac distribution. They are therefore not expected for the σ band of graphene that has a binding energy of more than ≈3.5 eV. We argue that the observed kinks are indeed caused by the electron-phonon interaction, but the role of the Fermi-Dirac distribution cutoff is assumed by a cutoff in the density of σ states. The existence of the effect suggests a very weak coupling of holes in the σ band not only to the π electrons of graphene but also to the substrate electronic states. This is confirmed by the presence of such kinks for graphene on several different substrates that all show a strong coupling constant of λ≈1.

  12. Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.

  13. BPS-kink and more global solutions of the Chern-Simons (super)gravity term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumiller, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the supersymmetry of the Kaluza-Klein reduced gravitational Chern-Simons term in two dimensions and propose supergravity transformations that allow for some supersymmetry of the kink solution. (author)

  14. On the partition function of d+1 dimensional kink-bearing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosz, A.; Salejda, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the problem of finding a partition function of d+1 dimensional kink-bearing system in the classical approximation may be formulated as an eigenvalue problem of an appropriate d dimensional quantum

  15. Missugused on teie kogemused väikeklassidega? / Villu Mengel, Ana Kontor, Katrin Betlem, Riina Kink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Sikupilli keskkooli direktor Villu Mengel, Tartu hariduse tugiteenuste keskuse eripedagoog Ana Kontor, Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumi õppejuht-sotsiaalpedagoog Katrin Betlem, Keila kooli põhikooli õppejuht Riina Kink

  16. Flux ropes and 3D dynamics in the relaxation scaling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T P; Feng, Y; Weber, T E; Swan, H O; Sun, X; Dorf, L; Sears, J A

    2013-01-01

    Flux ropes form basic building blocks for magnetic dynamics in many plasmas, are macroscopic analogues of magnetic field lines, and are irreducibly three dimensional (3D). We have used the relaxation scaling experiment (RSX) to study flux ropes, and have found many new features involving 3D dynamics, kink instability driven reconnection, nonlinearly stable but kinking flux ropes, and large flows. (paper)

  17. Development of kink bands in granodiorite: Effect of mechanical heterogeneities, fault geometry, and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chheda, T. D.; Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of monoclinal right-lateral kink bands in Lake Edison granodiorite (central Sierra Nevada, CA) is investigated through field observations and mechanics based numerical modeling. Vertical faults act as weak surfaces within the granodiorite, and vertical granodiorite slabs bounded by closely-spaced faults curve into a kink. Leucocratic dikes are observed in association with kinking. Measurements were made on maps of Hilgard, Waterfall, Trail Fork, Kip Camp (Pollard and Segall, 1983b) and Bear Creek kink bands (Martel, 1998). Outcrop scale geometric parameters such as fault length andspacing, kink angle, and dike width are used to construct a representative geometry to be used in a finite element model. Three orders of fault were classified, length = 1.8, 7.2 and 28.8 m, and spacing = 0.3, 1.2 and 3.6 m, respectively. The model faults are oriented at 25° to the direction of shortening (horizontal most compressive stress), consistent with measurements of wing crack orientations in the field area. The model also includes a vertical leucocratic dike, oriented perpendicular to the faults and with material properties consistent with aplite. Curvature of the deformed faults across the kink band was used to compare the effects of material properties, strain, and fault and dike geometry. Model results indicate that the presence of the dike, which provides a mechanical heterogeneity, is critical to kinking in these rocks. Keeping properties of the model granodiorite constant, curvature increased with decrease in yield strength and Young's modulus of the dike. Curvature increased significantly as yield strength decreased from 95 to 90 MPa, and below this threshold value, limb rotation for the kink band was restricted to the dike. Changing Poisson's ratio had no significant effect. The addition of small faults between bounding faults, decreasing fault spacing or increasing dike width increases the curvature. Increasing friction along the faults decreases slip, so

  18. Autotrophic stoichiometry emerging from optimality and variable co-limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai W Wirtz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic organisms reveal an astounding flexibility in their elemental stoichiometry, with potentially major implications on biogeochemical cycles and ecological functioning. Notwithstanding, stoichiometric regulation and co-limitation by multiple resources in autotrophs revt were in the past often described by heuristic formulations.In this study, we present a mechanistic model of autotroph growth, which features two major improvements over the existing schemes. First, we introduce the concept of metabolic network independence that defines the degree of phase-locking between accessory machines. Network independence is in particular suggested to be proportional to protein synthesis capability as quantified by variable intracellular N:C. Consequently, the degree of co-limitation becomes variable, contrasting with the dichotomous debate on the use of Liebig's law or the product rule, standing for constantly low and high co-limitation, respectively. Second, we resolve dynamic protein partitioning to light harvesting, carboxylation processes, and to an arbitrary number of nutrient acquisition machineries, as well as instantaneous activity regulation of nutrient uptake. For all regulatory processes we assume growth rate optimality, here extended by an explicit consideration of indirect feed-back effects.The combination of network independence and optimal regulation displays unprecedented skill in reproducing rich stoichiometric patterns collected from a large number of published chemostat experiments. This high skill indicates (1 that the current paradigm of fixed co-limitation is a critical short-coming of conventional models, and (2 that stoichiometric flexibility in autotrophs possibly reflects an optimality strategy. Numerical experiments furthermore show that regulatory mechanisms homogenize the effect of multiple stressors. Extended optimality alleviates the effect of the most limiting resource(s while down-regulating machineries for the

  19. Pi-kinks in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon chain driven by a high-frequency parametric force in the presence of loss. Using an analytical approach based on the method of averaging in fast oscillations, we predict that such a parametric force may support propagation of π kinks, which are unstable in the standard...... sine-Gordon model. The steady-state velocity of the π kinks is calculated, and the analytical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations....

  20. Stability of n = 1 kink modes in bean-shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickam, J.; Grimm, R.C.; Okabayashi, M.

    1983-08-01

    Numerical studies show that by indenting the small-major-radius side of conventional finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks, significant improvements to the stability of pressure-driven ideal MHD modes can be achieved. The internal n - 1 kink mode can be stabilized completely with quite modest indentation. Kink-ballooning mode stability is also improved, and, in the presence of a nearby conducting wall, accessibility to a second stable region at high plasma β is possible

  1. Carotid angioplasty and stenting for symptomatic carotid kinking combined with stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Xue-li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Carotid endarterectomy (CEA is currently the preferred treatment for severe carotid kinking and stenosis. Kinking is generally believed to be a relative contraindication for endovascular stent placement. This article aims to study the necessity, feasibility and security of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS for symptomatic carotid kinking combined with stenosis, and summarize clinical experience of this disease according to therapeutic results. Methods Twenty-two cases with symptomatic carotid kinking and high-grade stenosis demonstrated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA were performed CAS. Their clinical manifestations, imaging features, procedure safety and follow-up data were collected and retrospectively analyzed. All patients understood CEA and voluntarily received CAS. Results Twenty-two cases with carotid kinking and stenosis were all successfully performed CAS (the success rate was 100% without stent-related disability or mortality. Twenty-four self-expandable stents were implanted. The mean degree of stenosis was reduced from 85.63%before stenting to 11.25% after stenting and the angles of kinking were improved from 120° (Metz' category. During the period of hospitalization, no transient ischemic attack (TIA or cerebral infarction occurred, and the clinical symptoms and signs of ischemia, such as dizziness and headache, were improved or disappeared. Besides, no permenant complications or deaths happened. All cases were followed up from 6 to 72 months, among whom 1 patient experienced contralateral carotid TIA, and 2 patients experienced ipsilateral carotid TIA (one indicated aspirin resistance in platelet aggregation test and the other showed restenosis in DSA. Computed tomography angiography (CTA of 10 patients and Duplex scan of 7 patients during the follow-up demonstrated carotid in good morphology and fluent blood flow, without kinking or restenosis. Conclusion CAS is a feasible and safe therapeutic method and

  2. Stabilization of kinetic internal kink mode by ion diamagnetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Kuramoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, M.; Tokuda, S.; Matsumoto, T.

    2000-04-01

    Ion diamagnetic effects on the m=1 (poloidal mode number) and n=1 (toroidal mode number) kinetic internal kink mode are studied numerically by the three-field gyro-reduced-MHD code in the cylindrical coordinates, GRM3F-CY. In the derivation of the gryo-reduced-MHD model including the ion diamagnetic effects, finite gyroradius effects of ions are added to the gyrokinetic Poisson equation (quasi-neutral condition) and the convection term of the conservation law of the ion density. It is found that the long wavelength approximation, ksub(perpendicular) ρ ti ti is the thermal ion gyroradius, fails to reproduce the correct dispersion relation; the formulation valid even for ksub(perpendicular) ρ ti >> 1 is necessary. The results of numerical calculation coincide with the theory for |ω *e |+|ω *i | 0 , where the growth rate reduces as the density gradient increases. Here ω *e and ω *i are electron and ion diamagnetic angular frequencies estimated at the rational surface of q=1 (q is a safety factor), respectively, and γ 0 is the growth rate for the uniform density. Very weak instability, however, is observed for |ω *e |+|ω *i | 0 , where the theory predicts the complete stabilization. This residual instability appears since the region with the density gradient is limited in the radial direction and the stabilization by the outgoing drift-wave like mode becomes incomplete. (author)

  3. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  4. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Li, Hui; Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  5. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  6. Effect of microbial enzyme allocation strategies on stoichiometry of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We explored different strategies of soil microbial community to invest resources into extracellular enzymes by conceptual modelling. Similar to the EEZY model by Moorhead et al. (2012), microbial community can invest into two separate pools of enzymes that depolymerize two different SOM pools. We show that with assuming that a fixed fraction of substrate uptake is allocated to enzymes, the microbial dynamics decouples from decomposition dynamics. We propose an alternative formulation where investment into enzymes is proportional to microbial biomass. Next, we show that the strategy of optimizing stoichiometry of decomposition flux according to microbial biomass stoichiometry yield less microbial growth than the strategy of optimizing revenue of the currently limiting element. However, both strategies result in better usage of the resources, i.e. less C overflow or N mineralization, than the strategy of equal allocation to both enzymes. Further, we discuss effects of those strategies on decomposition of SOM and priming at different time scales and discuss several abstractions from the detailed model dynamics for usage in larger scale models.

  7. FORWARD MODELING OF STANDING KINK MODES IN CORONAL LOOPS. II. APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ding; Doorsselaere, Tom Van, E-mail: DYuan2@uclan.ac.uk [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves are believed to play a significant role in coronal heating, and could be used for remote diagnostics of solar plasma. Both the heating and diagnostic applications rely on a correct inversion (or backward modeling) of the observables into the thermal and magnetic structures of the plasma. However, due to the limited availability of observables, this is an ill-posed issue. Forward modeling is designed to establish a plausible mapping of plasma structuring into observables. In this study, we set up forward models of standing kink modes in coronal loops and simulate optically thin emissions in the extreme ultraviolet bandpasses, and then adjust plasma parameters and viewing angles to match three events of transverse loop oscillations observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We demonstrate that forward models could be effectively used to identify the oscillation overtone and polarization, to reproduce the general profile of oscillation amplitude and phase, and to predict multiple harmonic periodicities in the associated emission intensity and loop width variation.

  8. Kink-pair formation on dislocations within the framework of the line-tension model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lay, W.

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with the plastic deformation of crystals under an applied stress and summarizes various theoretical concepts within the framework of a model of dislocation migration in crystals. The migration of one type of dislocations in their glide plane is described within the framework of a continuum approximation. The dynamics of the physical system is treated by a Hamiltonian method describing solitonic vibrations of a one-dimensional field added by discussions of a special perturbation which models the applied stress in the glide plane of the dislocation. Dislocation migration is governed by nucleation processes. Therefore, one has to apply thermodynamical concepts in order to calculate the formation rate of the nucleation configuration of the dislocation. This is done here by mapping the solitonic field onto a Brownian particle and using Kramers' famous work on nucleation in chemical reactions. The last section is devoted to an approach involving quantum thermodynamical effects and relating them to tunnelling processes of kinks on dislocations. The method used for calculating tunnelling rates is based on Feynman's path integral method in imaginary time formulation. (author). 26 refs, 12 figs

  9. Influence of argon-hydrogen atmosphere on vitroceramics stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleuta, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of UO 2 in several vitroceramics obtained by melting in different Ar-H 2 mixtures at about 2300 deg C was determined. The measurements are in good agreement with the stoichiometry diagram UO 2 sub(+x)-SiO 2 calculated for the melts in pure hydrogen, by using Δ G 02 , as a function of melting conditions: pressure, composition of the melt, temperature. The SiO 2 losses by evaporation are lower, and the samples cast into fusible moulds have smoother surfaces. (Author)

  10. Calcite growth kinetics: Modeling the effect of solution stoichiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Nehrke, G.; Gustafsson, J.P.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently the influence of solution stoichiometry on calcite crystal growth kinetics has attracted little attention, despite the fact that in most aqueous environments calcite precipitates from non-stoichiometric solution. In order to account for the dependence of the calcite crystal growth

  11. stoichiometry of pyrogallol/ammonium-nitrogen complex using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... calculations and so that analytical procedures can be properly defined. Since the complex is coloured (pale- yellow), its stoichiometry can be established using visible spectrometry to measure the absorbance of solutions of known composition. One method widely applicable is Job's method of continuous ...

  12. Stoichiometry of pyrogallol/ammonium-nitrogen complex using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This complex, which we now refer to as P/NH4 +-N complex, can be the basis for the spectrophotometric determination of NH4 +-N in aqueous solution. Aqueous NH4 +-N is a very important pollution index. Therefore it is imperative that the stoichiometry of this complex be thoroughly understood. In this work, Job's method of ...

  13. Stochastic motion of 7 x 7 kinks at monoatomic step edges on the Si(1 1 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, T.; Maeda, S.; Nakayama, H.

    2003-01-01

    An offset of a straight step, called a kink, is occasionally formed on semiconductor surfaces. The motion of the kink on the Si(1 1 1) 7x7 surface in the [1-bar 1-bar 2] step was studied in detail by high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and thermal fluctuations of the kink displacement along the step edges was observed. The kink displacement did not diverge with time, suggesting that a restoring force acts on the kink. The displacement, however, could be clearly represented by the gaussian distribution and it was therefore considered to be a Brownian particle. The temperature dependence of the mean square displacement of the kink position showed that the displacement is a thermal activation process with an apparent activation energy of 1.54±0.1 eV. From the equation of motion on the kink displacement including an incoming and outgoing flux as a fluctuation source, the phenomenological Langevin equation was derived. The activation energy of the kink displacement is related to the diffusion coefficient of the two-dimensional adatom gas and the latent heat of the atoms from the kink site to the surface adatom

  14. Effect of Equilibrium Current Profiles on External Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Liu Yue; Ma Zhaoshuai

    2014-01-01

    Based on a linearized MHD model, the effect of equilibrium current profiles on external kink modes in tokamaks is studied by MARS code. Three types of equilibrium current profiles are adopted in this work. Firstly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles are chosen. In these profiles the maximum current values in the center of the plasma are fixed, and the currents have different gradient and jump at the plasma boundary. The effects of the current gradient and jump on the growth rate of external kink mode are investigated. It is found that the current jump which causes the q profiles to change plays an important role in the external kink modes in tokamaks. Secondly, a set of step equilibrium current profiles with different jump positions are chosen. The effect of jump position on external kink modes is discussed. Thirdly, a set of parabolic equilibrium current profiles with current bumps are chosen for the case of off-axis heating. The effects of height, width and position of the current bumps on external kink modes are analyzed. The flat equilibrium current profiles are disadvantageous for the MHD stabilities of tokamaks, because of the large current jump at the plasma edge. The peaked equilibrium current profiles and a large and localized current bump near the plasma edge benefit the MHD stabilities of tokamaks

  15. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.; Karam, A.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  16. External kink mode stability of tokamaks with finite edge current density in plasma outside separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, L.; Martynov, A.; Medvedev, S.; Troyon, F.; Villard, L.

    1996-01-01

    Large pressure gradients and current density at the plasma edge and accompanying edge-localized MHD instabilities are typical for H-mode discharges. Low-n external kink modes are a possible cause of the instabilities. The paper mostly deals with external kink modes driven by a finite current density at the plasma boundary (so called peeling modes). It was shown earlier that for a single axis plasma embedded into vacuum the peeling modes are stabilized when separatrix is approaching the plasma boundary. For doublet configurations a finite current density at the internal separatrix does not necessarily lead to external kink instability when the current density vanishes at the boundary. However, a finite current density at the plasma boundary outside the separatrix can drive outer peeling modes. The stability properties and structure of these modes depend on the plasma equilibrium outside the separatrix. The influence of plasma shear and pressure gradient at the boundary on the stability of the outer peeling modes in doublets is studied. The stability of kink modes in divertor configurations with plasma outside the separatrix is very sensitive to the boundary conditions set at open field lines. The choice of the boundary conditions and kink mode stability calculations for the divertor configurations are discussed. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs

  17. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode

  18. Dislocation processes in quasicrystals-Kink-pair formation control or jog-pair formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    A computer simulation of dislocation in a model quasiperiodic lattice indicates that the dislocation feels a large Peierls potential when oriented in particular directions. For a dislocation with a high Peierls potential, the glide velocity and the climb velocity of the dislocation can be described almost in parallel in terms of the kink-pair formation followed by kink motion and the jog-pair formation followed by jog motion, respectively. The activation enthalpy of the kink-pair formation is the sum of the kink-pair formation enthalpy and the atomic jump activation enthalpy, while the activation enthalpy of the jog-pair formation involves the jog-pair enthalpy and the self-diffusion enthalpy. Since the kink-pair energy can be considerably larger than the jog-pair energy, the climb velocity can be faster than the glide velocity, so that the plastic deformation of quasicrystals can be brought not by dislocation glide but by dislocation climb at high temperatures

  19. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.

    2012-07-06

    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  20. Resistive toroidal stability of internal kink modes in circular and shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; Vlad, G.

    1991-12-01

    The linear resistive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) stability of the n=1 internal kink mode in tokamaks is studied by toroidal computations. The stabilizing influence of small aspect ratio is confirmed, but it is found that shaping of the cross section influences the internal kink mode significantly. For finite pressure and small resistivity, curvature effects at the q=1 surface make the stability sensitively dependent on shape, and ellipticity (including JET shape) is destabilizing. Only a very restricted set of finite pressure equilibria is completely stable for q 0 <1. A typical result is that the resistive kink mode is slowed down by toroidal effects to a weak tearing/resistive interchange mode. It is suggested that weak resistive instabilities are stabilized during the ramp phase of the sawteeth by effects not included in the linear resistive MHD model. Possible mechanisms for triggering a sawtooth crash are discussed. (author) 18 figs., 34 refs

  1. Emergent kink stability of a magnetized plasma jet injected into a transverse background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Lynn, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental results on the injection of a magnetized plasma jet into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81(1), 345810104 (2015)]. After the plasma jet leaves the plasma-gun muzzle, a tension force arising from an increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces in the jet a sheared axial-flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold. We observe that this emergent sheared axial flow stabilizes the n = 1 kink mode in the jet, whereas a kink instability is observed in the jet when there is no background magnetic field present.

  2. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model to Predict Kink-Band Propagation Using Deformation Gradient Tensor Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.

  3. Role of electric fields in the MHD evolution of the kink instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Skender, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Here, the discovery of electrostatic fields playing a crucial role in establishing plasma motion in the flux conversion and dynamo processes in reversed field pinches is revisited. In order to further elucidate the role of the electrostatic fields, a flux rope configuration susceptible to the kink instability is numerically studied with anMHDcode. Simulated nonlinear evolution of the kink instability is found to confirm the crucial role of the electrostatic fields. Anew insight is gained on the special function of the electrostatic fields: they lead the plasma towards the reconnection site at the mode resonant surface. Without this step the plasma column could not relax to its nonlinear state, since no other agent is present to perform this role. While the inductive field generated directly by the kink instability is the dominant flow driver, the electrostatic field is found to allow the motion in the vicinity of the reconnection region.

  4. Using Ab-Initio Calculations to Appraise Stm-Based - and Kink-Formation Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    2001-03-01

    Ab-initio total energies can and should be used to test the typically model-dependent results of interpreting STM morphologies. The benefits of such tests are illustrated here by ab-initio energies of step- and kink-formation on Pb and Pt(111) which show that the STM-based values of the kink energies must be revised. On Pt(111), the computed kink-energies for (100)- and (111)-microfacet steps are about 0.25 and 0.18 eV. These results imply a specific ratio of formation energies for the two step types, namely 1.14, in excellent agreement with experiment. If kink-formation actually cost the same energy on the two step types, an inference drawn from scanning probe observations of step wandering,(M. Giesen et al., Surf. Sci. 366, 229(1996).) this ratio ought to be 1. In the case of Pb(111), though computed energies to form (100)- and (111)-microfacet steps agree with measurement, the ab-initio kink-formation energies for the two step types, 41 and 60 meV, are 40-50% below experimental values drawn from STM images.(K. Arenhold et al., Surf. Sci. 424, 271(1999).) The discrepancy results from interpreting the images with a step-stiffness vs. kink-energy relation appropriate to (100) but not (111) surfaces. Good agreement is found when proper account of the trigonal symmetry of Pb(111) is taken in reinterpreting the step-stiffness data.

  5. Quantitative localization microscopy: effects of photophysics and labeling stoichiometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P J Nieuwenhuizen

    Full Text Available Quantification in localization microscopy with reversibly switchable fluorophores is severely hampered by the unknown number of switching cycles a fluorophore undergoes and the unknown stoichiometry of fluorophores on a marker such as an antibody. We overcome this problem by measuring the average number of localizations per fluorophore, or generally per fluorescently labeled site from the build-up of spatial image correlation during acquisition. To this end we employ a model for the interplay between the statistics of activation, bleaching, and labeling stoichiometry. We validated our method using single fluorophore labeled DNA oligomers and multiple-labeled neutravidin tetramers where we find a counting error of less than 17% without any calibration of transition rates. Furthermore, we demonstrated our quantification method on nanobody- and antibody-labeled biological specimens.

  6. High-energy kink in the single-particle spectra of cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocaru, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Institute of Applied Physics, Chisinau 2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it; Marinaro, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); I.I.A.S.S., Via G. Pellegrino, n. 19 84019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2008-04-01

    Within a phenomenological model where electrons are coupled to a bosonic mode in a generic form of damped oscillator, we analyze the high-energy kink recently observed in ARPES experiments on cuprates. It is shown that the model allows to describe the main anomalous features found in experiments, such as the broad incoherent spectral weight, the 'waterfall dispersion', its doping and temperature dependence. In contrast to the low-energy kink, presence of significant damping is required to account for the anomalies. The 'bosonic mode' is related to the incoherent excitation peak observed in optical conductivity spectra of cuprates.

  7. Temperature and doping dependence of the high-energy kink in cuprates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemljic, M M; Prelovsek, P; Tohyama, T

    2008-01-25

    It is shown that spectral functions within the extended t-J model, evaluated using the finite-temperature diagonalization of small clusters, exhibit the high-energy kink in single-particle dispersion consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission results on hole-doped cuprates. The kink and waterfall-like features persist up to large doping and to temperatures beyond J; hence, the origin can be generally attributed to strong correlations and incoherent hole propagation at large binding energies. In contrast, our analysis predicts that electron-doped cuprates do not exhibit these phenomena in photoemission.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of kink instability and plasma flow during sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Kink instability and the subsequent plasma flow during the sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Analysis of the parallel current density λ profile in the central open column revealed that the n = 1 mode structure plays an important role in the relaxation and current drive. The toroidal flow (v t ≈ 37 km/s) is driven by magnetic reconnection occurring as a result of the helical kink distortion of the central open column during repetitive plasmoid ejection and merging. (author)

  9. Resistive internal kink modes in a tokamak with high-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.; Tatarinov, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Theory of resistive internal kink modes in a tokamak with high-pressure plasma is developed. Equation for Fourie-image of disturbed displacment in a resistive layer ie derived with regard to effects of the fourth order by plasma pressure within the framework of single-liquid approach. In its structure this equation coincides with a similar equation for resistive balloon modes and has an exact solution expressed by degenerated hypergeometric function. A general dispersion equation for resistive kink modes is derived with regard to the effects indicated. It is shown that plasma pressure finiteness leads to the reduction of reconnection and tyring-mode increments

  10. High-energy kink in the single-particle spectra of cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, S.; Citro, R.; Marinaro, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within a phenomenological model where electrons are coupled to a bosonic mode in a generic form of damped oscillator, we analyze the high-energy kink recently observed in ARPES experiments on cuprates. It is shown that the model allows to describe the main anomalous features found in experiments, such as the broad incoherent spectral weight, the 'waterfall dispersion', its doping and temperature dependence. In contrast to the low-energy kink, presence of significant damping is required to account for the anomalies. The 'bosonic mode' is related to the incoherent excitation peak observed in optical conductivity spectra of cuprates

  11. Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a non-topological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate (i.e. far from the core of the defects), the geometry is given by five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  12. Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a non-topological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate ...

  13. Flipped Classroom as an Alternative Strategy for Teaching Stoichiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Norrie E. Gayeta

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of flipped classroom and traditional classroom instruction in measuring conceptual change and to determine if flipped classroom instruction would be an alternative method of teaching to traditional lecture method. This study covered the level of conceptual understanding of students on stoichiometry and the type of conceptual change before and after exposure to flipped and traditional classroom environment. Qualitative and quantitative ...

  14. Flipped Classroom as an Alternative Strategy for Teaching Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrie E. Gayeta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of flipped classroom and traditional classroom instruction in measuring conceptual change and to determine if flipped classroom instruction would be an alternative method of teaching to traditional lecture method. This study covered the level of conceptual understanding of students on stoichiometry and the type of conceptual change before and after exposure to flipped and traditional classroom environment. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study. Respondents were two sections of third year Bachelor of Secondary Education, Biological Science. Frequency, percentage, ranking, mean, standard deviation, Hake factor test, and t-test were the statistical tools applied to answer specific questions. Results showed profound increase towards conceptual change representing a shift from intuitive understanding to correct incomplete understanding level. Thus, change for the better, in theoretical type was determined from pretest to posttest of students exposed to flipped and traditional classroom. Results also indicated that there is no significant difference on students’ conceptual change on stoichiometry exposed to flipped and traditional classroom environment thus, flipped classroom instruction can be used as an alternative teaching method to traditional lecture method in teaching stoichiometry

  15. [Research advances in ecological stoichiometry of marine plankton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Chao-Lun

    2014-10-01

    Ecological stoichiometry can be simply defined as: The biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere, which spans all levels of the environment and of the life. It's a new idea to build a unified theory and becomes an inevitable trend to develop the ecological science. Marine ecosystems, which contribute to 50% of the biosphere biomass, are the important component of the global biogeochemical cycles. Marine zooplankton plays an important role in the material circulation and energy flow of marine ecosystems and serves as a connecting link between the preceding and the following in a more precise understanding of the key elemental cycles. However, research on ecological stoichiometry of marine plankton is fragmentary and rare. This article summarized the ecological phenomena and mechanisms of limiting elements affecting marine plankton, the response of biochemical substances to nutrition limitation, and the food chain transmission and feedback of nutrition limitation. Meanwhile, we also put forward some perspectives for future research of ecological stoichiometry of plankton in China' s seas.

  16. Investigation on de-trapping mechanisms related to non-monotonic kink pattern in GaN HEMT devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an experimental approach to analyze the kink effect phenomenon which is usually observed during the GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT operation. De-trapping of charge carriers is one of the prominent reasons behind the kink effect. The commonly observed non-monotonic behavior of kink pattern is analyzed under two different device operating conditions and it is found that two different de-trapping mechanisms are responsible for a particular kink behavior. These different de-trapping mechanisms are investigated through a time delay analysis which shows the presence of traps with different time constants. Further voltage sweep and temperature analysis corroborates the finding that different de-trapping mechanisms play a role in kink behavior under different device operating conditions.

  17. Investigation on de-trapping mechanisms related to non-monotonic kink pattern in GaN HEMT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandan; Laishram, Robert; Amit, Rawal, Dipendra Singh; Vinayak, Seema; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-08-01

    This article reports an experimental approach to analyze the kink effect phenomenon which is usually observed during the GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) operation. De-trapping of charge carriers is one of the prominent reasons behind the kink effect. The commonly observed non-monotonic behavior of kink pattern is analyzed under two different device operating conditions and it is found that two different de-trapping mechanisms are responsible for a particular kink behavior. These different de-trapping mechanisms are investigated through a time delay analysis which shows the presence of traps with different time constants. Further voltage sweep and temperature analysis corroborates the finding that different de-trapping mechanisms play a role in kink behavior under different device operating conditions.

  18. Supporting traditional instructional methods with a constructivist approach to learning: Promoting conceputal change and understanding of stoichiometry using e-learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayan, Kenneth Munoz

    Stoichiometry is a fundamental topic in chemistry that measures a quantifiable relationship between atoms, molecules, etc. Stoichiometry is usually taught using expository teaching methods. Students are passively given information, in the hopes they will retain the transmission of information to be able to solve stoichiometry problems masterfully. Cognitive science research has shown that this kind of instructional teaching method is not very effecting in meaningful learning practice. Instead, students must take ownership of their learning. The students need to actively construct their own knowledge by receiving, interpreting, integrating and reorganizing that information into their own mental schemas. In the absence of active learning practices, tools must be created in such a way to be able to scaffold difficult problems by encoding opportunities necessary to make the construction of knowledge memorable, thereby creating a usable knowledge base. Using an online e-learning tool and its potential to create a dynamic and interactive learning environment may facilitate the learning of stoichiometry. The study entailed requests from volunteer students, IRB consent form, a baseline questionnaire, random assignment of treatment, pre- and post-test assessment, and post assessment survey. These activities were given online. A stoichiometry-based assessment was given in a proctored examination at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) campus. The volunteer students who took part in these studies were at least 18 of age and were enrolled in General Chemistry 1441, at the University of Texas at Arlington. Each participant gave their informed consent to use their data in the following study. Students were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments groups based on teaching methodology, (Dimensional Analysis, Operational Method, Ratios and Proportions) and a control group who just received instruction through lecture only. In this study, an e-learning tool was created to

  19. Exotic supersymmetry of the kink-antikink crystal, and the infinite period limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchay, Mikhail S.; Arancibia, Adrian; Nieto, Luis-Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Some time ago, Thies et al. showed that the Gross-Neveu model with a bare mass term possesses a kink-antikink crystalline phase. Corresponding self-consistent solutions, known earlier in polymer physics, are described by a self-isospectral pair of one-gap periodic Lame potentials with a Darboux displacement depending on the bare mass. We study an unusual supersymmetry of such a second-order Lame system, and show that the associated first-order Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian possesses its own nonlinear supersymmetry. The Witten index is ascertained to be zero for both of the related exotic supersymmetric structures, each of which admits several alternatives for the choice of a grading operator. A restoration of the discrete chiral symmetry at zero value of the bare mass, when the kink-antikink crystalline condensate transforms into the kink crystal, is shown to be accompanied by structural changes in both of the supersymmetries. We find that the infinite period limit may or may not change the index. We also explain the origin of the Darboux-dressing phenomenon recently observed in a nonperiodic self-isospectral one-gap Poeschl-Teller system, which describes the Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu kink-antikink baryons.

  20. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  1. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β

  2. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-01-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large βsub(perpendicular). (author)

  3. Stability of small axial wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m>=1)modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also constant current density equilibria can be stabilized for P per >P par and large β per . (authors)

  4. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  5. Stabilization of sausage and kink instability modes of a plasma pinch by radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Kravchenko, Y.P.; Liberman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The growth of the global sausage (m=0) and kink (m=1) perturbations of a Z-pinch subject to radial oscillations is considered. It is demonstrated that the oscillations result in significant reduction of the growth rate of both kink and sausage instability modes with wavelengths long compared to the pinch radius. The analysis of stability is carried out in two ways. The first method is based on the averaging magnetohydrodynamic equations over the period of radial oscillations. The second one consists in the analysis of the growth of Fourier-components of perturbations. Numerical simulation demonstrates that even moderate radial oscillations cause reduction of the growth rate of long-wavelength sausage instabilities and complete stabilization of long kinks. This can be understood as a result of the effective gravitational field produced in the pinch by the oscillations. The effect in question can explain the anomalous stability of pinches with respect to the kink perturbations observed in experiments. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Density of kinks just after a quench in an underdamped system

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, Jacek

    1998-01-01

    A quench in an underdamped one dimensional $\\phi^4$ model is studied by analytical methods. The density of kinks just after the transition is proportional to the square root of the rate of the quench for slow quenches. If the quench is shorter that the relaxation time, then the density scales like the third root of the rate.

  7. An investigation of coupling of the internal kink mode to error field correction coils in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of the internal kink to an external m/n = 1/1 perturbation is studied for profiles that are known to result in a saturated internal kink in the limit of a cylindrical tokamak. It is found from three-dimensional equilibrium calculations that, for A ≈ 30 circular plasmas and A ≈ 3 elliptical shapes, this coupling of the boundary perturbation to the internal kink is strong; i.e., the amplitude of the m/n = 1/1 structure at q = 1 is large compared with the amplitude applied at the plasma boundary. Evidence suggests that this saturated internal kink, resulting from small field errors, is an explanation for the TEXTOR and JET measurements of q 0 remaining well below unity throughout the sawtooth cycle, as well as the distinction between sawtooth effects on the q-profile observed in TEXTOR and DIII-D. It is proposed that this excitation, which could readily be applied with error field correction coils, be explored as a mechanism for controlling sawtooth amplitudes in high-performance tokamak discharges. This result is then combined with other recent tokamak results to propose an L-mode approach to fusion in tokamaks. (paper)

  8. Breather kink-antikink-pair conversion in the driven sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    Breather excitations in the sine-Gordon equation influenced by constant driving forces are investigated—large driving forces cause the breather to split into a kk― (2π kink-2π antikink) pair while for small driving forces the breather excitations enter stationary modes. A perturbation method...

  9. Internal oscillation frequencies and anharmonic effects for the double sine-Gordon kink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1989-01-01

    A simple derivation of the small oscillation frequency around 4π-kink solutions of the double sine-Gordon equation is presented. Small corrections to these frequencies due to anharmonic effects are also numerically and analytically investigated. The analysis is based on energetic considerations...

  10. Classification of kink type solutions to the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, J.; Fla, T.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Raman Extended Derivative Non Linear Schrodinger (R-EDNLS) equation which models single mode propagation in optical fibers, is shown to possess travelling and stationary kink envelope solutions of monotonic and oscillatory type. These structures have been called optical shocks in analogy...

  11. Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability of cylindrical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yoshikawa, Shoichi.

    1974-10-01

    Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability have been obtained numerically for various current distribution, including camel hump distribution. It is found that the unstable region expressed by q(a) is the largest in the case of uniform current. (auth.)

  12. Localized stability criterion for kink modes in systems with small shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastie, R.J.; Johnson, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    A localized magnetohydrodynamic stability criterion for ideal kink instabilities is determined for systems where the safety factor has a local minimum on a rational surface with no pressure gradient. These modes are stable in the cylindrical limit, but toroidal effects can make them unstable. They could provide a partial explanation for the rapid current penetration observed in tokamaks. 7 refs

  13. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA

  14. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density

  15. Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Welti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates. ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1 changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2 changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and

  16. Mode regularization of the supersymmetric sphaleron and kink: Zero modes and discrete gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Litvintsev, Andrei; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van

    2001-01-01

    To obtain the one-loop corrections to the mass of a kink by mode regularization, one may take one-half the result for the mass of a widely separated kink-antikink (or sphaleron) system, where the two bosonic zero modes count as two degrees of freedom, but the two fermionic zero modes as only one degree of freedom in the sums over modes. For a single kink, there is one bosonic zero mode degree of freedom, but it is necessary to average over four sets of fermionic boundary conditions in order (i) to preserve the fermionic Z 2 gauge invariance ψ→-ψ, (ii) to satisfy the basic principle of mode regularization that the boundary conditions in the trivial and the kink sector should be the same, (iii) that the energy stored at the boundaries cancels and (iv) to avoid obtaining a finite, uniformly distributed energy which would violate cluster decomposition. The average number of fermionic zero-energy degrees of freedom in the presence of the kink is then indeed 1/2. For boundary conditions leading to only one fermionic zero-energy solution, the Z 2 gauge invariance identifies two seemingly distinct 'vacua' as the same physical ground state, and the single fermionic zero-energy solution does not correspond to a degree of freedom. Other boundary conditions lead to two spatially separated ω∼0 solutions, corresponding to one (spatially delocalized) degree of freedom. This nonlocality is consistent with the principle of cluster decomposition for correlators of observables

  17. Improvement of kink characteristic of proton-implanted VCSEL with ITO overcoating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I.; Chang, Ya-Hsien; Laih, Li-Hong; Kuo, Hao-chung; Wang, S. C.

    2004-06-01

    Proton implanted VCSEL has been demonstrated with good reliability and decent modulation speed up to 1.25 Gb/s. However, kinks in current vs light output (L-I) has been always an issue in the gain-guided proton implant VCSEL. The kink related jitter and noise performance made it difficult to meet 2.5 Gb/s (OC-48) requirement. The kinks in L-I curve can be attributed to non-uniform carrier distribution induced non-uniform gain distribution within emission area. In this paper, the effects of a Ti/ITO transparent over-coating on the proton-implanted AlGaAs/GaAs VCSELs (15um diameter aperture) are investigated. The kinks distribution in L-I characteristics from a 2 inch wafer is greatly improved compared to conventional process. These VCSELs exhibit nearly kink-free L-I output performance with threshold currents ~3 mA, and the slope efficiencies ~ 0.25 W/A. The near-field emission patterns suggest the Ti/ITO over-coating facilitates the current spreading and uniform carrier distribution of the top VCSEL contact thus enhancing the laser performance. Finally, we performed high speed modulation measurement. The eye diagram of proton-implanted VCSELs with Ti/ITO transparent over-coating operating at 2.125 Gb/s with 10mA bias and 9dB extinction ratio shows very clean eye with jitter less than 35 ps.

  18. Bile duct kinking after adult living donor liver transplantation: Case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Xia, Qiang; Zhang, Jian Jun; Li, Qi Gen; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Xiao Song; Han, Long Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Regeneration of the partial allograft and the growth of children may cause kinking of the biliary tract after pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but bile duct kinking after adult LDLT is rarely reported. We herein presented two patients who suffered from anastomotic strictures caused by severe bile duct kinking after LDLT. The first patient was a 57-year-old woman with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis, who developed biliary stricture 5 months after receiving right-lobe LDLT. Subsequently, endoscopic and percutaneous treatments were attempted, but both failed to solve the problem. The second was a 44-year-old woman also having HBV-related liver cirrhosis. Biliary stricture occurred 14 months after LDLT. Likewise, the guide wire failed to pass through the stricture when endoscopic interventions were conducted. Afterwards, both of the two cases underwent reexploration, showing that compensatory hypertrophy of the allografts resulted in kinking and sharp angulation of the bile ducts, and the anastomotic sites were found to be severely stenotic. Finally, re-anastomosis by Roux-en-Y procedure was successfully performed, and long-term stenosis-free survival was achieved in both of them. Our experience suggests that bile duct kinking after LDLT may play a role in the high incidence of anastomotic strictures in adult LDLT recipients, which may also result in the treatment failure of the non-surgical techniques for anastomotic strictures. Re-anastomosis in the form of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is an effective surgical option for the treatment of such a condition. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Plant–insect interactions: the role of ecological stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy budget of organisms is a primary factor used to generate hypotheses in ecosystem ecology and evolutionary theory. Therefore, previous studies have focused on the energy costs and benefits of adaptations, the efficiency of energy acquisition and investment, and energy budget limitations. The maintenance of stoichiometric balance is equally important because inconsistency between the chemical composition of the consumer’s tissues and that of its food sources strongly affects the major life-history traits of the consumer and may influence the consumer’s fitness and shape plant–herbivore interactions. In this short review, the framework of ecological stoichiometry is introduced, focusing on plant–insect interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. The use of the trophic stoichiometric ratio (TSR index is presented as a useful tool for indicating the chemical elements that are scarce in food and have the potential to limit the growth and development of herbivores, thereby influencing plant – herbivorous insect interactions. As an example, the elemental composition and stoichiometry of a pollen consumer (mason bee Osmia bicornis and its preferred pollen are compared. The growth and development of O. bicornis may be colimited by the scarcity of K, Na, and N in pollen, whereas the development of the cocoon might be colimited by the scarcity of P, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Ca, and N. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen shows high taxonomical variability in the concentrations of bee-limiting elements. The optimized collection of pollen species based on the elemental composition may represent a strategy used by bees to overcome stoichiometric mismatches, influencing their interactions with plants. It is concluded that the dependence of life-history traits on food stoichiometry should be considered when discussing life history evolution and plant–herbivore interactions. The TSR index may serve as a convenient and powerful tool

  20. A mechanism for the formation of knots, kinks and discontinuous events in the plasma tail of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the growth rates and eigenmodes of the streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in the plasma tail of comets. The results show that both the sausage and kink modes can be excited by the sheared plasma flow, which is low at the centre of the plasma sheet and high on the two sides of the plasma sheet. The streaming sausage mode grows faster than the streaming kink mode when β L L >1.5, the streaming kink instability has a higher growth rate. The instability condition for both the streaming sausage and kink modes is found to be V L > or approx. 1.2 V AL . Here β L is the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures, V AL the Alfven velocity and V L the plasma flow velocity in the lobes of the cometary tail. In the presence of a finite resistivity, the streaming sausage mode evolves into the streaming tearing mode, which leads to the formation of magnetic islands. We suggest that some of the knots, kinks and disconnection events observed in the plasma tail of comets may be associated with the streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities, respectively. (author). 34 refs, 7 figs

  1. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.

  2. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. I. Internal kink mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.

  3. On the weak confinement of kinks in the one-dimensional quantum ferromagnet CoNb2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevich, S B

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper Coldea et al (2010 Science 327 177) report observations of the weak confinement of kinks in the Ising spin chain ferromagnet CoNb 2 O 6 at low temperatures. To interpret the entire spectra of magnetic excitations measured via neutron scattering, they introduce a phenomenological model, which takes into account only the two-kink configurations of the spin chain. We present the exact solution of this model. The explicit expressions for the two-kink bound-state energy spectra and for the relative intensities of neutron scattering on these magnetic modes are obtained in terms of the Bessel function

  4. A method to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt-Wunderlich Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kink behavior of vascular stents is of particular interest for clinicians, stent manufacturers and regulatory as a kinked stent generates a lumen loss in the stented vessel and can lead to in-stent restenosis. In this study methods to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to the ISO 25539-2 and FDA guidance no. 1545 were presented. The methods are applicable for balloon expandable stents as well as for self-expanding stents and determine the lumen loss and residual diameter change dependent on the specific bending radius.

  5. Simulation of non-resonant internal kink mode with toroidal rotation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, J. Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tritz, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q profile and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m,n) = (1,1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2,1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode. [Breslau et al. Nucl. Fusion 51, 063027 (2011)]. The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and significant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important effects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with finite toroidal rotation using parameters and profiles of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear profile. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little effect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can significantly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1,1) mode and the induced (2,1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at finite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the effects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2,1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  6. Stoichiometry of ferns in Hawaii: implications for nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatangelo, Kathryn L; Vitousek, Peter M

    2008-10-01

    We asked if element concentrations in ferns differ systematically from those in woody dicots in ways that could influence ecosystem properties and processes. Phylogenetically, ferns are deeply separated from angiosperms; for our analyses we additionally separated leptosporangiate ferns into polypod ferns, a monophyletic clade of ferns which radiated after the rise of angiosperms, and all other leptosporangiate (non-polypod) ferns. We sampled both non-polypod and polypod ferns on a natural fertility gradient and within fertilized and unfertilized plots in Hawaii, and compared our data with shrub and tree samples collected previously in the same plots. Non-polypod ferns in particular had low Ca concentrations under all conditions and less plasticity in their N and P stoichiometry than did polypod ferns or dicots. Polypod ferns were particularly rich in N and P, with low N:P ratios, and their stoichiometry varied substantially in response to differences in nutrient availability. Distinguishing between these two groups has the potential to be useful both in and out of Hawaii, as they have distinct properties which can affect ecosystem function. These differences could contribute to the widespread abundance of polypod ferns in an angiosperm-dominated world, and to patterns of nutrient cycling and limitation in sites where ferns are abundant.

  7. Experimental identification of the kink instability as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Bellan, P M

    2003-05-30

    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma. Onset of column kinking agrees quantitatively with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and the kink acts as a dynamo which converts toroidal to poloidal flux. Regime II clearly leads to both poloidal flux amplification and the development of a spheromak configuration.

  8. Experimental identification of the kink instability as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.C.; Bellan, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma. Onset of column kinking agrees quantitatively with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and the kink acts as a dynamo which converts toroidal to poloidal flux. Regime II clearly leads to both poloidal flux amplification and the development of a spheromak configuration

  9. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  10. Ideal MHD stability of internal kinks in circular and shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetjens, H.; Bondeson, A.; Vlad, G.

    1992-04-01

    Stability limits for the internal kink mode in tokamaks are calculated for different current profiles and plasma cross sections using ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The maximum stable poloidal beta at the q = 1 surface (β p ) is sensitive to the current profile, but for circular cross sections, it is typically between 0.1 and 0.2. Large aspect ratio theory gives similar predictions when the appropriate boundary conditions are applied at the plasma-vacuum surface. The pressure driven internal kink is significantly destabilized by ellipticity. For JET geometry, the β p -limit is typically between 0.05 and 0.1, but arbitrarily low limits can result if the shear is reduced at the q=1 surface. A large aspect ratio expansion of the Mercier criterion retaining the effects of ellipticity and triangularity is given to illustrate the destabilizing influence of ellipticity. (author) 17 figs., 16 refs

  11. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  12. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs: Exploiting a Regression Kink Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....... kink design. Thus, within a unifying framework we uncover price sensitivity for different subpopulations and types of drugs. The results suggest low average price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from -0.08 to -0.25, implying that demand is inelastic. Individuals with lower...

  13. Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Furukawa, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the “peeling-off” modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

  14. Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

    2014-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the “peeling-off” modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture

  15. Saturated ideal kink/peeling formations described as three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic tokamak equilibrium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W. A.; Brunetti, D.; Duval, B. P.; Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Kleiner, A.; Patten, H.; Pfefferlé, D.; Porte, L.; Raghunathan, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T. M., E-mail: wilfred.cooper@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three dimensional deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed for the first time. The structures obtained have the appearance of saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. High edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number n = 1 corrugations for a high edge bootstrap current and larger n distortions when this current is small. Deformations in the plasma boundary region induce a nonaxisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlüter current driving a field-aligned current ribbon consistent with reported experimental observations. A variation in the 3D equilibrium confirms that the n = 1 mode is a kink/peeling structure. We surmise that our calculated equilibrium structures constitute a viable model for the edge harmonic oscillations and outer modes associated with a quiescent H-mode operation in shaped tokamak plasmas.

  16. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m greater than or equal to 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large ..beta..sub(perpendicular).

  17. Emerging Translational Variance: Vacuum Polarization Energy of the ϕ6 Kink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow decomposition into symmetric and antisymmetric channels in one space dimension. In particular, we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the center of the soliton to the different masses of the quantum fluctuations at negative and positive spatial infinity.

  18. Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.

  19. Mitigating the Effect of an Orbit Kink on Vertical Emittance and Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Koop, I

    2015-01-01

    Orbit kinks in FCC tunnel are under discussions for they can help to reduce the depth of few shafts [1]. Still two unwanted effects could make their use completely forbidden. The vertical emittance growth due to vertical bending and vertical dispersion is one of these concerns [2]. Another concern is the need to somehow compensate strong distortions of spin motion [3]. Here I present an idea of how we can simultaneously solve both these problems.

  20. Influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes, dubbed ''fishbones'' in the literature, is explored. A general dispersion relation, which recovers the ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed. An important implication of the theory for present generation fusion devices such as the Joint European Torus [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, London, 1984), Vol I, p.11] is that they will be stable to fishbone activity

  1. Heteroleptic metallosupramolecular racks, rectangles, and trigonal prisms: stoichiometry-controlled reversible interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Subhadip; Lorenz, Yvonne; Engeser, Marianne; Samanta, Debabrata; Schmittel, Michael

    2013-06-17

    A simple approach toward preparation of heteroleptic two-dimensional (2D) rectangles and three-dimensional (3D) triangular prisms is described utilizing the HETPYP (HETeroleptic PYridyl and Phenanthroline metal complexes) concept. By mixing metal-loaded linear bisphenanthrolines of varying lengths with diverse (multi)pyridine (py) ligands in a proper ratio, six different self-assembled architectures arise cleanly and spontaneously in the absence of any template. They are characterized by (1)H and DOSY NMR, ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry as well as by Job plots and UV-vis titrations. Density functional theory (DFT) computations provide information about each structure. A stoichiometry-controlled supramolecule-to-supramolecule interconversion based on the relative amounts of metal bisphenanthroline and bipyridine forces the rectangular assembly to reorganize to a rack architecture and back to the rectangle, as clearly supported by variable temperature and DOSY NMR as well as dynamic light scattering data. The highly dynamic nature of the assemblies represents a promising starting point for constitutional dynamic materials.

  2. Experimental Identification of the Kink Instability as a Poloidal Flux Amplification Mechanism for Coaxial Gun Spheromak Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma...

  3. Active and passive kink mode studies in a tokamak with a movable ferromagnetic wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, J. P.; Hughes, P. E.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Rhodes, D. J.; Stoafer, C. C. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 500 W. 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    High-resolution active and passive kink mode studies are conducted in a tokamak with an adjustable ferromagnetic wall near the plasma surface. Ferritic tiles made from 5.6 mm thick Hiperco{sup ®} 50 alloy have been mounted on the plasma-facing side of half of the in-vessel movable wall segments in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse device [D. A. Maurer et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 074016 (2011)] in order to explore ferritic resistive wall mode stability. Low-activation ferritic steels are a candidate for structural components of a fusion reactor, and these experiments examine MHD stability of plasmas with nearby ferromagnetic material. Plasma-wall separation for alternating ferritic and non-ferritic wall segments is adjusted between discharges without opening the vacuum vessel. Amplification of applied resonant magnetic perturbations and plasma disruptivity are observed to increase when the ferromagnetic wall is close to plasma surface instead of the standard stainless steel wall. Rapidly rotating m/n=3/1 external kink modes have higher growth rates with the nearby ferritic wall. Feedback suppression of kinks is still as effective as before the installation of ferritic material in vessel, in spite of increased mode growth rates.

  4. Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2016-01-05

    In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.

  5. Kink-induced symmetry breaking patterns in brane-world SU(3)3 trinification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, Alison; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    The trinification grand unified theory (GUT) has gauge group SU(3) 3 and a discrete symmetry permuting the SU(3) factors. In common with other GUTs, the attractive nature of the fermionic multiplet assignments is obviated by the complicated multiparameter Higgs potential apparently needed for phenomenological reasons, and also by vacuum expectation value (VEV) hierarchies within a given multiplet. This motivates the rigorous consideration of Higgs potentials, symmetry breaking patterns, and alternative symmetry breaking mechanisms in models with this gauge group. Specifically, we study the recently proposed 'clash of symmetries' brane-world mechanism to see if it can help with the symmetry breaking conundrum. This requires a detailed analysis of Higgs potential global minima and kink or domain wall solutions interpolating between the disconnected global minima created through spontaneous discrete symmetry breaking. Sufficiently long-lived metastable kinks can also be considered. We develop what we think is an interesting, albeit speculative, brane-world scheme whereby the hierarchical symmetry breaking cascade, trinification to left-right symmetry to the standard model to color cross electromagnetism, may be induced without an initial hierarchy in vacuum expectation values. Another motivation for this paper is simply to continue the exploration of the rich class of kinks arising in models that are invariant under both discrete and continuous symmetries

  6. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  7. Size-Induced Switching of Nanowire Growth Direction: a New Approach Toward Kinked Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2016-04-26

    Exploring self-assembled nanostructures with controllable architectures has been a central theme in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of the tantalizing perspective of directly integrating such bottom-up nanostructures into functional devices. Here, the growth of kinked single-crystal In2O3 nanostructures consisting of a nanocone base and a nanowire tip with an epitaxial and defect-free transition is demonstrated for the first time. By tailoring the growth conditions, a reliable switching of the growth direction from [111] to [110] or [112] is observed when the Au catalyst nanoparticles at the apexes of the nanocones shrink below ≈100 nm. The natural formation of kinked nanoarchitectures at constant growth pressures is related to the size-dependent free energy that changes for different orientations of the nanowires. The results suggest that the mechanism of forming such kinked nanocone-nanowire nanostructures in well-controlled growth environment may be universal for a wide range of functional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Size-Induced Switching of Nanowire Growth Direction: a New Approach Toward Kinked Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Song, Xiaohui; Yu, Xuechao; Wang, Qijie; Chen, Hongyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Exploring self-assembled nanostructures with controllable architectures has been a central theme in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of the tantalizing perspective of directly integrating such bottom-up nanostructures into functional devices. Here, the growth of kinked single-crystal In2O3 nanostructures consisting of a nanocone base and a nanowire tip with an epitaxial and defect-free transition is demonstrated for the first time. By tailoring the growth conditions, a reliable switching of the growth direction from [111] to [110] or [112] is observed when the Au catalyst nanoparticles at the apexes of the nanocones shrink below ≈100 nm. The natural formation of kinked nanoarchitectures at constant growth pressures is related to the size-dependent free energy that changes for different orientations of the nanowires. The results suggest that the mechanism of forming such kinked nanocone-nanowire nanostructures in well-controlled growth environment may be universal for a wide range of functional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enhancement of optic cup detection through an improved vessel kink detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Damon W. K.; Liu, Jiang; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Lu, Shijian; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. The presence and extent of progression of glaucoma can be determined if the optic cup can be accurately segmented from retinal images. In this paper, we present a framework which improves the detection of the optic cup. First, a region of interest is obtained from the retinal fundus image, and a pallor-based preliminary cup contour estimate is determined. Patches are then extracted from the ROI along this contour. To improve the usability of the patches, adaptive methods are introduced to ensure the patches are within the optic disc and to minimize redundant information. The patches are then analyzed for vessels by an edge transform which generates pixel segments of likely vessel candidates. Wavelet, color and gradient information are used as input features for a SVM model to classify the candidates as vessel or non-vessel. Subsequently, a rigourous non-parametric method is adopted in which a bi-stage multi-resolution approach is used to probe and localize the location of kinks along the vessels. Finally, contenxtual information is used to fuse pallor and kink information to obtain an enhanced optic cup segmentation. Using a batch of 21 images obtained from the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the new method results in a 12.64% reduction in the average overlap error against a pallor only cup, indicating viable improvements in the segmentation and supporting the use of kinks for optic cup detection.

  10. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph : 2. stoichiometry mapping by Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Bayesian deconvolution algorithm described in a preceding paper [Appl. Opt. 43, 5669–5681 (2004)] is applied to measurement of the two-dimensional stoichiometry field in a combustible methane-air mixture by Raman imaging through a spectrograph. Stoichiometry (fuel equivalence ratio) is derived

  11. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 2. Stoichiometry mapping by Raman scattering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2004-01-01

    The Bayesian deconvolution algorithm described in a preceding paper [Appl. Opt. 43, 5669-5681 (2004)] is applied to measurement of the two-dimensional stoichiometry field in a combustible methane-air mixture by Raman imaging through a spectrograph. Stoichiometry (fuel equivalence ratio) is derived

  12. A Novel Code System for Revealing Sources of Students' Difficulties with Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Overton, Tina L.; Bowman, Charles R.; Fynewever, Herb

    2013-01-01

    A coding scheme is presented and used to evaluate solutions of seventeen students working on twenty five stoichiometry problems in a think-aloud protocol. The stoichiometry problems are evaluated as a series of sub-problems (e.g., empirical formulas, mass percent, or balancing chemical equations), and the coding scheme was used to categorize each…

  13. Influence of stoichiometry on electrochromic cerium-titanium oxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullman, L.; Richardson, T.; Rubin, M.; Slack, J.; Rottkay, K. von

    1997-01-01

    CeO 2 -TiO 2 finds use as passive counter-electrode in electrochromic devices. Thin films were produced by de-sputtering in a wide range of compositions. Influence of total pressure and oxygen partial pressure on the optical constants of TiO 2 was investigated. Slightly substoichiometric Ti0 2 films exhibit a red-shift of the bandgap. The Ti0 2 content in the compound essentially determines the degree of cathodical coloring upon Li + intercalation [1]. However, pure TiO 2 films with comparable visible transmittance in the clear state behave differently during electrochemical cycling depending on oxygen stoichiometry. Films that are deposited at higher total pressure are more oxygen rich and require initial formatting until current voltage cycles become stable. CeO 2 -Ti0 2 films of intermediate compositions have the relatively highest charge capacity. Comparison with atomic force microscopy indicates a correlation of small grain size with high charge capacity

  14. Subunit stoichiometry of the chloroplast photosystem I complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, B.D.; Malkin, R.

    1988-01-01

    A native photosystem I (PS I) complex and a PS I core complex depleted of antenna subunits has been isolated from the uniformly 14 C-labeled aquatic higher plant, Lemna. These complexes have been analyzed for their subunit stoichiometry by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results for both preparations indicate that one copy of each high molecular mass subunit is present per PS I complex and that a single copy of most low molecular mass subunits is also present. These results suggest that iron-sulfur center X, an early PS I electron acceptor proposed to bind to the high molecular mass subunits, contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster which is bound to a dimeric structure of high molecular mass subunits, each providing 2 cysteine residues to coordinate this cluster

  15. Dynamics of optical signals in a nematic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Adrian

    2001-03-01

    We study the modes in a nonlinear nematic waveguide above the Frederickz transition and calculate each of the thresholds associated with different optical and orientational modes. Then, we exhibit the presence of kink-like solutions for the orientational equation under the action of optical fields and study its propagation. Finally, we analyse the dynamics of optical signal in the presence of orientational kinks for different modes and type of signals.

  16. Evolving Phytoplankton Stoichiometry Fueled Diversification of the Marine Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Quigg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of nutrients and the quantity and quality of food at the base of food webs have largely been ignored in discussions of the Phanerozoic record of biodiversity. We examine the role of nutrient availability and phytoplankton stoichiometry (the relative proportions of inorganic nutrients to carbon in the diversification of the marine biosphere. Nutrient availability and phytoplankton stoichiometry played a critical role in the initial diversification of the marine biosphere during the Neoproterozoic. Initial biosphere expansion during this time resulted in the massive sequestration of nutrients into biomass which, along with the geologically slow input of nutrients from land, set the stage for severe nutrient limitation and relatively constant marine biodiversity during the rest of the Paleozoic. Given the slow nutrient inputs from land and low recycling rates, the growth of early-to-middle Paleozoic metazoans remained limited by their having to expend energy to first “burn off” (respire excess carbon in food before the associated nutrients could be utilized for growth and reproduction; the relative equilibrium in marine biodiversity during the Paleozoic therefore appears to be real. Limited nutrient availability and the consequent nutrient imbalance may have delayed the appearance of more advanced carnivores until the Permo-Carboniferous, when widespread orogeny, falling sea level, the spread of forests, greater weathering rates, enhanced ocean circulation, oxygenation, and upwelling all combined to increase nutrient availability. During the Meso-Cenozoic, rising oxygen levels, the continued nutrient input from land, and, especially, increasing rates of bioturbation, enhanced nutrient availability, increasing the nutrient content of phytoplankton that fueled the diversification of the Modern Fauna.

  17. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Kohler, Tyler J; Zandoná, Eugenia; Travis, Joseph; Marshall, Michael C; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N; Walsh, Matthew; Gilliam, James F; Pringle, Catherine; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6), average %N∼10.7%(±0.9), and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1). Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores may not be

  18. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana W El-Sabaawi

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6, average %N∼10.7%(±0.9, and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1. Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores

  19. Kinks and waterfalls in the dispersion of ARPES features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matho, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use a generic form for the Green function G(k, ω) in a correlated metal, already proven successful in describing ARPES line shapes . The associated many body self-energy function has only a single pole. We now investigate, whether this generic model can be used all the way to the limit of strong correlations and, when applied to ARPES intensities, whether it is able to explain some of the ubiquitous dispersive crossover phenomena that have been attributed to dynamical, i.e.: ω-dependent effects. We argue that a quantitative interpretation of experimental data requires to calculate extrema not only in the momentum distribution curve but also in the energy distribution curve. In passing, we give a formula for the extrema in the latter distribution that is valid for the general G(k, ω) in a many body system. To our knowledge, this is a new formula, not found in the literature. The investigation of the generic model proceeds on two levels: on the one hand, we explore the rich variety of crossovers that can be predicted and linked to well defined features in the complex ω-plain. On the other hand, we show that the generic one-pole self-energy can be viewed as a projection on the low energy sector of a microscopic solution, belonging to a lattice model of interacting fermions. To obtain approximate microscopic solutions, we use our continued fraction method . As an explicit example, we study the projection for the case of a hole doped Hubbard model in infinite dimension. A discussion section gives examples, how the generic model is able to cope with the ubiquity of the crossover phenomena, also in finite dimension and beyond the Hubbard model.

  20. The elemental stoichiometry (C, Si, N, P) of the Hebrides Shelf and its role in carbon export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.C.; Hartman, S.E.; Kivimäe, C.; Salt, L.A.; Clargo, N.M.; Daniels, C.J.; Bozec, Y.; Daniels, L.; Allen, S.; Hemsley, V.S.; Moschonase, G.; Davidson, K.

    2017-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the internal stoichiometry of a temperate latitude shelf sea system is presented whichreveals strong vertical and horizontal gradients in dissolved nutrient and particulate concentrations and in theelemental stoichiometry of those pools. Such gradients have implications for

  1. A model for variable phytoplankton stoichiometry based on cell protein regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bonachela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The elemental ratios of marine phytoplankton emerge from complex interactions between the biotic and abiotic components of the ocean, and reflect the plastic response of individuals to changes in their environment. The stoichiometry of phytoplankton is, thus, dynamic and dependent on the physiological state of the cell. We present a theoretical model for the dynamics of the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of a phytoplankton population. By representing the regulatory processes controlling nutrient uptake, and focusing on the relation between nutrient content and protein synthesis, our model qualitatively replicates existing experimental observations for nutrient content and ratios. The population described by our model takes up nutrients in proportions that match the input ratios for a broad range of growth conditions. In addition, there are two zones of single-nutrient limitation separated by a wide zone of co-limitation. Within the co-limitation zone, a single point can be identified where nutrients are supplied in an optimal ratio. When different species compete, the existence of a wide co-limitation zone implies a more complex pattern of coexistence and exclusion compared to previous model predictions. However, additional comprehensive laboratory experiments are needed to test our predictions. Our model contributes to the understanding of the global cycles of oceanic nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the elemental ratios of these nutrients in phytoplankton populations.

  2. On the relevance of kinking to reversible hysteresis in MAX phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.G.; Humphrey, C.; Connor, L.D.; Wilhelmsson, O.; Hultman, L.; Stone, H.J.; Giuliani, F.; Clegg, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the idea that reversible hysteresis in MAX phases is caused by the formation, growth and collapse of unstable, or incipient, kink bands. In situ X-ray diffraction of polycrystalline Ti 3 SiC 2 in compression showed that residual elastic lattice strains developed during the first loading cycle and remained approximately constant afterwards. These residual strains were compressive in grains with a low Schmid factor and tensile in grains with a high Schmid factor, consistent with previous observations of plastically deformed hexagonal metals. In contrast, incipient kink bands would be expected to collapse completely, without any residual strain. Elastoplastic self-consistent simulations showed that reversible hysteresis is predicted if some grains yield by slip on the basal plane, while others remain predominantly elastic, giving both the experimentally observed magnitude of the work dissipated and its dependence on the maximum applied stress. The reversible hysteresis in single crystals was studied by cyclically indenting thin films of Ti 3 SiC 2 and Ti 3 SiC 2 /TiC multilayers on Al 2 O 3 substrates. The work dissipated in the multilayer films was greater than in Ti 3 SiC 2 alone, despite the reduction in volume fraction of Ti 3 SiC 2 . Reversible hysteresis was also observed during indentation of single-crystal cubic MgO, demonstrating that this behaviour can occur if there are insufficient slip systems to accommodate the strain around the indentation. These results show that reversible hysteresis is associated with conventional dislocation flow, without the need for unstable kinking

  3. Effect of stoichiometry on magnetic and transport properties in polycrystalline Y2Ir2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Vinod Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we discuss synthesis of polycrystalline Y2Ir2O7 by solid state reaction route. XRD analysis shows deviation from stoichiometry which is also confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. SEM analysis indicates average particle size ranging from 100 nm to 800 µm. EDX analysis gives clear evidence for deviation of stoichiometry of the product. Magnetic analysis is indicating effect of stoichiometry and showing ferromagnetic interaction unlike antiferromagnetic feature. Electrical resistivity is showing similar behavior as reported earlier and reveals no effect of different size of grains or grain boundaries from room temperature to 125 K.

  4. Analysis of acetylation stoichiometry suggests that SIRT3 repairs nonenzymatic acetylation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Moustafa, Tarek; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    or suppresses acetylation. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we measured acetylation stoichiometry in mouse liver tissue and found that SIRT3 suppressed acetylation to a very low stoichiometry at its target sites. By examining acetylation changes in the liver, heart, brain, and brown adipose tissue...... of fasted mice, we found that SIRT3-targeted sites were mostly unaffected by fasting, a dietary manipulation that is thought to regulate metabolism through SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. Globally increased mitochondrial acetylation in fasted liver tissue, higher stoichiometry at mitochondrial acetylation...... functions as a protein repair factor that removes acetylation lesions from lysine residues....

  5. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J.; Bool, L.E.; Kang, S.G. [and others

    1995-11-01

    This project is designed to examine the effects of combustion stoichiometry on the fundamental aspects of ash formation and ash deposit initiation. Emphasis is being placed on reducing stoichiometries associated with low-NOx combustion, although a range of oxidant/fuel ratios are being considered. Previous work has demonstrated that ash formation depends strongly upon coal mineralogy, including mineral type, size, amount, and the presence of organically associated inorganic species. Combustion temperature and the oxidation state of iron also play a significant role. As these latter items will vary with changes in stoichiometry, research to determine the net effect on deposition is required.

  6. Results in a consecutive series of 83 surgical corrections of symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.

  7. The effect of energetic trapped particles on the ''ideal'' internal kink mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Berk, H.L.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1988-12-01

    The internal kink stability of a tokamak in the presence of energetic particles is studied. It is found that there exists a stable window when a finite population of energetic particles are present, and the relation between the predictions of the fishbone theory of Chen-White-Rosenbluth and the fishbone theory of Coppi-Porcelli is explained. The theory indicates why some experiments, like PDX and TFTR, are likely to see fishbone oscillations in conjunction with sawtooth modes, while other experiments can observe sawtooth suppression in presence of hot particles. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Ideal and resistive MHD stability of internal kink modes in circular and shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; Vlad, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent results for the MHD stability of internal kink modes in tokamaks are reviewed. In general, ideal stability is more restrictive than the conventionally cited limit β p p is the poloidal beta at the q = 1 surface). This holds, in particular, for shaped equilibria, where low shear in combination with elliptic shaping can drastically reduce the pressure limit. Also in resistive MHD, interchange effects are frequently destabilizing, and resistive stability at β p ≥0.05 is achieved, for circular section, only with a very restricted class of current profiles, and not at all for JET-shaped cross section. (author) 9 figs., 24 refs

  9. Expanding arch aneurysm causing a "kink" in a Bentall graft and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A; Skarsgard, Peter; Khoo, Clarence; Virani, Sean A; Munt, Brad; Leipsic, Jonathon; Ignaszewski, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with a high incidence of aortic root aneurysm and life-threatening aortic dissection. With the successful use of surgical aortic root replacement, dissection-related mortality has been significantly reduced. We present the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome who presented with heart failure secondary to an unusual graft-related complication 14 years after a Bentall procedure. Investigations revealed a supra-aortic stenosis resulting from a kink in the Bentall graft caused by pressure from an expanding aortic arch aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery with improvement in his ejection fraction and heart failure symptoms.

  10. Numerical studies of non-linear evolution of kink and tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Monticello, D.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Strauss, H.; Kadomtsev, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    A set of numerical techniques for investigating the full nonlinear unstable behavior of low β kink modes of given helical symmetry in Tokamaks is presented. Uniform current density plasmas display complicated deformations including the formation of large vacuum bubbles provided that the safety factor q is sufficiently close to integral. Fairly large m = 1 deformations, but not bubble formation, persist for a plasma with a parabolic current density profile (and hence shear). Deformations for m greater than or equal to 2 are, however, greatly suppressed. (auth)

  11. High #betta# and toroidal effects on the internal kink mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.

    1982-09-01

    The inclusion of high-#betta# and first-order toroidal terms in the reduced set of (resistive) MHD equations affords the possibility of improving the study of tokamak plasma behaviour by three-dimensional numerical simulation. A new code, GALA, based on the reduced equations is developed. It is used to analyse the linear and nonlinear behaviour of the internal kink mode in equilibria which are generated by a simple relaxation procedure. We find that the inclusion of toroidal effects in high-#betta# equilibria provides considerable stabilization. (orig.)

  12. Renormalization of the Sine-Gordon model and nonconservation of the kink current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.; Polonyi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper renormalize the (1 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by placing it on a Euclidean lattice, and study the renormalization group flow. The authors start with a compactified theory with controllable vortex activity. In the continuum limit the theory has a phase in which the kink current is anomalous, with divergence given by the vortex density. The phase structure is quite complicated. Roughly speaking, the system is normal for small coupling T. At the Kosterlitz-Thouless point T = π/2, the current can become anomalous. At the Coleman point T = 8π either the current becomes anomalous or the theory becomes trivial

  13. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-05-13

    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy.

  14. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The one-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V. M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    "parabola-constant" approximation of the double-Morse potential is suggested and studied analytically. The dependence of the Peierls-Nabarro potential on the system parameters is studied. Discrete traveling-wave solutions of a narrow permanent profile are shown to exist, depending on the anharmonicity...

  15. KINK METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  16. Physical determinants of phytoplankton production, algal stoichiometry, and vertical nutrient fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Christoph G; Diehl, Sebastian; Emans, Maximilian

    2010-04-01

    Most phytoplankters face opposing vertical gradients in light versus nutrient supplies but have limited capacities for vertical habitat choice. We therefore explored a dynamical model of negatively buoyant algae inhabiting a one-dimensional water column to ask how water column depth and turbulence constrain total (areal) phytoplankton biomass. We show that the population persistence boundaries in water column depth-turbulence space are set by sinking losses and light limitation but that nutrients are most limiting to total biomass in water columns that are neither too shallow or too weakly mixed (where sinking losses prevail) nor too deep and turbulent (where light limitation prevails). In shallow waters, the most strongly limiting process is nutrient influx to the bottom of the water column (e.g., from sediments). In deep waters, the most strongly limiting process is turbulent upward transport of nutrients to the photic zone. Consequently, the highest total biomasses are attained in turbulent waters at intermediate water column depths and in deep waters at intermediate turbulences. These patterns are insensitive to the assumption of fixed versus flexible algal carbon-to-nutrient stoichiometry, and they arise irrespective of whether the water column is a surface layer above a deep water compartment or has direct contact with sediments.

  17. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  18. Impact of stoichiometry representation on simulation of genotype-phenotype relationships in metabolic networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Andrejev, Sergej; Maranas, Costas D.

    2012-01-01

    the formulation of the desired objective functions, by casting objective functions using metabolite turnovers rather than fluxes. By simulating perturbed metabolic networks, we demonstrate that the use of stoichiometry representation independent algorithms is fundamental for unambiguously linking modeling results...

  19. Lake nutrient stoichiometry is less predictable than nutrient concentrations at regional and sub-continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah M; Oliver, Samantha K; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Stanley, Emily H; Jones, John R; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-07-01

    Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio. Further, the dominant controls on elemental concentrations likely vary across regions, resulting in context dependent relationships between drivers, lake nutrients and their ratios. Here, we examine whether known drivers of N and P concentrations can explain variation in N:P stoichiometry, and whether explaining variation in stoichiometry differs across regions. We examined drivers of N:P in ~2,700 lakes at a sub-continental scale and two large regions nested within the sub-continental study area that have contrasting ecological context, including differences in the dominant type of land cover (agriculture vs. forest). At the sub-continental scale, lake nutrient concentrations were correlated with nutrient loading and lake internal processing, but stoichiometry was only weakly correlated to drivers of lake nutrients. At the regional scale, drivers that explained variation in nutrients and stoichiometry differed between regions. In the Midwestern U.S. region, dominated by agricultural land use, lake depth and the percentage of row crop agriculture were strong predictors of stoichiometry because only phosphorus was related to lake depth and only nitrogen was related to the percentage of row crop agriculture. In contrast, all drivers were related to N and P in similar ways in the Northeastern U.S. region, leading to weak relationships between drivers and stoichiometry

  20. Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calió, Francesco G; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Montesano, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The operation for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 44 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 67 years underwent 55 revascularizations of the internal carotid artery. The surgical procedures consisted of the following: shortening and reimplantation in the common carotid artery in 36 cases, bypass grafting in 15 cases, and transposition into the external carotid artery in 4 cases. Cumulative survival, primary patency, and stroke-free and neurologic symptom-free rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The postoperative stroke rate was 1.8%. The cumulative rates (SEs) at 5 years were as follows: survival, 70% (10.2%); primary patency, 89% (7.8%); overall stroke free, 92% (6.8%); ipsilateral stroke free, 96% (5.3%); neurologic symptom free, 90% (7.5%); and ipsilateral symptom free, 93% (6.5%). Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for the treatment of isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

  1. Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.

  2. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  3. Investigations of toroidal wave numbers of the kink instabilities in a toroidal pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamajima, Takataro; Irisawa, Juichi; Tsukada, Tokuaki; Sugito, Osamu; Maruyama, Hideaki

    1979-01-01

    The axial toroidal wave numbers of the kink instability of toroidal pinch plasma were measured and investigated with a specially designed coil, and the results were compared with the MHD theory. The schematic figure and the particulars of the experimental apparatus are briefly illustrated in the first part. The method of generating theta-Z pinch plasma, the wave form of the magnetic flux density in Z-direction and the plasma current are also explained. The 360 deg stereoscopic framing photographs were taken with an image converter camera at the intervals of 0.5 μs after the initiation of the main electric discharge in Z-circuit. From these photographs, the growth of the kink instability was observed. The measured magnetic field distribution at t = 2 μs is presented. In the second part, the radial displacement of plasma and toroidal wave number were measured from the above framing photographs. Then the spectra of plasma displacement were analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The measured results of toroidal wave number was analyzed by both the skin current model and the diffuse current model. Many new results obtained from the present study were mainly derived from the observation of the framing photographs, and they are summarized in the final part of this paper. (Aoki, K.)

  4. 18-gauge needle cap as adjunct to prevent kinking of endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fuan Chiang; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2012-11-01

    A self-retaining Dingman mouth retractor is widely used to keep the mouth open during cleft palate and intraoral surgery. The airway is at risk of being crushed or occluded as the gag (tongue plate) of the Dingman mouth retractor is being pushed against the endotracheal tube.Kinking of the endotracheal tube between the teeth and Dingman mouth retractor has been reported even with the oral Ring-Adair-Elwyn or flexometallic or armored endotracheal tubes. To minimize kinking of the endotracheal tube and its consequent complications, we routinely insert an 18-gauge needle cap at the potential space between the teeth and the tongue plate (gag) of the Dingman mouth retractor, which is situated lateral to the endotracheal tube. In our experience of approximately 5000 intraoral cases using a Dingman mouth retractor and 18-gauge needle cap, we have not had any tooth avulsion or aspiration of the 18-gauge foreign body while maintaining a consistent and secured airway during cleft palate and intraoral surgery.

  5. Stabilization of external kink modes in a tokamak with rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Kuvshinov, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical theory of stabilization of external kink modes in a tokamak with rotating plasma is developed, which is of interest in connection with experiments on the DIII-D tokamak demonstrating such a stabilization. It is assumed that, in addition to the main poloidal harmonic, the mode includes one or more side-band poloidal harmonics with singular points lying inside the plasma. Near these singular points, plasma inertia and related toroidal effects, the compressible part of plasma pressure and longitudinal viscosity, are allowed for. These effects are described kinetically taking into account the toroidal trapping of the resonant ions, which is essential if the toroidal velocity is small compared to the ion thermal velocity. Thereby, the theory presented includes both ion Landau damping and its weakening due to toroidal trapping. Near the singular points high-beta effects, which result in the finiteness of the Mercier index s, are allowed for. It is shown that the influence of plasma rotation on the external kink modes is most significant in the case of s<0, i.e., when the development of the instability in a non-rotating plasma is most highly favored. In this case, the plasma rotation plays a stabilizing role, even when the ion Landau damping is neglected. The analysis presented also confirms the hypothesis of Bondeson and Ward on the stabilizing effect of ion Landau damping if this damping is not too small

  6. The non-resonant kink modes triggering strong sawtooth-like crashes in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erzhong; Igochine, V.; Dumbrajs, O.; Xu, L.; Chen, K.; Shi, T.; Hu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Evolution of the safety factor (q) profile during L-H transitions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) was accompanied by strong core crashes prior to regular sawtooth behavior. These crashes appeared in the absence of q = 1 (q is the safety factor) rational surface inside the plasma. Analysis indicates that the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is destabilized and phase-locked with the m/n = 1/1 non-resonant kink mode (the q = 1 rational surface is absent) due to the self-consistent evolution of plasma profiles as the L-H transition occurs (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The growing m/n = 1/1 mode destabilizes the m/n = 2/2 kink mode which eventually triggers the strong crash due to an anomalous heat conductivity, as predicted by the transport model of stochastic magnetic fields using experimental parameters. It is also shown that the magnetic topology changes with the amplitude of m/n = 2/2 mode and the value of center safety factor in a reasonable range.

  7. Ideal kink and neoclassical tearing mode identification in DIII-D with ECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailin; Austin, Max; Brookman, Michale; Rowan, William; La Haye, R. J.

    2017-10-01

    Detection of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), which can degrade plasma confinement or cause disruptions, is important in tokamaks. We have developed a code to cross-correlate ECE/magnetics data to get the amplitude and phase profiles of the electron temperature (Te) oscillation caused by the rotating magnetic island and/or a kink. It has been observed that the ΔTe amplitude on the two sides of the island center can be very different in some discharges. Also, a discrepancy often exists between the location of the rational q surface according to MSE-constrained EFIT and the location of island center according to ECE; this can be an issue for ECCD suppression of NTMs. We explore the possible causes of these two phenomena in terms of ECE location and calibration accuracy. By analyzing the Te fluctuation phase evolution after a large sawtooth crash which triggers an NTM, the presence of a kink-like mode before the onset of NTM can be discerned. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-97ER54415 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Cell-Sediment Separation and Elemental Stoichiometries in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M.; Poret-peterson, A. T.; Lee, Z. M.; Anbar, A. D.; Elser, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    counting by epifluorescence microscopy indicated a cell recovery yield between 6 and 40% in field-collected samples (95% for cultured E. coli). Aluminum, assumed to be non-biological in origin, was used to estimate the extent of mineral contamination of isolated cell communities. These results show that our method is successful at separating microbial cells from sediment collected in extreme environments and preserving them for analysis of a broad suite of elements. Photosynthetic sites yielded much more cell material than hotter, chemosynthetic sites (Cox et al., 2011). We are currently measuring cellular elemental abundances and ratios in samples from relatively low-temperature (25 to 65°C), photosynthetic areas, spanning a wide range of pH (2 to 9.5) and composition. These measurements will be compared to existing datasets on the bulk sediment stoichiometry of these ecosystems, and to previous observations of cellular elemental composition. References: Redfield, A.C. (1934) In Daniel, R.J. [Ed.], James Johnstone Memorial Volume, pp. 176-192, Univ. Press Liverpool. Sterner, R.W., Elser, J.J. (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry Princeton Univ. Press, 441p. Havig, J.R., et al. (2011) JGR 116, G01005. Amalfitano, S., Fazi, S. (2008) J. of Microbiol. Methods 75, 237-243. Cox, A., et al. (2011) Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351.

  9. Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a deformable chain: Influence of the non-Gaussian correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woulache, R.L.; Kofane, T.C.; Yemele, D.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a nonlinear Klein- Gordon model with Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential coupled to an applied field is analyzed in the limits of moderate temperature and strong damping. We derive analytically the non- Gaussian correction to the nucleation rate formula of kink- antikink pairs previously calculated by Yemele and Kofane and show that the correction factor depends on the intensity of the applied field, the temperature of the system and the shape of the substrate potential. (author)

  10. CZTS stoichiometry effects on the band gap energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malerba, Claudia; Biccari, Francesco; Azanza Ricardo, Cristy Leonor; Valentini, Matteo; Chierchia, Rosa; Müller, Melanie; Santoni, Antonino; Esposito, Emilia; Mangiapane, Pietro; Scardi, Paolo; Mittiga, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CZTS films with different compositions were grown from stacked-layer precursors. • The band-gap energy varies from 1.48 to 1.63 eV as the [Sn]/[Cu] ratio increases. • The Zn content seems not to be a critical parameter for the optical properties. • PDS data show an increase of the sub-gap absorption as the Sn content is reduced. • Formation of defects at low Sn content was proposed to explain the Eg variation. -- Abstract: The considerable spread of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) optical properties reported in the literature is discussed in terms of material stoichiometry. To this purpose, kesterite thin films were prepared by sulfurization of multilayered precursors of ZnS, Cu and Sn, changing the relative amounts to obtain CZTS layers with different compositions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used for structural and compositional analysis. XRD quantitative phase analysis provides the amount of spurious phases and information on Sn-site occupancy. The optical properties were investigated by spectrophotometric and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) measurements to assess the absorption coefficient of samples with different compositions. The PDS data show an increase of the sub-band absorption as the Sn content decreases. The results are interpreted assuming the formation of additional defects as the tin content is reduced. Those defects can also be responsible for the decrease of the band gap energy value as the Sn/Cu ratio is decreased

  11. Morphological Dependence of Element Stoichiometry in the H. americanus Exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    The crustacean exoskeleton is a complex biocomposite of inorganic mineral and organic macromolecules that expresses highly divergent morphologies across different taxa. While the structures and compositions of the organic framework show complex links to environmental and developmental pressures, little is known about the mineral chemistry. Previous studies of the cuticle have assumed that magnesium, phosphorous, and other trace metals are largely contained in the inorganic mineral fraction. Due to analytical limitations of structural analyses and in situ spectroscopic methods, the stoichiometry of the organic and inorganic portions could not be resolved. For example, previous Raman and XRD studies conclude the higher concentrations of trace elements, such as P and Mg measured in reinforced structures, e.g. the claw and abdomen, are primarily determined by the mineral fraction. Using the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) as a model organism to establish relationships between body part function and cuticle composition, this study quantified the distributions of Mg and P in the mineral and organic fractions. The experiments were designed to dissolve the exoskeleton of 10 body parts using three types of solutions that were specific to extracting 1) the mineral phase, 2) protein, and 3) polysaccharide. Analysis of the solutions by ICP-OES shows the mineral phase contains magnesium and phosphorous at concentrations sufficient to support the formation of calcium-magnesium and phosphate minerals. The protein fraction of the body parts contains significantly more Mg and P than previously hypothesized, while the levels of P contained in the organic portion are fairly constant. The findings demonstrate the lobster cuticle contains a significant amount of non-mineralized P and Mg that is readily water-soluble in the protein component. However, for those body parts used for defense and food acquisition, such as the claw, the mineral component determines the overall

  12. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation.

  13. Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω {sub c}. The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B{sub e} / B{sub i}  ≈ 0–0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω{sub c}  ≈ 0.003–0.010 s{sup −1} (periods 600 < P{sub c} < 2000 s). The estimate of the cut-off frequency in the transition region is provided as well. In the propagating wave regime, the effective wave energy flux in the non-isothermal diverging flux tubes is the same as in the straight and homogeneous cylindrical waveguides. The obtained wave equation in the limit β  = 0 is used to study the kink oscillations of non-isothermal coronal loops. It is found that the gradient of temperature along the coronal loops reduces the frequency ratio of the first overtone to the fundamental mode, i.e., ω{sub 2}/ ω{sub 1} < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.

  14. Consequences of Modification of Photosystem Stoichiometry and Amount in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Willem [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The proposed research seeks to address two interconnected, important questions that impact photosynthetic processes and that reflect key differences between the photosynthetic systems of cyanobacteria and plants or algae. The first question is what are the reasons and consequences of the high photosystem I / photosystem II (PS I/PS II) ratio in many cyanobacteria, vs. a ratio that is close to unity in many plants and algae. The corresponding hypothesis is that most of PS I functions in cyclic electron transport, and that reduction in PS I will result primarily in a shortage of ATP rather than reducing power. This hypothesis will be tested by reducing the amount of PS I by changing the promoter region of the psaAB operon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and generating a range of mutants with different PS I content and thereby different PS I/PS II ratios, with some of the mutants having a PS II/PS I ratio closer to that in plants. The resulting mutants will be probed in terms of their growth rates, electron transfer rates, and P700 redox kinetics. A second question relates to a Mehler-type reaction catalyzed by two flavoproteins, Flv1 and Flv3, that accept electrons from PS I and that potentially function as an electron safety valve leading to no useful purpose of the photosynthesis-generated electrons. The hypothesis to be tested is that Flv1 and Flv3 use the electrons for useful purposes such as cyclic electron flow around PS I. This hypothesis will be tested by analysis of a mutant strain lacking flv3, the gene for one of the flavoproteins. This research is important for a more detailed understanding of the consequences of photosystem stoichiometry and amounts in a living system. Such an understanding is critical for not only insights in the regulatory systems of the organism but also to guide the development of biological or bio-hybrid systems for solar energy conversion into fuels.

  15. Anomalous resistivity due to kink modes in a thin current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritaka, Toseo; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The roles of microscopic plasma instabilities on the violation of the frozen-in constraint are investigated by examining the force balance equation based on explicit electromagnetic particle simulation for a thin current sheet. Wave-particle interactions associated with lower hybrid drift instability and drift kink instability (DKI) contribute to the wavy electric force term at the periphery of the current sheet and the wavy magnetic force term at the neutral sheet, respectively. In the linear growing phase of DKI, the wavy magnetic force term balances with the electric force term due to the dc electric field at the neutral sheet. It is concluded that the growth of DKI can create anomalous resistivity and result in the violation of the frozen-in constraint as well as the diffusion of current density

  16. Fast particle effects on the internal kink, fishbone and Alfven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Park, W.; Kusama, Y.; Shinokhara, K.; Ozeki, T.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D. (author)

  17. Scattering matrices for Φ1,2 perturbed conformal minimal models in absence of kink states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koubek, A.; Martins, M.J.; Mussardo, G.

    1991-05-01

    We determine the spectrum and the factorizable S-matrices of the massive excitations of the nonunitary minimal models M 2,2n+1 perturbed by the operator Φ 1,2 . These models present no kinks as asymptotic states, as follows from the reduction of the Zhiber-Mikhailov-Shabat model with respect to the quantum group SL(2) q found by Smirnov. We also give the whole set of S-matrices of the nonunitary minimal model M 2,9 perturbed by the operator Φ 1,4 , which is related to a RSOS reduction for the Φ 1.2 operator of the unitary model M 8,9 . The thermodynamical Bethe ansatz and the truncated conformal space approach are applied to these scattering theories in order to support their interpretation. (orig.)

  18. The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack......, the T-stress is not positive with increasing the extension length until a threshold is exceeded. Based on directional stability criterion with respect to the sign of the T-stress, this result implies that for a straight crack with a positive T-stress, the crack extension path will not turn immediately...

  19. Effect of gyroviscosity on the small axial wavelength internal kink instability in the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of ion gyroviscosity on the stability of m=1 small axial wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated by normal mode methods. We use the Incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model introduced to include Finite Larmor Radius effects. For vanishing Larmor radius, a stability criterion which coincides with that of ideal MHD is found; the Kadomtsev criterion 2rdp/dr+m/sp2/B/sp2///my//sb0/> or = 0. This criterion predicts instability unless the current density becomes singular at the centre of the pinch. When the Larmor radius terms of the ion pressure tensor are included, we find that marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized. (authors)

  20. Hall effect upon small wavelength kink instabilities near an elliptic magnetic stagnation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Faghihi, M.

    1985-12-01

    To explore the question whether the Hall effect removes the unphysical feature of ideal magnetohydrodynamics of predicting unstable small wavelenght kinks near any elliptic magnetic stagnation line, a spectral analysis is performed of the motion of an incompressible plasma about cylindrical Z-pinch equilibria with circular sections. The eigenvalue loci in the complex frequency plane are derived for the equilibrium with constant current density. These show that every particular mode becomes stable as the Hall parameter exceeds a critical value. However, this critical value is a decreasing function of the ideal growth rate and has a pole at the origin, implying that there always remains an infinite reservoir of slowly growing instabilities. Correspondingly, for equilibiria with arbitrary current distributions, the stability criterion is unaffected by the Hall term. (author)

  1. Sign Learning Kink-based (SiLK) Quantum Monte Carlo for molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoyao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Hall, Randall W. [Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California 94901 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Löffler, Frank [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Kowalski, Karol [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The Sign Learning Kink (SiLK) based Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method is used to calculate the ab initio ground state energies for multiple geometries of the H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, and F{sub 2} molecules. The method is based on Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and has two stages. The first stage is called the learning stage and reduces the well-known QMC minus sign problem by optimizing the linear combinations of Slater determinants which are used in the second stage, a conventional QMC simulation. The method is tested using different vector spaces and compared to the results of other quantum chemical methods and to exact diagonalization. Our findings demonstrate that the SiLK method is accurate and reduces or eliminates the minus sign problem.

  2. Sign Learning Kink-based (SiLK) Quantum Monte Carlo for molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoyao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Hall, Randall W. [Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California 94901, USA; Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Löffler, Frank [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Kowalski, Karol [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Jarrell, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Moreno, Juana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA; Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

    2016-01-07

    The Sign Learning Kink (SiLK) based Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method is used to calculate the ab initio ground state energies for multiple geometries of the H2O, N2, and F2 molecules. The method is based on Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and has two stages. The first stage is called the learning stage and reduces the well-known QMC minus sign problem by optimizing the linear combinations of Slater determinants which are used in the second stage, a conventional QMC simulation. The method is tested using different vector spaces and compared to the results of other quantum chemical methods and to exact diagonalization. Our findings demonstrate that the SiLK method is accurate and reduces or eliminates the minus sign problem.

  3. SOLITONES KINK Y ANTIKENK EN LA ECUACIÓN DE SINE -GORDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Armando Segovia Chaves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La ecuación de sine-Gordon es una ecuación diferencial no lineal, tiene grandes aplicaciones no solamente en la teoría de campos relativistas, sino también encuentra aplicación en la física del estado sólido y en el transporte de señales en la fibra óptica. En este trabajo se estudian dos soluciones que tiene esta ecuación  diferencial como lo son las soluciones tipo solitón kink y soluciones tipo solitón antikink. Para obtener dichas soluciones se realiza el modelamiento matemático y se representa gráficamente su evolución espacio temporal.

  4. Kink-antikink interactions in a modified sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.; Campbell, D.K.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM

    1983-01-01

    We study numerically the interactions of a kink (K) and an antikink (anti K) in a parametrically modified sine-Gordon model with potential V(PHI)=(1-r) 2 (1-cos PHI)/(1+r 2 +2r cos PHI). As the parameter r is varied from the pure sine-Gordon case (r=0) to values for which the model is not completely integrable (rnot=0), we find that a rich structure arises in the Kanti K collisions. For some regions of r(-0.20 4 model, and we show that the theory recently suggested for these collisions also applies quantitatively to the modified sine-Gordon model. In other regions of r we observe new scattering phenomena, which we present in detail numerically and discuss in a qualitative manner analytically. (orig.)

  5. Fast Particle Effects on the Internal Kink, Fishbone and Alfven Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Kusama, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Nazikian, R.; Ozeki, T.; Park, W.

    2000-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D

  6. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and kinetic internal kink modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.

    2002-01-01

    The m=1 and n=1 kinetic internal kink (KIK) mode with a nonuniform density profile is studied by the cylindrical version of the gyro-reduced-MHD code which is one of the extended MHD codes being able to treat the physics beyond resistive MHD. Electron inertia and electron finite temperature effects are crucial. The linear mode structure of KIK mode includes the sheared poloidal flow with m=1, which excites the vortexes due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability. We have found that there is a strong coupling between the KIK mode and the K-H mode even in the early nonlinear stage of KIK instability in which the width of the m=1 magnetic island is sufficiently small. (author)

  7. Sign Learning Kink-based (SiLK) Quantum Monte Carlo for molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoyao; Hall, Randall W.; Löffler, Frank; Kowalski, Karol; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana

    2016-01-01

    The Sign Learning Kink (SiLK) based Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method is used to calculate the ab initio ground state energies for multiple geometries of the H 2 O, N 2 , and F 2 molecules. The method is based on Feynman’s path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and has two stages. The first stage is called the learning stage and reduces the well-known QMC minus sign problem by optimizing the linear combinations of Slater determinants which are used in the second stage, a conventional QMC simulation. The method is tested using different vector spaces and compared to the results of other quantum chemical methods and to exact diagonalization. Our findings demonstrate that the SiLK method is accurate and reduces or eliminates the minus sign problem

  8. Eigenvalue problem and nonlinear evolution of kink modes in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, T.; Takeda, S.; Sanuki, H.; Kamimura, T.

    1979-04-01

    The internal kink modes of a cylindrical plasma are investigated by a linear eigen value problem and their nonlinear evolution is studied by 3-dimensional MHD simulation based on the rectangular column model under the fixed boundary condition. The growth rates in two cases, namely uniform and diffused current profiles are analyzed in detail, which agree with the analytical estimation by Shafranov. The time evolution of the m = 1 mode showed that q > 1 is satisfied at the relaxation time (q safety factor), a stable configuration like a horse shoe (a new equilibrium) was formed. Also, the time evolution of the pressure p for the m = 2 mode showed that a stable configuration like a pair of anchors was formed. (author)

  9. Electronic confinement in graphene quantum rings due to substrate-induced mass radial kink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, L J P; da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Pereira, J M; Farias, G A

    2016-12-21

    We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term [Formula: see text] is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or [Formula: see text] valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.

  10. Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry: Exploring and Acknowledging Nigerian Chemistry Teachers Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a growing interest in studies of students’ problem-solving strategies and difficulties, and misconceptionsregarding stoichiometry, little is known about the way teachers understand and teach reaction stoichiometry. This articlepresents a case study of pedagogical content knowledge put into actions by chemistry teachers when teaching the topic ofstoichiometry to second year senior secondary school students. Fourteen chemistry teachers with teaching experience rangingfrom 5 to 20 years were involved in this study. Research data were obtained from classroom observations and videotapedrecordings of classroom practice. Analyses of the teachers’ teaching activities revealed their skillfulness, resourcefulness, andweaknesses in terms of pedagogical content knowledge displayed when teaching stoichiometry. The results of this exploratorystudy offer insight into the knowledge systems that need to be expanded, enriched, and elaborated for teaching stoichiometry.To better understand the findings of this study, the results obtained were presented under two separate sections: (1 resultsconcerning introducing reaction stoichiometry to students and (2 results concerning leading students to identify limitingreagents. Implications for instruction and teachers’ professional development are offered.

  11. From Elements to Function: Toward Unifying Ecological Stoichiometry and Trait-Based Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric L. Meunier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The theories developed in ecological stoichiometry (ES are fundamentally based on traits. Traits directly linked to cell/body stoichiometry, such as nutrient uptake and storage, as well as the associated trade-offs, have the potential to shape ecological interactions such as competition and predation within ecosystems. Further, traits that indirectly influence and are influenced by nutritional requirements, such as cell/body size and growth rate, are tightly linked to organismal stoichiometry. Despite their physiological and ecological relevance, traits are rarely explicitly integrated in the framework of ES and, currently, the major challenge is to more closely inter-connect ES with trait-based ecology (TBE. Here, we highlight four interconnected nutrient trait groups, i.e., acquisition, body stoichiometry, storage, and excretion, which alter interspecific competition in autotrophs and heterotrophs. We also identify key differences between producer-consumer interactions in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For instance, our synthesis shows that, in contrast to aquatic ecosystems, traits directly influencing herbivore stoichiometry in forested ecosystems should play only a minor role in the cycling of nutrients. We furthermore describe how linking ES and TBE can help predict the ecosystem consequences of global change. The concepts we highlight here allow us to predict that increasing N:P ratios in ecosystems should shift trait dominances in communities toward species with higher optimal N:P ratios and higher P uptake affinity, while decreasing N retention and increasing P storage.

  12. The effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiblinger, K.M.; Hall, E.K.; Wanek, W.; Szukics, U.; Hämmerle, I.; Ellersdorfer, G.; Böck, S.; Strauss, J.; Sterflinger, K.; Richter, A.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-use-efficiency (CUE) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (C) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial CUE. To elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial CUE, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (Aspergillus nidulans and Trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) ratios. Whereas the CUE of A. nidulans was strongly affected by C, bacterial CUE was more strongly affected by mineral nutrients (N and P). Specifically, CUE in P. carotovorum was positively correlated with P, while CUE of V. spinosum primarily depended on N. This resulted in a positive relationship between fungal CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry and a negative relationship between bacterial CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry. The difference in the direction of the relationship between CUE and C : nutrient for fungi vs. bacteria was consistent with differences in biomass stoichiometry and suggested that fungi have a higher C demand than bacteria. These results suggest that the links between biomass stoichiometry, resource demand and CUE may provide a mechanism for commonly observed temporal and spatial patterns in microbial community structure and function in natural habitats.

  13. Linking microbial and ecosystem ecology using ecological stoichiometry: a synthesis of conceptual and empirical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E.K.; Maixner, F.; Franklin, O.; Daims, H.; Richter, A.; Battin, T.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, one of the biggest challenges in microbial and ecosystem ecology is to develop conceptual models that organize the growing body of information on environmental microbiology into a clear mechanistic framework with a direct link to ecosystem processes. Doing so will enable development of testable hypotheses to better direct future research and increase understanding of key constraints on biogeochemical networks. Although the understanding of phenotypic and genotypic diversity of microorganisms in the environment is rapidly accumulating, how controls on microbial physiology ultimately affect biogeochemical fluxes remains poorly understood. We propose that insight into constraints on biogeochemical cycles can be achieved by a more rigorous evaluation of microbial community biomass composition within the context of ecological stoichiometry. Multiple recent studies have pointed to microbial biomass stoichiometry as an important determinant of when microorganisms retain or recycle mineral nutrients. We identify the relevant cellular components that most likely drive changes in microbial biomass stoichiometry by defining a conceptual model rooted in ecological stoichiometry. More importantly, we show how X-ray microanalysis (XRMA), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS), Raman microspectroscopy, and in situ hybridization techniques (for example, FISH) can be applied in concert to allow for direct empirical evaluation of the proposed conceptual framework. This approach links an important piece of the ecological literature, ecological stoichiometry, with the molecular front of the microbial revolution, in an attempt to provide new insight into how microbial physiology could constrain ecosystem processes.

  14. Combining biophysical methods for the analysis of protein complex stoichiometry and affinity in SEDPHAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Global multi-method analysis for protein interactions (GMMA) can increase the precision and complexity of binding studies for the determination of the stoichiometry, affinity and cooperativity of multi-site interactions. The principles and recent developments of biophysical solution methods implemented for GMMA in the software SEDPHAT are reviewed, their complementarity in GMMA is described and a new GMMA simulation tool set in SEDPHAT is presented. Reversible macromolecular interactions are ubiquitous in signal transduction pathways, often forming dynamic multi-protein complexes with three or more components. Multivalent binding and cooperativity in these complexes are often key motifs of their biological mechanisms. Traditional solution biophysical techniques for characterizing the binding and cooperativity are very limited in the number of states that can be resolved. A global multi-method analysis (GMMA) approach has recently been introduced that can leverage the strengths and the different observables of different techniques to improve the accuracy of the resulting binding parameters and to facilitate the study of multi-component systems and multi-site interactions. Here, GMMA is described in the software SEDPHAT for the analysis of data from isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance or other biosensing, analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence anisotropy and various other spectroscopic and thermodynamic techniques. The basic principles of these techniques are reviewed and recent advances in view of their particular strengths in the context of GMMA are described. Furthermore, a new feature in SEDPHAT is introduced for the simulation of multi-method data. In combination with specific statistical tools for GMMA in SEDPHAT, simulations can be a valuable step in the experimental design

  15. Effects of growth rate, cell size, motion, and elemental stoichiometry on nutrient transport kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Skibinski, David O F; Lindemann, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Nutrient acquisition is a critical determinant for the competitive advantage for auto- and osmohetero- trophs alike. Nutrient limited growth is commonly described on a whole cell basis through reference to a maximum growth rate (Gmax) and a half-saturation constant (KG). This empirical application of a Michaelis-Menten like description ignores the multiple underlying feedbacks between physiology contributing to growth, cell size, elemental stoichiometry and cell motion. Here we explore these relationships with reference to the kinetics of the nutrient transporter protein, the transporter rate density at the cell surface (TRD; potential transport rate per unit plasma-membrane area), and diffusion gradients. While the half saturation value for the limiting nutrient increases rapidly with cell size, significant mitigation is afforded by cell motion (swimming or sedimentation), and by decreasing the cellular carbon density. There is thus potential for high vacuolation and high sedimentation rates in diatoms to significantly decrease KG and increase species competitive advantage. Our results also suggest that Gmax for larger non-diatom protists may be constrained by rates of nutrient transport. For a given carbon density, cell size and TRD, the value of Gmax/KG remains constant. This implies that species or strains with a lower Gmax might coincidentally have a competitive advantage under nutrient limited conditions as they also express lower values of KG. The ability of cells to modulate the TRD according to their nutritional status, and hence change the instantaneous maximum transport rate, has a very marked effect upon transport and growth kinetics. Analyses and dynamic models that do not consider such modulation will inevitably fail to properly reflect competitive advantage in nutrient acquisition. This has important implications for the accurate representation and predictive capabilities of model applications, in particular in a changing environment.

  16. Threshold stoichiometry for beam induced nitrogen depletion of SiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.; Weijers, T.D.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Uribasterra, J.; Whitlow, H.J.; Sarwe, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films as a function of the number of incident ions using heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) show that beam-induced nitrogen depletion depends on the projectile species, the beam energy, and the initial stoichiometry. A threshold stoichiometry exists in the range 1.3>N/Si≥1, below which the films are stable against nitrogen depletion. Above this threshold, depletion is essentially linear with incident fluence. The depletion rate correlates non-linearly with the electronic energy loss of the projectile ion in the film. Sufficiently long exposure of nitrogen-rich films renders the mechanism, which prevents depletion of nitrogen-poor films, ineffective. Compromising depth-resolution, nitrogen depletion from SiN films during ERD analysis can be reduced significantly by using projectile beams with low atomic numbers

  17. Fission and fusion interaction phenomena of mixed lump kink solutions for a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; Wen, Xiaoyong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (gBKP) equation is investigated by using the Hirota’s bilinear method. With the aid of symbolic computation, some new lump, mixed lump kink and periodic lump solutions are derived. Based on the derived solutions, some novel interaction phenomena like the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and one kink soliton, the fission and fusion interactions between one lump soliton and a pair of kink solitons and the interactions between two periodic lump solitons are discussed graphically. Results might be helpful for understanding the propagation of the shallow water wave.

  18. Effect of the resistive wall on the growth rate of weakly unstable external kink mode in general 3D configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Ichiguchi, K.

    2005-05-01

    Formation of a method for the systematic computation of the growth rate of the weakly unstable RWM in 3D configurations by using results from ideal stability codes is presented. It is shown that the growth rate of the RWM is approximately given by the rate at which the available free energy for the ideal external kink mode can be dissipated by the resistive wall. The eigenfunction is also approximated by that of the external kink mode. This formulation is demonstrated by coupling to the ideal MHD code KSTEP with computation of the dissipation on the resistive wall. Results of the stability of the RWM in LHD plasmas and discussion on the validity and improvement to the computation are also included. (author)

  19. Kink effect and noise performance in isolated-gate InAs/AlSb high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasallo, B G; González, T; Mateos, J; Rodilla, H; Moschetti, G; Grahn, J

    2012-01-01

    The kink effect can spoil the otherwise excellent low noise performance of InAs/AlSb high electron mobility transistors. It has its origin in the pile-up of holes (generated by impact ionization) taking place mainly at the drain side of the buffer, which leads to a reduction of the gate-induced channel depletion and results in a drain current enhancement. Our results indicate that the generation of holes by impact ionization and their further recombination lead to fluctuations in the charge of the hole pile-up, which provoke an important increase in the drain current noise, even when the kink effect is hardly perceptible in the output characteristics. (paper)

  20. A Kink that Makes you Sick: the Effect of Sick Pay on Absence in a Social Insurance System

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Bockerman; Ohto Kanninen; Ilpo Suoniemi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of the replacement rule of a social insurance system on sickness absence. The elasticity of absence with respect to the benefit level is a critical parameter in defining the optimal sickness insurance scheme. A pre-determined, piecewise linear policy rule in which the replacement rate is determined by past earnings allows identification of the causal effect using a regression kink design. Using a large administrative dataset, we find a substantial and robust behavioral r...

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN ξ BOO: EVIDENCE OF A FAST-KINK MODE IN THE STELLAR LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observations of X-ray oscillations during the flare in a cool active star ξ Boo for the first time. ξ Boo was observed by EPIC/MOS of the XMM-Newton satellite. The X-ray light curve is investigated with wavelet and periodogram analyses. Both analyses clearly show oscillations of the period of ∼1019 s. We interpret these oscillations as a fundamental fast-kink mode of magnetoacoustic waves.

  2. Low stoichiometry operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell operation on dry reactant gases under low stoichiometry conditions employing the interdigitated flow field is investigated using a multi-fluid model. It is assumed that the MEA contains a water uptake layer which facilitates water absorption to the membrane and hence prevents the anode...

  3. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  4. Global biodiversity, stoichiometry and ecosystem function responses to human-induced C-N-P imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Sardans, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Ubach, Andreu; Bartrons, Mireia; Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Global change analyses usually consider biodiversity as a global asset that needs to be preserved. Biodiversity is frequently analysed mainly as a response variable affected by diverse environmental drivers. However, recent studies highlight that gradients of biodiversity are associated with gradual changes in the distribution of key dominant functional groups characterized by distinctive traits and stoichiometry, which in turn often define the rates of ecosystem processes and nutrient cycling. Moreover, pervasive links have been reported between biodiversity, food web structure, ecosystem function and species stoichiometry. Here we review current global stoichiometric gradients and how future distributional shifts in key functional groups may in turn influence basic ecosystem functions (production, nutrient cycling, decomposition) and therefore could exert a feedback effect on stoichiometric gradients. The C-N-P stoichiometry of most primary producers (phytoplankton, algae, plants) has been linked to functional trait continua (i.e. to major axes of phenotypic variation observed in inter-specific analyses of multiple traits). In contrast, the C-N-P stoichiometry of higher-level consumers remains less precisely quantified in many taxonomic groups. We show that significant links are observed between trait continua across trophic levels. In spite of recent advances, the future reciprocal feedbacks between key functional groups, biodiversity and ecosystem functions remain largely uncertain. The reported evidence, however, highlights the key role of stoichiometric traits and suggests the need of a progressive shift towards an ecosystemic and stoichiometric perspective in global biodiversity analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate-driven changes in the ecological stoichiometry of aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Verschoor, A.M.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; van Donk, E.; Huisman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in ecological stoichiometry, a rapidly expanding research field investigating the elemental composition of organisms and their environment, have shed new light on the impacts of climate change on freshwater and marine ecosystems. Current changes in the Earth's climate alter the availability

  6. Stoichiometry control in quantum dots: a viable analog to impurity doping of bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Joseph M; Pietryga, Jeffrey M

    2013-03-26

    A growing body of research indicates that the stoichiometry of compound semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) may offer control over the materials' optoelectronic properties in ways that could be invaluable in electronic devices. Quantum dots have been characterized as having a stoichiometric bulk-like core with a highly reconstructed surface of a more flexible composition, consisting essentially of ligated, weakly bound ions. As such, many efforts toward stoichiometry-based control over material properties have focused on ligand manipulation. In this issue of ACS Nano, Murray and Kagan's groups instead demonstrate control of the conductive properties of QD arrays by altering the stoichiometry via atomic infusion using a thermal evaporation technique. In this work, PbSe and PbS QD films are made to show controlled n- or p-type behavior, which is key to developing optimized QD-based electronics. In this Perspective, we discuss recent developments and the future outlook in using stoichiometry as a tool to further manipulate QD material properties in this context.

  7. Students' Understanding of Conservation of Matter, Stoichiometry and Balancing Equations in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung, Salamah; Schwartz, Marc S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Indonesian students' understanding of conservation of matter, balancing of equations and stoichiometry. Eight hundred and sixty-seven Grade 12 students from 22 schools across four different cities in two developed provinces in Indonesia participated in the study. Nineteen teachers also participated in order to validate the…

  8. Perfectly invisible PT -symmetric zero-gap systems, conformal field theoretical kinks, and exotic nonlinear supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Juan Mateos; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate a special class of the PT -symmetric quantum models being perfectly invisible zero-gap systems with a unique bound state at the very edge of continuous spectrum of scattering states. The family includes the PT -regularized two particle Calogero systems (conformal quantum mechanics models of de Alfaro-Fubini-Furlan) and their rational extensions whose potentials satisfy equations of the KdV hierarchy and exhibit, particularly, a behaviour typical for extreme waves. We show that the two simplest Hamiltonians from the Calogero subfamily determine the fluctuation spectra around the PT -regularized kinks arising as traveling waves in the field-theoretical Liouville and SU(3) conformal Toda systems. Peculiar properties of the quantum systems are reflected in the associated exotic nonlinear supersymmetry in the unbroken or partially broken phases. The conventional N=2 supersymmetry is extended here to the N=4 nonlinear supersymmetry that involves two bosonic generators composed from Lax-Novikov integrals of the subsystems, one of which is the central charge of the superalgebra. Jordan states are shown to play an essential role in the construction.

  9. A hybrid LLR-MHD model of kink perturbations in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1987-07-01

    In high-beta systems, such as Extrap and other Z-pinch configurations, kinetic large Larmor radius (LLR) phenomena introduce strong phase-mixing and dispersive effects and a corresponding 'kinetic damping' which cannot be treated in terms of MHD theory. In this paper a first attempt is made to include these effects by proposing a hybrid LLR-MHD model in which the kinetic phenomena enter as constraints on the possible forms of the plasma perturbations. The latter then become restricted to a limited class which can be treated in terms of MHD theory. The present model does not claim to produce stability conditions which are exact in all details, but should merely provide a picture of the general relationship between the basic plasma parameters in a state of marginal stability. For kink perturbations in Extrap stability relations have thus been obtained between the pinch and conductor currents, the pinch radius and the axial conductor distance, and the number of contained ion Larmor radii. These relations appear to be consistent with so far obtained experimental data. A short discussion on the effects of a superimposed axial magnetic field has been included. At this stage only experiments can verify whether or not the present simple model becomes relevant to Extrap stability. (author)

  10. Validity of the "sharp-kink approximation" for water and other fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R; Osborne, K; Subashi, E

    2008-07-10

    The contact angle of a liquid droplet on a solid surface is a direct measure of fundamental atomic-scale forces acting between liquid molecules and the solid surface. In this work, the validity is assessed of a simple equation, which approximately relates the contact angle of a liquid on a surface to its density, its surface tension, and the effective molecule-surface potential. This equation is derived in the sharp-kink approximation, where the density profile of the liquid is assumed to drop precipitously within one molecular diameter of the substrate. It is found that this equation satisfactorily reproduces the temperature-dependence of the contact angle for helium on alkali metal surfaces. The equation also seems be applicable to liquids such as water on solid surfaces such as gold and graphite, on the basis of a comparison of predicted and measured contact angles near room-temperature. Nevertheless, we conclude that, to fully test the equation's applicability to fluids such as water, it remains necessary to measure the contact angle's temperature-dependence. We hypothesize that the effects of electrostatic forces can increase with temperature, potentially driving the wetting temperature much higher and closer to the critical point, or lower, closer to room temperature, than predicted using current theories.

  11. TORNADO-LIKE EVOLUTION OF A KINK-UNSTABLE SOLAR PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming, E-mail: rliu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-01-01

    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ∼150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  12. Surface currents associated with external kink modes in tokamak plasmas during a major disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface current on the plasma-vacuum interface during a disruption event involving kink instability can play an important role in driving current into the vacuum vessel. However, there have been disagreements over the nature or even the sign of the surface current in recent theoretical calculations based on idealized step-function background plasma profiles. We revisit such calculations by replacing step-function profiles with more realistic profiles characterized by a strong but finite gradient along the radial direction. It is shown that the resulting surface current is no longer a delta-function current density, but a finite and smooth current density profile with an internal structure, concentrated within the region with a strong plasma pressure gradient. Moreover, this current density profile has peaks of both signs, unlike the delta-function case with a sign opposite to, or the same as the plasma current. We show analytically and numerically that such current density can be separated into two parts, with one of them, called the convective current density, describing the transport of the background plasma density by the displacement, and the other part that remains, called the residual current density. It is argued that consideration of both types of current density is important and can resolve past controversies.

  13. arXiv Investigating the "kink" plot as a signal of the onset of deconfinement

    CERN Document Server

    Naskręt, Michał

    One of the physics goals of the NA61/SHINE collaboration at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron is to study the phase diagram of hadronic matter. To this end, a series of heavy ion collision measurements are performed. It is believed that above a certain collision energy and system size a phase transition between hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma occurs. A number of observables has been developed to determine which of the phases was created at the early stage of the collision. This report discusses the dependence of the ratio of the mean number of produced pions to the mean number of wounded nucleons on the Fermi energy measure. For comparison with other measurements this is often presented in the form of the the "kink" plot. This plot is presented enriched with preliminary results for Ar+Sc central collisions at 13A, 19A, 30A, 40A, 75A and 150A GeV/c beam momentum. The results are finally compared to data from other experiments.

  14. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and kinetic internal kink modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Tokuda, S.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The m=1 (poloidal mode number) and n=1 (toroidal mode number) kinetic internal kink (KIK) mode in the presence of a density gradient is studied with the cylindrical version of the gyro-reduced MHD code, which is one of the extended MHD codes being able to treat the physics beyond resistive MHD. Electron inertia and electron finite temperature effects are included. The unstable KIK mode is observed in the parameter range in which the linear theory predicts complete stabilization due to the electron diamagnetic effect. The electrostatic potential profile in the linear stage of the KIK instability has the sheared poloidal flow with the m=1 mode structure. The vortexes are generated due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability. The KIK is stabilized when the vortexes are formed, but it is destabilized again as the vortexes diminish due to the charge neutralizing electron motion along the magnetic field. These phenomena are observed in the early nonlinear stage of the KIK instability in which the width of the m=1 magnetic island is sufficiently small compared with the radial extent of the vortexes. The strong coupling between the vortexes and the KIK instability can be one of the candidates explaining the sudden onset of the sawtooth crash. (author)

  15. An improved EEHEMT model for kink effect on AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Meng-Yi; Lu Yang; Chen Yong-He; Zheng Jia-Xin; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue; Wei Jia-Xing; Li Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new current expression based on both the direct currect (DC) characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN high election mobility transistor (HEMT) and the hyperbolic tangent function tanh is proposed, by which we can describe the kink effect of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT well. Then, an improved EEHEMT model including the proposed current expression is presented. The simulated and measured results of I–V, S-parameter, and radio frequency (RF) large-signal characteristics are compared for a self-developed on-wafer AlGaN/GaN HEMT with ten gate fingers each being 0.4-μm long and 125-μm wide (Such an AlGaN/GaN HEMT is denoted as AlGaN/GaN HEMT (10 × 125 μm)). The improved large signal model simulates the I–V characteristic much more accurately than the original one, and its transconductance and RF characteristics are also in excellent agreement with the measured data. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. The effect of partial poloidal wall sections on the wall stabilization of external kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    An analysis of the effect on the wall stabilization of external kink modes due to toroidally continuous gaps in the resistive wall is performed. The effects with and without toroidal rotation are studied. For a high-β equilibrium, the mode structure is localized on the outboard side. Therefore, outboard gaps greatly increase the growth rate when there is no rotation. For resistive wall stabilization by toroidal rotation, the presence of gaps has the same effect as moving the wall farther away, i.e. destabilizing for the ideal plasma mode, and stabilizing for the resistive wall mode. The region of stability, in terms of wall position, is reduced in size and moved closer to the plasma. However, complete stabilization becomes possible at considerably reduced rotation frequencies. For a high-β, reverse-shear equilibrium both the resistive wall mode and the ideal plasma mode can be stabilized by close fitting discrete passive plates on the outboard side. The necessary toroidal rotation frequency to stabilize the resistive wall mode using these plates is reduced by a factor of three compared to that for a poloidally continuous and complete wall at the same plasma-wall separation. (author) 15 figs., 24 refs

  17. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  18. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition on foliar stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus of five tree species in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wenjuan; Zhou Guoyi; Liu Juxiu; Zhang Deqiang; Xu Zhihong; Liu Shizhong

    2012-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N) addition on foliar N and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry were investigated in five native tree species (four non-N 2 fixers and one N 2 fixer) in open-top chambers in southern China from 2005 to 2009. The high foliar N:P ratios induced by high foliar N and low foliar P indicate that plants may be more limited by P than by N. The changes in foliar N:P ratios were largely determined by P dynamics rather than N under both elevated CO 2 and N addition. Foliar N:P ratios in the non-N 2 fixers showed some negative responses to elevated CO 2 , while N addition reduced foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer. The results suggest that N addition would facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate the stoichiometric balance under elevated CO 2 . - Highlights: ► Five native tree species in southern China were more limited by P than by N. ► Shifts in foliar N:P ratios were driven by P dynamic under the global change. ► N addition lowered foliar N:P ratios in the N 2 fixer under elevated CO 2 . - N addition could facilitate the N 2 fixer rather than the non-N 2 fixers to regulate foliar N and P stoichiometry under elevated CO 2 in subtropical forests.

  19. Accurate quantification of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry reveals the impact of sirtuin deacetylase CobB on the E. coli acetylome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Satpathy, Shankha; Hansen, Bogi Karbech

    2017-01-01

    B suppressed acetylation to lower than median stoichiometry in WT, ptaΔ, and ackAΔ cells. Together, our results provide a detailed view of acetylation stoichiometry in E. coli and suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of Sirtuin deacetylases in suppressing low stoichiometry acetylation....

  20. Looking inside the box: using Raman microspectroscopy to deconstruct microbial biomass stoichiometry one cell at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward K.; Singer, Gabriel A.; Pölzl, Marvin; Hämmerle, Ieda; Schwarz, Christian; Daims, Holger; Maixner, Frank; Battin, Tom J.

    2011-01-01

    Stoichiometry of microbial biomass is a key determinant of nutrient recycling in a wide variety of ecosystems. However, little is known about the underlying causes of variance in microbial biomass stoichiometry. This is primarily because of technological constraints limiting the analysis of macromolecular composition to large quantities of microbial biomass. Here, we use Raman microspectroscopy (MS), to analyze the macromolecular composition of single cells of two species of bacteria grown on minimal media over a wide range of resource stoichiometry. We show that macromolecular composition, determined from a subset of identified peaks within the Raman spectra, was consistent with macromolecular composition determined using traditional analytical methods. In addition, macromolecular composition determined by Raman MS correlated with total biomass stoichiometry, indicating that analysis with Raman MS included a large proportion of a cell's total macromolecular composition. Growth phase (logarithmic or stationary), resource stoichiometry and species identity each influenced each organism's macromolecular composition and thus biomass stoichiometry. Interestingly, the least variable peaks in the Raman spectra were those responsible for differentiation between species, suggesting a phylogenetically specific cellular architecture. As Raman MS has been previously shown to be applicable to cells sampled directly from complex environments, our results suggest Raman MS is an extremely useful application for evaluating the biomass stoichiometry of environmental microorganisms. This includes the ability to partition microbial biomass into its constituent macromolecules and increase our understanding of how microorganisms in the environment respond to resource heterogeneity.

  1. Stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode in equilibria with flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilizing influence of mass flows, either directly or through their shearing action, on various modes is now generally recognized. Here we examine linear and nonlinear stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode in equilibria with toroidal rotation, using our nonlinear, initial-value MHD code CTD, which can be used to generate self-consistent equilibria with flows in arbitrary geometries. It is well known that equilibrium mass flows introduce complications in determination of MHD equilibria and their stability properties, such as the loss of self-adjointness and an increase in the number of conditions required to uniquely determine the equilibria. Thus, even with purely toroidal flows, an implicit statement about the equation of state is needed, in addition to a knowledge of the magnetic field and velocity profiles; rotation in an adiabatic plasma leads to a different equilibrium than, for example, in an isothermal one, with possibly quite different stability properties. We find that the expected stabilizing influence of toroidal rotation on n = 1 is generally absent in adiabatically generated equilibria in which, of all the relevant thermodynamic variables, only the specific entropy is a flux function, s = s (ψ). Fortunately, physically more relevant isothermal case where the temperature is constant on flux surfaces, T = T(ψ), has more favorable stability characteristics. On the other hand, an inconsistent but common practice of ignoring density perturbations, a benign omission for static equilibria, leads to overly optimistic results when equilibrium flows axe present, predicting stability when there may not be any. The crucial role played by the equation of state in determining equilibrium raises questions regarding the role of parallel transport in stability calculations; this and other nonideal effects, along with the role of plasma β vs. the rotational β, and nonlinear stability when the mode is pushed beyond marginality, will be discussed

  2. Design and synthesis of diverse functional kinked nanowire structures for nanoelectronic bioprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Zhe; Qing, Quan; Mai, Liqiang; Zhang, Qingjie; Lieber, Charles M

    2013-02-13

    Functional kinked nanowires (KNWs) represent a new class of nanowire building blocks, in which functional devices, for example, nanoscale field-effect transistors (nanoFETs), are encoded in geometrically controlled nanowire superstructures during synthesis. The bottom-up control of both structure and function of KNWs enables construction of spatially isolated point-like nanoelectronic probes that are especially useful for monitoring biological systems where finely tuned feature size and structure are highly desired. Here we present three new types of functional KNWs including (1) the zero-degree KNW structures with two parallel heavily doped arms of U-shaped structures with a nanoFET at the tip of the "U", (2) series multiplexed functional KNW integrating multi-nanoFETs along the arm and at the tips of V-shaped structures, and (3) parallel multiplexed KNWs integrating nanoFETs at the two tips of W-shaped structures. First, U-shaped KNWs were synthesized with separations as small as 650 nm between the parallel arms and used to fabricate three-dimensional nanoFET probes at least 3 times smaller than previous V-shaped designs. In addition, multiple nanoFETs were encoded during synthesis in one of the arms/tip of V-shaped and distinct arms/tips of W-shaped KNWs. These new multiplexed KNW structures were structurally verified by optical and electron microscopy of dopant-selective etched samples and electrically characterized using scanning gate microscopy and transport measurements. The facile design and bottom-up synthesis of these diverse functional KNWs provides a growing toolbox of building blocks for fabricating highly compact and multiplexed three-dimensional nanoprobes for applications in life sciences, including intracellular and deep tissue/cell recordings.

  3. Comparing the Ecological Stoichiometry in Green and Brown Food Webs – A Review and Meta-analysis of Freshwater Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Evans-White

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The framework of ecological stoichiometry was developed primarily within the context of “green” autotroph-based food webs. While stoichiometric principles also apply in “brown” detritus-based systems, these systems have been historically understudied and differ from green ones in several important aspects including carbon (C quality and the nutrient [nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P] contents of food resources for consumers. In this paper, we review work over the last decade that has advanced the application of ecological stoichiometry from green to brown food webs, focusing on freshwater ecosystems. We first review three focal areas where green and brown food webs differ: (1 bottom–up controls by light and nutrient availability, (2 stoichiometric constraints on consumer growth and nutritional regulation, and (3 patterns in consumer-driven nutrient dynamics. Our review highlights the need for further study of how light and nutrient availability affect autotroph–heterotroph interactions on detritus and the subsequent effects on consumer feeding and growth. To complement this conceptual review, we formally quantified differences in stoichiometric principles between green and brown food webs using a meta-analysis across feeding studies of freshwater benthic invertebrates. From 257 datasets collated across 46 publications and several unpublished studies, we compared effect sizes (Pearson’s r of resource N:C and P:C on growth, consumption, excretion, and egestion between herbivorous and detritivorous consumers. The meta-analysis revealed that both herbivore and detritivore growth are limited by resource N:C and P:C contents, but effect sizes only among detritivores were significantly above zero. Consumption effect sizes were negative among herbivores but positive for detritivores in the case of both N:C and P:C, indicating distinct compensatory feeding responses across resource stoichiometry gradients. Herbivore P excretion rates responded

  4. Dynamical Processes in Flux Tubes and their Role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal ... the energy flux in transverse waves is calculated and the implications for chromospheric heating are ... highly dynamical state, due to the buffeting effect of random convective motions. (e.g., Müller 1983; Muller et ...

  5. Dynamical Processes in Flux Tubes and their Role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We model the dynamical interaction between magnetic flux tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal (sausage) tube waves. The investigation is motivated by the interpretation of network oscillations in terms of flux tube waves. The calculations show that ...

  6. Stoichiometry of the U3O8 phase formed during calcination of some uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fekey, S.A.; Farah, M.Y.; Rofail, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Although recent work has shown U 3 O 8 phase to be the decomposition product obtained after calcining uranyl nitrate, sulphate or ammonium uranate, neither the necessary conditions for obtaining stoichiometric U 3 O 8 nor the details of the reaction have been established. Presence of sulphate or nitrate ions during preparation greatly affects the O/U of the obtained oxides and the physico-chemical properties of uranium tetrafluoride prepared afterwards from it (1-3). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of calcination regimes on the stoichiometry of the U 3 O 8 phase produced by the thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate, sulphate, and ammonium uranate, which was prepared by precipitation from nuclear-pure uranyl sulphate. Stoichiometry of the U 3 O 8 phase formed during calcination of ammonium uranate precipitated from nuclear pure uranyl nitrate solution was reported before (1)

  7. Stoichiometry of Silicon Dioxide Films Obtained by Ion-Beam Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesh, E. V.; Dostanko, A. P.; Gurevich, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of SiOx films produced by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) of silicon and quartz targets were studied by infrared spectrometry. Films with thicknesses of 150-390 nm were formed on silicon substrates. It was found that increase in the partial pressure of oxygen in the working gas, increase in the temperature of the substrate, and the presence of a positive potential on the target during reactive IBS of silicon shifted the main absorption band νas into the high-frequency region and increased the composition index from 1.41 to 1.85. During IBS of a quartz target the stoichiometry of the films deteriorates with increase of the energy of the sputtering argon ions. This may be due to increase of the deposition rate. Increase in the current of the thermionic compensator, increase of the substrate temperature, and addition of oxygen led to the formation of SiOx films with improved stoichiometry.

  8. Effects of three global change drivers on terrestrial C:N:P stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    more common than synergistic or antagonistic interactions, (4) C:N:P stoichiometry of soil and soil microbial biomass shows high homeostasis under global change manipulations, and (5) C:N:P responses to global change are strongly affected by ecosystem type, local climate and experimental conditions......Over the last few decades there has been an increasing number of controlled-manipulative experiments to investigate how plants and soils might respond to global change. These experiments typically examined the effects of each of three global change drivers (i.e. nitrogen (N) deposition, warming...... of plants, soils and soil microbial biomass might respond to individual vs. combined effects of the three global change drivers. Our results show that (1) individual effects of N addition and elevated CO2 on C:N:P stoichiometry are stronger than warming, (2) combined effects of pairs of global change...

  9. Stoichiometry-Controlled Inversion of Supramolecular Chirality in Nanostructures Co-assembled with Bipyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Feng, Chuan-Liang

    2018-02-01

    To control supramolecular chirality of the co-assembled nanostructures, one of the remaining issues is how stoichiometry of the different molecules involved in co-assembly influence chiral transformation. Through co-assembly of achiral 1,4-bis(pyrid-4-yl)benzene and chiral phenylalanine-glycine derivative hydrogelators, stoichiometry is found to be an effective tool for controlling supramolecular chirality inversion processes. This inversion is mainly mediated by a delicate balance between intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions and π-π stacking of the two components, which may subtly change the stacking of the molecules, in turn, the self-assembled nanostructures. This study exemplifies a simplistic way to invert the handedness of chiral nanostructures and provide fundamental understanding of the inherent principles of supramolecular chirality. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A simple way to constrain the stoichiometry of secondary smectites upon aqueous glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Bruno M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Si/Al of different glasses were compared to Si/Al of associated secondary smectites. • Si/Al of secondary smectite is nearly equal to Si/Al of parent glass. • This is a simple way which can help to constrain smectite composition. • Accurate smectite composition cannot be measured in many cases. - Abstract: The comparison of the stoichiometry of several nuclear waste glasses and basaltic glasses with their associated secondary smectites evidenced that Si/Al ratios of secondary smectites are nearly equal to the Si/Al ratios of parent glasses. This information may be very useful in constraining secondary smectites structure and stoichiometry in cases where other identification methods are difficult to apply

  11. Surface stoichiometry of zinc sulfide and its effect on the adsorption behaviors of xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Meng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the surface stoichiometry, acid-base properties as well as the adsorption of xanthate at ZnS surfaces were studied by means of potentiometric titration, adsorption and solution speciation modeling. The surface proton binding site was determined by using Gran plot to evaluate the potentiometric titration data. Testing results implied that for stoichiometric surfaces of zinc sulfide, the proton and hydroxide determine the surface charge. For the nonstoichiometric surfaces, the surface charge is controlled by proton, hydroxide, zinc and sulfide ions depending on specific conditions. The xanthate adsorption decreases with increasing solution pH, which indicates an ion exchange reaction at the surfaces. Based on experimental results, the surface protonation, deprotonation, stoichiometry and xanthate adsorption mechanism were discussed.

  12. Determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    A method for determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation by dissolved oxygen (DO) in wastewater is presented. The method was particularly developed to investigate chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks at low DO concentrations. The method is based...... be considered constant during the course of the experiments although intermediates accumulated. This was explained by an apparent slow oxidation rate of the intermediates. The method was capable of determining kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation at DO concentrations lower than 1 g of O2 m...... on continuous measurement of the reactants allowing the kinetics to be determined at varying reactant concentrations during the course of the experiment. The kinetics determined was simulated by a rate equation. The precision of the method was assessed in terms of the standard deviation of the kinetic...

  13. The Stoichiometry of Nutrient Release by Terrestrial Herbivores and Its Ecosystem Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Sitters

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the release of nutrients by herbivores via their waste products strongly impacts nutrient availability for autotrophs. The ratios of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P recycled through herbivore release (i.e., waste N:P are mainly determined by the stoichiometric composition of the herbivore's food (food N:P and its body nutrient content (body N:P. Waste N:P can in turn impact autotroph nutrient limitation and productivity. Herbivore-driven nutrient recycling based on stoichiometric principles is dominated by theoretical and experimental research in freshwater systems, in particular interactions between algae and invertebrate herbivores. In terrestrial ecosystems, the impact of herbivores on nutrient cycling and availability is often limited to studying carbon (C:N and C:P ratios, while the role of terrestrial herbivores in mediating N:P ratios is also likely to influence herbivore-driven nutrient recycling. In this review, we use rules and predictions on the stoichiometry of nutrient release originating from algal-based aquatic systems to identify the factors that determine the stoichiometry of nutrient release by herbivores. We then explore how these rules can be used to understand the stoichiometry of nutrient release by terrestrial herbivores, ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and its impact on plant nutrient limitation and productivity. Future studies should focus on measuring both N and P when investigating herbivore-driven nutrient recycling in terrestrial ecosystems, while also taking the form of waste product (urine or feces and other pathways by which herbivores change nutrients into account, to be able to quantify the impact of waste stoichiometry on plant communities.

  14. Warming differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 3 (2015), s. 591-603 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * drought * HPLC-MS * nitrogen * phosphorus (N : P) * nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) * stoichiometry * warming * abiotic stresses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  15. Non stoichiometry in U3O(8±x), its temperature and oxygen pressure dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez De Sastre, M.S.; Philippot, J.; Moreau, C.

    1967-01-01

    The deviation from stoichiometry in uranium oxide U 3 O 8 obtained by oxidation of UO 2 , has been studied with respect to its dependence on temperature and oxygen pressure. It is shown that the ratio r = O/U increases with oxygen pressure up to 200 mm Hg at any temperature. At higher pressures, this ratio tends toward a limit which decreases with increasing temperatures. The curve r = f(P) suggest a chemisorption phenomenon as the reaction limiting mechanism. (authors) [fr

  16. Stoichiometry in Context: Inquiry-Guided Problems of Chemistry for Encouraging Critical Thinking in Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Pinto; María Luisa Prolongo

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on examples of educational tools concerning the learning of chemistry for engineering students through different daily life cases. These tools were developed during the past few years for enhancing the active role of students. They refer to cases about mineral water, medicaments, dentifrices and informative panels about solar power, where an adequate quantitative treatment through stoichiometry calculations allows the interpretation of data and values announced by manufactu...

  17. Coexistence and community structure in a consumer resource model with implicit stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Paul A; Brown, Joel S; Wise, David H

    2012-09-01

    We combine stoichiometry theory and optimal foraging theory into the MacArthur consumer-resource model. This generates predictions for diet choice, coexistence, and community structure of heterotroph communities. Tradeoffs in consumer resource-garnering traits influence community outcomes. With scarce resources, consumers forage opportunistically for complementary resources and may coexist via tradeoffs in resource encounter rates. In contrast to single currency models, stoichiometry permits multiple equilibria. These alternative stable states occur when tradeoffs in resource encounter rates are stronger than tradeoffs in elemental conversion efficiencies. With abundant resources consumers exhibit partially selective diets for essential resources and may coexist via tradeoffs in elemental conversion efficiencies. These results differ from single currency models, where adaptive diet selection is either opportunistic or selective. Interestingly, communities composed of efficient consumers share many of the same properties as communities based on substitutable resources. However, communities composed of relatively inefficient consumers behave similarly to plant communities as characterized by Tilman's consumer resource theory. The results of our model indicate that the effects of stoichiometry theory on community ecology are dependent upon both consumer foraging behavior and the nature of resource garnering tradeoffs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  19. Marine phytoplankton stoichiometry mediates nonlinear interactions between nutrient supply, temperature, and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Hagstrom, George I.; Primeau, Francois W.; Levin, Simon A.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2018-05-01

    Marine phytoplankton stoichiometry links nutrient supply to marine carbon export. Deviations of phytoplankton stoichiometry from Redfield proportions (106C : 1P) could therefore have a significant impact on carbon cycling, and understanding which environmental factors drive these deviations may reveal new mechanisms regulating the carbon cycle. To explore the links between environmental conditions, stoichiometry, and carbon cycling, we compared four different models of phytoplankton C : P: a fixed Redfield model, a model with C : P given as a function of surface phosphorus concentration (P), a model with C P given as a function of temperature, and a new multi-environmental model that predicts C : P as a function of light, temperature, and P. These stoichiometric models were embedded into a five-box ocean circulation model, which resolves the three major ocean biomes (high-latitude, subtropical gyres, and tropical upwelling regions). Contrary to the expectation of a monotonic relationship between surface nutrient drawdown and carbon export, we found that lateral nutrient transport from lower C : P tropical waters to high C : P subtropical waters could cause carbon export to decrease with increased tropical nutrient utilization. It has been hypothesized that a positive feedback between temperature and pCO2, atm will play an important role in anthropogenic climate change, with changes in the biological pump playing at most a secondary role. Here we show that environmentally driven shifts in stoichiometry make the biological pump more influential, and may reverse the expected positive relationship between temperature and pCO2, atm. In the temperature-only model, changes in tropical temperature have more impact on the Δ pCO2, atm (˜ 41 ppm) compared to subtropical temperature changes (˜ 4.5 ppm). Our multi-environmental model predicted a decline in pCO2, atm of ˜ 46 ppm when temperature spanned a change of 10 °C. Thus, we find that variation in marine phytoplankton

  20. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  1. The Effect of a Twisted Magnetic Field on the Phase Mixing of the Kink Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2017-08-10

    There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.

  2. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion, External Carotid Artery Stenosis, and Vertebral Artery Kinking: May It Be Asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Jaffer, Usman; Ivana, Saicic; Gordana, Globarevic-Vukcevic; Markovic, Dragan; Kostic, Dusan; Davidovic, Lazar

    2017-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of internal carotid artery occlusion ranges from being a completely asymptomatic occlusion to a devastating stroke or death. The prevalence of asymptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion is unknown, particularly for bilateral occlusion. The distal branches of the external carotid artery anastomose with distal branches of the internal carotid artery provide important sources of collateral circulation to the brain. Stenosis of the external carotid artery with ipsilateral/bilateral internal occlusion may result in ischemic sequelae. Coiling or kinking of the vertebral artery is a rare morphological entity that is infrequently reported because it remains asymptomatic and has no clinical relevance. Currently, there is little evidence to support management strategies for this disease entity and no official recommendations for asymptomatic bilateral carotid artery occlusion. We present a case of a 62-year-old female with asymptomatic bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, bilateral external carotid artery stenoses, and bilateral kinking of the vertebral artery at the V2 segment, who has been successfully managed conservatively for over 5 years. An individualized approach to management of patients with bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, especially in combination with external carotid artery stenosis and elongation malformations of the vertebral artery is key to a successful strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The non-resonant kink modes triggering strong sawtooth-like crashes in the EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Erzhong; Xu, L; Chen, K; Shi, T; Hu, L; Igochine, V; Dumbrajs, O

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of the safety factor (q) profile during L–H transitions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) was accompanied by strong core crashes prior to regular sawtooth behavior. These crashes appeared in the absence of q = 1 (q is the safety factor) rational surface inside the plasma. Analysis indicates that the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is destabilized and phase-locked with the m/n = 1/1 non-resonant kink mode (the q = 1 rational surface is absent) due to the self-consistent evolution of plasma profiles as the L–H transition occurs (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The growing m/n = 1/1 mode destabilizes the m/n = 2/2 kink mode which eventually triggers the strong crash due to an anomalous heat conductivity, as predicted by the transport model of stochastic magnetic fields using experimental parameters. It is also shown that the magnetic topology changes with the amplitude of m/n = 2/2 mode and the value of center safety factor in a reasonable range. (paper)

  4. “Uncovering the Kink Celebrating my Black Identity: Perceptions on Afro-Costa Ricans Natural Hair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret the racism within the Costa Rican society especially against people of African descent. While this racism is manifested in mostly overt ways it is nonetheless present, and continues to affect people of African descent in a myriad of ways including how they feel about their natural hair. From a very early age Afro-Costa Rican children learn to look down on their natural kink reinforced verbally and through images designed for them to hide, and dislike what is naturally theirs. As a result many embraced synthetic, and other ethnic group’s natural hair, preferring to pay any amount of money besides undergoing significant hair, and scalp ill-treatment all with the objective of hiding the natural kink. The main objective of this paper is to make visible the perceptions of Afro-Costa Ricans natural hair by both Afro, and mestizo ethnic groups, and enquire about some of the effects on people of African descent in Costa Rica. The exploratory research collected data from four focus groups of teenage mestizos, 20th century newspaper, one workshop, and questionnaires filled only by Afro-Costa Ricans.

  5. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Coronal Loops Using Seismology of Damped Kink Oscillations and Forward Modeling of EUV Intensity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2018-06-01

    The shape of the damping profile of kink oscillations in coronal loops has recently allowed the transverse density profile of the loop to be estimated. This requires accurate measurement of the damping profile that can distinguish the Gaussian and exponential damping regimes, otherwise there are more unknowns than observables. Forward modeling of the transverse intensity profile may also be used to estimate the width of the inhomogeneous layer of a loop, providing an independent estimate of one of these unknowns. We analyze an oscillating loop for which the seismological determination of the transverse structure is inconclusive except when supplemented by additional spatial information from the transverse intensity profile. Our temporal analysis describes the motion of a coronal loop as a kink oscillation damped by resonant absorption, and our spatial analysis is based on forward modeling the transverse EUV intensity profile of the loop under the isothermal and optically thin approximations. We use Bayesian analysis and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to apply our spatial and temporal models both individually and simultaneously to our data and compare the results with numerical simulations. Combining the two methods allows both the inhomogeneous layer width and density contrast to be calculated, which is not possible for the same data when each method is applied individually. We demonstrate that the assumption of an exponential damping profile leads to a significantly larger error in the inferred density contrast ratio compared with a Gaussian damping profile.

  6. Evidence for a liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water within the E3B3 model and a possible interpretation of the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Supercooled water exhibits many thermodynamic anomalies, and several scenarios have been proposed to interpret them, among which the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) hypothesis is the most commonly discussed. We investigated Widom lines and the LLCP of deeply supercooled water, by using molecular dynamics simulation with a newly reparameterized water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions. Seven isobars are studied from ambient pressure to 2.5 kbar, and Widom lines are identified by calculating maxima in the coefficient of thermal expansion and the isothermal compressibility (both with respect to temperature). From these data we estimate that the LLCP of the new water model is at 180 K and 2.1 kbar. The oxygen radial distribution function is calculated along the 2 kbar isobar. It shows a steep change in the height of its second peak between 180 and 185 K, which indicates a transition between the high-density liquid and low-density liquid phases and which is consistent with the ascribed location of the critical point. The good agreement of the height of the second peak of the radial distribution function between simulation and experiment at 1 bar, as a function of temperature, supports the validity of the model. The location of the LLCP within the model is close to the kink in the experimental homogeneous nucleation line. We use existing experimental data to argue that the experimental LLCP is at 168 K and 1.95 kbar and speculate how this LLCP and its Widom line might be responsible for the kink in the homogeneous nucleation line.

  7. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; D'Souza, Alexandria K.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by NƐ-acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy.

  8. Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t -2 . This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok

  9. Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Vijay, J.G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Madhu, N.V.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Balachandran, K.K.

    et al.: Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India - 57 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt... estuary, Southwest coast of India - 58 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary natural and anthropogenic factors influencing the geochemistry...

  10. The influence of additives in the stoichiometry of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Burgués-Ceballos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the employment of carefully selected solvent additives in the processing of a commercial perovskite precursor ink and analyze their impact on the performance of organometal trihalide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx photovoltaic devices. We provide evidence that the use of benzaldehyde can be used as an effective method to preserve the stoichiometry of the perovskite precursors in solution. Benzaldehyde based additive engineering shows to improve perovskite solid state film morphology and device performance of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx based solar cells.

  11. Report on a NASA astrobiology institute-funded workshop without walls: stellar stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J; Young, Patrick A; Anbar, Ariel D; Hinkel, Natalie; Pagano, Michael; Truitt, Amanda; Turnbull, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    We report on the NASA Astrobiology Institute-funded Workshop Without Walls entitled "Stellar Stoichiometry," hosted by the "Follow the Elements" team at Arizona State University in April 2013. We describe several innovative practices we adopted that made effective use of the Workshop Without Walls videoconferencing format, including use of information technologies, assignment of scientific tasks before the workshop, and placement of graduate students in positions of authority. A companion article will describe the scientific results arising from the workshop. Our intention here is to suggest best practices for future Workshops Without Walls.

  12. Determination of Stoichiometry of Solutes in Molten Salt Solvents by Correlations of Relative Raman Band Intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Berg, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    ); (2) Nb2O5 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Y2n- (1); (3) MoO3 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Z(2n)- (1). It is shown that the solute complex species formed in the studied reactions have, respectively, the following stoichiometries: (1) n = 2, (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-); (2) n = 3, NbO(SO4)(3)(3-); (3) n = 1, MoO(SO4)(2)(2-)....

  13. Stoichiometry and superconductive properties of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the stoichiometry and the superconducting characteristics of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis on the spraying solution composition and the deposition conditions is reported. It has been found that a proper optimization of the starting materials concentration in the spraying solution results in superconducting films with zero resistance temperature of 91 K and a transition to superconducting state within a 3 K range. X-ray diffraction and resistance vs temperature measurements have been used to monitor the crystal composition and the conductive characteristics of the films as a function of the spraying solution composition and the deposition parameters

  14. The influence of additives in the stoichiometry of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Savva, Achilleas; Georgiou, Efthymios; Kapnisis, Konstantinos; Papagiorgis, Paris; Mousikou, Androniki; Itskos, Grigorios; Othonos, Andreas; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the employment of carefully selected solvent additives in the processing of a commercial perovskite precursor ink and analyze their impact on the performance of organometal trihalide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) photovoltaic devices. We provide evidence that the use of benzaldehyde can be used as an effective method to preserve the stoichiometry of the perovskite precursors in solution. Benzaldehyde based additive engineering shows to improve perovskite solid state film morphology and device performance of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx based solar cells.

  15. The effects of air stoichiometry and air excess ratio on the transient response of a PEMFC under load change conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Cha, Dowon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC are studied. • The transient response is measured by varying air stoichiometry and air excess ratio. • Voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation are analyzed under the load change. • Optimal air stoichiometry and air excess ratio are suggested for stable operation. - Abstract: The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an important issue for transportation applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of operating and controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC for achieving more stable cell performance under load change conditions. The transient response of a PEMFC was measured and analyzed by varying air stoichiometry, air humidity, and air excess ratio (AER). The optimal air stoichiometry and AER were determined to minimize the voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation under the load change, while maintaining high cell performance. Based on the present data, the optimal air stoichiometry was determined to be between 2.0 and 2.5, and the optimal AER was suggested to be between 1.65 and 2.0

  16. Hinge-like motions in RNA Kink-turns: The role of the second A-minor motif and nominally unpaired bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rázga, Filip; Koča, Jaroslav; Leontis, Neocles B.; Šponer, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2005), s. 800-801 ISSN 0739-1102. [The 14th Conversation . 14.06.2005-18.06.2005, Albany] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : Kink-turns * A-minor * RNAs Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on interfacial planarity during the solid-phase epitaxial growth of amorphized GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belay, K.B.; Ridgway, M.C.; Llewellyn, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on the Solid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of GaAs has been studied. Ion implantation has been employed to produce microscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga and As implants and macroscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga or As implants. In-situ Time Resolved Reflectivity and Transmission Electron Microscopy and ex-situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Channeling have been used to investigate the regrowth of amorphized GaAs layers. As non-stoichiometry shifts from microscopic to macroscopic the interface loses its planar nature and subsequently gets rougher. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on interfacial planarity during the solid-phase epitaxial growth of amorphized GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belay, K.B.; Ridgway, M.C.; Llewellyn, D.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on the Solid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of GaAs has been studied. Ion implantation has been employed to produce microscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga and As implants and macroscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga or As implants. In-situ Time Resolved Reflectivity and Transmission Electron Microscopy and ex-situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Channeling have been used to investigate the regrowth of amorphized GaAs layers. As non-stoichiometry shifts from microscopic to macroscopic the interface loses its planar nature and subsequently gets rougher. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on interfacial planarity during the solid-phase epitaxial growth of amorphized GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belay, K B; Ridgway, M C; Llewellyn, D J [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The influence of microscopic and macroscopic non-stoichiometry on the Solid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of GaAs has been studied. Ion implantation has been employed to produce microscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga and As implants and macroscopic non-stoichiometry via Ga or As implants. In-situ Time Resolved Reflectivity and Transmission Electron Microscopy and ex-situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Channeling have been used to investigate the regrowth of amorphized GaAs layers. As non-stoichiometry shifts from microscopic to macroscopic the interface loses its planar nature and subsequently gets rougher. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.; Abdelmoula, M.; Hanna, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe II and OH – in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ∼9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe 3−δ O 4 ) generated from F (δ∼0.04) and L (δ∼0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (δ∼0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe II species with goethite. Highlights: ► Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe II to form magnetite. ► Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ► Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ► Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ► Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  1. Synthesis, structure, morphology and stoichiometry characterization of cluster and nano magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L. Herojit; Pati, S.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, 70919-970, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Guimarães, Edi M. [Institute of Geoscience, University of Brasilia, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Rodrigues, P.A.M.; Oliveira, Aderbal C. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, 70919-970, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Garg, V.K., E-mail: vijgarg@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, 70919-970, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the stoichiometry of magnetite nanoparticles using three spectroscopic techniques: Mössbauer, photoacoustic and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). By varying the weight ratio of the Fe precursor to the reducing agent (sodium acetate) and a post-synthesis annealing, we were able to synthesize samples with different amounts of Fe vacancies, from stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. By synthesizing magnetite in the presence of zeolite we obtained nanoparticles within the 3–10 nm diameter range. The spectroscopic results show that there is a correlation between the amount of Fe vacancies and (i) the optical absorption and (ii) the g-values from the Electron paramagnetic resonance EPR spectra of the nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles and cluster synthesized. • Photoacoustic spectroscopy is effective in determining the stoichiometry. • Particles with 9 nm size has 0 < δ < 0.14. • Less than 9 nm gives 0.14 < δ < 0.3 and size <3 nm have δ = 0.33 (i.e. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

  2. Evidence of different stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes of lanthanides(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippini, V.

    2007-12-01

    Two stoichiometries have been proposed by different laboratories to interpret measurements on the limiting carbonate complexes of An 3+ and Ln 3+ cations. The study of the solubility of double carbonates (AlkLn(CO 3 ) 2 ,xH 2 O) in concentrated carbonate solutions at room temperature and high ionic strengths has shown that on the one hand the lightest lanthanides (La and Nd) form Ln(CO 3 ) 4 5- whereas the heaviest (Eu and Dy) form Ln(CO 3 ) 3 3- in the studied chemical conditions, and on the other hand, that the kinetics of precipitation of double carbonates depends on the alkali metal and the lanthanide ions. The existence of two stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (CE-ICP-MS), used to extend the study to the whole series of lanthanides (except Ce, Pm and Yb). Two behaviours have been put forward comparing the electrophoretic mobilities: La to Tb form Ln(CO 3 ) 4 5- while Dy to Lu form Ln(CO 3 ) 3 3- . Measurements by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) on Eu(III) indicate small variations of the geometry of Eu(CO 3 ) 3 3- complex, specially with Cs + . Although analogies are currently used among the 4f-block trivalent elements, different aqueous speciations are evidenced in concentrated carbonate solutions across the lanthanide series. (author)

  3. Stoichiometry control of SrVO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiderer, Philipp; Schmitt, Matthias; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Oxide heterostructures exhibit fascinating properties, e.g., the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism at the interface of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, but the extraordinary electronic properties of transition metal oxides caused by electron correlation yet wait to be fully harnessed. One suitable candidate for future device applications is the correlated metal SrVO{sub 3}, which can be prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on commonly used substrates such as SrTiO{sub 3}. Sample fabrication by PLD offers a wide variety of possibilities to manipulate the structural and electronic properties of the grown films in a controlled way. Here we report on the manipulation of the cation and oxygen stoichiometry of SrVO{sub 3} thin films by tuning the laser flux density of the PLD-ablation process and the oxygen background pressure during growth, respectively. In situ photoemission, x-ray diffraction, and temperature dependent resistivity measurements enable us to monitor the structural and electronic changes: Cation off-stoichiometry causes a strong increase of the out-of-plane lattice constant as well as a lower residual resistivity ratio, while excess oxygen is found to induce a shift to higher vanadium valences. After exposure to air a similar shift is detected, indicating an overoxidation of the SrVO{sub 3} film.

  4. Non-stoichiometry defects and radiation hardness of lead tungstate crystals PbWO sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Devitsin, E G; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Nefedov, V A; Polyansky, E V; Zadneprovski, B I; Kjellberg, P; Korbel, V

    2002-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO sub 4 is to a big extent stipulated by the non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of the non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO sub 4 , the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method 'in situ' was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO sub 4 melt has found PbWO sub 4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead PbO, Pb sub 2 WO sub 5 with overall ratio Pb/W (3....

  5. Non-stoichiometry Defects and Radiation Hardness of Lead Tungstate Crystals PbWO4

    CERN Document Server

    Devitsin, E G; Kozlov, V A; Nefedov, L; Polyansky, E V; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Zadneprovski, B I

    2001-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO4 is to big extent stipulated by non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO4 the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation (137Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method "in situ" was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO4 melt has found PbWO4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead, PbO, Pb2WO5, with overall ratio Pb/W = 3.2. Correspondingly the lack of lead and variations in th...

  6. Investment in boney defensive traits alters organismal stoichiometry and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Warbanski, Misha L; Rudman, Seth M; Hovel, Rachel; Matthews, Blake

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how trait diversification alters ecosystem processes is an important goal for ecological and evolutionary studies. Ecological stoichiometry provides a framework for predicting how traits affect ecosystem function. The growth rate hypothesis of ecological stoichiometry links growth and phosphorus (P) body composition in taxa where nucleic acids are a significant pool of body P. In vertebrates, however, most of the P is bound within bone, and organisms with boney structures can vary in terms of the relative contributions of bones to body composition. Threespine stickleback populations have substantial variation in boney armour plating. Shaped by natural selection, this variation provides a model system to study the links between evolution of bone content, elemental body composition, and P excretion. We measure carbon:nitrogen:P body composition from stickleback populations that vary in armour phenotype. We develop a mechanistic mass-balance model to explore factors affecting P excretion, and measure P excretion from two populations with contrasting armour phenotypes. Completely armoured morphs have higher body %P but excrete more P per unit body mass than other morphs. The model suggests that such differences are driven by phenotypic differences in P intake as well as body %P composition. Our results show that while investment in boney traits alters the elemental composition of vertebrate bodies, excretion rates depend on how acquisition and assimilation traits covary with boney trait investment. These results also provide a stoichiometric hypothesis to explain the repeated loss of boney armour in threespine sticklebacks upon colonizing freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and chlorophyllide formation of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomata, Jiro [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Terauchi, Kazuki [Department of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan); Fujita, Yuichi, E-mail: fujita@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-02-12

    Dark-operative protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a nitrogenase-like enzyme catalyzing a reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of Pchlide to form chlorophyllide a (Chlide) in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. DPOR consists of an ATP-dependent reductase component, L-protein (a BchL dimer), and a catalytic component, NB-protein (a BchN–BchB heterotetramer). The L-protein transfers electrons to the NB-protein to reduce Pchlide, which is coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Here we determined the stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and the Chlide formation of DPOR. The minimal ratio of ATP to Chlide (ATP/2e{sup –}) was 4, which coincides with that of nitrogenase. The ratio increases with increasing molar ratio of L-protein to NB-protein. This profile differs from that of nitrogenase. These results suggest that DPOR has a specific intrinsic property, while retaining the common features shared with nitrogenase. - Highlights: • The stoichiometry of nitrogenase-like protochlorophyllide reductase was determined. • The minimal ATP/2e{sup –} ratio was 4, which coincides with that of nitrogenase. • The ATP/2e{sup –} ratio increases with increasing L-protein/NB-protein molar ratio. • DPOR has an intrinsic property, but retains features shared with nitrogenase.

  8. The study of stress induced effects on Moessbauer impurities forming the kink in dislocation in some crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The alternating external stress value required to move a dislocation together with Moessbauer impurities positioned at dislocation is calculated by using the kink model. The kinetic energy of the dislocation is calculated which leads to an energy shift in the γ-ray photon emitted by the atom moving with the dislocation. The critical stress values calculated at low temperatures are found to change with the mass and the Debye temperatures of the resonating atoms. The variation of mean square displacement, mean square velocity and the first moments for the Moessbauer impurity at low temperature are also evaluated. All the results are compared with the corresponding values obtained by using the string model. (orig.)

  9. Trapped fast particle destabilization of internal kink mode for the locally flattened q-profile with an inflection point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xian-Qu [Institute of Fusion Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Rui-Bin; Meng, Guo [State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The destabilization of ideal internal kink modes by trapped fast particles in tokamak plasmas with a “shoulder”-like equilibrium current is investigated. It is found that energetic particle branch of the mode is unstable with the driving of fast-particle precession drifts and corresponds to a precessional fishbone. The mode with a low stability threshold is also more easily excited than the conventional precessional fishbone. This is different from earlier studies for the same equilibrium in which the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch of the mode is stable. Furthermore, the stability and characteristic frequency of the mode are analyzed by solving the dispersion relation and comparing with the conventional fishbone. The results suggest that an equilibrium with a locally flattened q-profile, may be modified by localized current drive (or bootstrap current, etc.), is prone to the onset of the precessional fishbone branch of the mode.

  10. Compressive failure model for fiber composites by kink band initiation from obliquely aligned, shear-dislocated fiber breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, J.; Phoenix, S.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    2005-04-01

    Predicting compressive failure of a unidirectional fibrous composite is a longstanding and challenging problem that we study from a new perspective. Motivated by previous modelling of tensile failure as well as experimental observations on compressive failures in single carbon fibers, we develop a new micromechanical model for the compressive failure process in unidirectional, planar composites. As the compressive load is increased, random fiber failures are assumed to occur due to statistically distributed flaws, analogous to what occurs in tension. These breaks are often shear-mode failures with slanted surfaces that induce shear dislocations, especially when they occur in small groups aligned obliquely. Our model includes interactions of dislocated and neighboring intact fibers through a system of fourth-order, differential equations governing transverse deformation, and also allows for local matrix plastic yielding and debonding from the fiber near and within the dislocation arrays. Using the Discrete Fourier Transform method, we find a 'building-block' analytical solution form, which naturally embodies local length scales of fiber microbuckling and instability. Based on the influence function, superposition approach, a computationally efficient scheme is developed to model the evolution of fiber and matrix stresses. Under increasing compressive strain the simulations show that matrix yielding and debonding crucially lead to large increases in bending strains in fibers next to small groups of obliquely aligned, dislocated breaks. From the paired locations of maximum fiber bending in flanking fibers, the triggering of an unstable kink band becomes realistic. The geometric features of the kink band, such as the fragment lengths and orientation angles, will depend on the fiber and matrix mechanical and geometric properties. In carbon fiber-polymer matrix systems our model predicts a much lower compressive failure stress than obtained from Rosen

  11. Three dimensional boundary displacement due to stable ideal kink modes excited by external n = 2 magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willensdorfer, M.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Brida, D.; Cavedon, M.; Denk, S. S.; Igochine, V.; Giannone, L.; Kirk, A.; Kirschner, J.; Medvedeva, A.; Odstrčil, T.; Ryan, D. A.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    In low-collisionality (ν\\star) scenarios exhibiting mitigation of edge localized mode (ELMs), stable ideal kink modes at the edge are excited by externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP)-fields. In ASDEX Upgrade these modes can cause three-dimensional (3D) boundary displacements up to the centimeter range. These displacements have been measured using toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigidly rotating n=2 MP-fields with various applied poloidal mode spectra. These measurements are compared to non-linear 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria calculated by VMEC. Comprehensive comparisons have been conducted, which consider for instance plasma movements due to the position control system, attenuation due to internal conductors and changes in the edge pressure profiles. VMEC accurately reproduces the amplitude of the displacement and its dependencies on the applied poloidal mode spectra. Quantitative agreement is found around the low field side (LFS) midplane. The response at the plasma top is qualitatively compared. The measured and predicted displacements at the plasma top maximize when the applied spectra is optimized for ELM-mitigation. The predictions from the vacuum modeling generally fails to describe the displacement at the LFS midplane as well as at the plasma top. When the applied mode spectra is set to maximize the displacement, VMEC and the measurements clearly surpass the predictions from the vacuum modeling by a factor of four. Minor disagreements between VMEC and the measurements are discussed. This study underlines the importance of the stable ideal kink modes at the edge for the 3D boundary displacement in scenarios relevant for ELM-mitigation.

  12. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  13. The Impact of Variable Phytoplankton Stoichiometry on Projections of Primary Production, Food Quality, and Carbon Uptake in the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Ocean biogeochemical models are integral components of Earth system models used to project the evolution of the ocean carbon sink, as well as potential changes in the physical and chemical environment of marine ecosystems. In such models the stoichiometry of phytoplankton C:N:P is typically fixed at the Redfield ratio. The observed stoichiometry of phytoplankton, however, has been shown to considerably vary from Redfield values due to plasticity in the expression of phytoplankton cell structures with different elemental compositions. The intrinsic structure of fixed C:N:P models therefore has the potential to bias projections of the marine response to climate change. We assess the importance of variable stoichiometry on 21st century projections of net primary production, food quality, and ocean carbon uptake using the recently developed Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies Quota (PISCES-QUOTA) ocean biogeochemistry model. The model simulates variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and was run under historical and business-as-usual scenario forcing from 1850 to 2100. PISCES-QUOTA projects similar 21st century global net primary production decline (7.7%) to current generation fixed stoichiometry models. Global phytoplankton N and P content or food quality is projected to decline by 1.2% and 6.4% over the 21st century, respectively. The largest reductions in food quality are in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres and Arctic Ocean where declines by the end of the century can exceed 20%. Using the change in the carbon export efficiency in PISCES-QUOTA, we estimate that fixed stoichiometry models may be underestimating 21st century cumulative ocean carbon uptake by 0.5-3.5% (2.0-15.1 PgC).

  14. Defects, stoichiometry, and electronic transport in SrTiO{sub 3-δ} epilayers: A high pressure oxygen sputter deposition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambwani, P.; Xu, P.; Jeong, J. S.; Deng, R.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Jalan, B.; Leighton, C., E-mail: leighton@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Haugstad, G. [Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    SrTiO{sub 3} is not only of enduring interest due to its unique dielectric, structural, and lattice dynamical properties, but is also the archetypal perovskite oxide semiconductor and a foundational material in oxide heterostructures and electronics. This has naturally focused attention on growth, stoichiometry, and defects in SrTiO{sub 3}, one exciting recent development being such precisely stoichiometric defect-managed thin films that electron mobilities have finally exceeded bulk crystals. This has been achieved only by molecular beam epitaxy, however (and to a somewhat lesser extent pulsed laser deposition (PLD)), and numerous open questions remain. Here, we present a study of the stoichiometry, defects, and structure in SrTiO{sub 3} synthesized by a different method, high pressure oxygen sputtering, relating the results to electronic transport. We find that this form of sputter deposition is also capable of homoepitaxy of precisely stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}, but only provided that substrate and target preparation, temperature, pressure, and deposition rate are carefully controlled. Even under these conditions, oxygen-vacancy-doped heteroepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films are found to have carrier density, mobility, and conductivity significantly lower than bulk. While surface depletion plays a role, it is argued from particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements of trace impurities in commercial sputtering targets that this is also due to deep acceptors such as Fe at 100's of parts-per-million levels. Comparisons of PIXE from SrTiO{sub 3} crystals and polycrystalline targets are shown to be of general interest, with clear implications for sputter and PLD deposition of this important material.

  15. Understanding an Organization through Oral Traditions: "No Kinks, Snakes or Whiners Need Apply."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Kristin; And Others

    Twenty-two interviews were conducted with the owner, managers, employees, suppliers, customers, and competitors of an auto dealership employing 91 people in order to examine the oral traditions of that company. The interviews provided data on management styles, dynamics of the managers' interaction, general language usage, paralanguage, favorable…

  16. Nonlinear simulation of tearing mode and m=1 kink mode based on kinetic RMHD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Naitou, H.; Nagahara, H.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Itoh, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamics of sawtooth oscillation and neoclassical tearing modes based on kinetic RMHD model, putting an emphasis on interaction with microscopic and transport processes. The simulation results show that the assumption in the conventional theory of neoclassical tearing mode is rather rude. (author)

  17. Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure.

  18. Prediction of seebeck coefficient for compounds without restriction to fixed stoichiometry: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Saal, James E; Doak, Jeff W; Olson, Gregory B; Choudhary, Alok; Agrawal, Ankit

    2018-02-05

    The regression model-based tool is developed for predicting the Seebeck coefficient of crystalline materials in the temperature range from 300 K to 1000 K. The tool accounts for the single crystal versus polycrystalline nature of the compound, the production method, and properties of the constituent elements in the chemical formula. We introduce new descriptive features of crystalline materials relevant for the prediction the Seebeck coefficient. To address off-stoichiometry in materials, the predictive tool is trained on a mix of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric materials. The tool is implemented into a web application (http://info.eecs.northwestern.edu/SeebeckCoefficientPredictor) to assist field scientists in the discovery of novel thermoelectric materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Stoichiometry in Context: Inquiry-Guided Problems of Chemistry for Encouraging Critical Thinking in Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on examples of educational tools concerning the learning of chemistry for engineering students through different daily life cases. These tools were developed during the past few years for enhancing the active role of students. They refer to cases about mineral water, medicaments, dentifrices and informative panels about solar power, where an adequate quantitative treatment through stoichiometry calculations allows the interpretation of data and values announced by manufacturers. These cases were developed in the context of an inquiry-guided instruction model. By bringing tangible chemistry examples into the classroom we provide an opportunity for engineering students to apply this science to familiar products in hopes that they will appreciate chemistry more, will be motivated to study concepts in greater detail, and will connect the relevance of chemistry to everyday life.

  20. A defect model for UO2+x based on electrical conductivity and deviation from stoichiometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Philippe; Pizzi, Elisabetta; Dorado, Boris; Andersson, David; Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Martial, Chantal; Baldinozzi, Guido; Siméone, David; Maillard, Serge; Martin, Guillaume

    2017-10-01

    Electrical conductivity of UO2+x shows a strong dependence upon oxygen partial pressure and temperature which may be interpreted in terms of prevailing point defects. A simulation of this property along with deviation from stoichiometry is carried out based on a model that takes into account the presence of impurities, oxygen interstitials, oxygen vacancies, holes, electrons and clusters of oxygen atoms. The equilibrium constants for each defect reaction are determined to reproduce the experimental data. An estimate of defect concentrations and their dependence upon oxygen partial pressure can then be determined. The simulations carried out for 8 different temperatures (973-1673 K) over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures are discussed and resulting defect equilibrium constants are plotted in an Arrhenius diagram. This provides an estimate of defect formation energies which may further be compared to other experimental data or ab-initio and empirical potential calculations.

  1. Ion plasma deposition of oxide films with graded-stoichiometry composition: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpyas, V. A.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. K.; Kozyrev, A. B.; Platonov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method of ion plasma deposition is proposed for obtaining thin multicomponent films with continuously graded composition in depth of the film. The desired composition-depth profile is obtained by varying the working gas pressure during deposition in the presence of an additional adsorbing screen in the drift space between a sputtered target and substrate. Efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition of thin films of Ba x Sr1- x TiO3 (BSTO) solid solution. It is demonstrated that, during sputtering of a Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 target, the parameter of composition stoichiometry in the growing BSTO film varies in the interval of x = 0.3-0.65 when the gas pressure is changed within 2-60 Pa.

  2. Study of Stoichiometry and Stability of some Fe(III)-Amino Acid Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, S.; Shirin, K.; Nisar, S.; Zahida, T. M.

    2005-01-01

    The complexation of ferric with three amino acids (Glycine, Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid) was studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically at pH 5.0 and in aqueous medium. The stoichiometry was calculated spectrophotometrically using mole ratio method and is found to be ML3 for Fe (III)-Glycine and ML2 for Fe (III)-Glutamate for Fe (III)-Glutamate and Aspartate complex. The stabilities of these complexes were calculated spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. The experimental results of potentiometric titrations were treated by well known computer program B EST . The values were further refined till least sigma fit i.e. 0.03. The complexes were not formed under normal conditions. Each complex was studied at more than one wavelength and no kmax was obtained because Fe (III) solution and the complexes absorb in similar wavelength region. The formation constants of all these complexes are not very high shows weak complexation of Fe (III) with these amino acids. (author)

  3. Action of DCCD on the H+/O stoichiometry of mitoplast cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L; Reynafarje, B; Costa, L

    1985-01-01

    The mechanistic H+/O ejection stoichiometry of the cytochrome c oxidase reaction in rat liver mitoplasts is close to 4 at level flow when the reduced oxidase is pulsed with O2. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) up to 30 nmol/mg protein fails to influence the rate of electron flow through the mitoplast oxidase, but inhibits H+ ejection. The inhibition of H+ ejection appears to be biphasic; ejection of 2-3 H+ per O is completely inhibited by very low DCCD, whereas inhibition of the remaining H+ ejection requires very much higher concentrations of DCCD. This effect suggests the occurrence of two types of H+ pumps in the native cytochrome oxidase of mitoplasts.

  4. Relationship between stoichiometry and ecosystem services in organic crop production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Fan

    contribute to and mitigate global ES loss. Organic farming has been suggested as one possible solution to alleviate the loss of ES in agro-ecosystems due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional farming. However, only a few studies have accounted for the economic value of ES in different...... organic crop production systems and little is known about how anthropogenic activities affect the supply of ES in such organic crop production systems. Ecological stoichiometry, which is the study of the fluxes of chemical elements and the ratio between them, has been considered as a new approach....... The organic farming systems with a high soil C:N stoichiometric ratio had a potential to produce more food, sequester more carbon from the atmosphere, store more water in the soil, attract more aphid predators, and regulate more nitrogen compared with the organic farming systems with a low soil C...

  5. A cell-free assay to determine the stoichiometry of plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Cesar; Vivar, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Plasma membrane receptors, transporters, and ion channel molecules are often found as oligomeric structures that participate in signaling cascades essential for cell survival. Different states of protein oligomerization may play a role in functional control and allosteric regulation. Stochastic GFP-photobleaching (SGP) has emerged as an affordable and simple method to determine the stoichiometry of proteins at the plasma membrane. This non-invasive optical approach can be useful for total internal reflection of fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), where signal-to-noise ratio is very high at the plasma membrane. Here, we report an alternative methodology implemented on a standard laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The simplicity of our method will allow for its implementation in any epifluorescence microscope of choice.

  6. Consequences of warming and resource quality on the stoichiometry and nutrient cycling of a stream shredder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Mas-Martí

    Full Text Available As a result of climate change, streams are warming and their runoff has been decreasing in most temperate areas. These changes can affect consumers directly by increasing their metabolic rates and modifying their physiology and indirectly by changing the quality of the resources on which organisms depend. In this study, a common stream detritivore (Echinogammarus berilloni Catta was reared at two temperatures (15 and 20°C and fed Populus nigra L. leaves that had been conditioned either in an intermittent or permanent reach to evaluate the effects of resource quality and increased temperatures on detritivore performance, stoichiometry and nutrient cycling. The lower quality (i.e., lower protein, soluble carbohydrates and higher C:P and N:P ratios of leaves conditioned in pools resulted in compensatory feeding and lower nutrient retention capacity by E. berilloni. This effect was especially marked for phosphorus, which was unexpected based on predictions of ecological stoichiometry. When individuals were fed pool-conditioned leaves at warmer temperatures, their growth rates were higher, but consumers exhibited less efficient assimilation and higher mortality. Furthermore, the shifts to lower C:P ratios and higher lipid concentrations in shredder body tissues suggest that structural molecules such as phospholipids are preserved over other energetic C-rich macromolecules such as carbohydrates. These effects on consumer physiology and metabolism were further translated into feces and excreta nutrient ratios. Overall, our results show that the effects of reduced leaf quality on detritivore nutrient retention were more severe at higher temperatures because the shredders were not able to offset their increased metabolism with increased consumption or more efficient digestion when fed pool-conditioned leaves. Consequently, the synergistic effects of impaired food quality and increased temperatures might not only affect the physiology and survival of

  7. Experiments to investigate the effects of small changes in fuel stoichiometry on fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, P S; Smith, R C [Windscale Lab., AEA Technology, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Fuel pin failure in-reactor leads to fission product and in the case of a PWR fuel debris release to the coolant. For economic reasons immediate shutdown and discharge of failed fuel needs to be avoided but this needs to be counter-balanced against the increasing dose to operators. PWR practice is to continue running wit failed rods, monitoring coolant activity, and only shutting down the reactor and discharging the fuel when circuit activity levels become unacceptable. The rate of fission product release under failed fuel conditions is of key importance and considerable effort has been directed towards establishing the dependency of release on temperature, heating rate, burn-up, and also the extent of fuel oxidation. As a precursor to a possible wider investigation of this area, a small programme was mounted during 1992/1993 to confirm whether small changes in the oxidation state of the fuel, for example those caused by minor cladding defects, would significantly effect fuel behaviour during postulated design basis faults. The objective of the programme was to determine the effects of small departures from stoichiometric fuel composition on fission gas release, and to compare the results with the current methodology for calculating releases under fault conditions. A total of eight experiments was performed. Two were intended as baseline tests to provide a reference with which to compare the effect of oxidation state influenced behaviour with that of thermal effects. It was found that small changes in stoichiometry of {sup {approx}}1 x 10{sup -6} had little or no effect on release but that changes of {sup {approx}} 1 x 10{sup -4} were observed to increase the diffusion coefficient, for {sup 85}Kr, by up to an order of magnitude and hence greatly increase the release rate. The stoichiometry of the sample used in these tests was, for convenience, adjusted using He/H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmospheres. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rong; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich; Zhao, Meixun

    2018-02-01

    Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs) in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C), three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1) and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm). Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON) and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP) in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC) and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2) on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2). Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

  9. Transcriptional changes underlying elemental stoichiometry shifts in a marine heterotrophic bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Keat eChan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria drive the biogeochemical processing of oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC, a 750-Tg C reservoir that is a critical component of the global C cycle. Catabolism of DOC is thought to be regulated by the biomass composition of heterotrophic bacteria, as cells maintain a C:N:P ratio of ~50:10:1 during DOC processing. Yet a complicating factor in stoichiometry-based analyses is that bacteria can change the C:N:P ratio of their biomass in response to resource composition. We investigated the physiological mechanisms of resource-driven shifts in biomass stoichiometry in continuous cultures of the marine heterotrophic bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi (a member of the Roseobacter clade under four element limitation regimes (C, N, P, and S. Microarray analysis indicated that the bacterium scavenged for alternate sources of the scarce element when cells were C-, N-, or P-limited; reworked the ratios of biomolecules when C- and P- limited; and exerted tighter control over import/export and cytoplasmic pools when N-limited. Under S-limitation, a scenario not existing naturally for surface ocean microbes, stress responses dominated transcriptional changes. Resource-driven changes in C:N ratios of up to 2.5-fold and in C:P ratios of up to 6-fold were measured in R. pomeroyi biomass. These changes were best explained if the C and P content of the cells was flexible in the face of shifting resources but N content was not, achieved through the net balance of different transcriptional strategies. The cellular-level metabolic trade-offs that govern biomass stoichiometery in R. pomeroyi may have implications for global carbon cycling. Strong homeostatic responses to N limitation by heterotrophic marine bacteria would intensify competition with autotrophs. Modification of cellular inventories in C- and P-limited heterotrophs would vary the elemental ratio of particulate organic matter sequestered in the deep ocean.

  10. Oxidation of manganese(II) with ferrate: Stoichiometry, kinetics, products and impact of organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Joseph E; Mai, Xuyen; Jiang, Yanjun; Reckhow, David A; Tobiason, John E

    2016-09-01

    Manganese is a contaminant of concern for many drinking water utilities, and future regulation may be pending. An analysis of soluble manganese (Mn(II)) oxidation by ferrate (Fe(VI)) was executed at the bench-scale, in a laboratory matrix, both with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and at two different pH values, 6.2 and 7.5. In the matrix without NOM, the oxidation of Mn(II) by Fe(VI) followed a stoichiometry of 2 mol Fe(VI) to 3 mol Mn(II). The presence of NOM did not significantly affect the stoichiometry of the oxidation reaction, indicating relative selectivity of Fe(VI) for Mn(II). The size distribution of resulting particles included significant amounts of nanoparticles. Resulting manganese oxide particles were confirmed to be MnO2 via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rate of the Mn(II) oxidation reaction was fast relative to typical time scales in drinking water treatment, with an estimated second order rate constant of approximately 1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.2 and > 9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6.2. In general, ferrate is a potential option for Mn(II) oxidation in water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of stoichiometry to predict the abundance and functioning of root symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    Plants form nutritional symbioses with fungi and bacteria and the importance of these partnerships varies with the mineral fertility of soil. There is strong evidence that plants acclimate and adapt to their local soil conditions through root symbioses; nitrogen limitation is ameliorated by symbiosis with diazotrophic prokaryotes and mycorrhizas ameliorate phosphorus limitation. Corollaries of ecological stoichiometry may be useful for predicting the abundance and functioning of mycorrhizas and N-fixation symbioses. A series of field experiments show that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses in grasslands in North America and in the African Serengeti are most beneficial to plant nutrition when plants are phosphorus limited and have sufficient nitrogen and carbon. A reciprocal inoculation experiment shows that locally adapted communities of AM fungi, associated soil organisms and plants arise such that mutualistic benefits are maximized; both AM fungi and plants grew best in their "home" soil-symbiont combination compared to "away" soil-symbiont combinations. Plants in their home combination acquired more limiting resource (either phosphorus or nitrogen) and consequently grew larger; similarly, AM fungi in their home combination formed more arbuscules and extraradical hyphae. Genetic analysis of the AM fungi inside plant roots indicate that these results correspond to variation in the community composition of AM fungi and also to variation in the symbiotic performance of local isolates of one particular species of AM fungus. The next step is to conduct landscape scale studies of root symbioses to test the hypothesis that plants cultivate microbial communities in and around their roots such that the species and ecotypes of microorganisms within these communities is customized for optimal nutrient acquisition under site-specific environmental conditions. If locally adapted communities of root and rhizosphere organisms are common, then plants may be optimizing their

  12. Multi-signal sedimentation velocity analysis with mass conservation for determining the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Brautigam

    Full Text Available Multi-signal sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (MSSV is a powerful tool for the determination of the number, stoichiometry, and hydrodynamic shape of reversible protein complexes in two- and three-component systems. In this method, the evolution of sedimentation profiles of macromolecular mixtures is recorded simultaneously using multiple absorbance and refractive index signals and globally transformed into both spectrally and diffusion-deconvoluted component sedimentation coefficient distributions. For reactions with complex lifetimes comparable to the time-scale of sedimentation, MSSV reveals the number and stoichiometry of co-existing complexes. For systems with short complex lifetimes, MSSV reveals the composition of the reaction boundary of the coupled reaction/migration process, which we show here may be used to directly determine an association constant. A prerequisite for MSSV is that the interacting components are spectrally distinguishable, which may be a result, for example, of extrinsic chromophores or of different abundances of aromatic amino acids contributing to the UV absorbance. For interacting components that are spectrally poorly resolved, here we introduce a method for additional regularization of the spectral deconvolution by exploiting approximate knowledge of the total loading concentrations. While this novel mass conservation principle does not discriminate contributions to different species, it can be effectively combined with constraints in the sedimentation coefficient range of uncomplexed species. We show in theory, computer simulations, and experiment, how mass conservation MSSV as implemented in SEDPHAT can enhance or even substitute for the spectral discrimination of components. This should broaden the applicability of MSSV to the analysis of the composition of reversible macromolecular complexes.

  13. Proton translocation stoichiometry of cytochrome oxidase: use of a fast-responding oxygen electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Alexandre, A; Davies, P; Lehninger, A L

    1982-01-01

    The mechanistic stoichiometry of vectorial H+ ejection coupled to electron transport from added ferrocytochrome c to oxygen by the cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1) of rat liver mitoplasts was determined from measurements of the initial rates of electron flow and H+ ejection in the presence of K+ (with valinomycin). Three different methods of measuring electron flow were used: (a) dual-wavelength spectrophotometry of ferrocytochrome c oxidation, (b) uptake of scalar H+ for the reduction of O2 in the presence of a protonophore, and (c) a fast-responding membraneless oxygen electrode. The reliability of the rate measurements was first established against the known stoichiometry of the scalar reaction of cytochrome oxidase (2ferrocytochrome c + 2H+ + 1/2O2 leads to 2ferricytochrome c + H2O) in the presence of excess protonophore. With all three methods the directly observed vectorial H+/O ejection ratios in the presence of K+ + valinomycin significantly exceeded 3.0. However, because the rate of backflow of the ejected H+ into the mitoplasts is very high and increases with the increasing delta pH generated across the membrane, there is a very rapid decline in the observed H+/O ratio from the beginning of the reaction. Kinetic analysis of ferrocytochrome c oxidation by the mitoplasts, carried out with a fast-responding membraneless oxygen electrode, showed the reaction to be first order in O2 and allowed accurate extrapolation of the rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection to zero time. At this point, at which there is zero delta pH across the membrane, the H+/O ejection ratio of the cytochrome oxidase reaction, obtained from the rates at zero time, is close to 4.0. PMID:6296824

  14. Forest wildfire increases soil microbial biomass C:N:P stoichiometry in long-term effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forest fire strongly influences carbon (C) stock in permafrost soil by thawing permafrost table which accelerated microbe decomposition process. We studied soil microbial biomass stoichiometry in a gradient of four (3 yr, 25 yr, 46 yr and more than 100 yr) ages since fire in Canada boreal forest. Soil microbial biomass (MB) in long-term after fire is significantly higher than in short-term. MB C and nitrogen (N) were mainly dominated by corresponding soil element concentration and inorganic P, while MB phosphorus (P) changes were fully explained by soil N. Fire ages and soil temperature positively increased MB N and P, indicating the negative impact by fire. Microbial C:N:P gradually increased with fire ages from 15:2:1 to 76:6:1 and then drop down to 17:2:1 in the oldest fire ages. The degree of homeostasis of microbial C, N and P are close to 1 indicates non-homoeostasis within microbial elements, while it of C:N:P is close to 8 shows a strong homeostasis within element ratios and proved microbial stoichiometric ratio is not driven by soil element ratios. In conclusion, i) microbial biomass elements highly depends on soil nutrient supply rather than fire ages; ii) wildfire decreased microbial stoichiometry immediate after fire but increased with years after fire (YF) which at least 3 times higher than > 100 fire ages; iii) microbial biomass C, N and P deviated from strict homeostasis but C:N:P ratio reflects stronger homeostasis.

  15. On the jets, kinks, and spheromaks formed by a planar magnetized coaxial gun

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the various plasma configurations produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun provide insight into the magnetic topology evolution resulting from magnetic helicity injection. Important features of the experiments are a very simple coaxial gun design so that all observed geometrical complexity is due to the intrinsic physical dynamics rather than the source shape and use of a fast multiple-frame digital camera which provides direct imaging of topologically complex shapes and dy...

  16. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  17. Thermometric titration of beta-aryl-alpha-mercaptopropenoic acids and determination of the stoichiometry of their metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, A; Carrasco, J

    1981-05-01

    Automatic thermometric titration was applied to some beta-aryl-alpha-mercaptopropenoic acids and the stoichiometry of their complexes with several metal ions was investigated. The heats of neutralization of the mercapto-acids with sodium hydroxide and the heats of their reaction with metal ions were calculated.

  18. On the reason for the kink in the rigidity spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei near 230 GV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loznikov, V. M., E-mail: loznikov@yandex.ru; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A three-component phenomenological model describing the specific features of the spectrum of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei in the rigidity range of 30–2×10{sup 5} GV is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant background; the second, to the variable “soft” (30–500 GV) heliospheric source; and the third, to the variable “hard” (0.5–200 TV) source located inside a local bubble. The existence and variability of both sources are provided by the corresponding “surfatron accelerators,” whose operation requires the presence of an extended region with an almost uniform (in both magnitude and direction) magnetic field, orthogonally (or obliquely) to which electromagnetic waves propagate. The maximum energy to which cosmic rays can be accelerated is determined by the source size. The soft source with a size of ∼100 AU is located at the periphery of the heliosphere, behind the front of the solar wind shock wave. The hard source with a size of >0.1 pc is located near the boundary of an interstellar cloud at a distance of ∼0.01 pc from the Sun. The presence of a kink in the rigidity spectra of p and He near 230 GV is related to the variability of the physical conditions in the acceleration region and depends on the relation between the amplitudes and power-law exponents in the dependences of the background, soft heliospheric source, and hard near galactic source. The ultrarelativistic acceleration of p and He by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field is numerically analyzed. Conditions for particle trapping by the wave and the dynamics of the particle velocity and momentum components are considered. The calculations show that, in contrast to electrons and positrons (e{sup +}), the trapped protons relatively rapidly escape from the effective potential well and cease to accelerate. Due to this effect, the p and He spectra are softer than that of e{sup +}. The possibility that the

  19. Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in the presence of impurities: The case of a Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woulache, R.L.; Yemele, D.; Kofane, T.

    2005-09-01

    Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a nonlinear Klein- Gordon (NKG) model with a Remoissenet-Peyrard (RP) substrate potential in the presence of impurities and coupled to an applied field is analyzed in the limits of moderate temperature and strong damping. Using the Kolmogorov method, the average velocity of particles of the lattice is calculated and its dependence on the intensity of impurities is discussed in connection with the deformability parameter or the shape of the RP substrate potential. Numerical values are carried out by making use of parameters of the hydrogen atom adsorbed in the tungsten and ruthenium substrates. We show that, for large values of the applied field, the presence of impurities in the system makes the nucleation process of kink-antikink pairs more favorable in the high-temperature regime while they contribute to make it less favorable in the low-temperature regime. (author)

  20. Isotropic Kink and Quasiparticle Excitations in the Three-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}MnO_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Koji; Kitamura, Miho; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Kobayashi, Masaki; Fujimori, Atsushi; Kumigashira, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    In order to reveal the many-body interactions in three-dimensional perovskite manganites that show colossal magnetoresistance, we performed an in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}MnO_{3} and investigated the behavior of quasiparticles. We observed quasiparticle peaks near the Fermi momentum in both the electron and the hole bands, and clear kinks throughout the entire hole Fermi surface in the band dispersion. This isotropic behavior of quasiparticles and kinks suggests that polaronic quasiparticles produced by the coupling of electrons with Jahn-Teller phonons play an important role in the colossal magnetoresistance properties of the ferromagnetic metallic phase of three-dimensional manganites.

  1. Reconnection of a Kinking Flux Rope Triggering the Ejection of a Microwave and Hard X-Ray Source. 2. Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    apex. The external field is thus mainly poloidal, with the ratio between toroidal and poloidal components at the flux rope apex being Bet/ Bep = 0.075...eruption involved a kink-unstable flux rope that had a high twist of Φ & 6π. This yields a coherent framework to understand the inverse gamma shape...leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement n 218816

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of helium and oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2+}-{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govers, K., E-mail: kgovers@sckcen.b [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lemehov, S. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hou, M. [Physique des Solides Irradies et des Nanostructures (CP 234), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bd du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Verwerft, M. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    Atomic scale simulation techniques based on empirical potentials have been considered in the present work to get insight on helium diffusion in uranium dioxide. By varying the stoichiometry, together with the system temperature, the performed molecular dynamics simulations indicate two diffusion regimes for He. The first one presents a low activation energy (0.5 eV) and suggests oxygen vacancies assisted migration. This regime seems to provide the major contribution to diffusion when structural defects are present (extrinsic defects, imposed, e.g. by the stoichiometry). The second regime presents a higher activation energy, around 2 eV, and dominates in the higher temperature range or at perfect stoichiometry, suggesting an intrinsic migration process. Considering the dependence of He behaviour with oxygen defects, oxygen diffusion has been considered as well in the different stoichiometry domains. Finally, further investigations were made with nudged elastic bands calculations for a better interpretation of the operating migration mechanisms, both for He and O.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of helium and oxygen diffusion in UO2±x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govers, K.; Lemehov, S.; Hou, M.; Verwerft, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic scale simulation techniques based on empirical potentials have been considered in the present work to get insight on helium diffusion in uranium dioxide. By varying the stoichiometry, together with the system temperature, the performed molecular dynamics simulations indicate two diffusion regimes for He. The first one presents a low activation energy (0.5 eV) and suggests oxygen vacancies assisted migration. This regime seems to provide the major contribution to diffusion when structural defects are present (extrinsic defects, imposed, e.g. by the stoichiometry). The second regime presents a higher activation energy, around 2 eV, and dominates in the higher temperature range or at perfect stoichiometry, suggesting an intrinsic migration process. Considering the dependence of He behaviour with oxygen defects, oxygen diffusion has been considered as well in the different stoichiometry domains. Finally, further investigations were made with nudged elastic bands calculations for a better interpretation of the operating migration mechanisms, both for He and O.

  4. Adsorption, Desorption, Surface Diffusion, Lattice Defect Formation, and Kink Incorporation Processes of Particles on Growth Interfaces of Colloidal Crystals with Attractive Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Suzuki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in situ adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, lattice defect formation, and kink incorporation of particles on growth interfaces of colloidal crystals of polystyrene particles in aqueous sodium polyacrylate solutions. Precise surface transportation and kink incorporation processes of the particles into the colloidal crystals with attractive interactions were observed in situ at the particle level. In particular, contrary to the conventional expectations, the diffusion of particles along steps around a two-dimensional island of the growth interface was not the main route for kink incorporation. This is probably due to the number of bonds between adsorbed particles and particles in a crystal; the number exceeds the limit at which a particle easily exchanges its position to the adjacent one along the step. We also found novel desorption processes of particles from steps to terraces, attributing them to the assistance of attractive forces from additionally adsorbing particles to the particles on the steps.

  5. Active feedback control of kink modes in tokamaks: 3D VALEN modeling and HBT-EP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of active feedback control as a robust technique for the suppression of the wall stabilized external kink or resistive wall mode (RWM) in tokamaks has been achieved through a combination of modeling and experiments. Results from the 3D feedback modeling code VALEN, which serves as the primary analysis and feedback control design tool for RWM studies on the HBT-EP and DIII-D experiments, are in good agreement with observations. VALEN modeling of proposed advanced control system designs on HBT-EP, DIII-D, NSTX, and FIRE are predicted to approach the ideal wall beta limit in agreement with design principles based on simple single mode analytic theory of RWM feedback control. Benchmark experiments on HBT-EP have shown suppression of plasma disruption at rational edge q values using active feedback control in agreement with model predictions. In addition, the observation in HBT-EP of the plasma amplification of static resonant magnetic fields in plasmas marginally stable to the RWM is in agreement with theory. (author)

  6. Global dynamics in a stoichiometric food chain model with two limiting nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Ecological stoichiometry studies the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions to establish how the nutrient content affect food-web dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. In this study, we formulate a food chain with two limiting nutrients in the form of a stoichiometric population model. A comprehensive global analysis of the rich dynamics of the targeted model is explored both analytically and numerically. Chaotic dynamic is observed in this simple stoichiometric food chain model and is compared with traditional model without stoichiometry. The detailed comparison reveals that stoichiometry can reduce the parameter space for chaotic dynamics. Our findings also show that decreasing producer production efficiency may have only a small effect on the consumer growth but a more profound impact on the top predator growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of thin current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, William

    2002-01-01

    Observations indicate that the current sheet in the Earth's geomagnetic tail may compress to a thickness comparable to an ion gyro-radius prior to substorm onset. In recent years, there has been considerable controversy regarding the kinetic stability of these thin structures. In particular, the growth rate of the kink instability and its relevance to magnetotail dynamics is still being debated. In this work, a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed for a thin Harris sheet. The ion to electron mass ratio is varied between m i /m e =4→400 and careful comparisons are made with a formally exact approach to the linear Vlasov theory. At low mass ratio m i /m e <64, the simulations are in excellent agreement with the linear theory, but at high mass ratio the kink instability is observed to grow more rapidly in the kinetic simulations than predicted by theory. The resolution to this apparent discrepancy involves the lower hybrid instability which is active on the edge of the sheet and rapidly produces nonlinear modifications to the initial equilibrium. The nature of this nonlinear deformation is characterized and a simple model is proposed to explain the physics. After the growth and saturation of the lower hybrid fluctuations, the deformed current sheet is similar in structure to a Harris equilibrium with an additional background population. This may explain the large growth rate of the kink instability at later times, since this type of modification to the Harris sheet has been shown to greatly enhance the growth rate of the kink mode

  8. Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C, three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1 and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm. Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2 on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2. Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

  9. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  10. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    clear that the pelagic ecosystem response to increasing CO2 is more complex than that represented in previous work, e.g. Bellerby et al. (2008. Carbon and nutrient uptake representation in models should, where possible, be more focused on individual plankton functional types as applying a single stoichiometry to a biogeochemical model with regard to the effect of increasing pCO2 may not always be optimal. The phase variability in NCP and stoichiometry may be better understood if CO2 sensitivities of the plankton's functional type biogeochemical uptake kinetics and trophic interactions are better constrained.

  11. High-frequency fire alters C : N : P stoichiometry in forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberman, Hannah; Chen, Chengrong; Lewis, Tom; Elser, James J

    2014-07-01

    Fire is a major driver of ecosystem change and can disproportionately affect the cycling of different nutrients. Thus, a stoichiometric approach to investigate the relationships between nutrient availability and microbial resource use during decomposition is likely to provide insight into the effects of fire on ecosystem functioning. We conducted a field litter bag experiment to investigate the long-term impact of repeated fire on the stoichiometry of leaf litter C, N and P pools, and nutrient-acquiring enzyme activities during decomposition in a wet sclerophyll eucalypt forest in Queensland, Australia. Fire frequency treatments have been maintained since 1972, including burning every 2 years (2yrB), burning every 4 years (4 yrB) and no burning (NB). C : N ratios in freshly fallen litter were 29-42% higher and C : P ratios were 6-25% lower for 2 yrB than NB during decomposition, with correspondingly lower 2yrB N : P ratios (27-32) than for NB (34-49). Trends in litter soluble and microbial N : P ratios were similar to the overall litter N : P ratios across fire treatments. Consistent with these, the ratio of activities for N-acquiring to P-acquiring enzymes in litter was higher for 2 yrB than NB, whereas 4 yrB was generally intermediate between 2 yrB and NB. Decomposition rates of freshly fallen litter were significantly lower for 2 yrB (72 ± 2% mass remaining at the end of experiment) than for 4 yrB (59 ± 3%) and NB (62 ± 3%), a difference that may be related to effects of N limitation, lower moisture content, and/or litter C quality. Results for older mixed-age litter were similar to those for freshly fallen litter although treatment differences were less pronounced. Overall, these findings show that frequent fire (2 yrB) decoupled N and P cycling, as manifested in litter C : N : P stoichiometry and in microbial biomass N : P ratio and enzymatic activities. Furthermore, these data indicate that fire induced a transient shift to N-limited ecosystem conditions

  12. Nitrogen Addition Changes the Stoichiometry and Growth Rate of Different Organs in Pinus tabuliformis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Jing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrogen (N deposition could influence plant stoichiometry and growth rate and thus alter the structure and function of the ecosystem. However, the mechanism by which N deposition changes the stoichiometry and relative growth rate (RGR of plant organs, especially roots with different diameters, is unclear.Methods: We created a gradient of N availability (0–22.4 g N m-2 year-1 for Pinus tabuliformis seedlings for 3 years and examined changes in the carbon (C:N:phosphorus (P ratios and RGRs of the leaves, stems, and roots with four diameter classes (finest roots, <0.5 mm; finer roots, 0.5–1 mm; middle roots, 1–2 mm; and coarse roots, >2 mm.Results: (1 N addition significantly increased the C and N contents of the leaves and whole roots, the C content of the stems, the N:P ratios of the leaves and stems, and the C:P ratio of the whole roots. (2 In the root system, the C:N ratio of the finest roots and the C:P ratios of the finest and finer roots significantly changed with N addition. The N:P ratios of the finest, finer, and middle roots significantly increased with increasing amount of N added. The stoichiometric responses of the roots were more sensitive to N addition than those of the other organs (3 The RGR of all the organs significantly increased at low N addition levels (2.8–11.2 g N m-2 year-1 but decreased at high N addition levels (22.4 g N m-2 year-1. (4 The RGRs of the whole seedlings and leaves were not significantly correlated with their N:P ratios at low and high N addition levels. By contrast, the RGRs of the stems and roots showed a significantly positive correlation with their own N:P ratio only at low N addition level.Conclusion: Addition of N affected plant growth by altering the contents of C and N; the ratios of C, N, and P; and the RGRs of the organs. RGR is correlated with the N:P ratios of the stems and roots at low N addition level but not at high N addition level. This finding is inconsistent with the

  13. Stoichiometry and kinetics of single and mixed substrate uptake in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, Francisca; Ras, Cor; Ten Pierick, Angela; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2018-02-01

    In its natural environment, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger grows on decaying fruits and plant material, thereby enzymatically degrading the lignocellulosic constituents (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) into a mixture of mono- and oligosaccharides. To investigate the kinetics and stoichiometry of growth of this fungus on lignocellulosic sugars, we carried out batch cultivations on six representative monosaccharides (glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid) and a mixture of these. Growth on these substrates was characterized in terms of biomass yields, oxygen/biomass ratios, and specific conversion rates. Interestingly, in combination, some of the carbon sources were consumed simultaneously and some sequentially. With a previously developed protocol, a sequential chemostat cultivation experiment was performed on a feed mixture of the six substrates. We found that the uptake of glucose, xylose, and mannose could be described with a Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics; however, these carbon sources seem to be competing for the same transport systems, while the uptake of arabinose, galacturonic acid, and rhamnose appeared to be repressed by the presence of other substrates.

  14. Ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on different time enclosed in desertification steppe soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.; Jia, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    It is the research object for the ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on the different time of desertification grasslands enclosed and grazing grassland in Taibusi country of the Inner Mongolia, China. Through the measurement and analysis on ecological stoichiometric ratio of C, N and P in soil, the time of desertification grassland enclosed is determined. There are 13 soil of desertification grassland with different en-closure time, and 1 soil of grazing grassland. They are analyzed for the soil organic carbon, total nitro-gen, total phosphorus content and their density. The C/N of soil were increased with the extension of the time of desertification grassland enclosed. To 22 years enclosed, the C/N of grassland desertification soil enclosed is greater than the soil of grazing grassland that is 17. After the desertification grassland is en-closed, the C/N of soil is 13, and it is accumulated to maximum for C and N, and The grazing period is the best.

  15. Effects of stoichiometry on the transport properties of crystalline phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wuttig, Matthias; Mazzarello, Riccardo

    2015-09-03

    It has recently been shown that a metal-insulator transition due to disorder occurs in the crystalline state of the GeSb2Te4 phase-change compound. The transition is triggered by the ordering of the vacancies upon thermal annealing. In this work, we investigate the localization properties of the electronic states in selected crystalline (GeTe)x-(Sb2Te3)y compounds with varying GeTe content by large-scale density functional theory simulations. In our models, we also include excess vacancies, which are needed to account for the large carrier concentrations determined experimentally. We show that the models containing a high concentration of stoichiometric vacancies possess states at the Fermi energy localized inside vacancy clusters, as occurs for GeSb2Te4. On the other hand, the GeTe-rich models display metallic behavior, which stems from two facts: a) the tail of localized states shrinks due to the low probability of having sizable vacancy clusters, b) the excess vacancies shift the Fermi energy to the region of extended states. Hence, a stoichiometry-controlled metal-insulator transition occurs. In addition, we show that the localization properties obtained by scalar-relativistic calculations with gradient-corrected functionals are unaffected by the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling or the use of hybrid functionals.

  16. A method to quantify FRET stoichiometry with phasor plot analysis and acceptor lifetime ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiYue; Avezov, Edward; Schlachter, Simon C; Gielen, Fabrice; Laine, Romain F; Harding, Heather P; Hollfelder, Florian; Ron, David; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2015-03-10

    FRET is widely used for the study of protein-protein interactions in biological samples. However, it is difficult to quantify both the FRET efficiency (E) and the affinity (Kd) of the molecular interaction from intermolecular FRET signals in samples of unknown stoichiometry. Here, we present a method for the simultaneous quantification of the complete set of interaction parameters, including fractions of bound donors and acceptors, local protein concentrations, and dissociation constants, in each image pixel. The method makes use of fluorescence lifetime information from both donor and acceptor molecules and takes advantage of the linear properties of the phasor plot approach. We demonstrate the capability of our method in vitro in a microfluidic device and also in cells, via the determination of the binding affinity between tagged versions of glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, and via the determination of competitor concentration. The potential of the method is explored with simulations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of PEG Stoichiometry on Structure-Tuned Formation of Self-Assembled Submicron Nickel Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxue Pu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled submicron nickel particles were successfully synthesized via the one-step surfactant-assisted solvothermal method. The impact of surfactant and reducing agent stoichiometry is investigated in this manuscript. Different morphologies and structures of Ni particles, including flower-like nanoflakes, hydrangea-like structures, chain structures, sphere-like structures, and hollow structures were prepared through different processing conditions with two parameters such as temperature and time. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, the submicron nickel particles show good saturation magnetization and excellent thermal stabilities with a possible growth mechanism for the variety of the structure-tuned formation. Importantly, the microwave absorption properties of the submicron nickel particles were studied. The lowest reflection loss of Ni-P9/T200/H15 with a thin layer thickness of 1.7 mm can reach −42.6 dB at 17.3 GHz.

  18. The control of stoichiometry in Epitaxial semiconductor structures. Interfacial Chemistry: Property relations. A workshop review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Klaus J.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the control of stoichiometry in epitaxial semiconductor structures was held on August 21-26, 1995 in the hotel Stutenhaus at Vesser in Germany. The secluded location of the workshop in the forest of Thuringia and its informal style stimulated extensive private discussions among the participants and promoted new contacts between young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe and the USA. Topics addressed by the presentations were interactions of precursors to heteroepitaxy and doping with the substrate surface, the control of interfacial properties under the conditions of heteroepitaxy for selected materials systems, methods of characterization of interfaces and native point defects in semiconductor heterostructures and an in depth evaluation of the present status of the control and characterization of the point defect chemistry for one specific semiconductor (ZnGeP2), including studies of both heterostructures and bulk single crystals. The selected examples of presentations and comments given here represent individual choices - made by the author to highlight major points of the discussions.

  19. The influence of titanium adhesion layer oxygen stoichiometry on thermal boundary conductance at gold contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David H.; Freedy, Keren M.; McDonnell, Stephen J.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the role of oxygen stoichiometry on the thermal boundary conductance across Au/TiOx/substrate interfaces. By evaporating two different sets of Au/TiOx/substrate samples under both high vacuum and ultrahigh vacuum conditions, we vary the oxygen composition in the TiOx layer from 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.85. We measure the thermal boundary conductance across the Au/TiOx/substrate interfaces with time-domain thermoreflectance and characterize the interfacial chemistry with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Under high vacuum conditions, we speculate that the environment provides a sufficient flux of oxidizing species to the sample surface such that one essentially co-deposits Ti and these oxidizing species. We show that slower deposition rates correspond to a higher oxygen content in the TiOx layer, which results in a lower thermal boundary conductance across the Au/TiOx/substrate interfacial region. Under the ultrahigh vacuum evaporation conditions, pure metallic Ti is deposited on the substrate surface. In the case of quartz substrates, the metallic Ti reacts with the substrate and getters oxygen, leading to a TiOx layer. Our results suggest that Ti layers with relatively low oxygen compositions are best suited to maximize the thermal boundary conductance.

  20. Stoichiometry of mitochondrial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation at level flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L E; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1984-04-25

    The mechanistic stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria in the presence of a permeant cation has been determined under level flow conditions with a membraneless fast responding O2 electrode kinetically matched with a glass pH electrode. The reactions were initiated by rapid injection of O2 into the anaerobically preincubated test system under conditions in which interfering H+ backflow was minimized. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection, obtained from computer-fitted regression lines, were monotonic and first order over 75% of the course of O2 consumption. Extrapolation of the observed rates to zero time, at which zero delta mu H+ and thus level flow prevails, yielded vectorial H+/O flow ratios above 7 and closely approaching 8. The mitochondria undergo no irreversible change and give identical H+/O ratios on repeated tests. In a further refinement, the lower and upper limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio were determined to be 7.55 and 8.56, respectively, from plots of the rates of O2 uptake versus H+ ejection at increasing malonate and increasing valinomycin concentrations, respectively. It is therefore concluded that the mechanistic H+/O ratio for energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 is 8, in confirmation of earlier measurements. KCl concentration is critical for maximal observed H+/O ratios. Optimum conditions and possible errors in determination of mechanistic H+/O translocation ratios are discussed.

  1. Stoichiometry of H+ ejection during respiration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ by rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Chen, C H; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-25

    We have investigated the energy-dependent uptake of Ca2+ by rat liver mitochondria with succinate as respiratory substrate with rotenone added to block NAD-linked electron transport. In the presence of 3-hydroxybutyric or other permeant monocarboxylic acids Ca2+ was taken up to extents approaching those seen in the presence of phosphate. The quantitative relationship between cation and anion uptake was determined from the slope of a plot of 3-hydroxybutyrate uptake against Ca2+ uptake, a method which allowed determination of the stoichiometry without requiring ambiguous corrections for early nonenergized or nonstoichiometric binding events. This procedure showed that 2 molecules of 3-hydroxtbutyrate were accumulated with each Ca2+ ion. Under these conditions close to 2 Ca2+ ions and 4 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate were accumulated per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Since 3-hydroxybutyrate must be protonated to pass the membrane as the undissociated free acid, it is concluded that 4 protons were ejected (and subsequently reabsorbed) per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site, in contrast to the value 2.0 postulated by the chemiosmotic hypothesis.

  2. Quantity and quality limit detritivore growth: mechanisms revealed by ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Halvor M; Sperfeld, Erik; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus : carbon [P:C ratios]). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients. We merged approaches of ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory, showing how co-limitation reflected shifts in C and P acquisition throughout homeostatic regulation. Increased growth was best explained by elevated consumption rates and improved P assimilation, which both increased with elevated quantity and quality. Notably, C assimilation efficiencies remained unchanged and achieved maximum 18% at low quantity despite pronounced C limitation. Detrital C recalcitrance and substantive post-assimilatory C losses probably set a minimum quantity threshold to achieve positive C balance. Above this threshold, greater quality enhanced larval growth probably by improving P assimilation toward P-intensive growth. We suggest this interplay of C and P acquisition contributes to detritivore co-limitation, highlighting quantity and quality as potential simultaneous bottom-up controls in detrital-based ecosystems, including under anthropogenic change like nutrient enrichment. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Stoichiometry of Na/Ca antiport obtained by magnesium inhibition in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were loaded with Na, and Na/Ca antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux. The replacement of extracellular Na with other monovalent ions, usually N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG), was essential for obtaining significant antiport activity. Mg competitively inhibited 45 Ca influx via the antiporter (Ki = 100 uM). External Ca stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected for antiport activity. Mg did not stimulate 22 Na efflux indicating that Mg is not transported by the antiporter. Mg inhibited Ca-stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected from the 45 Ca influx data. The stoichiometry of the antiporter was calculated from the changes in the rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux at 3 Mg concentrations: 2.87 +/- 0.25 (mean +/- SE, n=5). The replacement of external NMG with potassium, but not other monovalent ions (choline, Li), decreased the potency of Mg as an inhibitor of Na/Ca antiport by about 6 fold. Other divalent cations (Co, Mn, Cd, Ba) inhibited Na/Ca antiport and high external potassium decreased the potency of each by about 6 fold. The order of effectiveness of the divalent cations as inhibitors of Na/Ca antiport (Cd>Mn>Co>Ba>Mg) correlated with the crystal ionic radius of the cation

  4. Stoichiometry control of complex oxides by sequential pulsed-laser deposition from binary-oxide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herklotz, A. [ORNL, Materials Science and Technology Division, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States); Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Physics, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Dörr, K. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Physics, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ward, T. Z.; Eres, G. [ORNL, Materials Science and Technology Division, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States); Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D. [ORNL, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6496 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    To have precise atomic layer control over interfaces, we examine the growth of complex oxides through the sequential deposition from binary targets by pulsed laser deposition. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth from binary oxide targets is fundamentally different from single target growth modes and shows more similarities to shuttered growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The RHEED intensity oscillations of non-stoichiometric growth are consistent with a model of island growth and accumulation of excess material on the surface that can be utilized to determine the correct stoichiometry for growth. Correct monolayer doses can be determined through an envelope frequency in the RHEED intensity oscillations. In order to demonstrate the ability of this growth technique to create complex heterostructures, the artificial n = 2 and 3 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} Ruddlesden-Popper phases are grown with good long-range order. This method enables the precise unit-cell level control over the structure of perovskite-type oxides, and thus the growth of complex materials with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  5. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study antibody binding and stoichiometry of complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Kerry M.; Matayoshi, Edmund D.

    2008-02-01

    FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) was used to study the association at the single molecule level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and two of its protein antagonists Humira (TM) (adalimumab), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody, and Enbrel (TM) (etanercept), a soluble form of the TNF receptor. Single molecule approaches potentially have the advantage not only of enhanced sensitivity, but also of observing at equilibrium the details that would otherwise be lost in classical ensemble experiments where heterogeneity is averaged. We prepared fluorescent conjugates of the protein drugs and their biological target, the trimeric soluble form of TNF-α. The bivalency of adalimumab and the trimeric nature of TNF-α potentially allow several forms of associative complexes that may differ in stoichiometry. Detailed knowledge of this reaction may be relevant to understanding adalimumab's pharmacological properties. Our FCS data showed that a single trimeric TNF-α can bind up to three adalimumab molecules. Under some conditions even larger complexes are formed, apparently the result of cross-linking of TNF-α trimers by adalimumab. In addition, distinct differences between Humira and Enbrel were observed in their association with TNF-α.

  6. Non-Redfield, nutrient synergy and flexible internal elemental stoichiometry in a marine bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Kathleen; Feenders, Christoph; Hulsch, Reiner; Ruppersberg, Hanna S; Strijkstra, Annemieke; Kant, Mirjam; Vagts, Jannes; Wünsch, Daniel; Michalke, Bernhard; Maczka, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Hillebrand, Helmut; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The stoichiometric constraints of algal growth are well understood, whereas there is less knowledge for heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Growth of the marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, belonging to the globally distributed Roseobacter group, was studied across a wide concentration range of NH4+ and PO43-. The unique dataset covers 415 different concentration pairs, corresponding to 207 different molar N:P ratios (from 10-2 to 105). Maximal growth (by growth rate and biomass yield) was observed within a restricted concentration range at N:P ratios (∼50-120) markedly above Redfield. Experimentally determined growth parameters deviated to a large part from model predictions based on Liebig's law of the minimum, thus implicating synergistic co-limitation due to biochemical dependence of resources. Internal elemental ratios of P. inhibens varied with external nutrient supply within physiological constraints, thus adding to the growing evidence that aquatic bacteria can be flexible in their internal elemental composition. Taken together, the findings reported here revealed that P. inhibens is well adapted to fluctuating availability of inorganic N and P, expected to occur in its natural habitat (e.g. colonized algae, coastal areas). Moreover, this study suggests that elemental variability in bacterioplankton needs to be considered in the ecological stoichiometry of the oceans. © FEMS 2017.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a/2a heteromers have a flexible 2:1/1:2 stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoi, Tudor; Augustinowski, Katrin; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan; Ulbrich, Maximilian H

    2014-06-03

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed proton-gated Na(+) channels playing a role in tissue acidosis and pain. A trimeric composition of ASICs has been suggested by crystallization. Upon coexpression of ASIC1a and ASIC2a in Xenopus oocytes, we observed the formation of heteromers and their coexistence with homomers by electrophysiology, but could not determine whether heteromeric complexes have a fixed subunit stoichiometry or whether certain stoichiometries are preferred over others. We therefore imaged ASICs labeled with green and red fluorescent proteins on a single-molecule level, counted bleaching steps from GFP and colocalized them with red tandem tetrameric mCherry for many individual complexes. Combinatorial analysis suggests a model of random mixing of ASIC1a and ASIC2a subunits to yield both 2:1 and 1:2 ASIC1a:ASIC2a heteromers together with ASIC1a and ASIC2a homomers.

  8. 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear Fuel: Effect of Oxygen Stoichiometry on Grain Boundary Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudman, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Byler, Darrin David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lim, H. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); McDonald, R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The initial microstructure of an oxide fuel can play a key role in its performance. At low burn-ups, the diffusion of fission products can depend strongly on grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics, which in turn depend on processing conditions and oxygen stoichiometry. Serial sectioning techniques using Focused Ion Beam were developed to obtain Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data for depleted UO2 pellets that were processed to obtain 3 different oxygen stoichiometries. The EBSD data were used to create 3D microstructure reconstructions and to gather statistical information on the grain and GB crystallography, with emphasis on identifying the character (twist, tilt, mixed) for GBs that meet the Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) criterion as well as GBs with the most common misorientation angles. Data on dihedral angles at triple points were also collected. The results were compared across different samples to understand effects of oxygen content on microstructure evolution.

  9. Characterization, stoichiometry, and stability of salivary protein-tannin complexes by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, Francis; Paté, Franck; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Marlin, Thérèse; Cheynier, Véronique; Giuliani, Alexandre; Sarni-Manchado, Pascale

    2009-12-01

    Numerous protein-polyphenol interactions occur in biological and food domains particularly involving proline-rich proteins, which are representative of the intrinsically unstructured protein group (IUP). Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), which also gives access to ligand binding stoichiometry. Surprisingly, the study of interactions between polyphenolic molecules and proteins is still an area where ESI-MS has poorly benefited, whereas it has been extensively applied to the detection of noncovalent complexes. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been applied to the detection and the characterization of the complexes formed between tannins and a human salivary proline-rich protein (PRP), namely IB5. The study of the complex stability was achieved by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements, which are commonly implemented using triple quadrupole, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight, or ion trap instruments. Complexes composed of IB5 bound to a model polyphenol EgCG have been detected by ESI-MS and further analyzed by MS/MS. Mild ESI interface conditions allowed us to observe intact noncovalent PRP-tannin complexes with stoichiometries ranging from 1:1 to 1:5. Thus, ESI-MS shows its efficiency for (1) the study of PRP-tannin interactions, (2) the determination of stoichiometry, and (3) the study of complex stability. We were able to establish unambiguously both their stoichiometries and their overall subunit architecture via tandem mass spectrometry and solution disruption experiments. Our results prove that IB5.EgCG complexes are maintained intact in the gas phase.

  10. Stoichiometry and Life-History Interact to Determine the Magnitude of Cross-Ecosystem Element and Biomass Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Luhring

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems are linked through the transfer of materials and energy. Studies examining material fluxes across habitat boundaries frequently quantify unidirectional flows of nutrients and energy. However, material fluxes can be multidirectional, and we lack a conceptual framework to describe how their quantity and stoichiometry influence the net transfer of individual elements between ecosystems. Here we develop a zero net transfer isocline (ZNTI framework that integrates the relative mass and stoichiometry of fluxes into and out of an ecosystem. We then use case studies with amphibians and salmon to elucidate how life history, ontogenetic shifts in stoichiometry, and trophic interactions shape relative fluxes of nutrients between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Because they increase in both size and Ca content from ova to metamorphs, amphibian life histories strongly bias them toward net Ca export into the terrestrial environment. Because amphibian biomass, C, P, and Ca ZNTIs do not overlap, there is no value of survivorship where the net flux of biomass, C, P, and Ca are simultaneously balanced between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The degree of iteroparity and semelparity in salmon strongly affects both the magnitude of net biomass and P flux between riverine and marine environments. While the net direction of biomass flux generally remains strongly biased toward import into the riverine system, net P flux can reach net export into the marine environment because of increasing adult breeding survival leading to reduced mass and %P of what they deposit in rivers (e.g., ova vs. whole carcasses. These examples highlight how ontogenetic shifts in body size and stoichiometry result in asymmetric fluxes of elements and biomass that can lead to simultaneous net imports and exports of different elements within the same system. Furthermore, they demonstrate how changes in life-history characteristics and stage-specific survivorship can lead to

  11. Effects of oxygen stoichiometry on the scaling behaviors of YBa2Cu3Ox grain boundary weak-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.H.; Fu, C.M.; Jeng, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oxygen stoichiometry on the transport properties of the pulsed laser deposited YBa 2 Cu 3 O x bicrystalline grain boundary weak-link junctions were studied. It is found that not only the cross boundary resistive transition foot structure can be manipulated repeatedly with oxygen annealling processes but the junction behaviors are also altered in accordance. In the fully oxygenated state i.e. with x=7.0 in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x stoichiometry, the junction critical current exhibits a power of 2 scaling behavior with temperature. In contrast, when annealed in the conditions of oxygen-deficient state (e.g. with x=6.9 in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x stoichiometry) the junction critical current switches to a linear temperature dependence behavior. The results are tentatively attributed to the modification of the structure in the boundary area upon oxygen annealing, which, in turn, will affect the effective dimension of the geometrically constrained weak-link bridges. The detailed discussion on the responsible physical mechanisms as well as the implications of the present results on device applications will be given

  12. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirousek, Martin, E-mail: machozrut@mail.muni.c [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Hajek, Michal [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bragazza, Luca [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Site Lausanne, Station 2, Case Postale 96, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Ecological Systems - ECOS, Batiment GR, Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara, Corso Ercole I d' Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m{sup -2} year{sup -1} in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. - Research highlights: Despite high atmopsheric nitrogen deposition, Sphagnum mosses still have rather low N:P ratio. Regional climate and landscape management can enhance P and K availability in bogs. Sphagnum species of the Cuspidata section were characterised by lower N:P ratio. - Regional climate and local forestry practices are expected to alter nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum mosses at high atmospheric N deposition in Central-East Europe.

  13. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirousek, Martin; Hajek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m -2 year -1 in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. - Research highlights: → Despite high atmopsheric nitrogen deposition, Sphagnum mosses still have rather low N:P ratio.→ Regional climate and landscape management can enhance P and K availability in bogs. → Sphagnum species of the Cuspidata section were characterised by lower N:P ratio. - Regional climate and local forestry practices are expected to alter nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum mosses at high atmospheric N deposition in Central-East Europe.

  14. Modification of Light Emission in Si-Rich Silicon Nitride Films Versus Stoichiometry and Excitation Light Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchynska, T.; Khomenkova, L.; Slaoui, A.

    2018-04-01

    Si-rich SiN x films with different stoichiometry were grown on Si substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Si content was varied by changing the NH3/SiH4 gas flow ratio from 0.45 up to 1.0. Conventional furnace annealing at 1100°C for 30 min was applied to produce the Si quantum dots (QDs) in the SiN x films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the SiN x films that allowed estimating the film's stoichiometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been also used to confirm the stoichiometry and microstructure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si-rich SiN x films are complex. A non-monotonous variation of the different PL peaks versus Si excess contents testifies to the competition of different radiative channels. The analysis of PL spectra, measured at the different excitation light energies and variable temperatures, has revealed that the PL bands with the peaks within the range 2.1-3.0 eV are related to the carrier recombination via radiative native defects in the SiN x host. Simultaneously, the PL bands with the peaks at 1.5-2.0 eV are caused by the exciton recombination in the Si QDs of different sizes. The way to control the SiN x emission is discussed.

  15. Measuring Conceptual Change on Stoichiometry Using Mental Models and IllStructured Problems In a Flipped Classroom Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrie E. Gayeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure conceptual change on stoichiometry using mental models and ill-structured problems in flipped classroom environment. This study examined the level of conceptual understanding of students on stoichiometry before and after exposure to flipped and traditional lecture method. It also covered the type of conceptual change, and students’ description in flipped classroom environment. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study. Respondents were two sections of third year Bachelor of Secondary Education, Biological Science. Frequency, percentage, ranking, mean, standard deviation, Hake factor test, and t-test were the statistical tools applied to answer specific questions. Results showed profound increase towards conceptual change representing a shift from intuitive understanding to correct incomplete understanding level. Thus, change for the better, in theoretical type was determined from pretest to posttest of students exposed to flipped and traditional instruction. Results also indicated that there is no significant difference on students’ conceptual change on stoichiometry exposed to flipped and traditional lecture method. Furthermore, students strongly agreed that flipped classroom instruction helped them develop positive attitude towards chemistry and appropriate for learning college chemistry.

  16. The L7Ae protein binds to two kink-turns in the Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Stella M.; Lai, Lien B.; Foster, Mark P.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein L7Ae, known for its role in translation (as part of ribosomes) and RNA modification (as part of sn/oRNPs), has also been identified as a subunit of archaeal RNase P, a ribonucleoprotein complex that employs an RNA catalyst for the Mg2+-dependent 5′ maturation of tRNAs. To better understand the assembly and catalysis of archaeal RNase P, we used a site-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated footprinting strategy to pinpoint the binding sites of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) L7Ae on its cognate RNase P RNA (RPR). L7Ae derivatives with single-Cys substitutions at residues in the predicted RNA-binding interface (K42C/C71V, R46C/C71V, V95C/C71V) were modified with an iron complex of EDTA-2-aminoethyl 2-pyridyl disulfide. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate, these L7Ae-tethered nucleases were expected to cleave the RPR at nucleotides proximal to the EDTA-Fe–modified residues. Indeed, footprinting experiments with an enzyme assembled with the Pfu RPR and five protein cofactors (POP5, RPP21, RPP29, RPP30 and L7Ae–EDTA-Fe) revealed specific RNA cleavages, localizing the binding sites of L7Ae to the RPR's catalytic and specificity domains. These results support the presence of two kink-turns, the structural motifs recognized by L7Ae, in distinct functional domains of the RPR and suggest testable mechanisms by which L7Ae contributes to RNase P catalysis. PMID:25361963

  17. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Velthuis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus. In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition

  18. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-02-01

    Life forms as diverse as unicellular algae, zooplankton, vascular plants, and mammals appear to obey quarter-power scaling rules. Among the most famous of these rules is Kleiber's (i.e. basal metabolic rates scale as the three-quarters power of body mass), which has a botanical analogue (i.e. annual plant growth rates scale as the three-quarters power of total body mass). Numerous theories have tried to explain why these rules exist, but each has been heavily criticized either on conceptual or empirical grounds. N,P-STOICHIOMETRY: Recent models predicting growth rates on the basis of how total cell, tissue, or organism nitrogen and phosphorus are allocated, respectively, to protein and rRNA contents may provide the answer, particularly in light of the observation that annual plant growth rates scale linearly with respect to standing leaf mass and that total leaf mass scales isometrically with respect to nitrogen but as the three-quarters power of leaf phosphorus. For example, when these relationships are juxtaposed with other allometric trends, a simple N,P-stoichiometric model successfully predicts the relative growth rates of 131 diverse C3 and C4 species. The melding of allometric and N,P-stoichiometric theoretical insights provides a robust modelling approach that conceptually links the subcellular 'machinery' of protein/ribosomal metabolism to observed growth rates of uni- and multicellular organisms. Because the operation of this 'machinery' is basic to the biology of all life forms, its allometry may provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparent ubiquity of quarter-power scaling rules.

  19. Ribosomal binding region for the antibiotic tiamulin: stoichiometry, subunit location, and affinity for various analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högenauer, G; Ruf, C

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis experiments with a highly purified preparation of labeled tiamulin, a semisynthetic derivative of the antibiotic pleuromutilin, and Escherichia coli ribosomes allowed the determination of two binding sites for the drug. The binding reaction showed a cooperative effect. Of the two subunits, the 50S particle was able to bind the antibiotic in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Hence, the 50S subunit contributed predominantly to the binding energy which held the antibiotic to the ribosomes. The 30S subunit, showing no strong affinity for the drug, may be needed for the generation of the second binding site in the 70S particle. If depleted of ammonium ions, 70S ribosomes lost their binding capacity for the antibiotic. The attachment sites for tiamulin could be restored by heating the ribosomes to 40 degrees C in the presence of either ammonium ions or the antibiotic. Other pleuromutilin derivatives displaced labeled tiamulin from its ribosomal binding sites. By quantifying this competition, the relative affinity of various pleuromutilin derivatives for E. coli ribosomes was determined. The binding correlated with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these compounds against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these compounds against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus, the correlation was less strict, but the same trend prevailed. These results suggest that the antibacterial activities of various pleuromutilin derivatives on a given test organism are mainly determined by the strength of binding to the ribosomes within the bacterial cell. PMID:6751216

  20. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  1. Preparation and characterization of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide with silicon-rich stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Iwasaka, Akira [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Takagishi, Hideyuki [Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    Polydihydrosilane with pendant hexyl groups was synthesized to obtain silicon-rich amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) films via the solution route. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage. Therefore, the polymer provides sufficient purity for the fabrication of semiconducting a-SiC. Here, we investigated the correlation of Si/C stoichiometry between the polymer and the resultant a-SiC film. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films with various carbon contents were also explored. Experimental results suggested that the excess carbon that did not participate in Si−C configurations was decomposed and was evaporated during polymer-to-SiC conversion. Consequently, the upper limit of the carbon in resultant a-SiC film was < 50 at.%; namely, the polymer provided silicon-rich a-SiC, whereas the conventionally used polycarbosilane inevitably provides carbon-rich one. These features of this unusual polymer open up a frontier of polymer-derived SiC and solution-processed SiC electronics. - Highlights: • Polymeric precursor solution for silicon carbide (SiC) is synthesized. • Semiconducting amorphous SiC is prepared via solution route. • The excess carbon is decomposed during cross-linking resulting in Si-rich SiC films. • The grown SiC films contain substantial amount of hydrogen atoms as SiH{sub n}/CH{sub n} entities. • Presence of CH{sub n} entities induces dangling bonds, causing poor electrical properties.

  2. Nutrient Stoichiometry Shapes Microbial Community Structure in an Evaporitic Shallow Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarraz M.-P. Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability and ratios can play an important role in shaping microbial communities of freshwater ecosystems. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB in Mexico is a desert oasis where, perhaps paradoxically, high microbial diversity coincides with extreme oligotrophy. To better understand the effects of nutrients on microbial communities in CCB, a mesocosm experiment was implemented in a stoichiometrically imbalanced pond, Lagunita, which has an average TN:TP ratio of 122 (atomic. The experiment had four treatments, each with five spatial replicates – unamended controls and three fertilization treatments with different nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P regimes (P only, N:P = 16 and N:P = 75 by atoms. In the water column, quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that P enrichment alone favored proliferation of bacterial taxa with high rRNA gene copy number, consistent with a previously hypothesized but untested connection between rRNA gene copy number and P requirement. Bacterial and microbial eukaryotic community structure was investigated by pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from the planktonic and surficial sediment samples. Nutrient enrichment shifted the composition of the planktonic community in a treatment-specific manner and promoted the growth of previously rare bacterial taxa at the expense of the more abundant, potentially endemic, taxa. The eukaryotic community was highly enriched with phototrophic populations in the fertilized treatment. The sediment microbial community exhibited high beta diversity among replicates within treatments, which obscured any changes due to fertilization. Overall, these results showed that nutrient stoichiometry can be an important factor in shaping microbial community structure.

  3. Reversal of sodium pump inhibitor induced vascular smooth muscle contraction with digibind. Stoichiometry and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krep, H H; Graves, S W; Price, D A; Lazarus, M; Ensign, A; Soszynski, P A; Hollenberg, N K

    1996-01-01

    The possibility that a circulating sodium pump inhibitor contributes to the pathogenesis of volume-dependent hypertension via an action on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is supported by multiple lines of investigation, but remains controversial. We had two goals in this study. The first was to compare the pattern of contractile response of rabbit aorta induced by two candidates, ouabain and a labile sodium pump inhibitor that we have identified in the peritoneal dialysate of volume-expanded hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. Our second goal was to examine the ability of Digibind, a Fab fragment of antisera directed against digoxin, to reverse VSM contraction induced by both agents. Ouabain induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was delayed in onset, was gradual, and reached a stable plateau after many hours. The labile sodium pump inhibitor induced a qualitatively similar series of responses. Digibind rapidly reversed the contractile responses to both sodium pump inhibitors, with a rate of relaxation that matched that induced by physical removal of the pump inhibitor from the bath. For ouabain, the Digibind:ouabain stoichiometry was highly predictable. When Digibind was present in a molar concentration equivalent to that of ouabain, or less, it had no effect. When the Digibind concentration was twice that of ouabain, complete relaxation occurred. Although the concentration:VSM response relationship for ouabain was steep, the concentration:effect interaction with Digibind was even more steep. The molar concentration of Digibind required to reverse the effects of the labile endogenous inhibitor from peritoneal dialysate was consistently lower than that for ouabain, which is compatible with either greater potency of the labile factor in VSM or greater affinity for Digibind. These findings are compatible with a role for one or more endogenous sodium pump inhibitors as the determinant of vascular smooth muscle tone in the volume

  4. H+ stoichiometry of sites 1 + 2 of the respiratory chain of normal and tumor mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobo, A.; Alexandre, A.; Lehninger, A.L.

    1984-09-01

    The mechanistic stoichiometry for vectorial H+ ejection coupled to electron transport through energy-conserving segments 1 + 2 was determined on cyanide-inhibited mitochondria from rat liver, rat heart, and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, and on rat liver mitoplasts with ferricyanide or ferricytochrome c as electron acceptors. K+ (+ valinomycin) and Ca2+ were employed as permeant cations. Three different methods were employed. In the first, known pulses of ferricyanide were added, and the total H+ ejected was determined with a glass electrode. Such measurements gave H+/2e-values exceeding 7.0 for both normal and tumor mitochondria with beta-hydroxybutyrate and other NAD-linked substrates; uptake of Ca2+ was also measured and gave the expected q+/2e-ratios. The second type of measurement was initiated by addition of ferricytochrome c to rat liver mitoplasts, with H+ ejection monitored with the glass electrode and ferricytochrome c reduction by dual-wavelength spectrophotometry; the H+/2e-ratios generally exceeded 7.0. In the third type of measurement, mixing and dilution artifacts were eliminated by oxidizing ferrocytochrome c in situ with a small amount of ferricyanide. H+/2e-ratios for rat liver mitoplasts oxidizing beta-hydroxybutyrate consistently approached or exceeded 7.5. Over 150 measurements made under a variety of conditions gave observed H+/2e-ejection ratios significantly exceeding 7.0, which correlated closely with H+/2e-measurements on sites 1 + 2 + 3, sites 2 + 3, and site 2. Factors leading to the deficit of the observed ratios from the integral value 8 for sites 1 + 2 were discussed.

  5. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed.

  6. Anharmonic longitudinal motion of bases and dynamics of nonlinear excitation in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Garbo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the transcription bubble in DNA is studied by using a nonlinear model in which torsional and longitudinal conformations of the biomolecule are coupled. In the absence of forcing and dissipation the torsional dynamics is described by a perturbed kink of the Sine-Gordon DNA model, while the longitudinal conformational energy propagate as phonons. It was found that for random initial conditions of the longitudinal conformational field the presence of the kink promotes the creation of phonons propagating along the chain axis. Moreover, the presence of forcing, describing the active role of RNA polymerase, determines in agreement to the experimental data a modulation of the velocity of the transcription bubble. Lastly, it was shown that the presence of dissipation impacts the dynamic of the phonon by reducing the amplitude of the corresponding conformational field. On the contrary, dissipation and forcing modulate the velocity of the transcription bubble alone.

  7. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pujo-Pay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry along an East-West transect of 3000 km across the Mediterranean Sea during summer 2008 (BOUM cruise. During this period of strong stratification, the distribution of nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and phosphorus (DOP were examined to produce a detailed spatial and vertically extended description of the elemental stoichiometry of the Mediterranean Sea. Surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the thickness of this depleted layer increased towards the East from about 10 m in the Gulf of Lion to more than 100 m in the Levantine basin, with the phosphacline deepening to a greater extent than that for corresponding nitracline and thermocline depths. We used the minimum oxygen concentration through the water column in combination with 2 fixed concentrations of dissolved oxygen to distinguish an intermediate layer (Mineralization Layer; ML from surface (Biogenic Layer; BL, and deep layers (DL. Whilst each layer was represented by different water masses, this approach allowed us to propose a schematic box-plot representation of the biogeochemical functioning of the two Mediterranean basins. Despite the increasing oligotrophic nature and the degree of P-depletion along the West to East gradient strong similarities were encountered between eastern and western ecosystems. Within the BL, the C:N:P ratios in all pools largely exceeded the Redfield ratios, but surprisingly, the nitrate vs. phosphate ratios in the ML and DL tended towards the canonical Redfield values in both basins. A change in particulate matter composition has been identified by a C increase relative to N and P along the whole water column in the western basin and between BL and ML in the eastern one. Our data showed a noticeable stability of the DOC:DON ratio (12–13 throughout the Mediterranean Sea. This is in good agreement with a P-limitation of

  9. Cellular Stoichiometry of Methyl-Accepting Chemotaxis Proteins in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatakia, Hardik M; Arapov, Timofey D; Meier, Veronika M; Scharf, Birgit E

    2018-03-15

    The chemosensory system in Sinorhizobium meliloti has several important deviations from the widely studied enterobacterial paradigm. To better understand the differences between the two systems and how they are optimally tuned, we determined the cellular stoichiometry of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) and the histidine kinase CheA in S. meliloti Quantitative immunoblotting was used to determine the total amount of MCPs and CheA per cell in S. meliloti The MCPs are present in the cell in high abundance (McpV), low abundance (IcpA, McpU, McpX, and McpW), and very low abundance (McpY and McpZ), whereas McpT was below the detection limit. The approximate cellular ratio of these three receptor groups is 300:30:1. The chemoreceptor-to-CheA ratio is 23.5:1, highly similar to that seen in Bacillus subtilis (23:1) and about 10 times higher than that in Escherichia coli (3.4:1). Different from E. coli , the high-abundance receptors in S. meliloti are lacking the carboxy-terminal NWETF pentapeptide that binds the CheR methyltransferase and CheB methylesterase. Using transcriptional lacZ fusions, we showed that chemoreceptors are positively controlled by the master regulators of motility, VisNR and Rem. In addition, FlbT, a class IIA transcriptional regulator of flagellins, also positively regulates the expression of most chemoreceptors except for McpT and McpY, identifying chemoreceptors as class III genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the chemosensory complex and the adaptation system in S. meliloti deviates significantly from the established enterobacterial paradigm but shares some similarities with B. subtilis IMPORTANCE The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is of great agricultural importance because of its nitrogen-fixing properties, which enhances growth of its plant symbiont, alfalfa. Chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage for bacteria to sense their environment and interact with their eukaryotic hosts. For a better

  10. Effects of stoichiometry and neutron irradiation in superconducting A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlecke, S.

    1978-01-01

    The A-15 (A 3 B) compounds comprise an important class of superconducting compounds. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the parameters influencing the superconductivity in these materials, several A-15 compounds have been prepared and the effects of varying stoichiometry, heat treatment, and irradiation with high energy neutrons (E > 1 MeV) on the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, Bragg--William order parameter S, and the lattice parameter a 0 , have been studied. The systems investigated include Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt, Nb 3 Ir, V 3 Ga, V 3 Si and Mo 3 Os. Some of the results may be summarized as follows: 1) for Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt and V 3 Ga, T/sub c/ is a strong function of composition, reaching a maximum value at the ideal stoichiometric composition of 3A: 1B, if that composition exists in the equilibrium phase diagram, 2) irradiation with high energy neutrons at temperatures of approx.150 0 C results in drastic lowering of T/sub c/ for Nb 3 Al, Nb 3 Pt and Nb 3 Ge, but not for Mo 3 Os, 3) T/sub c/ can be recovered by annealing, the recovery temperature being in the range 300-800 0 C depends on the particular compound, 4) the order parameter S, decreases with increasing neutron fluence (decreasing T/sub c/), and is also recoverable upon annealing at the appropriate temperature, 5) the lattice parameter a 0 , increases with increasing neutron fluence, and isalso restored to its original value by annealing. A simple hard sphere model is developed to calculate the dependence of a 0 on composition within the A-15 phase. Excellent agreement is obtained for the measured values in the Nb--Al, Nb--Pt and V--Ga systems. The results of both compositionally and irradiation induced disorder can be understood on the basis of site-exchange taking placee between the A and B sites in the A-15 structure

  11. Variation of crystallinity and stoichiometry in films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate prepared by means of PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendt, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is an ablation technique for thin film preparation of many materials. The film properties can be well controlled by the process parameters. Therefore, in many cases a given material can be deposited with different properties by changing one or more process parameters. In this thesis thin films of gallium oxide, gallium nitride and barium zirconate were deposited with a large variation in structure and stoichiometry by means of Pulsed Laser Deposition. The characterization of the film crystallinity, phase purity and short range structural order was completed by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The stoichiometry was investigated using electron probe microanalysis. For analyzing the correlation between the structure and stoichiometry with the optical and electrical properties, optical absorption and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out. The investigation of all three material systems showed that very unique properties can be realized when combining an amorphous structure and a non-stoichiometric composition. For example, in amorphous and oxygen deficient gallium oxide an insulator-metal-transition can be induced by partial crystallization of the as prepared phase accomplished by annealing at about 400 C in argon atmosphere (as shown in literature). Furthermore, amorphous and highly non-stoichiometric barium zirconate has the ability to split water molecules to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. A detailed analysis of both phenomena has been performed by means of photoemission and transmission electron microscopy in the case of gallium oxide and via X-ray absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography in the case of barium zirconate.

  12. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation

  13. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jerala, Roman, E-mail: roman.jerala@ki.si [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation.

  14. Effect of Wind on the Relation of Leaf N, P Stoichiometry with Leaf Morphology in Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry correlates closely to leaf morphology, which is strongly impacted by wind at multiple scales. However, it is not clear how leaf N, P stoichiometry and its relationship to leaf morphology changes with wind load. We determined the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf morphology—including specific leaf area (SLA and leaf dissection index (LDI—for eight Quercus species under a simulated wind load for seven months. Leaf N and P concentrations increased significantly under these conditions for Quercus acutissima, Quercus rubra, Quercus texana, and Quercus palustris—which have elliptic leaves—due to their higher N, P requirements and a resultant leaf biomass decrease, which is a tolerance strategy for Quercus species under a wind load. Leaf N:P was relatively stable under wind for all species, which supports stoichiometric homeostasis. Leaf N concentrations showed a positive correlation to SLA, leaf N and P concentrations showed positive correlations to LDI under each wind treatment, and the slope of correlations was not affected by wind, which indicates synchronous variations between leaf stoichiometry and leaf morphology under wind. However, the intercept of correlations was affected by wind, and leaf N and P use efficiency decreased under the wind load, which suggests that the Quercus species changes from “fast investment-return” in the control to “slow investment-return” under windy conditions. These results will be valuable to understanding functional strategies for plants under varying wind loads, especially synchronous variations in leaf traits along a wind gradient.

  15. Effect of charge state and stoichiometry on the structure and reactivity of nickel oxide clusters with CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Reilly, Nelly M.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The collision induced fragmentation and reactivity of cationic and anionic nickel oxide clusters with carbon monoxide were studied experimentally using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry. Anionic clusters with a stoichiometry containing one more oxygen atom than nickel atom (NiO2-, Ni2O3-, Ni3O4- and Ni4O5-) were found to exhibit dominant products resulting from the transfer of a single oxygen atom to CO, suggesting the formation of CO2. Of these four species, Ni2O3- and Ni4O5- were observed to be the most reactive having oxygen transfer products accounting for approximately 5% and 10% of the total ion intensity at a maximum pressure of 15 mTorr of CO. Our findings, therefore, indicate that anionic nickel oxide clusters containing an even number of nickel atoms and an odd number of oxygen atoms are more reactive than those with an odd number of nickel atoms and an even number of oxygen atoms. The majority of cationic nickel oxides, in contrast to anionic species, reacted preferentially through the adsorption of CO onto the cluster accompanied by the loss of either molecular O2 or nickel oxide units. The adsorption of CO onto positively charged nickel oxides, therefore, is exothermic enough to break apart the gas-phase clusters. Collision induced dissociation experiments, employing inert xenon gas, were also conducted to gain insight into the structural properties of nickel oxide clusters. The fragmentation products were found to vary considerably with size and stoichiometry as well as ionic charge state. In general, cationic clusters favored the collisional loss of molecular O2 while anionic clusters fragmented through the loss of both atomic oxygen and nickel oxide units. Our results provide insight into the effect of ionic charge state on the structure of nickel oxide clusters. Furthermore, we establish how the size and stoichiometry of nickel oxide clusters influences their ability to oxidize CO, an important reaction for environmental pollution abatement.

  16. High Variability in Cellular Stoichiometry of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Within Classes of Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Under Sufficient Nutrient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nathan S; Sexton, Julie; Riggins, Tracey; Brown, Jeff; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

    2018-01-01

    Current hypotheses suggest that cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton such as the ratios of cellular carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) vary between phylogenetic groups. To investigate how phylogenetic structure, cell volume, growth rate, and temperature interact to affect the cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton, we examined the C:N:P composition in 30 isolates across 7 classes of marine phytoplankton that were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and nitrate as the nitrogen source. The isolates covered a wide range in cell volume (5 orders of magnitude), growth rate (temperature (2-24°C). Our analysis indicates that C:N:P is highly variable, with statistical model residuals accounting for over half of the total variance and no relationship between phylogeny and elemental stoichiometry. Furthermore, our data indicated that variability in C:P, N:P, and C:N within Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) was as high as that among all of the isolates that we examined. In addition, a linear statistical model identified a positive relationship between diatom cell volume and C:P and N:P. Among all of the isolates that we examined, the statistical model identified temperature as a significant factor, consistent with the temperature-dependent translation efficiency model, but temperature only explained 5% of the total statistical model variance. While some of our results support data from previous field studies, the high variability of elemental ratios within Bacillariophyceae contradicts previous work that suggests that this cosmopolitan group of microalgae has consistently low C:P and N:P ratios in comparison with other groups.

  17. Calcium-dependent stoichiometries of the KCa2.2 (SK) intracellular domain/calmodulin complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, D Brent; Kenrick, Sophia A; Riggs, Austen F; Aldrich, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Ca(2+) activates SK Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels through the protein Ca(2+) sensor, calmodulin (CaM). To understand how SK channels operate, it is necessary to determine how Ca(2+) regulates CaM binding to its target on SK. Tagless, recombinant SK peptide (SKp), was purified for binding studies with CaM at low and high Ca(2+) concentrations. Composition gradient multi-angle light scattering accurately measures the molar mass, stoichiometry, and affinity of protein complexes. In 2 mM Ca(2+), SKp and CaM bind with three different stoichiometries that depend on the molar ratio of SKp:CaM in solution. These complexes include 28 kD 1SKp/1CaM, 39 kD 2SKp/1CaM, and 44 kD 1SKp/2CaM. A 2SKp/2CaM complex, observed in prior crystallographic studies, is absent. At sedimentation coefficient is smaller for a 1SKp:1CaM solution than it is for either 2SKp:1CaM or 1SKp:2CaM. At low Ca(2+) and at >100 µM protein concentrations, a molar excess of SKp over CaM causes aggregation. Aggregation is not observed in Ca(2+) or with CaM in molar excess. In low Ca(2+) both 1SKp:1CaM and 1SKp:2CaM solutions have similar sedimentation coefficients, which is consistent with the absence of a 1SKp/2CaM complex in low Ca(2+). These results suggest that complexes with stoichiometries other than 2SKp/2CaM are important in gating.

  18. Role of an extracellular loop in determining the stoichiometry of Na+–HCO3− cotransporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Ying; Boron, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    The Na+–HCO3− cotransporters (NBCs) of the solute carrier 4 family (SLC4) are critical for regulating pH in cells as well as in fluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, mutations and gene disruptions in NBC are linked to a wide range of pathologies. NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is electrogenic because it has an apparent Na+:HCO3− stoichiometry of 1:2 or 1:3, whereas NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is electroneutral because it has an apparent stoichiometry of 1:1. Because stoichiometry influences the effect of transport on membrane potential and vice versa, a central question is what structural features underlie electrogenicity versus electroneutrality. A previous study on rat NBCe1/n1 chimeras demonstrated that the structural elements determining the electrogenicity of NBCe1-A are located within the transmembrane domain, excluding the large third extracellular loop. In the present study we generated a series of chimeras of human NBCe1-A and human NBCn1-A. We found that replacing merely the predicted fourth extracellular loop (EL4) – containing 32 amino acid residues that include 7 prolines – of human NBCe1-A with EL4 of NBCn1-A creates an electroneutral NBC. The opposite switch converts an electroneutral construct to one with electrogenic properties. The introduction of an N-glycosylation site into EL4 confirms that at least a part of it is exposed to the extracellular fluid. We hypothesize that putative EL4 either contributes to the substrate-binding vestibule or indirectly influences substrate binding by interacting with one or more transmembrane segments, thereby controlling the nature of transport. PMID:21224233

  19. Effects of pressure profile and plasma shaping on the n=1 internal kink mode in JT-60/JT-60U pellet fuelled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takahisa; Azumi, Masafumi

    1990-10-01

    The stability of the n=1 internal kink mode in a tokamak is numerically analyzed for plasmas with a centrally peaked pressure profile. These studies are carried out with the strongly peaked pressure inside the q=1 surface, which is based on the experimentally observed plasmas by means of injections of hydrogen-ice pellets in JT-60 tokamak. The effects of peaked pressure and shaping, i.e., elongation and triangularity, are also studied for JT-60U tokamak. The plasma with the strongly peaked pressure profile has higher critical value of poloidal beta defined within the q=1 surface than that with a parabolic pressure profile. Though the beta limit reduces with the increase of the elongation, the plasma with the peaked pressure profile has larger improvement due to the triangularity than that with the parabolic pressure profile. To access the second stability of the n=1 internal kink mode, the plasma with a flat pressure profile and the large minor radius of the q=1 surface is effective. (author)

  20. High through-plane thermal conduction of graphene nanoflake filled polymer composites melt-processed in an L-shape kinked tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haejong; Yu, Seunggun; Bae, Nam-Seok; Cho, Suk Man; Kim, Richard Hahnkee; Cho, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ihn; Jeong, Beomjin; Ryu, Ji Su; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-07-22

    Design of materials to be heat-conductive in a preferred direction is a crucial issue for efficient heat dissipation in systems using stacked devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile route to fabricate polymer composites with directional thermal conduction. Our method is based on control of the orientation of fillers with anisotropic heat conduction. Melt-compression of solution-cast poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and graphene nanoflake (GNF) films in an L-shape kinked tube yielded a lightweight polymer composite with the surface normal of GNF preferentially aligned perpendicular to the melt-flow direction, giving rise to a directional thermal conductivity of approximately 10 W/mK at 25 vol % with an anisotropic thermal conduction ratio greater than six. The high directional thermal conduction was attributed to the two-dimensional planar shape of GNFs readily adaptable to the molten polymer flow, compared with highly entangled carbon nanotubes and three-dimensional graphite fillers. Furthermore, our composite with its density of approximately 1.5 g/cm(3) was mechanically stable, and its thermal performance was successfully preserved above 100 °C even after multiple heating and cooling cycles. The results indicate that the methodology using an L-shape kinked tube is a new way to achieve polymer composites with highly anisotropic thermal conduction.

  1. Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size-selective predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    A key challenge for ecologists is to predict how single and joint effects of global warming and predation risk translate from the individual level up to ecosystem functions. Recently, stoichiometric theory linked these levels through changes in body stoichiometry, predicting that both higher temperatures and predation risk induce shifts in energy storage (increases in C-rich carbohydrates and reductions in N-rich proteins) and body stoichiometry (increases in C : N and C : P). This promising theory, however, is rarely tested and assumes that prey will divert energy away from reproduction under predation risk, while under size-selective predation, prey instead increase fecundity. We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna to 4 °C warming and fish predation risk to test whether C-rich carbohydrates increase and N-rich proteins decrease, and as a result, C : N and C : P increase under warming and predation risk. Unexpectedly, warming decreased body C : N, which was driven by reductions in C-rich fat and sugar contents while the protein content did not change. This reflected a trade-off where the accelerated intrinsic growth rate under warming occurred at the cost of a reduced energy storage. Warming reduced C : N less and only increased C : P and N : P in the fish-period Daphnia. These evolved stoichiometric responses to warming were largely driven by stronger warming-induced reductions in P than in C and N and could be explained by the better ability to deal with warming in the fish-period Daphnia. In contrast to theory predictions, body C : N decreased under predation risk due to a strong increase in the N-rich protein content that offsets the increase in C-rich fat content. The higher investment in fecundity (more N-rich eggs) under predation risk contributed to this stronger increase in protein content. Similarly, the lower body C : N of pre-fish Daphnia also matched their higher fecundity. Warming and predation risk independently shaped body

  2. Oxygen Stoichiometry in Cation Deficient (La,Sr)_{1-z}MnO_3 SOFC Cathode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Skaarup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    by the imposed potential.It is found that the oxygen stoichiometry and hence the defect chemistry is different whether A-site charge deficiency is established by Sr-doping or by A-site vacancies. Furthermore,A-site deficient lanthanum strontium manganates expel a secondary phase of manganese oxide when exposed...... to low oxygen partial pressures. The presence of small amounts of secondary phase isobserved and identified by its reoxidation peak. The amount of this foreign phase is determined by the charge used for its oxidation....

  3. A simple wet chemical method for the determination of cation stoichiometry of YBa2Cu3O7-d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahasranaman, S.; Premila, M.; Sreedharan, O.M.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive wet chemical procedure for the rapid analysis of yttrium, barium and copper ions in dilute HNO 3 medium has been developed to facilitate a precise and accurate determination of cation non-stoichiometry in high temperature ceramic superconducting materials Y 1±x Ba 2±y Cu 3±z O 7-d . The ease of analysis for copper by electrogravimetry and of yttrium and barium by a complexometric titration of the same aliquot against complexone III using arsenazo I as the indicator under appropriate pH has been demonstrated with the help of individual standard solutions and with synthetic mixtures. (author)

  4. Effect of the Reburning Zone Stoichiometry on the Nox Concentration at the Three-Stage Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetskaya Nelya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study of heat and mass transfer taking into account the combustion of coal particles in the furnace at the three-stage combustion of pulverized coal was performed. Analysis of the reburning zone stoichiometry on the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet was made. The values of excess air in the primary and reburning combustion zones, providing for the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet is not more than 350 mg/m3 and unburned carbon not more than 1 % when burning coal with a high content of nitrogen were established.

  5. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ gases. A case study...

  6. Superconductivity in CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/: dependence of Tsub(c) on alloying and stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spille, H; Rauchschwalbe, U; Steglich, F [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik

    1938-01-01

    The authors have determined the transition temperatures of the alloy systems (Ce,M)Cu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ with M = La, Y, Sc, Ce(Cu,T)/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ with T = Ag, Au, Mn, Ru, Rh, Pd and CeCu/sub 2/(Si,Ge)/sub 2/ as well as of CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ samples with varying stoichiometry. In each case, alloying is found to depress Tsub(c), the critical concentrations necessary to destroy superconductivity ranging between < 1 at.% and 10 at.%. Off-stoichiometry samples with a Cu- or Ce-deficiency of a few at.% are not superconducting, while samples prepared with a comparable excess of Cu or Ce show sharp transitions at Tsub(c) >approx. 600 mK. It is inferred that stoichiometric CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ contains substantial concentrations of Cu- and Ce-vacancies, which hinder superconductivity. First results on CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ single crystals, which exhibit bulk superconductivity, are also reported.

  7. The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2012-08-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) links growth rates with organism elemental stoichiometry. Support for the GRH was found for many animal species, but less so for plants. This is the first study to test the GRH in macroalgae. Tropical coral reef macroalgae from three lineages, Caulerpa serrulata (Chlorophyta), Laurencia intricata (Rhodophyta), and Sargassum polyphyllum (Phaeophyceae) were grown enriched with nitrogen or phosphorous and under control conditions at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rate, photosynthesis, nucleic acid composition, and elemental stoichiometry were measured. Nutrient enrichment had positive effects on photosynthetic rates and on investment in RNA. However, growth rate was not correlated with either photosynthetic rates or RNA content; thus, we did not find support for the GRH in tropical macroalgae. Macroalgae, especially L. intricata, accumulated P to very high levels (>0.6% of dry weight). The growth rate response to tissue P concentrations was unimodal. Above 0.21%, P accumulation had negative effects on growth. Nitrogen was not stored, but evidence of futile cycling was observed. The capacity to store large amounts of P is probably an adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment of the tropical oceans.

  8. Rapid top-down regulation of plant C:N:P stoichiometry by grasshoppers in an Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo; Elser, James J

    2011-05-01

    Understanding how food web interactions alter the processing of limiting nutrient elements is an important goal of ecosystem ecology. An experiment manipulating densities of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus was performed to assess top-down effects of grasshoppers on C:N:P stoichiometry of plants and soil in a grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China). With increased grasshopper feeding, plant biomass declined fourfold, litter abundance increased 30%, and the plant community became dominated by non-host plant taxa. Plant stoichiometric response depended on whether or not the plant was a grasshopper host food species: C:N and C:P ratios increased with increasing grasshopper density (GD) for host plants but decreased in non-host plants. These data suggest either a direct transfer of grasshopper-recycled nutrients from host to non-host plants or a release of non-host plants from nutrient competition with heavily grazed host plants. Litterfall C:N and C:P decreased across moderate levels of grasshopper density but no effects on C:N:P stoichiometry in the surface soil were observed, possibly due to the short experimental period. Our observations of divergent C:N:P stoichiometric response among plant species highlight the important role of grasshopper herbivory in regulating plant community structure and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems.

  9. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the reaction stoichiometry on the mechanical and thermal properties of SWCNT-modified epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Johnston, Andrew; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Kingston, Christopher T; Simard, Benoit; Khoun, Lolei; Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Hubert, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a considerable influence on the curing behavior and crosslink density of epoxy resins. This invariably has an important effect on different thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy network. This work focuses on the important role of the epoxy/hardener mixing ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of a high temperature aerospace-grade epoxy (MY0510 Araldite as an epoxy and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone as an aromatic hardener) modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The effects of three different stoichiometries (stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric) on various mechanical and thermal properties (fracture toughness, tensile properties, glass transition temperature) of the epoxy resin and its SWCNT-modified composites were obtained. The results were also supported by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the neat resin, it was found that an epoxy/hardener molar ratio of 1:0.8 provides the best overall properties. In contrast, the pattern in property changes with the reaction stoichiometry was considerably different for composites reinforced with unfunctionalized SWCNTs and reduced SWCNTs. A comparison among composites suggests that a 1:1 molar ratio considerably outperforms the other two ratios examined in this work (1:0.8 and 1:1.1). This composition at 0.2 wt% SWCNT loading provides the highest overall mechanical properties by improving fracture toughness, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate tensile strain of the epoxy resin by 40%, 34%, 54%, respectively. (paper)

  11. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Aman Y; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Drying-Rewetting and Long-Term Effects of Nutrient Loading on Periphyton N:P Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Sola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations and N:P ratios critically influence periphyton productivity and nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems. In coastal wetlands, variations in hydrology and water source (fresh or marine influence nutrient availability, but short-term effects of drying and rewetting and long-term effects of nutrient exposure on periphyton nutrient retention are uncertain. An outdoor microcosm experiment simulated short-term exposure to variation in drying-rewetting frequency on periphyton mat nutrient retention. A 13-year dataset from freshwater marshes of the Florida Everglades was examined for the effect of long-term proximity to different N and P sources on mat-forming periphyton nutrient standing stocks and stoichiometry. Field sites were selected from one drainage with shorter hydroperiod and higher connectivity to freshwater anthropogenic nutrient supplies (Taylor Slough/Panhandle, TS/Ph and another drainage with longer hydroperiod and higher connectivity to marine nutrient supplies (Shark River Slough, SRS. Total P, but not total N, increased in periphyton mats exposed to both low and high drying-rewetting frequency with respect to the control mats in our experimental microcosm. In SRS, N:P ratios slightly decreased downstream due to marine nutrient supplies, while TS/Ph increased. Mats exposed to short-term drying-rewetting had higher nutrient retention, similar to nutrient standing stocks from long-term field data. Periphyton mat microbial communities may undergo community shifts upon drying-rewetting and chronic exposure to nutrient loads. Additional work on microbial species composition may further explain how periphyton communities interact with drying-rewetting dynamics to influence nutrient cycling and retention in wetlands.

  13. Magnetic hysteresis and domain wall dynamics in single chain magnets with antiferromagnetic interchain coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukharov, A A; Ovchinnikov, A S; Baranov, N V [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, 620083 (Russian Federation); Inoue, K [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-11-03

    Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate magnetic hysteresis in two- and three-dimensional systems of weakly antiferromagnetically coupled spin chains based on a scenario of domain wall (kink) motion within the chains. By adapting the model of walkers to simulate the domain wall dynamics and using the Ising-like dipole-dipole model, we study the effects of interchain coupling, temperature and anisotropy axis direction on hysteresis curves.

  14. The acceleration of dissolved cobalt's ecological stoichiometry due to biological uptake, remineralization, and scavenging in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A.; Noble, Abigail E.; Hawco, Nicholas; Twining, Benjamin S.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; John, Seth G.; Lam, Phoebe; Conway, Tim M.; Johnson, Rod; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    The stoichiometry of biological components and their influence on dissolved distributions have long been of interest in the study of the oceans. Cobalt has the smallest oceanic inventory of inorganic micronutrients and hence is particularly vulnerable to influence by internal oceanic processes including euphotic zone uptake, remineralization, and scavenging. Here we observe not only large variations in dCo : P stoichiometry but also the acceleration of those dCo : P ratios in the upper water column in response to several environmental processes. The ecological stoichiometry of total dissolved cobalt (dCo) was examined using data from a US North Atlantic GEOTRACES transect and from a zonal South Atlantic GEOTRACES-compliant transect (GA03/3e and GAc01) by Redfieldian analysis of its statistical relationships with the macronutrient phosphate. Trends in the dissolved cobalt to phosphate (dCo : P) stoichiometric relationships were evident in the basin-scale vertical structure of cobalt, with positive dCo : P slopes in the euphotic zone and negative slopes found in the ocean interior and in coastal environments. The euphotic positive slopes were often found to accelerate towards the surface and this was interpreted as being due to the combined influence of depleted phosphate, phosphorus-sparing (conserving) mechanisms, increased alkaline phosphatase metalloenzyme production (a zinc or perhaps cobalt enzyme), and biochemical substitution of Co for depleted Zn. Consistent with this, dissolved Zn (dZn) was found to be drawn down to only 2-fold more than dCo, despite being more than 18-fold more abundant in the ocean interior. Particulate cobalt concentrations increased in abundance from the base of the euphotic zone to become ˜ 10 % of the overall cobalt inventory in the upper euphotic zone with high stoichiometric values of ˜ 400 µmol Co mol-1 P. Metaproteomic results from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station found cyanobacterial isoforms of the

  15. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  16. Engineering the microstructure and magnetism of La2CoMnO6−δ thin films by tailoring oxygen stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galceran, R.; Frontera, C.; Balcells, Ll.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; López-Mir, L.; Bozzo, B.; Pomar, A.; Sandiumenge, F.; Martínez, B.; Roqueta, J.; Santiso, J.; Bagués, N.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic-insulating La 2 CoMnO 6−δ thin films grown on top of (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by means of RF sputtering technique. Careful structural analysis, by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, allows identifying two different crystallographic orientations that are closely related to oxygen stoichiometry and to the features (coercive fields and remanence) of the hysteresis loops. Both Curie temperature and magnetic hysteresis turn out to be dependent on the oxygen stoichiometry. In situ annealing conditions allow tailoring the oxygen content of the films, therefore controlling their microstructure and magnetic properties

  17. Dynamics in Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah

    Understanding the dynamics of a material provides detailed information about the self-assembly, structure, and intermolecular interactions present in a material. While rheological methods have long been used for the characterization of complex coacervate-based materials, it remains a challenge to predict the dynamics for a new system of materials. Furthermore, most work reports only qualitative trends exist as to how parameters such as charge stoichiometry, ionic strength, and polymer chain length impact self-assembly and material dynamics, and there is little information on the effects of polymer architecture or the organization of charges within a polymer. We seek to link thermodynamic studies of coacervation phase behavior with material dynamics through a carefully-controlled, systematic study of coacervate linear viscoelasticity for different polymer chemistries. We couple various methods of characterizing the dynamics of polymer-based complex coacervates, including the time-salt superposition methods developed first by Spruijt and coworkers to establish a more mechanistic strategy for comparing the material dynamics and linear viscoelasticity of different systems. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  18. Reversing an S-kink effect caused by interface degradation in organic solar cells through gold ion implantation in the PEDOT:PSS layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes-Badilla, D.; Coutinho, D. J.; Amorim, D. R. B.; Faria, R. M.; Salvadori, M. C.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we performed a study on the recovery of the photovoltaic performance of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al solar cell after the hole transport layer (PEDOT:PSS) had been degraded by contact with the environment. A device that was fully built in an inert environment exhibited a fill factor (FF) of 0.64, while the device whose hole transport layer was exposed to air presented a FF equal to 0.2. In addition, the J-V characteristic curve of the degraded device did not follow the photovoltaic pattern exhibiting the degenerate S shape. However, the elimination of the deleterious effect was achieved by bombarding gold ions on the contaminated surface of PEDOT:PSS by means of the Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation technique. Due to the low energy of the ionic beam of gold, the implanted gold atoms were located at few nanometers off the surface, forming nanometric clusters, that is, gold nanoparticles. Most probably, the degradation of the J-V photovoltaic curve, represented by the S-kink effect, was caused by the appearance of a potential barrier at PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface, which was demolished by the gold nanoparticles that have work function close to HOMO of P3HT. This S-kink effect was also simulated by using an equivalent circuit model constituted by a two-diode circuit, one of which plays the role of the undesirable potential barrier formed at the PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM interface. Our analysis shows that deposition of gold nanoparticles next to the interface recovers the good hole injection condition from the PEDOT:PSS into the active layer, restoring the fill factor and the device efficiency.

  19. Leaf non-structural carbohydrate allocation and C:N:P stoichiometry in response to light acclimation in seedlings of two subtropical shade-tolerant tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtao; Yu, Mukui; Cheng, Xiangrong

    2018-03-01

    Light availability greatly affects plant growth and development. In shaded environments, plants must respond to reduced light intensity to ensure a regular rate of photosynthesis to maintain the dynamic balance of nutrients, such as leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To improve our understanding of the nutrient utilization strategies of understory shade-tolerant plants, we compared the variations in leaf NSCs, C, N and P in response to heterogeneous controlled light conditions between two subtropical evergreen broadleaf shade-tolerant species, Elaeocarpus sylvestris (E. sylvestris) and Illicium henryi (I. henryi). Light intensity treatments were applied at five levels (100%, 52%, 33%, 15% and 6% full sunlight) for 30 weeks to identify the effects of reduced light intensity on leaf NSC allocation patterns and leaf C:N:P stoichiometry characteristics. We found that leaf soluble sugar, starch and NSC concentrations in E. sylvestris showed decreasing trends with reduced light intensity, whereas I. henryi presented slightly increasing trends from 100% to 15% full sunlight and then significant decreases at extremely low light intensity (6% full sunlight). The soluble sugar/starch ratio of E. sylvestris decreased with decreasing light intensity, whereas that of I. henryi remained stable. Moreover, both species exhibited increasing trends in leaf N and P concentrations but limited leaf N:P and C:P ratio fluctuations with decreasing light intensity, revealing their adaptive strategies for poor light environments and their growth strategies under ideal light environments. There were highly significant correlations between leaf NSC variables and C:N:P stoichiometric variables in both species, revealing a trade-off in photosynthesis production between leaf NSC and carbon allocation. Thus, shade-tolerant plants readjusted their allocation of leaf NSCs, C, N and P in response to light acclimation. Redundancy analysis showed

  20. The Search Engine for Multi-Proteoform Complexes: An Online Tool for the Identification and Stoichiometry Determination of Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Owen S; Schachner, Luis F; Kelleher, Neil L

    2016-12-08

    Recent advances in top-down mass spectrometry using native electrospray now enable the analysis of intact protein complexes with relatively small sample amounts in an untargeted mode. Here, we describe how to characterize both homo- and heteropolymeric complexes with high molecular specificity using input data produced by tandem mass spectrometry of whole protein assemblies. The tool described is a "search engine for multi-proteoform complexes," (SEMPC) and is available for free online. The output is a list of candidate multi-proteoform complexes and scoring metrics, which are used to define a distinct set of one or more unique protein subunits, their overall stoichiometry in the intact complex, and their pre- and post-translational modifications. Thus, we present an approach for the identification and characterization of intact protein complexes from native mass spectrometry data. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Effect of deviation from stoichiometry on the nature of shallow acceptor states in CdTe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrinskaya, N.V.; Shashkova, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra in the region of donor-acceptor recombination of pure CdTe crystals, grown under conditions of different deviations from stoichiometry are investigated. It is shown that the predominant type of minor acceptors in n-type crystals (with Cd excess) differs from acceptors in p-type crystals (with Te excess). Residual acceptors replacing Te(P, As) prevail in n-type crystals and acceptors replacing Cd(Li, Na) prevail in p-type crystals. As a result of p-type crystal annealing a change of the type of prevailing aceptors accurs in Cd pairs (bands linked with P, As prevail) which testifies to the residual impurity reconstruction in Cd and Te sublattices

  2. Oxygen stoichiometry, superconductivity and structure of the Bi-2212 ceramics after thermal treatment in the inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratukhin, P.V.; Aksenova, T.D.; Shavkin, S.V.; Komarov, A.O.; Voronkov, S.A.; Mozhaev, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    A complex study of the stoichiometry and superconducting properties has been performed as well as an X-ray structure analysis of Bi 1.6 Pb 0.4 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x ceramic samples after thermal treatment in the helium atmosphere. Annealing has been found to result in the reduction of the oxygen coefficient followed by the critical temperature rise and the decrease of the unit cell parameters which sharply distinguishes Bi2212 from Y123. Anisotropic widening of diffraction lines due to monoclinic distortions has been detected. Correlations between the monoclinic angle and the critical temperature have been disclosed. Structural changes in Bi2122 are 30-100 times smaller than in the Y123 structure under similar changes in T c

  3. Ceramic research on transformational superplasticity and stoichiometry effects on fracture. Research progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, R.C.; Hoke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The progress of the program is reviewed by treating each of the areas separately. In the superplasticity investigation, the results of the Bi 2 WO 6 and Bi 2 MoO 3 systems are discussed both in terms of the transformational deformation and also the thermal cycling growth phenomenon. The growth phenomenon on thermal cycling through the phase transition shows some interesting bulk and microstructural features in terms of specimen strain and highly anisotropic grain growth. The stoichiometry effects on the fracture (K/sub Ic/ and K-V behavior) of TiO/sub 2-x/ and Fe/sub 1-x/ are reviewed as that study has been completed. Progress on the MgO . X Al 2 O 3 system is discussed

  4. Variable nutrient stoichiometry (carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus) across trophic levels determines community and ecosystem properties in an oligotrophic mangrove system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharler, U M; Ulanowicz, R E; Fogel, M L; Wooller, M J; Jacobson-Meyers, M E; Lovelock, C E; Feller, I C; Frischer, M; Lee, R; McKee, K; Romero, I C; Schmit, J P; Shearer, C

    2015-11-01

    Our study investigated the carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry of mangrove island of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (Twin Cays, Belize). The C:N:P of abiotic and biotic components of this oligotrophic ecosystem was measured and served to build networks of nutrient flows for three distinct mangrove forest zones (tall seaward fringing forest, inland dwarf forests and a transitional zone). Between forest zones, the stoichiometry of primary producers, heterotrophs and abiotic components did not change significantly, but there was a significant difference in C:N:P, and C, N, and P biomass, between the functional groups mangrove trees, other primary producers, heterotrophs, and abiotic components. C:N:P decreased with increasing trophic level. Nutrient recycling in the food webs was highest for P, and high transfer efficiencies between trophic levels of P and N also indicated an overall shortage of these nutrients when compared to C. Heterotrophs were sometimes, but not always, limited by the same nutrient as the primary producers. Mangrove trees and the primary tree consumers were P limited, whereas the invertebrates consuming leaf litter and detritus were N limited. Most compartments were limited by P or N (not by C), and the relative depletion rate of food sources was fastest for P. P transfers thus constituted a bottleneck of nutrient transfer on Twin Cays. This is the first comprehensive ecosystem study of nutrient transfers in a mangrove ecosystem, illustrating some mechanisms (e.g. recycling rates, transfer efficiencies) which oligotrophic systems use in order to build up biomass and food webs spanning various trophic levels.

  5. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  6. δ15N and nutrient stoichiometry of water, aquatic organisms and environmental implications in Taihu lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Dan, Dai; Kun, Lei; Chengda, He; Haibing, Cong; Guo, Fu; Qiujin, Xu; Fuhong, Sun; Fengchang, Wu

    2018-06-01

    Nitrogen pollution has become a worldwide problem and the source identification is important for the development of pertinent control measures. In this study, isotope end members (rain, nitrogen fertilizer, untreated/treated sewage), and samples (river water discharging to Taihu lake, lake water, aquatic organisms of different trophic levels) were taken during 2010-2015 to examine their δ 15 N values and nutrient stoichiometry. Results indicated that phytoplankton (primary producers), which directly take up and incorporate N from the lake water, had a similar δ 15 N value (14.1‰ ± 3.2) to the end member of treated sewage (14.0‰ ± 7.5), and the most frequently observed δ 15 N value in the lake water was 8-12‰, both indicating the dominant impact of the sewage discharge. Relationship analysis between N isotope value of nitrate and nitrate concentration indicated that different N cycling existed between the algae-dominated northwest lake (NW) and the macrophyte-dominated southeast lake (SE), which is a result of both impacts of river inputs and denitrification. Our nutrient stoichiometry analysis showed that the lake water had a significantly higher N:P ratio than that of algae (p economic development in the watershed further confirmed that the rapid population increase and urbanization have resulted in a great change in the N loading and source proportion. We suggest that although P control is necessary in terms of eutrophication control, N pollution control is urgent for the water quality and ecological recovery for Taihu lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McCann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L−1, 0.083 mg P L−1. The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions.

  9. Response diversity of free-floating plants to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature: growth and resting body formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Free-floating plants, like most groups of aquatic primary producers, can become nuisance vegetation under certain conditions. On the other hand, there is substantial optimism for the applied uses of free-floating plants, such as wastewater treatment, biofuel production, and aquaculture. Therefore, understanding the species-specific responses of floating plants to abiotic conditions will inform both management decisions and the beneficial applications of these plants. I measured the responses of three floating plant species common in the northeast United States (Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Wolffia brasiliensis) to nutrient stoichiometry (nitrogen and phosphorus) and temperature in the laboratory. I also used survey data to determine the pattern of species richness of floating plants in the field and its relationship with the dominance of this group. Floating plant species exhibited unique responses to nutrient stoichiometry and temperature in the laboratory, especially under low temperatures (18 °C) and low nutrient conditions (0.5 mg N L−1, 0.083 mg P L−1). The three species displayed an apparent tradeoff with different strategies of growth or dormancy. In the field, water bodies with three or more species of floating plants were not more frequently dominated by this group. The response diversity observed in the lab may not be associated with the dominance of this group in the field because it is masked by environmental variability, has a weak effect, or is only important during transient circumstances. Future research to develop applied uses of floating plants should examine response diversity across a greater range of species or clones and environmental conditions. PMID:26989619

  10. Shrub type dominates the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P stoichiometry across an extensive altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Reich, Peter B.; Yu, Qiannan; Zhao, Ning; Yin, Chunying; Zhao, Chunzhang; Li, Dandan; Hu, Jun; Li, Ting; Yin, Huajun; Liu, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Understanding leaf stoichiometric patterns is crucial for improving predictions of plant responses to environmental changes. Leaf stoichiometry of terrestrial ecosystems has been widely investigated along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. However, very little is known about the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P and the relative effects of environmental parameters, especially for shrubs. Here, we analyzed the shrub leaf C, N and P patterns in 125 mountainous sites over an extensive altitudinal gradient (523-4685 m) on the Tibetan Plateau. Results showed that the shrub leaf C and C : N were 7.3-47.5 % higher than those of other regional and global flora, whereas the leaf N and N : P were 10.2-75.8 % lower. Leaf C increased with rising altitude and decreasing temperature, supporting the physiological acclimation mechanism that high leaf C (e.g., alpine or evergreen shrub) could balance the cell osmotic pressure and resist freezing. The largest leaf N and high leaf P occurred in valley region (altitude 1500 m), likely due to the large nutrient leaching from higher elevations, faster litter decomposition and nutrient resorption ability of deciduous broadleaf shrub. Leaf N : P ratio further indicated increasing N limitation at higher altitudes. Interestingly, drought severity was the only climatic factor positively correlated with leaf N and P, which was more appropriate for evaluating the impact of water status than precipitation. Among the shrub ecosystem and functional types (alpine, subalpine, montane, valley, evergreen, deciduous, broadleaf, and conifer), their leaf element contents and responses to environments were remarkably different. Shrub type was the largest contributor to the total variations in leaf stoichiometry, while climate indirectly affected the leaf C : N : P via its interactive effects on shrub type or soil. Collectively, the large heterogeneity in shrub type was the most important factor explaining the overall leaf C : N : P variations

  11. Variable nutrient stoichiometry (carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus) across trophic levels determines community and ecosystem properties in an oligotrophic mangrove system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, Robert E.; Fogel, M.L.; Wooller, M.J.; Jacobson-Meyers, M.E.; Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, I.C.; Frischer, M.; Lee, R.; Mckee, Karen L.; Romero, I.C.; Schmit, J.P.; Shearer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated the carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry of mangrove island of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (Twin Cays, Belize). The C:N:P of abiotic and biotic components of this oligotrophic ecosystem was measured and served to build networks of nutrient flows for three distinct mangrove forest zones (tall seaward fringing forest, inland dwarf forests and a transitional zone). Between forest zones, the stoichiometry of primary producers, heterotrophs and abiotic components did not change significantly, but there was a significant difference in C:N:P, and C, N, and P biomass, between the functional groups mangrove trees, other primary producers, heterotrophs, and abiotic components. C:N:P decreased with increasing trophic level. Nutrient recycling in the food webs was highest for P, and high transfer efficiencies between trophic levels of P and N also indicated an overall shortage of these nutrients when compared to C. Heterotrophs were sometimes, but not always, limited by the same nutrient as the primary producers. Mangrove trees and the primary tree consumers were P limited, whereas the invertebrates consuming leaf litter and detritus were N limited. Most compartments were limited by P or N (not by C), and the relative depletion rate of food sources was fastest for P. P transfers thus constituted a bottleneck of nutrient transfer on Twin Cays. This is the first comprehensive ecosystem study of nutrient transfers in a mangrove ecosystem, illustrating some mechanisms (e.g. recycling rates, transfer efficiencies) which oligotrophic systems use in order to build up biomass and food webs spanning various trophic levels.

  12. Bridging food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry using ecological stoichiometry theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J.

    2017-01-01

    process rates). ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency......, we propose that using ES to link nutrient cycling, trophic dynamics, and ecosystem metabolism would allow for a more holistic understanding of ecosystem functions in a changing environment....

  13. Dynamic behaviors for a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the power-law nonlinearity in a non-Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong; Liu, De-Yin

    2017-04-01

    Effects of quantic nonlinearity on the propagation of the ultrashort optical pulses in a non-Kerr medium, like an optical fiber, can be described by a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the power law nonlinearity, which is studied in this paper from a planar-dynamic-system view point. We obtain the equivalent two-dimensional planar dynamic system of such an equation, for which, according to the bifurcation theory and qualitative theory, phase portraits are given. Through the analysis of those phase portraits, we present the relations among the Hamiltonian, orbits of the dynamic system and types of the analytic solutions. Analytic expressions of the periodic-wave solutions, kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions are derived, and we find that the periodic-wave solutions can be reduced to the kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions.

  14. Development of Analytical Thinking Ability and Attitudes towards Science Learning of Grade-11 Students through Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM Education) in the Study of Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…

  15. Composition control of low-volatile solids through chemical vapor transport reactions. III. The example of gallium monoselenide: Control of the polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavrazhnov, A.; Naumov, A.; Sidey, V.; Pervov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work is devoted to the composition control of solids with selective CVT method. ► Phase identity and non-stoichiometry of solids (GaSe, etc.) depend on CVT-temperatures. ► The interrelation between the properties of GaSe and CVT conditions is also found. ► For iodide transporting system the diagram of phase stability of solids is adjusted. ► High temperatures and Se-rich non-stoichiometry are necessary for γ-GaSe stability. - Abstract: By means of particular examples, the present work demonstrates the possibility of directed delicate non-destructive control of structure, composition and properties of inorganic solids using the method of selective chemical vapor transport (SCVT). Gallium monoselenide GaSe is the main model object. Additional, though less detailed, explanation is given by the example of gallium monosulfide GaS. Experimental evidences on the possibility of the control of polytypic structure, non-stoichiometry and properties of gallium monoselenide were obtained in non-isothermal variant of selective chemical vapor transport which has non-destructive character. Diagnostics of the phase (polytypic) composition and non-stoichiometry of GaSe was performed with the use of X-ray diffractometry as well as with the use of cathode luminescence spectra. It was experimentally found that there exists a connection of non-stoichiometry and the properties of gallium selenides with the determining conditions of selective chemical vapor transport: temperature of controlled sample (T 2 ) and the difference of temperatures between the hot and cold zones (ΔT). It is shown that the phase diagram of Ga–Se system needs to be partially revised near the composition of Ga 1 Se 1 . The reason for such revision is the fact that two polytypes (ε-GaSe and γ-GaSe) exist on this phase diagram as independent phases.

  16. Investigations of Solar Prominence Dynamics Using Laboratory Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory experiments simulating many of the dynamical features of solar coronal loops have been carried out. These experiments manifest collimation, kinking, jet flows, and S-shapes. Diagnostics include high-speed photography and x-ray detectors. Two loops having opposite or the same magnetic helicity polarities have been merged and it is found that counter-helicity merging provides much greater x-ray emission. A non-MHD particle orbit instability has been discovered whereby ions going in the opposite direction of the current flow direction can be ejected from a magnetic flux tube.

  17. Shifts in lake N: P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J.J.; Andersen, T.; Baron, Jill S.; Bergstrom, A.-K.; Jansson, M.; Kyle, M.; Nydick, K.R.; Steger, L.; Hessen, D.O.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have more than doubled the amount of nitrogen (N) circulating in the biosphere. One major pathway of this anthropogenic N input into ecosystems has been increased regional deposition from the atmosphere. Here we show that atmospheric N deposition increased the stoichiometric ratio of N and phosphorus (P) in lakes in Norway, Sweden, and Colorado, United States, and, as a result, patterns of ecological nutrient limitation were shifted. Under low N deposition, phytoplankton growth is generally N-limited; however, in high-N deposition lakes, phytoplankton growth is consistently P-limited. Continued anthropogenic amplification of the global N cycle will further alter ecological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, trophic dynamics, and biological diversity, in the world's lakes, even in lakes far from direct human disturbance.

  18. Shrub type dominates the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P stoichiometry across an extensive altitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding leaf stoichiometric patterns is crucial for improving predictions of plant responses to environmental changes. Leaf stoichiometry of terrestrial ecosystems has been widely investigated along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. However, very little is known about the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P and the relative effects of environmental parameters, especially for shrubs. Here, we analyzed the shrub leaf C, N and P patterns in 125 mountainous sites over an extensive altitudinal gradient (523–4685 m on the Tibetan Plateau. Results showed that the shrub leaf C and C : N were 7.3–47.5 % higher than those of other regional and global flora, whereas the leaf N and N : P were 10.2–75.8 % lower. Leaf C increased with rising altitude and decreasing temperature, supporting the physiological acclimation mechanism that high leaf C (e.g., alpine or evergreen shrub could balance the cell osmotic pressure and resist freezing. The largest leaf N and high leaf P occurred in valley region (altitude 1500 m, likely due to the large nutrient leaching from higher elevations, faster litter decomposition and nutrient resorption ability of deciduous broadleaf shrub. Leaf N : P ratio further indicated increasing N limitation at higher altitudes. Interestingly, drought severity was the only climatic factor positively correlated with leaf N and P, which was more appropriate for evaluating the impact of water status than precipitation. Among the shrub ecosystem and functional types (alpine, subalpine, montane, valley, evergreen, deciduous, broadleaf, and conifer, their leaf element contents and responses to environments were remarkably different. Shrub type was the largest contributor to the total variations in leaf stoichiometry, while climate indirectly affected the leaf C : N : P via its interactive effects on shrub type or soil. Collectively, the large heterogeneity in shrub type was the most

  19. Effect of ‘A’-site non stoichiometry in strontium doped lanthanum ferrite based solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Koyel; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta, E-mail: jayanta_mu@cgcri.res.in; Barman, Madhurima; Basu, Rajendra N., E-mail: rnbasu@cgcri.res.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1−y}O{sub 3−δ}, x = 0.4; y = 0.2 system varying La-site (0.6–0.54) are studied. • Combustion synthesis technique is used to prepare the powder samples. • Highest electrical conductivity observed with largest A-site deficit composition. • Lowest cathode polarization is found with the same composition (0.02 Ω cm{sup 2}). • Composition with largest A-site deficiency exhibits best performance (2.84 A cm{sup −2}). - Abstract: Effect of A-site non-stoichiometry in strontium doped lanthanum cobalt ferrite (La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1−y}O{sub 3−δ}, x = 0.4; y = 0.2) is studied in a systematic manner with variation of ‘A’ site stoichiometry from 1 to 0.94. The perovskite based cathode compositions are synthesized by combustion synthesis. Powder characterizations reveal rhombohedral crystal structure with crystallite size ranging from 29 to 34 nm with minimum lattice spacing of 0.271 nm. Detailed sintering studies along with total DC electrical conductivities are evaluated in the bulk form with variation of sintering temperatures. The electrode polarizations are measured in the symmetric cell configuration by impedance spectroscopy which is found to be the lowest (0.02 Ω cm{sup 2} at 800 °C) for cathode having highest degree of ‘A’-site deficiency. The same cathode composition exhibits a current density of 2.84 A cm{sup −2} (at 0.7 V, 800 °C) in anode-supported single cell. An attempt has been made to correlate the trend of electrical behaviour with increasing ‘A’-site deficiency for such cathode compositions.

  20. Effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Luz; Atkinson, John; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Roeckel, Marlene

    2018-05-16

    Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process. The TAN concentration in the effluent was predicted, this being the most inhibiting and polluting compound in AD. Despite the limited data available, the SVM-based model outperformed the analytical method for the TAN prediction, achieving a relative average error of 15.2% against 43% for the analytical method. Moreover, SVM showed higher prediction accuracy in comparison with Artificial Neural Networks. This result reveals the future promise of SVM for prediction in non-linear and dynamic AD processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.