Kinematic Model of NAO Humanoid Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloš D. Jovanović
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents synthesis of kinematic model of NAO humanoid robot of Aldebaran Robotics. NAO humanoid robot has complex kinematic structure with 25 active degrees of freedom (DOF. Humanoid system is formed through 5 mutually depended kinematic chains. After that we applied standard aspects of kinematic chains synthesis and Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of each of 5 chains of robotic structure were introduced. Also, mutual relationships between chains were described, as well as their physical and structural dependence. Generated kinematic model will be the starting point for further dynamical modeling of NAO humanoid robot and motion synthesis on actual platform.
Kinematic Modeling of Distant Galaxies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kipper Rain
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Evolution of galaxies is one of the most actual topics in astrophysics. Among the most important factors determining the evolution are two galactic components which are difficult or even impossible to detect optically: the gaseous disks and the dark matter halo. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a two-component (bulge + disk model for stellar matter distribution of galaxies. Properties of the galactic components are derived using a three-dimensional galaxy modeling software, which also estimates disk thickness and inclination angle. We add a gas disk and a dark matter halo and use hydrodynamical equations to calculate gas rotation and dispersion profiles in the resultant gravitational potential. We compare the kinematic profiles with the Team Keck Redshift Survey observations. In this pilot study, two galaxies are analyzed deriving parameters for their stellar components; both galaxies are found to be disk-dominated. Using the kinematical model, the gas mass and stellar mass ratio in the disk are estimated.
Kinematic models of extensional structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groshong, R.H. Jr.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses kinematic models that can relate faults of different types and different positions within a single dynamic system and thereby offer the potential to explain the disparate seismic activity characteristic of extensional terrains. The major styles are full grabens, half grabens, domino blocks, and glide-block systems. Half grabens, the most likely models for Basin and Range structure, are formed above a master fault of decreasing dip with depth and a hangingwall that deforms as it passes over the curved fault. Second-order normal faults, typically domino style, accommodate the required hangingwall deformation. According to the author low-angle detachment faults are consistent with the evidence of seismicity only on high-angle faults if the hangingwall of the detachment is broken by multiple half-graben systems
Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model
Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.
2017-12-01
Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum
Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics
Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.
2003-01-01
The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.
Can co-activation reduce kinematic variability? A simulation study.
Selen, L.P.J.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.
2005-01-01
Impedance modulation has been suggested as a means to suppress the effects of internal 'noise' on movement kinematics. We investigated this hypothesis in a neuro-musculo-skeletal model. A prerequisite is that the muscle model produces realistic force variability. We found that standard Hill-type
Assessment of multi class kinematic wave models
Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Vuik, C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2012-01-01
In the last decade many multi class kinematic wave (MCKW) traffic ow models have been proposed. MCKW models introduce heterogeneity among vehicles and drivers. For example, they take into account differences in (maximum) velocities and driving style. Nevertheless, the models are macroscopic and the
Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz Paredes, J.A.
2007-05-01
In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k -2 source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w 2 model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C d . To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C d , as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M w 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)
Local galactic kinematics: an isothermal model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunez, J.
1983-01-01
The kinematical parameters of galactic rotation in the solar neighborhood and the corrections to the precession have been calculated. For this purpose, an isothermal model for the solar neighborhood has been used together with the high order momenta of the local stellar velocity distribution and the Ogorodnikov-Milne model. Both have been calculated using some samples of the ''512 Distant FK4/FK4 Sup. Stars'' of Fricke (1977) and of Gliese's Gatalogue. (author)
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.; NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL)
1987-01-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.
1986-05-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations
Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.
1986-05-01
Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.
The Kinematic Learning Model using Video and Interfaces Analysis
Firdaus, T.; Setiawan, W.; Hamidah, I.
2017-09-01
An educator currently in demand to apply the learning to not be separated from the development of technology. Educators often experience difficulties when explaining kinematics material, this is because kinematics is one of the lessons that often relate the concept to real life. Kinematics is one of the courses of physics that explains the cause of motion of an object, Therefore it takes the thinking skills and analytical skills in understanding these symptoms. Technology is one that can bridge between conceptual relationship with real life. A framework of technology-based learning models has been developed using video and interfaces analysis on kinematics concept. By using this learning model, learners will be better able to understand the concept that is taught by the teacher. This learning model is able to improve the ability of creative thinking, analytical skills, and problem-solving skills on the concept of kinematics.
Efficient dynamic modeling of manipulators containing closed kinematic loops
Ferretti, Gianni; Rocco, Paolo
An approach to efficiently solve the forward dynamics problem for manipulators containing closed chains is proposed. The two main distinctive features of this approach are: the dynamics of the equivalent open loop tree structures (any closed loop can be in general modeled by imposing some additional kinematic constraints to a suitable tree structure) is computed through an efficient Newton Euler formulation; the constraint equations relative to the most commonly adopted closed chains in industrial manipulators are explicitly solved, thus, overcoming the redundancy of Lagrange's multipliers method while avoiding the inefficiency due to a numerical solution of the implicit constraint equations. The constraint equations considered for an explicit solution are those imposed by articulated gear mechanisms and planar closed chains (pantograph type structures). Articulated gear mechanisms are actually used in all industrial robots to transmit motion from actuators to links, while planar closed chains are usefully employed to increase the stiffness of the manipulators and their load capacity, as well to reduce the kinematic coupling of joint axes. The accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed approach are shown through a simulation test.
Kinematic Hardening: Characterization, Modeling and Impact on Springback Prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, J. L.; Bouvier, S.; Jomaa, M.; Billardon, R.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.
2007-01-01
The constitutive modeling of the materials' mechanical behavior, usually carried out using a phenomenological constitutive model, i.e., a yield criterion associated to the isotropic and kinematic hardening laws, is of paramount importance in the FEM simulation of the sheet metal forming processes, as well as in the springback prediction. Among others, the kinematic behavior of the yield surface plays an essential role, since it is indispensable to describe the Bauschinger effect, i.e., the materials' answer to the multiple tension-compression cycles to which material points are submitted during the forming process. Several laws are usually used to model and describe the kinematic hardening, namely: a) the Prager's law, which describes a linear evolution of the kinematic hardening with the plastic strain rate tensor b) the Frederick-Armstrong non-linear kinematic hardening, basically a non-linear law with saturation; and c) a more advanced physically-based law, similar to the previous one but sensitive to the strain path changes. In the present paper a mixed kinematic hardening law (linear + non-linear behavior) is proposed and its implementation into a static fully-implicit FE code is described. The material parameters identification for sheet metals using different strategies, and the classical Bauschinger loading tests (i.e. in-plane forward and reverse monotonic loading), are addressed, and their impact on springback prediction evaluated. Some numerical results concerning the springback prediction of the Numisheet'05 Benchmark no. 3 are briefly presented to emphasize the importance of a correct modeling and identification of the kinematic hardening behavior
Modeling aspects of wave kinematics in offshore structures dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spanos, P.D.; Ghanem, R.; Bhattacharjee, S.
1993-01-01
Magnitude and phase related issues of modeling of ocean wave kinematics are addressed. Causal and non-causal filters are examined. It is shown that if for a particular ocean engineering problem only the magnitude representation of wave spectra spatial relation is critical, analog filters can be quite useful models in conjunction with the technique of statistical linearization, for calculating dynamic analyses. This is illustrated by considering the dynamic response of a simple model of a guyed tower
Bonnet, Vincent; Richard, Vincent; Camomilla, Valentina; Venture, Gentiane; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël
2017-09-06
To reduce the impact of the soft tissue artefact (STA) on the estimate of skeletal movement using stereophotogrammetric and skin-marker data, multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) and extended Kalman filters (EKF) have been proposed. This paper assessed the feasibility and efficiency of these methods when they embed a mathematical model of the STA and simultaneously estimate the ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics and the model parameters. A STA model was used that provides an estimate of the STA affecting the marker-cluster located on a body segment as a function of the kinematics of the adjacent joints. The MKO and the EKF were implemented with and without the STA model. To assess these methods, intra-cortical pin and skin markers located on the thigh, shank, and foot of three subjects and tracked during the stance phase of running were used. Embedding the STA model in MKO and EKF reduced the average RMS of marker tracking from 12.6 to 1.6mm and from 4.3 to 1.9mm, respectively, showing that a STA model trial-specific calibration is feasible. Nevertheless, with the STA model embedded in MKO, the RMS difference between the estimated and the reference joint kinematics determined from the pin markers slightly increased (from 2.0 to 2.1deg) On the contrary, when the STA model was embedded in the EKF, this RMS difference was slightly reduced (from 2.0 to 1.7deg) thus showing a better potentiality of this method to attenuate STA effects and improve the accuracy of joint kinematics estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot
Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...
Fast robot kinematics modeling by using a parallel simulator (PSIM)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Gazzar, H.M.; Ayad, N.M.A.
2002-01-01
High-speed computers are strongly needed not only for solving scientific and engineering problems, but also for numerous industrial applications. Such applications include computer-aided design, oil exploration, weather predication, space applications and safety of nuclear reactors. The rapid development in VLSI technology makes it possible to implement time consuming algorithms in real-time situations. Parallel processing approaches can now be used to reduce the processing-time for models of very high mathematical structure such as the kinematics molding of robot manipulator. This system is used to construct and evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of several proposed methods to solve the Jacobian algorithm. Parallelism is introduced to the algorithms by using different task-allocations and dividing the whole job into sub tasks. Detailed analysis is performed and results are obtained for the case of six DOF (degree of freedom) robot arms (Stanford Arm). Execution times comparisons between Von Neumann (uni processor) and parallel processor architectures by using parallel simulator package (PSIM) are presented. The gained results are much in favour for the parallel techniques by at least fifty-percent improvements. Of course, further studies are needed to achieve the convenient and optimum number of processors has to be done
Fast robot kinematics modeling by using a parallel simulator (PSIM)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Gazzar, H M; Ayad, N M.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Dept., Computer and Control Lab., P.O. Box no 13759 (Egypt)
2002-09-15
High-speed computers are strongly needed not only for solving scientific and engineering problems, but also for numerous industrial applications. Such applications include computer-aided design, oil exploration, weather predication, space applications and safety of nuclear reactors. The rapid development in VLSI technology makes it possible to implement time consuming algorithms in real-time situations. Parallel processing approaches can now be used to reduce the processing-time for models of very high mathematical structure such as the kinematics molding of robot manipulator. This system is used to construct and evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of several proposed methods to solve the Jacobian algorithm. Parallelism is introduced to the algorithms by using different task-allocations and dividing the whole job into sub tasks. Detailed analysis is performed and results are obtained for the case of six DOF (degree of freedom) robot arms (Stanford Arm). Execution times comparisons between Von Neumann (uni processor) and parallel processor architectures by using parallel simulator package (PSIM) are presented. The gained results are much in favour for the parallel techniques by at least fifty-percent improvements. Of course, further studies are needed to achieve the convenient and optimum number of processors has to be done.
KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS MODELS OF CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Gaydamaka
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Lack of kinematics models and imperfection of the known dynamics models of the roller bearings of railway rolling stock axle-boxes do not allow designing the optimal structure of bearing cages, providing the required service life and reliability of bearing units of wheel sets for cars and locomotives. The studies of kinematics and dynamics of roller bearings of axle boxes for cars and locomotives and modeling of their parts interaction to create the analytical method of bearing cages calculation are necessary. Methodology. This purpose has been achieved due to the modeling of kinematics of the ideal (without gaps and real (taking account the gaps, manufacturing and installation errors bearings, substantiation of the transfer mechanism of motion from the rollers to bearing cage, modeling the dynamics of rolling, research of interaction forces of the rollers with bearing cage. Findings. It is established that the kinematics of ideal bearing is determined by the contact deformations of the rollers and rings, when the kinematics of real bearing depends mainly on the side gaps in the windows of the bearing cage. On the basis of studies of the real bearing kinematics the dynamics models of the rollers and bearing cage interaction were constructed. The conducted studies of kinematics and dynamics of rolling bearings have changed our view of them as of the planetary mechanism, explained the reason of bearing cage loading, and confirmed the possibility of destruction during operation. Originality. It was first proposed a mechanism for motion transfer from the rollers to the bearing cage of roller bearings, consisting in that the side gap in the bearing cage window is reduced gradually multiple of the number of rollers of radial loading area according to the bearing cage motion. The models of roller bearing dynamics, which allow calculating the interaction forces of parts for all modes of operation, were improved. Practical value. Use of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abell, G.O.; Margon, B.
1979-01-01
A model is suggested to explain the bizarre object SS433 which was first noted because of its H α emission and most recently because it is the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source and exhibits an extraordinary optical spectrum. It is considered that the radiation, with emission lines which show variable Doppler shift, is emitted by hot matter ejected by the central object at high but nearly constant velocity in oppositely directed narrow streams, possible along a magnetic axis. Rotation of the beam axis provides the observed radial velocity variations. The red and blue shifts of SS433 measured by a number of workers on 55 nights during 1978-79 and folded with a 164-d period are shown, from which it is predicted that on or about 1 July 1979 the two moving emission line systems in SS433 will briefly merge into one, similar to a previously reported episode, and that for the following 40 days the lines will separate again, but by an amount much less than previously observed. (author)
Dispersion modeling by kinematic simulation: Cloud dispersion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, J C H; Perkins, R J
2008-01-01
A new technique has been developed to compute mean and fluctuating concentrations in complex turbulent flows (tidal current near a coast and deep ocean). An initial distribution of material is discretized into any small clouds which are advected by a combination of the mean flow and large scale turbulence. The turbulence can be simulated either by kinematic simulation (KS) or direct numerical simulation. The clouds also diffuse relative to their centroids; the statistics for this are obtained from a separate calculation of the growth of individual clouds in small scale turbulence, generated by KS. The ensemble of discrete clouds is periodically re-discretized, to limit the size of the small clouds and prevent overlapping. The model is illustrated with simulations of dispersion in uniform flow, and the results are compared with analytic, steady state solutions. The aim of this study is to understand how pollutants disperses in a turbulent flow through a numerical simulation of fluid particle motion in a random flow field generated by Fourier modes. Although this homogeneous turbulent is rather a 'simple' flow, it represents a building block toward understanding pollutant dispersion in more complex flow. The results presented here are preliminary in nature, but we expect that similar qualitative results should be observed in a genuine turbulent flow.
Classical kinematic model for direct reactions of oriented reagents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schechter, I.; Prisant, M.G.; Levine, R.D.
1987-01-01
A simple kinematic model based on the concept of an orientation-dependent critical configuration for reaction is introduced and applied. The model serves two complementary purposes. In the predictive mode the model provides an easily implemented procedure for computing the reactivity of oriented reagents (including those actually amenable to measure) from a given potential energy surface. The predictions of the model are compared against classical trajectory results for the H + D 2 reaction. By use of realistic potential energy surfaces the model is applied to the Li + HF and O + HCl reactions where the HX molecules are pumped by a polarized laser. A given classical trajectory is deemed reactive or not according to whether it can surmount the barrier at that particular orientation. The essential difference with the model of Levine and Bernstein is that the averaging over initial conditions is performed by using a Monte Carlo integration. One can therefore use the correct orientation-dependent shape (and not only height) of the barrier to reaction and, furthermore, use oriented or aligned reagents. Since the only numerical step is a Monte Carlo sampling of initial conditions, very many trajectories can be run. This suffices to determine the reaction cross section for different initial conditions. To probe the products, they have employed the kinematic approach of Elsum and Gordon. The result is a model where, under varying initial conditions, examining final-state distributions or screening different potential energy surfaces can be efficiently carried out
Kinematics Modelling of Tendon-Driven Continuum Manipulator with Crossed Notches
Yang, Z. X.; Yang, W. L.; Du, Z. J.
2018-03-01
Single port surgical robot (SPSR) is a giant leap in the development of minimally invasive surgical robot. An innovative manipulator with high control accuracy and good kinematic dexterity can reduce wound, expedite recovery, and improve the success rate. This paper presents a tendon-driven continuum manipulator with crossed notches. This manipulator has two degrees of freedom (DOF), which possesses good flexibility and high capacity. Then based on cantilever beam theory, a mechanics model is proposed, which connects external force and deformation of a single flexible ring (SFR). By calculating the deformation of each SFR, the manipulator is considered as a series robot whose joint numbers is equal to SFR numbers, and the kinematics model is established through Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) procedure. In this paper, the total manipulator is described as a curve tube whose curvature is increased from tip to base. Experiments were conducted and the comparison between theoretical and actual results proved the rationality of the models.
Model-based Kinematics Generation for Modular Mechatronic Toolkits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Støy, Kasper
2011-01-01
Modular robots are mechatronic devices that enable the construction of highly versatile and flexible robotic systems whose mechanical structure can be dynamically modified. The key feature that enables this dynamic modification is the capability of the individual modules to connect to each other...... in multiple ways and thus generate a number of different mechanical systems, in contrast with the monolithic, fixed structure of conventional robots. The mechatronic flexibility, however, complicates the development of models and programming abstractions for modular robots, since manually describing...... the Modular Mechatronics Modelling Language (M3L). M3L is a domain-specific language, which can model the kinematic structure of individual robot modules and declaratively describe their possible interconnections, rather than requiring the user to enumerate them in their entirety. From this description, the M...
Geometrical and kinematical characterization of parallax-free world models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, W.; Perlick, V.
1988-01-01
An arbitrary general relativistic world model, i.e., a pseudo-Riemannian manifold along with a timelike vector field V, is considered. Such a kinematical world model is called ''parallax-free'' iff the angle under which any two observers (i.e., integral curves of V) are seen by any third observer remains constant in the course of time. It is shown that a model is parallax-free iff V is proportional to some conformal Killing field. In this case V, especially, has to be shear-free. Furthermore a relationship between parallaxes and red shift is presented and a reference is made to considerations concerning the visibility of cosmic rotation
Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davoust, E.
1983-01-01
This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr
The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.
Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.
pynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modelling
Florian Wellmann, J.; Thiele, Sam T.; Lindsay, Mark D.; Jessell, Mark W.
2016-03-01
We present a novel methodology for performing experiments with subsurface structural models using a set of flexible and extensible Python modules. We utilize the ability of kinematic modelling techniques to describe major deformational, tectonic, and magmatic events at low computational cost to develop experiments testing the interactions between multiple kinematic events, effect of uncertainty regarding event timing, and kinematic properties. These tests are simple to implement and perform, as they are automated within the Python scripting language, allowing the encapsulation of entire kinematic experiments within high-level class definitions and fully reproducible results. In addition, we provide a link to geophysical potential-field simulations to evaluate the effect of parameter uncertainties on maps of gravity and magnetics. We provide relevant fundamental information on kinematic modelling and our implementation, and showcase the application of our novel methods to investigate the interaction of multiple tectonic events on a pre-defined stratigraphy, the effect of changing kinematic parameters on simulated geophysical potential fields, and the distribution of uncertain areas in a full 3-D kinematic model, based on estimated uncertainties in kinematic input parameters. Additional possibilities for linking kinematic modelling to subsequent process simulations are discussed, as well as additional aspects of future research. Our modules are freely available on github, including documentation and tutorial examples, and we encourage the contribution to this project.
A Category Based Threat Evaluation Model Using Platform Kinematics Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Çöçelli
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Command and control (C2 systems direct operators to make accurate decisions in the stressful atmosphere of the battlefield at the earliest. There are powerful tools that fuse various instant piece of information and brings summary of those in front of operators. Threat evaluation is one of the important fusion method that provides these assistance to military people. However, C2 systems could be deprived of valuable data source due to the absence of capable equipment. This situation has a bad unfavorable influence on the quality of tactical picture in front of C2 operators. In this paper, we study on the threat evaluation model that take into account these deficiencies. Our method extracts threat level of various targets mostly from their kinematics in two dimensional space. In the meantime, classification of entities around battlefield is unavailable. Only, category of targets are determined as a result of sensors process, which is the information of whether entities belong to air or surface environment. Hereby, threat evaluation model is consist of three fundamental steps that runs on entities belongs to different environment separately: the extraction of threat assessment cues, threat selection based on Bayesian Inference and the calculation of threat assessment rating. We have evaluated performance of proposed model by simulating a set of synthetic scenarios.
A Model of Parallel Kinematics for Machine Calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, David Bue; Bæk Nielsen, Morten; Kløve Christensen, Simon
2016-01-01
Parallel kinematics have been adopted by more than 25 manufacturers of high-end desktop 3D printers [Wohlers Report (2015), p.118] as well as by research projects such as the WASP project [WASP (2015)], a 12 meter tall linear delta robot for Additive Manufacture of large-scale components for cons......Parallel kinematics have been adopted by more than 25 manufacturers of high-end desktop 3D printers [Wohlers Report (2015), p.118] as well as by research projects such as the WASP project [WASP (2015)], a 12 meter tall linear delta robot for Additive Manufacture of large-scale components...
A self-calibrating robot based upon a virtual machine model of parallel kinematics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, David Bue; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2016-01-01
A delta-type parallel kinematics system for Additive Manufacturing has been created, which through a probing system can recognise its geometrical deviations from nominal and compensate for these in the driving inverse kinematic model of the machine. Novelty is that this model is derived from...... a virtual machine of the kinematics system, built on principles from geometrical metrology. Relevant mathematically non-trivial deviations to the ideal machine are identified and decomposed into elemental deviations. From these deviations, a routine is added to a physical machine tool, which allows...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.
Variability of dynamic source parameters inferred from kinematic models of past earthquakes
Causse, M.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin
2013-01-01
We analyse the scaling and distribution of average dynamic source properties (fracture energy, static, dynamic and apparent stress drops) using 31 kinematic inversion models from 21 crustal earthquakes. Shear-stress histories are computed by solving
A real-time computational model for estimating kinematics of ankle ligaments.
Zhang, Mingming; Davies, T Claire; Zhang, Yanxin; Xie, Sheng Quan
2016-01-01
An accurate assessment of ankle ligament kinematics is crucial in understanding the injury mechanisms and can help to improve the treatment of an injured ankle, especially when used in conjunction with robot-assisted therapy. A number of computational models have been developed and validated for assessing the kinematics of ankle ligaments. However, few of them can do real-time assessment to allow for an input into robotic rehabilitation programs. An ankle computational model was proposed and validated to quantify the kinematics of ankle ligaments as the foot moves in real-time. This model consists of three bone segments with three rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) and 12 ankle ligaments. This model uses inputs for three position variables that can be measured from sensors in many ankle robotic devices that detect postures within the foot-ankle environment and outputs the kinematics of ankle ligaments. Validation of this model in terms of ligament length and strain was conducted by comparing it with published data on cadaver anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging. The model based on ligament lengths and strains is in concurrence with those from the published studies but is sensitive to ligament attachment positions. This ankle computational model has the potential to be used in robot-assisted therapy for real-time assessment of ligament kinematics. The results provide information regarding the quantification of kinematics associated with ankle ligaments related to the disability level and can be used for optimizing the robotic training trajectory.
New Methods for Kinematic Modelling and Calibration of Robots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søe-Knudsen, Rune
2014-01-01
the accuracy in an easy and accessible way. The required equipment is accessible, since the cost is held to a minimum and can be made with conventional processing equipment. Our first method calibrates the kinematics of a robot using known relative positions measured with the robot itself and a plate...... with holes matching the robot tool flange. The second method calibrates the kinematics using two robots. This method allows the robots to carry out the collection of measurements and the adjustment, by themselves, after the robots have been connected. Furthermore, we also propose a method for restoring......Improving a robot's accuracy increases its ability to solve certain tasks, and is therefore valuable. Practical ways of achieving this improved accuracy, even after robot repair, is also valuable. In this work, we introduce methods that improve the robot's accuracy and make it possible to maintain...
Program realization of mathematical model of kinematic calculation of flat lever mechanisms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Vasechkin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Calculation of kinematic mechanisms is very time-consuming work. Due to the content of a large number of similar operations can be automated using computers. Forthis purpose, it is necessary to implement a software implementation ofthe mathematical model of calculation of kinematic mechanisms of the second class. In the article on Turbo Pascal presents the text module to library procedures all kinematic studies of planar lever mechanisms of the second class. The determination of the kinematic characteristics of the mechanism and the construction of its provisions, plans, plans, speeds and accelerations carried out on the example of the six-link mechanism. The beginning of the motionless coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the crank AB. It is assumed that the known length of all links, the positions of all additional points of links and the coordinates of all kinematic pairs rack mechanism, i.e. this stage of work to determine the kinematics of the mechanism must be preceded by a stage of synthesis of mechanism (determining missing dimensions of links. Denote the coordinates of point C and considering that the analogues of velocities and accelerations of this point is 0 (stationary point, appeal to the procedure that computes the kinematics group the Assyrians (GA third. Specify kinematic parameters of point D, taking the beginning of the guide slide E at point C, the angle, the analogue of the angular velocity and the analogue of the angular acceleration of the guide is zero, knowing the length of the connecting rod DE and the length of link 5, refer to the procedure for the GA of the second kind. The use of library routines module of the kinematic calculation, makes it relatively simple to organize a simulation of the mechanism motion, to calculate the projection analogues of velocities and accelerations of all links of the mechanism, to build plans of the velocities and accelerations at each position of the mechanism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guiyang Xin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hexapod robot, hereafter named PH-Robot, with three degrees of freedom (3-DOF parallel leg mechanisms based on the concept of an integrated limb mechanism (ILM for the integration of legged locomotion and arm manipulation. The kinematic model plays an important role in the parametric optimal design and motion planning of robots. However, models of parallel mechanisms are often difficult to obtain because of the implicit relationship between the motions of actuated joints and the motion of a moving platform. In order to derive the kinematic equations of the proposed hexapod robot, an extended hierarchical kinematic modelling method is proposed. According to the kinematic model, the geometrical parameters of the leg are optimized utilizing a comprehensive objective function that considers both dexterity and payload. PH-Robot has distinct advantages in accuracy and load ability over a robot with serial leg mechanisms through the former's comparison of performance indices. The reachable workspace of the leg verifies its ability to walk and manipulate. The results of the trajectory tracking experiment demonstrate the correctness of the kinematic model of the hexapod robot.
The EDGE-CALIFA survey: validating stellar dynamical mass models with CO kinematics
Leung, Gigi Y. C.; Leaman, Ryan; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Zhu, Ling; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesus; Blitz, Leo; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Fisher, David B.; Levy, Rebecca C.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Utomo, Dyas; Vogel, Stuart; Wong, Tony; Ziegler, Bodo
2018-06-01
Deriving circular velocities of galaxies from stellar kinematics can provide an estimate of their total dynamical mass, provided a contribution from the velocity dispersion of the stars is taken into account. Molecular gas (e.g. CO), on the other hand, is a dynamically cold tracer and hence acts as an independent circular velocity estimate without needing such a correction. In this paper, we test the underlying assumptions of three commonly used dynamical models, deriving circular velocities from stellar kinematics of 54 galaxies (S0-Sd) that have observations of both stellar kinematics from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, and CO kinematics from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution (EDGE) survey. We test the asymmetric drift correction (ADC) method, as well as Jeans, and Schwarzschild models. The three methods each reproduce the CO circular velocity at 1Re to within 10 per cent. All three methods show larger scatter (up to 20 per cent) in the inner regions (R < 0.4Re) that may be due to an increasingly spherical mass distribution (which is not captured by the thin disc assumption in ADC), or non-constant stellar M/L ratios (for both the JAM and Schwarzschild models). This homogeneous analysis of stellar and gaseous kinematics validates that all three models can recover Mdyn at 1Re to better than 20 per cent, but users should be mindful of scatter in the inner regions where some assumptions may break down.
Variability of dynamic source parameters inferred from kinematic models of past earthquakes
Causse, M.
2013-12-24
We analyse the scaling and distribution of average dynamic source properties (fracture energy, static, dynamic and apparent stress drops) using 31 kinematic inversion models from 21 crustal earthquakes. Shear-stress histories are computed by solving the elastodynamic equations while imposing the slip velocity of a kinematic source model as a boundary condition on the fault plane. This is achieved using a 3-D finite difference method in which the rupture kinematics are modelled with the staggered-grid-split-node fault representation method of Dalguer & Day. Dynamic parameters are then estimated from the calculated stress-slip curves and averaged over the fault plane. Our results indicate that fracture energy, static, dynamic and apparent stress drops tend to increase with magnitude. The epistemic uncertainty due to uncertainties in kinematic inversions remains small (ϕ ∼ 0.1 in log10 units), showing that kinematic source models provide robust information to analyse the distribution of average dynamic source parameters. The proposed scaling relations may be useful to constrain friction law parameters in spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations for earthquake source studies, and physics-based near-source ground-motion prediction for seismic hazard and risk mitigation.
Gait kinematics of subjects with ankle instability using a multisegmented foot model.
De Ridder, Roel; Willems, Tine; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark; Pataky, Todd; Roosen, Philip
2013-11-01
Many patients who sustain an acute lateral ankle sprain develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Altered ankle kinematics have been reported to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of CAI. In previous studies, however, the foot was modeled as one rigid segment, ignoring the complexity of the ankle and foot anatomy and kinematics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate stance phase kinematics of subjects with CAI, copers, and controls during walking and running using both a rigid and a multisegmented foot model. Foot and ankle kinematics of 77 subjects (29 subjects with self-reported CAI, 24 copers, and 24 controls) were measured during barefoot walking and running using a rigid foot model and a six-segment Ghent Foot Model. Data were collected on a 20-m-long instrumented runway embedded with a force plate and a six-camera optoelectronic system. Groups were compared using statistical parametric mapping. Both the CAI and the coper group showed similar differences during midstance and late stance compared with the control group (P foot segment showed a more everted position during walking compared with the control group. Based on the Ghent Foot Model, the rear foot also showed a more everted position during running. The medial forefoot showed a more inverted position for both running and walking compared with the control group. Our study revealed significant midstance and late stance differences in rigid foot, rear foot, and medial forefoot kinematics The multisegmented foot model demonstrated intricate behavior of the foot that is not detectable with rigid foot modeling. Further research using these models is necessary to expand knowledge of foot kinematics in subjects with CAI.
Clément, Julien; Dumas, Raphaël; Hagemeister, Nicola; de Guise, Jaques A
2015-11-05
Soft tissue artifact (STA) distort marker-based knee kinematics measures and make them difficult to use in clinical practice. None of the current methods designed to compensate for STA is suitable, but multi-body optimization (MBO) has demonstrated encouraging results and can be improved. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the performance of knee joint models, with anatomical and subject-specific kinematic constraints, used in MBO to reduce STA errors. Twenty subjects were recruited: 10 healthy and 10 osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were evaluated by comparing dynamic knee kinematics recorded by a motion capture system (KneeKG™) and optimized with MBO to quasi-static knee kinematics measured by a low-dose, upright, biplanar radiographic imaging system (EOS(®)). Errors due to STA ranged from 1.6° to 22.4° for knee rotations and from 0.8 mm to 14.9 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were most effective in compensating for STA in terms of abduction-adduction, inter-external rotation and antero-posterior displacement. Root mean square errors with subject-specific knee joint models ranged from 2.2±1.2° to 6.0±3.9° for knee rotations and from 2.4±1.1 mm to 4.3±2.4 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects, respectively. Our study shows that MBO can be improved with subject-specific knee joint models, and that the quality of the motion capture calibration is critical. Future investigations should focus on more refined knee joint models to reproduce specific OA knee geometry and physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. Insights from experimental modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueta, Keiichi
2011-01-01
Physical experiments were performed to gain a better understanding on the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. The present study focuses on deformation of sedimentary cover caused by thrust and reverse movements along the basement fault. Our physical models comprise dry quartz sand representing brittle sedimentary rock and viscous silicone polymer representing overpressured mudstone. Computerized X-ray tomography was applied to the experiments to analyze the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. In the sand models, the width of deformation zone above thrust was wider than that above reverse fault, because back thrust developed on the hanging wall of reverse fault. Within the physical models composed of dry sand and silicone polymer, minor folds and thrusts with minor displacement developed on the footwall of the major monoclinal flexure. These results compare well with the geometry and kinematic evolution of the fold and thrust belts in Japan. (author)
Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model. Part I: Model repeatability and kinematic validity.
Bruening, Dustin A; Cooney, Kevin M; Buczek, Frank L
2012-04-01
Kinematic multi-segment foot models are still evolving, but have seen increased use in clinical and research settings. The addition of kinetics may increase knowledge of foot and ankle function as well as influence multi-segment foot model evolution; however, previous kinetic models are too complex for clinical use. In this study we present a three-segment kinetic foot model and thorough evaluation of model performance during normal gait. In this first of two companion papers, model reference frames and joint centers are analyzed for repeatability, joint translations are measured, segment rigidity characterized, and sample joint angles presented. Within-tester and between-tester repeatability were first assessed using 10 healthy pediatric participants, while kinematic parameters were subsequently measured on 17 additional healthy pediatric participants. Repeatability errors were generally low for all sagittal plane measures as well as transverse plane Hindfoot and Forefoot segments (median<3°), while the least repeatable orientations were the Hindfoot coronal plane and Hallux transverse plane. Joint translations were generally less than 2mm in any one direction, while segment rigidity analysis suggested rigid body behavior for the Shank and Hindfoot, with the Forefoot violating the rigid body assumptions in terminal stance/pre-swing. Joint excursions were consistent with previously published studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Comparison of Moment Rates for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Competitive Kinematic Models
Klein, E. C.; Ozeren, M. S.; Shen-Tu, B.; Galgana, G. A.
2017-12-01
Relatively continuous, complex, and long-lived episodes of tectonic deformation gradually shaped the lithosphere of the eastern Mediterranean region into its present state. This large geodynamically interconnected and seismically active region absorbs, accumulates and transmits strains arising from stresses associated with: (1) steady northward convergence of the Arabian and African plates; (2) differences in lithospheric gravitational potential energy; and (3) basal tractions exerted by subduction along the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Over the last twenty years, numerous kinematic models have been built using a variety of assumptions to take advantage of the extensive and dense GPS observations made across the entire region resulting in a far better characterization of the neotectonic deformation field than ever previously achieved. In this study, three separate horizontal strain rate field solutions obtained from three, region-wide, GPS only based kinematic models (i.e., a regional block model, a regional continuum model, and global continuum model) are utilized to estimate the distribution and uncertainty of geodetic moment rates within the eastern Mediterranean region. The geodetic moment rates from each model are also compared with seismic moment release rates gleaned from historic earthquake data. Moreover, kinematic styles of deformation derived from each of the modeled horizontal strain rate fields are examined for their degree of correlation with earthquake rupture styles defined by proximal centroid moment tensor solutions. This study suggests that significant differences in geodetically obtained moment rates from competitive kinematic models may introduce unforeseen bias into regularly updated, geodetically constrained, regional seismic hazard assessments.
Childers, W Lee; Kogler, Géza F
2014-01-01
People with amputation move asymmetrically with regard to kinematics (joint angles) and kinetics (joint forces and moments). Clinicians have traditionally sought to minimize kinematic asymmetries, assuming kinetic asymmetries would also be minimized. A cycling model evaluated locomotor asymmetries. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation pedaled with 172 mm-length crank arms on both sides (control condition) and with the crank arm length shortened to 162 mm on the amputated side (CRANK condition). Pedaling kinetics and limb kinematics were recorded. Joint kinetics, joint angles (mean and range of motion [ROM]), and pedaling asymmetries were calculated from force pedals and with a motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance with tukey post hoc compared kinetics and kinematics across limbs. Statistical significance was set to p Pedaling asymmetries did not differ and were 23.0% +/= 9.8% and 23.2% +/= 12% for the control and CRANK conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that minimizing kinematic asymmetries does not relate to kinetic asymmetries as clinically assumed. We propose that future research should concentrate on defining acceptable asymmetry.
Kinematics modeling and simulation of an autonomous omni-directional mobile robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Garcia Sillas
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Although robotics has progressed to the extent that it has become relatively accessible with low-cost projects, there is still a need to create models that accurately represent the physical behavior of a robot. Creating a completely virtual platform allows us to test behavior algorithms such as those implemented using artificial intelligence, and additionally, it enables us to find potential problems in the physical design of the robot. The present work describes a methodology for the construction of a kinematic model and a simulation of the autonomous robot, specifically of an omni-directional wheeled robot. This paper presents the kinematic model development and its implementation using several tools. The result is a model that follows the kinematics of a triangular omni-directional mobile wheeled robot, which is then tested by using a 3D model imported from 3D Studio® and Matlab® for the simulation. The environment used for the experiment is very close to the real environment and reflects the kinematic characteristics of the robot.
Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle
van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a
Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field models * kinematic orbits * generalized least squares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014
Cortex Inspired Model for Inverse Kinematics Computation for a Humanoid Robotic Finger
Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Oh, Hyuk; Molina, Javier; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.
2013-01-01
In order to approach human hand performance levels, artificial anthropomorphic hands/fingers have increasingly incorporated human biomechanical features. However, the performance of finger reaching movements to visual targets involving the complex kinematics of multi-jointed, anthropomorphic actuators is a difficult problem. This is because the relationship between sensory and motor coordinates is highly nonlinear, and also often includes mechanical coupling of the two last joints. Recently, we developed a cortical model that learns the inverse kinematics of a simulated anthropomorphic finger. Here, we expand this previous work by assessing if this cortical model is able to learn the inverse kinematics for an actual anthropomorphic humanoid finger having its two last joints coupled and controlled by pneumatic muscles. The findings revealed that single 3D reaching movements, as well as more complex patterns of motion of the humanoid finger, were accurately and robustly performed by this cortical model while producing kinematics comparable to those of humans. This work contributes to the development of a bioinspired controller providing adaptive, robust and flexible control of dexterous robotic and prosthetic hands. PMID:23366569
Kinematic modeling of a 7-degree of freedom spatial hybrid manipulator for medical surgery.
Singh, Amanpreet; Singla, Ekta; Soni, Sanjeev; Singla, Ashish
2018-01-01
The prime objective of this work is to deal with the kinematics of spatial hybrid manipulators. In this direction, in 1955, Denavit and Hartenberg proposed a consistent and concise method, known as D-H parameters method, to deal with kinematics of open serial chains. From literature review, it is found that D-H parameter method is widely used to model manipulators consisting of lower pairs. However, the method leads to ambiguities when applied to closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators. Furthermore, in the dearth of any direct method to model closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators, revisions of this method have been proposed from time-to-time by different researchers. One such kind of revision using the concept of dummy frames has successfully been proposed and implemented by the authors on spatial hybrid manipulators. In that work, authors have addressed the orientational inconsistency of the D-H parameter method, restricted to body-attached frames only. In the current work, the condition of body-attached frames is relaxed and spatial frame attachment is considered to derive the kinematic model of a 7-degree of freedom spatial hybrid robotic arm, along with the development of closed-loop constraints. The validation of the new kinematic model has been performed with the help of a prototype of this 7-degree of freedom arm, which is being developed at Council of Scientific & Industrial Research-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation Chandigarh to aid the surgeon during a medical surgical task. Furthermore, the developed kinematic model is used to develop the first column of the Jacobian matrix, which helps in providing the estimate of the tip velocity of the 7-degree of freedom manipulator when the first joint velocity is known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unseren, M.A.
1993-04-01
The report discusses the orientation tracking control problem for a kinematically redundant, autonomous manipulator moving in a three dimensional workspace. The orientation error is derived using the normalized quaternion error method of Ickes, the Luh, Walker, and Paul error method, and a method suggested here utilizing the Rodrigues parameters, all of which are expressed in terms of normalized quaternions. The analytical time derivatives of the orientation errors are determined. The latter, along with the translational velocity error, form a dosed loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator using normalized quaternion and translational position feedback. An analysis of the singularities associated with expressing the models in a form suitable for solving the inverse kinematics problem is given. Two redundancy resolution algorithms originally developed using an open loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator are extended to properly take into account the orientation tracking control problem. This report furnishes the necessary mathematical framework required prior to experimental implementation of the orientation tracking control schemes on the seven axis CESARm research manipulator or on the seven-axis Robotics Research K1207i dexterous manipulator, the latter of which is to be delivered to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unseren, M.A.
1993-04-01
The report discusses the orientation tracking control problem for a kinematically redundant, autonomous manipulator moving in a three dimensional workspace. The orientation error is derived using the normalized quaternion error method of Ickes, the Luh, Walker, and Paul error method, and a method suggested here utilizing the Rodrigues parameters, all of which are expressed in terms of normalized quaternions. The analytical time derivatives of the orientation errors are determined. The latter, along with the translational velocity error, form a dosed loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator using normalized quaternion and translational position feedback. An analysis of the singularities associated with expressing the models in a form suitable for solving the inverse kinematics problem is given. Two redundancy resolution algorithms originally developed using an open loop kinematic velocity model of the manipulator are extended to properly take into account the orientation tracking control problem. This report furnishes the necessary mathematical framework required prior to experimental implementation of the orientation tracking control schemes on the seven axis CESARm research manipulator or on the seven-axis Robotics Research K1207i dexterous manipulator, the latter of which is to be delivered to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993.
Mathematical model for studying cyclist kinematics in vehicle-bicycle frontal collisions
Condrea, OA; Chiru, A.; Chiriac, RL; Vlase, S.
2017-10-01
For the development of effective vehicle related safety solutions to improve cyclist protection, kinematic predictions are essential. The objective of the paper was the elaboration of a simple mathematical model for predicting cyclist kinematics, with the advantage of yielding simple results for relatively complicated impact situations. Thus, the use of elaborated math software is not required and the calculation time is shortened. The paper presents a modelling framework to determine cyclist kinematic behaviour for the situations in which a M1 category vehicle frontally hits the rear part of a bicycle. After the primary impact between the vehicle front bumper and the bicycle, the cyclist hits the vehicle’s bonnet, the windscreen or both the vehicle’s bonnet and the windscreen in short succession. The head-windshield impact is often the most severe impact, causing serious and potentially lethal injuries. The cyclist is represented by a rigid segment and the equations of motion for the cyclist after the primary impact are obtained by applying Newton’s second law of motion. The impact time for the contact between the vehicle and the cyclist is yielded afterwards by formulating and intersecting the trajectories for two points positioned on the cyclist’s head/body and the vehicle’s windscreen/bonnet while assuming that the cyclist’s equations of motion after the primary impact remain the same. Postimpact kinematics for the secondary impact are yielded by applying linear and angular momentum conservation laws.
Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping
2015-12-01
The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.
van der Zijden, A M; Groen, B E; Tanck, E; Nienhuis, B; Verdonschot, N; Weerdesteyn, V
2017-03-21
Many research groups have studied fall impact mechanics to understand how fall severity can be reduced to prevent hip fractures. Yet, direct impact force measurements with force plates are restricted to a very limited repertoire of experimental falls. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic model for estimating hip impact forces (i.e. fall severity) in in vivo sideways falls without the use of force plates. Twelve experienced judokas performed sideways Martial Arts (MA) and Block ('natural') falls on a force plate, both with and without a mat on top. Data were analyzed to determine the hip impact force and to derive 11 selected (subject-specific and kinematic) variables. Falls from kneeling height were used to perform a stepwise regression procedure to assess the effects of these input variables and build the model. The final model includes four input variables, involving one subject-specific measure and three kinematic variables: maximum upper body deceleration, body mass, shoulder angle at the instant of 'maximum impact' and maximum hip deceleration. The results showed that estimated and measured hip impact forces were linearly related (explained variances ranging from 46 to 63%). Hip impact forces of MA falls onto the mat from a standing position (3650±916N) estimated by the final model were comparable with measured values (3698±689N), even though these data were not used for training the model. In conclusion, a generic linear regression model was developed that enables the assessment of fall severity through kinematic measures of sideways falls, without using force plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation
Wegener, Mogens
2006-03-01
Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.
Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy
Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gronke, Max; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Garavito-Camargo, Nicolás; Dijkstra, Mark
2018-02-01
Star-forming compact dwarf galaxies (CDGs) resemble the expected pristine conditions of the first galaxies in the Universe and are the best systems to test models on primordial galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we report on one of such CDGs, Tololo 1214-277, which presents a broad, single peaked, highly symmetric Ly α emission line that had evaded theoretical interpretation so far. In this paper, we reproduce for the first time these line features with two different physically motivated kinematic models: an interstellar medium composed by outflowing clumps with random motions and an homogeneous gaseous sphere undergoing solid body rotation. The multiphase model requires a clump velocity dispersion of 54.3 ± 0.6 km s-1 with outflows of 54.3 ± 5.1 km s-1 , while the bulk rotation velocity is constrained to be 348^{+75}_{-48} km s-1. We argue that the results from the multiphase model provide a correct interpretation of the data. In that case, the clump velocity dispersion implies a dynamical mass of 2 × 109 M⊙, 10 times its baryonic mass. If future kinematic maps of Tololo 1214-277 confirm the velocities suggested by the multiphase model, it would provide additional support to expect such kinematic state in primordial galaxies, opening the opportunity to use the models and methods presented in this paper to constrain the physics of star formation and feedback in the early generation of Ly α -emitting galaxies.
A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait.
Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L
2018-01-01
The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton.
Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash
Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan
2008-01-01
A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that…
Modelling clavicular and scapular kinematics: from measurement to simulation
bolsterlee, B.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.
2014-01-01
Musculoskeletal models are intended to be used to assist in prevention and treatments of musculoskeletal disorders. To capture important aspects of shoulder dysfunction, realistic simulation of clavicular and scapular movements is crucial. The range of motion of these bones is dependent on thoracic,
Self-consistent Bulge/Disk/Halo Galaxy Dynamical Modeling Using Integral Field Kinematics
Taranu, D. S.; Obreschkow, D.; Dubinski, J. J.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; van de Sande, J.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Moffett, A.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Colless, M.; Croom, S. M.; D'Eugenio, F.; Davies, R. L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Mould, J. R.; Owers, M. S.; Power, C.; Richards, S. N.; Tonini, C.
2017-11-01
We introduce a method for modeling disk galaxies designed to take full advantage of data from integral field spectroscopy (IFS). The method fits equilibrium models to simultaneously reproduce the surface brightness, rotation, and velocity dispersion profiles of a galaxy. The models are fully self-consistent 6D distribution functions for a galaxy with a Sérsic profile stellar bulge, exponential disk, and parametric dark-matter halo, generated by an updated version of GalactICS. By creating realistic flux-weighted maps of the kinematic moments (flux, mean velocity, and dispersion), we simultaneously fit photometric and spectroscopic data using both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian (MCMC) techniques. We apply the method to a GAMA spiral galaxy (G79635) with kinematics from the SAMI Galaxy Survey and deep g- and r-band photometry from the VST-KiDS survey, comparing parameter constraints with those from traditional 2D bulge-disk decomposition. Our method returns broadly consistent results for shared parameters while constraining the mass-to-light ratios of stellar components and reproducing the H I-inferred circular velocity well beyond the limits of the SAMI data. Although the method is tailored for fitting integral field kinematic data, it can use other dynamical constraints like central fiber dispersions and H I circular velocities, and is well-suited for modeling galaxies with a combination of deep imaging and H I and/or optical spectra (resolved or otherwise). Our implementation (MagRite) is computationally efficient and can generate well-resolved models and kinematic maps in under a minute on modern processors.
Kinematic and dynamic modeling and approximate analysis of a roller chain drive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
for analytical studies of the coupled motion of the chain spans and driven sprocket. Parametric excitation of the spans come from sprocket angular displacements, and the driven sprocket acts as a boundary which can be compliant in the axial direction. External transverse excitation of the spans comes from...... polygonal action, and is treated through kinematic forcing at the moving string boundaries. Perturbation analysis of the model is carried out using the method of multiple scales. Results show a multitude of internal and external resonance conditions, and some examples are presented of both decoupled...... and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model are aimed toward providing a framework for conducting and understanding both numerical, and experimental investigations of roller chain drive dynamics....
Introduction to Force-Dependent Kinematics: Theory and Application to Mandible Modeling.
Skipper Andersen, Michael; de Zee, Mark; Damsgaard, Michael; Nolte, Daniel; Rasmussen, John
2017-09-01
Knowledge of the muscle, ligament, and joint forces is important when planning orthopedic surgeries. Since these quantities cannot be measured in vivo under normal circumstances, the best alternative is to estimate them using musculoskeletal models. These models typically assume idealized joints, which are sufficient for general investigations but insufficient if the joint in focus is far from an idealized joint. The purpose of this study was to provide the mathematical details of a novel musculoskeletal modeling approach, called force-dependent kinematics (FDK), capable of simultaneously computing muscle, ligament, and joint forces as well as internal joint displacements governed by contact surfaces and ligament structures. The method was implemented into the anybody modeling system and used to develop a subject-specific mandible model, which was compared to a point-on-plane (POP) model and validated against joint kinematics measured with a custom-built brace during unloaded emulated chewing, open and close, and protrusion movements. Generally, both joint models estimated the joint kinematics well with the POP model performing slightly better (root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of less than 0.75 mm for the POP model and 1.7 mm for the FDK model). However, substantial differences were observed when comparing the estimated joint forces (RMSD up to 24.7 N), demonstrating the dependency on the joint model. Although the presented mandible model still contains room for improvements, this study shows the capabilities of the FDK methodology for creating joint models that take the geometry and joint elasticity into account.
O'Gorman, Paul A.; Schneider, Tapio
2006-01-01
The transport of a condensing passive scalar is studied as a prototype model for the kinematics of moisture transport on isentropic surfaces. Condensation occurs whenever the scalar concentration exceeds a specified local saturation value. Since condensation rates are strongly nonlinear functions of moisture content, the mean moisture flux is generally not diffusive. To relate the mean moisture content, mean condensation rate, and mean moisture flux to statistics of the advecting velocity fie...
Influence of a relativistic kinematics on s-wave KN phase shifts in a quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
2001-01-01
The I = 1 and I = 0 kaon-nucleon s-wave phase shifts have been calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM) and a relativistic kinematics. The spinless Salpeter equation has been solved numerically using the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. The results have been compared to the non-relativistic ones. For each isospin channel the phase shifts obtained are not so far from the non-relativistic results. (author)
Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design
Liu, Xin-Jun
2014-01-01
Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...
Ho Pham Huy Anh; Nguyen Thanh Nam
2012-01-01
In this paper, a novel forward adaptive neural MIMO NARX model is used for modelling and identifying the forward kinematics of an industrial 3‐DOF robot arm system. The nonlinear features of the forward kinematics of the industrial robot arm drive are thoroughly modelled based on the forward adaptive neural NARX model‐based identification process using experimental input‐output training data. This paper proposes a novel use of a back propagation (BP) algorithm to generate the forward neural M...
Analysis and Development of Walking Algorithm Kinematic Model for 5-Degree of Freedom Bipedal Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerald Wahyudi Setiono
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A design of walking diagram and the calculation of a bipedal robot have been developed. The bipedal robot was designed and constructed with several kinds of servo bracket for the legs, two feet and a hip. Each of the bipedal robot leg was 5-degrees of freedom, three pitches (hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint and two rolls (hip joint and ankle joint. The walking algorithm of this bipedal robot was based on the triangle formulation of cosine law to get the angle value at each joint. The hip height, height of the swinging leg and the step distance are derived based on linear equation. This paper discussed the kinematic model analysis and the development of the walking diagram of the bipedal robot. Kinematics equations were derived, the joint angles were simulated and coded into Arduino board to be executed to the robot.
Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Lollino, P.; Calò, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Lanari, R.; Guzzetti, F.; Manunta, M.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to perform inverse numerical modelling of slow landslides that combines the potentialities of both numerical approaches and well-known remote-sensing satellite techniques. In particular, through an optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we minimize, with respect to a proper penalty function, the difference between the modelled displacement field and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) deformation time series. The proposed methodology allows us to automatically search for the physical parameters that characterize the landslide behaviour. To validate the presented approach, we focus our analysis on the slow Ivancich landslide (Assisi, central Italy). The kinematical evolution of the unstable slope is investigated via long-term DInSAR analysis, by exploiting about 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite acquisitions. The landslide is driven by the presence of a shear band, whose behaviour is simulated through a two-dimensional time-dependent finite element model, in two different physical scenarios, i.e. Newtonian viscous flow and a deviatoric creep model. Comparison between the model results and DInSAR measurements reveals that the deviatoric creep model is more suitable to describe the kinematical evolution of the landslide. This finding is also confirmed by comparing the model results with the available independent inclinometer measurements. Our analysis emphasizes that integration of different data, within inverse numerical models, allows deep investigation of the kinematical behaviour of slow active landslides and discrimination of the driving forces that govern their deformation processes.
Modeling neutrino-induced charged pion production on water at T2K kinematics
Nikolakopoulos, A.; González-Jiménez, R.; Niewczas, K.; Sobczyk, J.; Jachowicz, N.
2018-05-01
Pion production is a significant component of the signal in accelerator-based neutrino experiments. Over the last years, the MiniBooNE, T2K, and MINERvA collaborations have reported a substantial amount of data on (anti)neutrino-induced pion production on the nucleus. However, a comprehensive and consistent description of the whole data set is still missing. We aim at improving the current understanding of neutrino-induced pion production on the nucleus. To this end, the comparison of experimental data with theoretical predictions, preferably based on microscopic models, is essential to disentangle the different reaction mechanisms involved in the process. To describe single-pion production, we use a hybrid model that combines low- and a high-energy approaches. The low-energy model contains resonances and background terms. At high invariant masses, a high-energy model based on a Regge approach is employed. The model is implemented in the nucleus using the relativistic plane wave impulse approximation (RPWIA). We present a comparison of the hybrid-RPWIA and low-energy model with the recent neutrino-induced charged-current 1 π+ -production cross section on water reported by T2K. In order to judge the impact of final-state interactions (FSI), we confront our results with those of the nuwro Monte Carlo generator. The hybrid-RPWIA model and nuwro results compare favorably to the data, albeit that FSI are not included in the former. The need of a high-energy model at T2K kinematics is made clear. These results complement our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 97, 013004 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.013004], in which we compared the models to the MINERvA and MiniBooNE 1 π+ data. The hybrid-RPWIA model tends to overpredict both the T2K and MINERvA data in kinematic regions where the largest suppression due to FSI is expected and agrees remarkably well with the data in other kinematic regions. On the contrary, the MiniBooNE data are underpredicted over the whole kinematic range.
Study on individual stochastic model of GNSS observations for precise kinematic applications
Próchniewicz, Dominik; Szpunar, Ryszard
2015-04-01
The proper definition of mathematical positioning model, which is defined by functional and stochastic models, is a prerequisite to obtain the optimal estimation of unknown parameters. Especially important in this definition is realistic modelling of stochastic properties of observations, which are more receiver-dependent and time-varying than deterministic relationships. This is particularly true with respect to precise kinematic applications which are characterized by weakening model strength. In this case, incorrect or simplified definition of stochastic model causes that the performance of ambiguity resolution and accuracy of position estimation can be limited. In this study we investigate the methods of describing the measurement noise of GNSS observations and its impact to derive precise kinematic positioning model. In particular stochastic modelling of individual components of the variance-covariance matrix of observation noise performed using observations from a very short baseline and laboratory GNSS signal generator, is analyzed. Experimental test results indicate that the utilizing the individual stochastic model of observations including elevation dependency and cross-correlation instead of assumption that raw measurements are independent with the same variance improves the performance of ambiguity resolution as well as rover positioning accuracy. This shows that the proposed stochastic assessment method could be a important part in complex calibration procedure of GNSS equipment.
Kinematic modelling of a five-DOFs spatial manipulator used in robot-assisted surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shakti Singh
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Since last three decades, research in the field of robot kinematics is boosted-up among different researchers worldwide. This is mainly due to their increased use in various challenging fields of engineering and science. One such challenging application is the use of master–slave concept in a robot-assisted surgery. The authors have already performed the kinematic study and gravity balancing of seven degrees-of-freedom (DOFs surgeon-side manipulator (Singh et al., 2015a, 2015b. To meet these challenging demands, the most important aspect of a robotic manipulator is to develop an accurate kinematic model. In this direction, different researchers in the literature have made significant contributions. Out of these, the most prominent one is D–H parameters method, which was proposed by Denavit and Hartenberg in 1955. In the present work, this method is applied to a five-DOFs spatial manipulator, named as patient-side manipulator, which tracks the motion of surgeon-side manipulator during a robot-assisted surgery. The prototype considered in this work is a spatial serial manipulator, being developed at CSIR-CSIO Chandigarh. Experimental validations are performed and results are found to be in close agreement.
Kinematic modeling of the Milky Way using the RAVE and GCS stellar surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Binney, J. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Freeman, K. C. [RSAA Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, Canberra, ACT 72611 (Australia); Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M. E. K. [Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sterwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Gibson, B. K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Super-computing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gilmore, G. F.; Kordopatis, G. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Helmi, A. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Munari, U. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-36012 Asiago (VI) (Italy); Navarro, J. F. [University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Station CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Seabroke, G. M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Watson, F. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); and others
2014-09-20
We investigate the kinematic parameters of the Milky Way disk using the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) and Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) stellar surveys. We do this by fitting a kinematic model to the data and taking the selection function of the data into account. For stars in the GCS we use all phase-space coordinates, but for RAVE stars we use only (ℓ, b, v {sub los}). Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate the full posterior distributions of the parameters given the data. We investigate the age-velocity dispersion relation for the three kinematic components (σ {sub R}, σ{sub φ}, σ {sub z}), the radial dependence of the velocity dispersions, the solar peculiar motion (U {sub ☉}, V {sub ☉}, W {sub ☉}), the circular speed Θ{sub 0} at the Sun, and the fall of mean azimuthal motion with height above the midplane. We confirm that the Besançon-style Gaussian model accurately fits the GCS data but fails to match the details of the more spatially extended RAVE survey. In particular, the Shu distribution function (DF) handles noncircular orbits more accurately and provides a better fit to the kinematic data. The Gaussian DF not only fits the data poorly but systematically underestimates the fall of velocity dispersion with radius. The radial scale length of the velocity dispersion profile of the thick disk was found to be smaller than that of the thin disk. We find that correlations exist between a number of parameters, which highlights the importance of doing joint fits. The large size of the RAVE survey allows us to get precise values for most parameters. However, large systematic uncertainties remain, especially in V {sub ☉} and Θ{sub 0}. We find that, for an extended sample of stars, Θ{sub 0} is underestimated by as much as 10% if the vertical dependence of the mean azimuthal motion is neglected. Using a simple model for vertical dependence of kinematics, we find that it is possible to match the Sgr A* proper motion without
Applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive models for mud-flows: a steady state analysis
Di Cristo, Cristiana; Iervolino, Michele; Vacca, Andrea
2018-04-01
The paper investigates the applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive Wave models for mud-flows with a power-law shear-thinning rheology. In analogy with a well-known approach for turbulent clear-water flows, the study compares the steady flow depth profiles predicted by approximated models with those of the Full Dynamic Wave one. For all the models and assuming an infinitely wide channel, the analytical solution of the flow depth profiles, in terms of hypergeometric functions, is derived. The accuracy of the approximated models is assessed by computing the average, along the channel length, of the errors, for several values of the Froude and kinematic wave numbers. Assuming the threshold value of the error equal to 5%, the applicability conditions of the two approximations have been individuated for several values of the power-law exponent, showing a crucial role of the rheology. The comparison with the clear-water results indicates that applicability criteria for clear-water flows do not apply to shear-thinning fluids, potentially leading to an incorrect use of approximated models if the rheology is not properly accounted for.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahbadi, H.; Eslami, M.R.
2006-01-01
The aim of this paper is to relate the type of stress category in cyclic loading to ratcheting or shakedown behaviour of the structure. The kinematic hardening theory of plasticity based on the Prager and Armstrong-Frederick models is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behaviour of thick spherical and cylindrical vessels under load and deformation controlled stresses. It is concluded that kinematic hardening based on the Prager model under load and deformation controlled conditions, excluding creep, results in shakedown or reversed plasticity for spherical and cylindrical vessels with the isotropy assumption of the tension/compression curve. Under an anisotropy assumption of the tension/compression curve, this model predicts ratcheting. On the other hand, the Armstrong-Frederick model predicts ratcheting under load controlled cyclic loading and reversed plasticity for deformation controlled stress. The interesting conclusion is that the Armstrong-Frederick model is well capable to predict the experimental data under the assumed type of stresses, wherever experimental data are available
Development of a parametric kinematic model of the human hand and a novel robotic exoskeleton.
Burton, T M W; Vaidyanathan, R; Burgess, S C; Turton, A J; Melhuish, C
2011-01-01
This paper reports the integration of a kinematic model of the human hand during cylindrical grasping, with specific focus on the accurate mapping of thumb movement during grasping motions, and a novel, multi-degree-of-freedom assistive exoskeleton mechanism based on this model. The model includes thumb maximum hyper-extension for grasping large objects (~> 50 mm). The exoskeleton includes a novel four-bar mechanism designed to reproduce natural thumb opposition and a novel synchro-motion pulley mechanism for coordinated finger motion. A computer aided design environment is used to allow the exoskeleton to be rapidly customized to the hand dimensions of a specific patient. Trials comparing the kinematic model to observed data of hand movement show the model to be capable of mapping thumb and finger joint flexion angles during grasping motions. Simulations show the exoskeleton to be capable of reproducing the complex motion of the thumb to oppose the fingers during cylindrical and pinch grip motions. © 2011 IEEE
On nonlinear reduced order modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.
2011-01-01
When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Yeates, Anthony R.
2010-01-01
The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed α-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.
Computational Modelling of Patella Femoral Kinematics During Gait Cycle and Experimental Validation
Maiti, Raman
2016-06-01
The effect of loading and boundary conditions on patellar mechanics is significant due to the complications arising in patella femoral joints during total knee replacements. To understand the patellar mechanics with respect to loading and motion, a computational model representing the patella femoral joint was developed and validated against experimental results. The computational model was created in IDEAS NX and simulated in MSC ADAMS/VIEW software. The results obtained in the form of internal external rotations and anterior posterior displacements for a new and experimentally simulated specimen for patella femoral joint under standard gait condition were compared with experimental measurements performed on the Leeds ProSim knee simulator. A good overall agreement between the computational prediction and the experimental data was obtained for patella femoral kinematics. Good agreement between the model and the past studies was observed when the ligament load was removed and the medial lateral displacement was constrained. The model is sensitive to ±5 % change in kinematics, frictional, force and stiffness coefficients and insensitive to time step.
Adjusting kinematics and kinetics in a feedback-controlled toe walking model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olenšek Andrej
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical gait assessment, the correct interpretation of gait kinematics and kinetics has a decisive impact on the success of the therapeutic programme. Due to the vast amount of information from which primary anomalies should be identified and separated from secondary compensatory changes, as well as the biomechanical complexity and redundancy of the human locomotion system, this task is considerably challenging and requires the attention of an experienced interdisciplinary team of experts. The ongoing research in the field of biomechanics suggests that mathematical modeling may facilitate this task. This paper explores the possibility of generating a family of toe walking gait patterns by systematically changing selected parameters of a feedback-controlled model. Methods From the selected clinical case of toe walking we identified typical toe walking characteristics and encoded them as a set of gait-oriented control objectives to be achieved in a feedback-controlled walking model. They were defined as fourth order polynomials and imposed via feedback control at the within-step control level. At the between-step control level, stance leg lengthening velocity at the end of the single support phase was adaptively adjusted after each step so as to facilitate gait velocity control. Each time the gait velocity settled at the desired value, selected intra-step gait characteristics were modified by adjusting the polynomials so as to mimic the effect of a typical therapeutical intervention - inhibitory casting. Results By systematically adjusting the set of control parameters we were able to generate a family of gait kinematic and kinetic patterns that exhibit similar principal toe walking characteristics, as they were recorded by means of an instrumented gait analysis system in the selected clinical case of toe walking. We further acknowledge that they to some extent follow similar improvement tendencies as those which one can
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho Pham Huy Anh
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel forward adaptive neural MIMO NARX model is used for modelling and identifying the forward kinematics of an industrial 3-DOF robot arm system. The nonlinear features of the forward kinematics of the industrial robot arm drive are thoroughly modelled based on the forward adaptive neural NARX model-based identification process using experimental input-output training data. This paper proposes a novel use of a back propagation (BP algorithm to generate the forward neural MIMO NARX (FNMN model for the forward kinematics of the industrial 3-DOF robot arm. The results show that the proposed adaptive neural NARX model trained by a Back Propagation learning algorithm yields outstanding performance and perfect accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadi Kalani
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction we aimed to introduce a 6-universal-prismatic-spherical (UPS parallel mechanism for the human jaw motion and theoretically evaluate its kinematic problem. We proposed a strategy to provide a fast and accurate solution to the kinematic problem. The proposed strategy could accelerate the process of solution-finding for the direct kinematic problem by reducing the number of required iterations in order to reach the desired accuracy level. Materials and Methods To overcome the direct kinematic problem, an artificial neural network and third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm were combined to provide an improved hybrid method. In this method, approximate solution was presented for the direct kinematic problem by the neural network. This solution could be considered as the initial guess for the third-order Newton-Raphson algorithm to provide an answer with the desired level of accuracy. Results The results showed that the proposed combination could help find a approximate solution and reduce the execution time for the direct kinematic problem, The results showed that muscular actuations showed periodic behaviors, and the maximum length variation of temporalis muscle was larger than that of masseter and pterygoid muscles. By reducing the processing time for solving the direct kinematic problem, more time could be devoted to control calculations.. In this method, for relatively high levels of accuracy, the number of iterations and computational time decreased by 90% and 34%, respectively, compared to the conventional Newton method. Conclusion The present analysis could allow researchers to characterize and study the mastication process by specifying different chewing patterns (e.g., muscle displacements.
Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2004-04-01
Prevailing views on how we time the interception of a moving object assume that the visual inputs are informationally sufficient to estimate the time-to-contact from the object's kinematics. Here we present evidence in favor of a different view: the brain makes the best estimate about target motion based on measured kinematics and an a priori guess about the causes of motion. According to this theory, a predictive model is used to extrapolate time-to-contact from expected dynamics (kinetics). We projected a virtual target moving vertically downward on a wide screen with different randomized laws of motion. In the first series of experiments, subjects were asked to intercept this target by punching a real ball that fell hidden behind the screen and arrived in synchrony with the visual target. Subjects systematically timed their motor responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects on an object's mass, even when the visual target did not accelerate. With training, the gravity model was not switched off but adapted to nonaccelerating targets by shifting the time of motor activation. In the second series of experiments, there was no real ball falling behind the screen. Instead the subjects were required to intercept the visual target by clicking a mousebutton. In this case, subjects timed their responses consistent with the assumption of uniform motion in the absence of forces, even when the target actually accelerated. Overall, the results are in accord with the theory that motor responses evoked by visual kinematics are modulated by a prior of the target dynamics. The prior appears surprisingly resistant to modifications based on performance errors.
A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait
Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E.; del-Ama, Antonio J.; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C.; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L.
2018-01-01
The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton. PMID:29755336
Kinematic repeatability of a multi-segment foot model for dance.
Carter, Sarah L; Sato, Nahoko; Hopper, Luke S
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability for the first metatarsophalangeal joint in the sagittal plane. Intra-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability during flex-point-flex across all inter-segmental angles except for the tibia-hindfoot and hindfoot-midfoot frontal planes. Inter-assessor repeatability ranged from poor to excellent (0.5 > ICC ≥ 0.75) for the 3D segment rotations. The most repeatable measure was the tibia-foot dorsiflexion/plantar flexion articulation whereas the least repeatable measure was the hindfoot-midfoot adduction/abduction articulation. The variation found in the inter-assessor results is likely due to inconsistencies in marker placement. This 3D dance specific multi-segment foot model provides insight into which kinematic measures can be reliably used to ascertain in vivo technical errors and/or biomechanical abnormalities in a dancer's foot motion.
Mathematical Modeling and Kinematics Analysis of Double Spherical Shell Rotary Docking Skirt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gong Haixia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of large trim and heel angles of the wrecked submarine, the double spherical shell rotating docking skirt is studied. According to the working principle of the rotating docking skirt, and the fixed skirt, the directional skirt, the angle skirt are simplified as the connecting rod. Therefore, the posture equation and kinematics model of the docking skirt are deduced, and according to the kinematics model, the angle of rotation of the directional skirt and the angle skirt is obtained when the wrecked submarine is in different trim and heel angles. Through the directional skirt and angle skirt with the matching rotation can make docking skirt interface in the 0°~2γ range within the rotation, to complete the docking skirt and the wrecked submarine docking. The MATLAB software is used to visualize the rotation angle of fixed skirt and directional skirt, which lays a good foundation for the development of the control of the double spherical shell rotating docking skirt in future.
Research on Robot Pose Control Technology Based on Kinematics Analysis Model
Liu, Dalong; Xu, Lijuan
2018-01-01
In order to improve the attitude stability of the robot, proposes an attitude control method of robot based on kinematics analysis model, solve the robot walking posture transformation, grasping and controlling the motion planning problem of robot kinematics. In Cartesian space analytical model, using three axis accelerometer, magnetometer and the three axis gyroscope for the combination of attitude measurement, the gyroscope data from Calman filter, using the four element method for robot attitude angle, according to the centroid of the moving parts of the robot corresponding to obtain stability inertia parameters, using random sampling RRT motion planning method, accurate operation to any position control of space robot, to ensure the end effector along a prescribed trajectory the implementation of attitude control. The accurate positioning of the experiment is taken using MT-R robot as the research object, the test robot. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better robustness, and higher positioning accuracy, and it improves the reliability and safety of robot operation.
Quantum kinematics of spacetime. II. A model quantum cosmology with real clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartle, J.B.
1988-01-01
Nonrelativistic model quantum cosmologies are studied in which the basic time variable is the position of a clock indicator and the time parameter of the Schroedinger equation is an unobservable label. Familiar Schroedinger-Heisenberg quantum mechanics emerges if the clock is ideal: arbitrarily accurate for arbitrarily long times. More realistically, however, the usual formulation emerges only as an approximation appropriate to states of this model universe in which part of the system functions approximately as an ideal clock. It is suggested that the quantum kinematics of spacetime theories such as general relativity may be analogous to those of this model. In particular it is suggested that our familiar notion of time in quantum mechanics is not an inevitable property of a general quantum framework but an approximate feature of specific initial conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Colone, Lorenzo; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov
2018-01-01
of fatigue loads. Subsequently, the research focuses on studying the effects of uncertain marine environments on the fatigue load distribution, showing that the latter is insensitive to the random variability of the hydrodynamic coefficients. With respect to the wave kinematic model, a comparison between...... nonlinear and linear waves clearly suggests that hydrodynamic forces depend significantly on the kinematic model adopted and the operational conditions of the turbine. Furthermore, a term is derived to correct the error introduced by Wheeler stretching at finite water depths. The respective model...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. J. García-Garrido
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study the Lagrangian footprint of the planetary waves present in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the exceptional sudden Stratospheric warming event that took place during September 2002. Our focus is on constructing a simple kinematic model that retains the fundamental mechanisms responsible for complex fluid parcel evolution, during the polar vortex breakdown and its previous stages. The construction of the kinematic model is guided by the Fourier decomposition of the geopotential field. The study of Lagrangian transport phenomena in the ERA-Interim reanalysis data highlights hyperbolic trajectories, and these trajectories are Lagrangian objects that are the kinematic mechanism for the observed filamentation phenomena. Our analysis shows that the breaking and splitting of the polar vortex is justified in our model by the sudden growth of a planetary wave and the decay of the axisymmetric flow.
Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Gabbett, Tim J
2013-01-01
The present paper investigated the effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter (0.35 m) rim on kinematics and performance of basketball free-throws. Eighteen young male basketball players were divided into control (CG, n = 9) and experimental (EG, n = 9) groups. Both groups undertook a 10-week training programme comprising two training sessions per week. Under fatigued conditions, each participant shot 150 free-throws in each training session, with the CG using a standard rim, and the EG a smaller rim. All other training was identical between groups. Ball release parameters, player's kinematics and mean of successful free-throws (out of 150 attempts) were determined for each participant, before and after completion of the training programme. Following training, a significant increase (P training with a reduced rim significantly improves free-throw performance in young basketball players.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yazhe Tang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel surveillance system named thermal omnidirectional vision (TOV system which can work in total darkness with a wild field of view. Different to the conventional thermal vision sensor, the proposed vision system exhibits serious nonlinear distortion due to the effect of the quadratic mirror. To effectively model the inherent distortion of omnidirectional vision, an equivalent sphere projection is employed to adaptively calculate parameterized distorted neighborhood of an object in the image plane. With the equivalent projection based adaptive neighborhood calculation, a distortion-invariant gradient coding feature is proposed for thermal catadioptric vision. For robust tracking purpose, a rotational kinematic modeled adaptive particle filter is proposed based on the characteristic of omnidirectional vision, which can handle multiple movements effectively, including the rapid motions. Finally, the experiments are given to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm for human tracking in TOV system.
A kinematical model for the plastic deformation of face-centred cubic polycrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leffers, T.
1975-01-01
During the plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material the deformation of the individual grain must be adjusted to the deformation of the surrounding grains so that material continuity is maintained. This continuity condition is the essential feature distinguishing polycrystal deformation from single-crystal deformation. In the present work it is attempted to explain how the continuity condition is fulfilled in face-centred cubic polycrystals. The early treatments of the plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials were aimed directly at the formulation of a ''dynamical'' theory, i.e. it was the intention to cover the magnitude of the stresses involved as well as the slip processes producing the deformation. It is argued that rolling texture is a good tool for a necessary intermediate stage of establishing a ''kinematical'' model describing the slip processes, but not the magnitude of the necessary stresses. Three aspects of rolling texture are considered: (a) the development of the rolling textures found experimentally in face-centred cubic materials can be computer-simulated on the basis of models for the plastic deformation that only involve (111) slip; (b) experimentally that the widely accepted twinning theory for the transition in f.c.c. rolling texture does not reflect the behaviour of real materials; and (c) it is shown that the texture transition is thermally activated with an activation energy corresponding to that of cross slip. An electron-microscopical investigation of the slip process operating during rolling of f.c.c. polycrystals is also included. On the basis of the computer simulation of the texture formation supplemented by the experimental results a kinematical model is developed for the plastic deformation of f.c.c. polycrystals by rolling. In the proposed model the material continuity is maintained by inhomogeneous slip processes, combined with homogeneous multiple glide when the cross-slip frequency is high. (author)
Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.
2017-01-01
On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. Incorporating this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave model is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a model exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave model. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new model is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new model can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new model can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave model, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave model can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.
Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton
2017-04-01
The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may
Slavens, Brooke A; Harris, Gerald F
2008-01-01
Human motion analysis has evolved from the lower extremity to the upper extremity. Rehabilitation engineering is reliant upon three-dimensional biome-chanical models for a thorough understanding of upper body motions and forces in order to improve treatment methods, rehabilitation strategies and to prevent injury. Due to the complex nature of upper body movements, a standard biomechanical model does not exist. This paper reviews several kinematic and kinetic rehabilitation engineering models from the literature. These models may capture a single joint; multijoints such as the shoulder, elbow and wrist; or a combination of joints and an ambulatory aid, which serves as the extension of the upper arm. With advances in software and hardware, new models continuously arise due to the clinical questions at hand. When designing a biomechanical upper extremity model, several key components must be determined. These include deciding on the anatomic segments of the model, the number of markers and placement on bony landmarks, the definition of joint coordinate systems, and the description of the joint motions. It is critical to apply the proper model to further our understanding of pathologic populations.
Modeling and predicting low-speed vehicle emissions as a function of driving kinematics.
Hao, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Lei; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Xin; Yin, Hang; Ding, Yan; Ge, Yunshan
2017-05-01
An instantaneous emission model was developed to model and predict the real driving emissions of the low-speed vehicles. The emission database used in the model was measured by using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual traffic conditions in the rural area, and the characteristics of the emission data were determined in relation to the driving kinematics (speed and acceleration) of the low-speed vehicle. The input of the emission model is driving cycle, and the model requires instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration levels as input variables and uses them to interpolate the pollutant emission rate maps to calculate the transient pollutant emission rates, which will be accumulated to calculate the total emissions released during the whole driving cycle. And the vehicle fuel consumption was determined through the carbon balance method. The model predicted the emissions and fuel consumption of an in-use low-speed vehicle type model, which agreed well with the measured data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight
Faruque, Imraan
Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.
Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data
Alfano, Marco; Lubineau, Gilles; Paulino, Glá ucio Hermogenes
2015-01-01
Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.
Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data
Alfano, Marco
2015-03-01
Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.
H I versus H α - comparing the kinematic tracers in modelling the initial conditions of the Mice
Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Barnes, Joshua E.; Privon, George C.; Snyder, Gregory F.
2018-03-01
We explore the effect of using different kinematic tracers (H I and H α) on reconstructing the encounter parameters of the Mice major galaxy merger (NGC 4676A/B). We observed the Mice using the SparsePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) on the WIYN telescope, and compared the H α velocity map with VLA H I observations. The relatively high spectral resolution of our data (R ≈ 5000) allows us to resolve more than one kinematic component in the emission lines of some fibres. We separate the H α-[N II] emission of the star-forming regions from shocks using their [N II]/H α line ratio and velocity dispersion. We show that the velocity of star-forming regions agree with that of the cold gas (H I), particularly, in the tidal tails of the system. We reconstruct the morphology and kinematics of these tidal tails utilizing an automated modelling method based on the IDENTIKIT software package. We quantify the goodness of fit and the uncertainties of the derived encounter parameters. Most of the initial conditions reconstructed using H α and H I are consistent with each other, and qualitatively agree with the results of previous works. For example, we find 210± ^{50}_{40} Myr, and 180± ^{50}_{40} Myr for the time since pericentre, when modelling H α and H I kinematics, respectively. This confirms that in some cases, H α kinematics can be used instead of H I kinematics for reconstructing the initial conditions of galaxy mergers, and our automated modelling method is applicable to some merging systems.
Richard, Vincent; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël
2017-09-06
Estimating joint kinematics from skin-marker trajectories recorded using stereophotogrammetry is complicated by soft tissue artefact (STA), an inexorable source of error. One solution is to use a bone pose estimator based on multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) embedding joint constraints to compensate for STA. However, there is some debate over the effectiveness of this method. The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the degree of agreement between reference (i.e., artefact-free) knee joint kinematics and the same kinematics estimated using MKO embedding six different knee joint models. The following motor tasks were assessed: level walking, hopping, cutting, running, sit-to-stand, and step-up. Reference knee kinematics was taken from pin-marker or biplane fluoroscopic data acquired concurrently with skin-marker data, made available by the respective authors. For each motor task, Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the performance of MKO varied according to the joint model used, with a wide discrepancy in results across degrees of freedom (DoFs), models and motor tasks (with a bias between -10.2° and 13.2° and between -10.2mm and 7.2mm, and with a confidence interval up to ±14.8° and ±11.1mm, for rotation and displacement, respectively). It can be concluded that, while MKO might occasionally improve kinematics estimation, as implemented to date it does not represent a reliable solution to the STA issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lima, José; Pereira, Ana I.; Costa, Paulo; Pinto, Andry; Costa, Pedro
2017-07-01
This paper describes an optimization procedure for a robot with 12 degrees of freedom avoiding the inverse kinematics problem, which is a hard task for this type of robot manipulator. This robot can be used to pick and place tasks in complex designs. Combining an accurate and fast direct kinematics model with optimization strategies, it is possible to achieve the joints angles for a desired end-effector position and orientation. The optimization methods stretched simulated annealing algorithm and genetic algorithm were used. The solutions found were validated using data originated by a real and by a simulated robot formed by 12 servomotors with a gripper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kravets Victor V.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional dynamic design of a component characterized by inertia coefficient, elastic coefficient, and coefficient of energy dispersion. The component is affected by external action in the form of time-independent initial kinematic disturbances and varying ones. Mathematical model of component dynamics as well as a new form of analytical representation of transient in terms of one-dimensional problem of kinematic effect is provided. Dynamic design of a component is being carried out according to a theory of modal control.
ELASTO-KINEMATIC COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF SUSPENSION WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomáš Vrána
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of flexibility of individual supporting elements of independent suspension on its elasto-kinematic characteristics. The toe and camber angle are the geometric parameters of the suspension, which waveforms and their changes under the action of vertical, longitudinal and transverse forces affect the stability of the vehicle. To study these dependencies, the computational multibody system (MBS model of axle suspension in the system HyperWorks is created. There are implemented Finite-Element-Method (FEM models reflecting the flexibility of the main supporting elements. These are subframe, the longitudinal arms, transverse arms and knuckle. Flexible models are developed using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS by Craig-Bampton. The model further comprises force elements, such as helical springs, shock absorbers with a stop of the wheel and the anti-roll bar. Rubber-metal bushings are modeled flexibly, using nonlinear deformation characteristics. Simulation results are validated by experimental measurements of geometric parameters of real suspension.
Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.
Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven
2018-04-29
Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.
Bishop, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Thewlis, Dominic
2013-04-01
Kinematic models are commonly used to quantify foot and ankle kinematics, yet no marker sets or models have been proven reliable or accurate when wearing shoes. Further, the minimal detectable difference of a developed model is often not reported. We present a kinematic model that is reliable, accurate and sensitive to describe the kinematics of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg during walking gait. In order to achieve this, a new marker set was established, consisting of 25 markers applied on the shoe and skin surface, which informed a four segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg. Three independent experiments were conducted to determine the reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of the marker set and model. Inter-rater reliability of marker placement on the shoe was proven to be good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.98) indicating that markers could be applied reliably between raters. Intra-rater reliability was better for the experienced rater (ICC=0.68-0.99) than the inexperienced rater (ICC=0.38-0.97). The accuracy of marker placement along each axis was <6.7 mm for all markers studied. Minimal detectable difference (MDD90) thresholds were defined for each joint; tibiocalcaneal joint--MDD90=2.17-9.36°, tarsometatarsal joint--MDD90=1.03-9.29° and the metatarsophalangeal joint--MDD90=1.75-9.12°. These thresholds proposed are specific for the description of shod motion, and can be used in future research designed at comparing between different footwear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Kai; Zhou, Xuhua; Guo, Nannan; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Kexin; Lei, Weiwei
2017-09-01
Zero-difference kinematic, dynamic and reduced-dynamic precise orbit determination (POD) are three methods to obtain the precise orbits of Low Earth Orbit satellites (LEOs) by using the on-board GPS observations. Comparing the differences between those methods have great significance to establish the mathematical model and is usefull for us to select a suitable method to determine the orbit of the satellite. Based on the zero-difference GPS carrier-phase measurements, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) has improved the early version of SHORDE and then developed it as an integrated software system, which can perform the POD of LEOs by using the above three methods. In order to introduce the function of the software, we take the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) on-board GPS observations in January 2008 as example, then we compute the corresponding orbits of GRACE by using the SHORDE software. In order to evaluate the accuracy, we compare the orbits with the precise orbits provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The results show that: (1) If we use the dynamic POD method, and the force models are used to represent the non-conservative forces, the average accuracy of the GRACE orbit is 2.40cm, 3.91cm, 2.34cm and 5.17cm in radial (R), along-track (T), cross-track (N) and 3D directions respectively; If we use the accelerometer observation instead of non-conservative perturbation model, the average accuracy of the orbit is 1.82cm, 2.51cm, 3.48cm and 4.68cm in R, T, N and 3D directions respectively. The result shows that if we use accelerometer observation instead of the non-conservative perturbation model, the accuracy of orbit is better. (2) When we use the reduced-dynamic POD method to get the orbits, the average accuracy of the orbit is 0.80cm, 1.36cm, 2.38cm and 2.87cm in R, T, N and 3D directions respectively. This method is carried out by setting up the pseudo-stochastic pulses to absorb the errors of atmospheric drag and other
Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices
Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.
2016-09-01
In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
MODELING OF KINEMATICS OF A PLASTIC SHAPING AT CALIBRATION OF A THIN-WALLED PRECISION PIPE SINKING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. D. Chertov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model of kinematics of a plastic shaping at the sinking of a thin-walled precision pipe applied to calibration of the ends of the unified elements of the pipeline of aircraft from titanic alloys and corrosion-resistant steel before assembly to the route by means of automatic argon-arc welding of ring joints is developed. For modeling, the power criterion of stability with use of kinematic possible fields of speeds is applied to receiving the top assessment of effort of deformation. The developed model of kinematics of a plastic current allows to receive power parameters of the main condition of process of calibration by sinking and can be used for the solution of a task on stability of process of deformation by results of comparison of power (power parameters for the main (steady and indignant states. Modeling is made in cylindrical system of coordinates by comparison of options of kinematic possible fields of the speeds of a current meeting a condition of incompressibility and kinematic regional conditions. The result of the modeling was selected discontinuous field of high-speed, in which the decrease outer radius (R occurs only by increasing the thickness of the pipe wall (t. For this option the size of pressure of sinking had the smallest value, therefore the chosen field of speeds closely to the valid. It is established that with increase in a step of giving 1 at calibration by the multisector tool the demanded pressure of sinking of q decreases. At an identical step of giving 1 pipe with the smaller relative thickness of (t/r needs to be calibrated the smaller pressure of sinking. With increase of a limit of fluidity at shift of material of pipe preparation pressure of sinking of (q increases.
Ren, Lei; Howard, David; Ren, Luquan; Nester, Chris; Tian, Limei
2010-01-19
The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical framework to representing the ankle-foot kinematics by modelling the foot as a rollover rocker, which cannot only be used as a generic tool for general gait simulation but also allows for case-specific modelling if required. Previously, the rollover models used in gait simulation have often been based on specific functions that have usually been of a simple form. In contrast, the analytical model described here is in a general form that the effective foot rollover shape can be represented by any polar function rho=rho(phi). Furthermore, a normalized generic foot rollover model has been established based on a normative foot rollover shape dataset of 12 normal healthy subjects. To evaluate model accuracy, the predicted ankle motions and the centre of pressure (CoP) were compared with measurement data for both subject-specific and general cases. The results demonstrated that the ankle joint motions in both vertical and horizontal directions (relative RMSE approximately 10%) and CoP (relative RMSE approximately 15% for most of the subjects) are accurately predicted over most of the stance phase (from 10% to 90% of stance). However, we found that the foot cannot be very accurately represented by a rollover model just after heel strike (HS) and just before toe off (TO), probably due to shear deformation of foot plantar tissues (ankle motion can occur without any foot rotation). The proposed foot rollover model can be used in both inverse and forward dynamics gait simulation studies and may also find applications in rehabilitation engineering. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Pruszowski, Przemysław
2016-01-01
Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity. This paper describes the proposal of a new model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter that allows for estimation of orientation based on outputs from the inertial measurements unit sensors. The filter considers interdependencies resulting from the construction of the kinematic chain so that the orientation estimation is more accurate. The proposed solution is a universal filter that does not predetermine the degree of freedom at the connections between segments of the model. To validation the motion of 3-segments single link pendulum captured by optical motion capture system is used. The next step in the research will be to use this method for inertial motion capture with a human skeleton model.
The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model.
van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth
2017-09-01
The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P < .001). Between hindfoot/tibia, there was a significant difference for all parameters except for motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.
The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model
van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth
2017-01-01
Abstract Background: The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Methods: Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20–65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20–24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53–65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Results: Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Conclusion: Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects. PMID:28858109
A kinematic model to estimate effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body
Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.
2013-05-01
The great earthquake occurred in the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. Facility system to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following giant tsunami. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure became a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplifying the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a sophisticated model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that ICRP method is fine, it is rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional tank model in hydrology. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of the present method is to estimate the energy radiated in the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of β decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this model are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no operational parameters or coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to ICRP. Figure shows the time-varying effective dose with ingestion duration, and we can confirm the validity of our model. The time-varying effective dose with
Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations
Silveira, Alexandre; Abrantes, João; de Lima, João; Lira, Lincoln
2016-04-01
Rainwater harvesting is a water saving alternative strategy that presents many advantages and can provide solutions to address major water resources problems, such as fresh water scarcity, urban stream degradation and flooding. In recent years, these problems have become global challenges, due to climatic change, population growth and increasing urbanisation. Generally, roofs are the first to come into contact with rainwater; thus, they are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of roof runoff quantity and quality is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. Despite this, many studies usually focus on the qualitative aspects in detriment of the quantitative aspects. Laboratory studies using rainfall simulators have been widely used to investigate rainfall-runoff processes. These studies enabled a detailed exploration and systematic replication of a large range of hydrologic conditions, such as rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics, providing for a fast way to obtain precise and consistent data that can be used to calibrate and validate numerical models. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale ceramic tile roof (Lusa tiles). For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak and peak durations were very well simulated.
Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.
2011-01-01
Purpose: To relate vocal fold structure and kinematics to 2 acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and the amplitude of the first harmonic relative to the second (H1-H2). Method: The authors used a computational, kinematic model of the medial surfaces of the vocal folds to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlov, N N
2013-01-01
Penetration of solar energetic particles into the Earth's magnetosphere is quantitatively studied with a simple kinematic model. The goal is to assess, for the first time, how does effectiveness of the penetration depend on such geometry factors as: distance of the magneto-pause (MP) from the Earth; shape of MP; angle at which solar energetic particle crosses MP; location of the crossing point; type of the particle motion in the magnetosphere. To get off excessive details, the model deliberately operates with just equatorial section of the static dipolar magnetic field confined with asymmetric boundary – MP. Several rather obvious facts are illustrated: finite orbits of longitudinal drift reside only inside the circle of the Störmer-unit-length radius; deepest penetration of a particle occurs if the particle crosses MP at the point closest to the Earth and with velocity-vector oriented along the particle's longitudinal drift inside MP (westward for protons); etc. The model's software allows the inquirer to vary geometry of MP, the type, energy and direction of flight of the energetic particle(s), the location(s), aperture and orientation(s) of a virtual sensor, then to run the model and obtain the reference particle distributions either global (for entire magnetosphere) or for specified locations, all along the time, energy and flux-orientation axes. Static and animated plots can be easily produced. The model provides a toolkit allowing one to evaluate and illustrate the process of particle penetration into the magnetosphere under various conditions in space. It may be used for the configuring of the satellite particle sensors; its results may be compared with the observations for to assess how strongly the real magnetosphere differs from its simplified form; it may be used in education.
Ductile bookshelf faulting: A new kinematic model for Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet
Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.
2013-12-01
It has been long recognized that the most dominant features on the northern Tibetan Plateau are the >1000 km left-slip strike-slip faults (e.g., the Atyn Tagh, Kunlun, and Haiyuan faults). Early workers used the presence of these faults, especially the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults, as evidence for eastward lateral extrusion of the plateau, but their low documented offsets--100s of km or less--can not account for the 2500 km of convergence between India and Asia. Instead, these faults may result from north-south right-lateral simple shear due to the northward indentation of India, which leads to the clockwise rotation of the strike-slip faults and left-lateral slip (i.e., bookshelf faulting). With this idea, deformation is still localized on discrete fault planes, and 'microplates' or blocks rotate and/or translate with little internal deformation. As significant internal deformation occurs across northern Tibet within strike-slip-bounded domains, there is need for a coherent model to describe all of the deformational features. We also note the following: (1) geologic offsets and Quaternary slip rates of both the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults vary along strike and appear to diminish to the east, (2) the faults appear to kinematically link with thrust belts (e.g., Qilian Shan, Liupan Shan, Longmen Shan, and Qimen Tagh) and extensional zones (e.g., Shanxi, Yinchuan, and Qinling grabens), and (3) temporal relationships between the major deformation zones and the strike-slip faults (e.g., simultaneous enhanced deformation and offset in the Qilian Shan and Liupan Shan, and the Haiyuan fault, at 8 Ma). We propose a new kinematic model to describe the active deformation in northern Tibet: a ductile-bookshelf-faulting model. With this model, right-lateral simple shear leads to clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Qaidam and Qilian blocks, and left-slip faulting. This motion creates regions of compression and extension, dependent on the local boundary conditions (e.g., rigid
Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.
2017-07-01
The timing and magnitude of a Pacific plate motion change within the past 10 Ma remains enigmatic, due to the noise associated with finite-rotation data. Nonetheless, it has been hypothesized that this change was driven by the arrival of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) at the Melanesian arc and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution, building on previous efforts to mitigate the impact of finite-rotation data noise. We find that the largest change in Pacific plate-motion direction occurred between 10 and 5 Ma, with the plate rotating clockwise. We subsequently develop and use coupled global numerical models of the mantle/lithosphere system to test hypotheses on the dynamics driving this change. These indicate that the arrival of the OJP at the Melanesian arc, between 10 and 5 Ma, followed by a subduction polarity reversal that marked the initiation of subduction of the Australian plate underneath the Pacific realm, were the key drivers of this kinematic change.
Observations of secular changes in the kinematic model of SS433
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, G.W. II; Newsom, G.H.
1982-01-01
In this paper the authors present evidence that several of the defining parameters of the Kinematic Model for SS433 are not constant but rather exhibit long term systematic changes. Recent data confirm the existence of the previously reported decrease in the precessional period. The value for this period change, when combined with the observed change in the period of the synodic spectral variations, implies that the orbital period is not significantly changing on a time scale less than 1000 years. In addition they find mounting evidence for a statistically significant (4sigma) secular change in the cone angle theta at a rate of about -1.5 x 10 -3 deg/day. However, the surprisingly short time scales implied by the observed values of dP/dt and dtheta/dt when combined with estimates of the system age suggest the possible existence of detectable higher time derivatives. This view is supported by the most recent data which suggest a value for d 2 P/dt 2 approximately 10 -5 (days) -1 . It is possible to understand these secular changes in terms of the motions to be expected from an object exhibiting classical precession in response to an external torque. (Auth.)
A Kinematic Model for Vertical Axis Rotation within the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane
Gledhill, T.; Pluhar, C. J.; Johnson, S. A.; Lindeman, J. R.; Petronis, M. S.
2016-12-01
The Mina Deflection, at the boundary between the Central and Southern Walker Lane, spans the California-Nevada border and includes a heavily-faulted Pliocene volcanic field overlying Miocene ignimbrites. The dextral Walker Lane accommodates 25% of relative Pacific-North America plate motion and steps right across the sinistral Mina deflection. Ours and previous work shows that the Mina Deflection partially accommodates deformation by vertical-axis rotation of up to 99.9o ± 6.1o rotation since 11 Ma. This rotation is evident in latite ignimbrite of Gilbert et al. (1971), which we have formalized as three members of Tuff of Huntoon Creek (THC). The welded, basal, normal-polarity Huntoon Valley Member of THC is overlain by the unwelded to partially-welded, reversed-polarity Adobe Hills Mbr. This member includes internal breaks suggesting multiple eruptive phases, but the paleomagnetic results from each are statistically indistinguishable, meaning that they were likely erupted in rapid succession (within a few centuries of one another). THC ends with a welded member exhibiting very shallow inclination and south declination that we call Excursional Mbr. One of the upper members has been dated at 11.17 ± 0.04 Ma. These Miocene units are overlain by Pliocene basalts, Quaternary alluvium, and lacustrine deposits. Our paleomagnetic results show a gradient between the zero rotation domain and high rotation across a 20km baseline. A micropolar model, based on 25 years of earthquake data from the Northern and Southern California Seismic Network, suggest the Mina Deflection is currently experiencing transpressional seismogenic deformation (Unruh et al., 2003). Accepting Unruh's model and assuming continuous rotation since 11 Ma, we propose a kinematic model for the western Mina Deflection that accommodates 90o of vertical axis rotation from N-S to ENE-WSW oriented blocks.
Pothrat, Claude; Authier, Guillaume; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume
2015-06-01
Biomechanical models representing the foot as a single rigid segment are commonly used in clinical or sport evaluations. However, neglecting internal foot movements could lead to significant inaccuracies on ankle joint kinematics. The present study proposed an assessment of 3D ankle kinematic outputs using two distinct biomechanical models and their application in the clinical flat foot case. Results of the Plug in Gait (one segment foot model) and the Oxford Foot Model (multisegment foot model) were compared for normal children (9 participants) and flat feet children (9 participants). Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance have been performed to assess the Foot model and Group effects on ankle joint kinematics. Significant differences were observed between the two models for each group all along the gait cycle. In particular for the flat feet group, opposite results between the Oxford Foot Model and the Plug in Gait were revealed at heelstrike, with the Plug in Gait showing a 4.7° ankle dorsal flexion and 2.7° varus where the Oxford Foot Model showed a 4.8° ankle plantar flexion and 1.6° valgus. Ankle joint kinematics of the flat feet group was more affected by foot modeling than normal group. Foot modeling appeared to have a strong influence on resulting ankle kinematics. Moreover, our findings showed that this influence could vary depending on the population. Studies involving ankle joint kinematic assessment should take foot modeling with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, M J; Parker, M A
2005-01-01
We address the problem of mass measurements of supersymmetric particles at the Large Hadron Collider, using the ATLAS detector as an example. By using Markov Chain sampling techniques to combine standard measurements of kinematic edges in the invariant mass distributions of decay products with a measurement of a missing $p_T$ cross-section, we show that the precision of mass measurements at the LHC can be dramatically improved, even when we do not assume that we have measured the kinematic endpoints precisely, or that we have identified exactly which particles are involved in the decay chain causing the endpoints. The generality of the technique is demonstrated in a preliminary investigation of a non-universal SUGRA model, in which we relax the requirements of mSUGRA by breaking the degeneracy of the GUT scale gaugino masses. The model studied is compatible with the WMAP limits on dark matter relic density.
A comparison and update of direct kinematic-kinetic models of leg stiffness in human running.
Liew, Bernard X W; Morris, Susan; Masters, Ashleigh; Netto, Kevin
2017-11-07
Direct kinematic-kinetic modelling currently represents the "Gold-standard" in leg stiffness quantification during three-dimensional (3D) motion capture experiments. However, the medial-lateral components of ground reaction force and leg length have been neglected in current leg stiffness formulations. It is unknown if accounting for all 3D would alter healthy biologic estimates of leg stiffness, compared to present direct modelling methods. This study compared running leg stiffness derived from a new method (multiplanar method) which includes all three Cartesian axes, against current methods which either only include the vertical axis (line method) or only the plane of progression (uniplanar method). Twenty healthy female runners performed shod overground running at 5.0 m/s. Three-dimensional motion capture and synchronised in-ground force plates were used to track the change in length of the leg vector (hip joint centre to centre of pressure) and resultant projected ground reaction force. Leg stiffness was expressed as dimensionless units, as a percentage of an individual's bodyweight divided by standing leg length (BW/LL). Leg stiffness using the line method was larger than the uniplanar method by 15.6%BW/LL (P method by 24.2%BW/LL (P stiffness from the uniplanar method was larger than the multiplanar method by 8.5%BW/LL (6.5 kN/m) (P stiffness estimate with the multiplanar method. Given that limb movements typically occur in 3D, the new multiplanar method provides the most complete accounting of all force and length components in leg stiffness calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilmore, Michelle E.; McQuarrie, Nadine; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Ehlers, Todd A.
2018-05-01
In this study, reconstructions of a balanced geologic cross section in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt of eastern Bhutan are used in flexural-kinematic and thermokinematic models to understand the sensitivity of predicted cooling ages to changes in fault kinematics, geometry, topography, and radiogenic heat production. The kinematics for each scenario are created by sequentially deforming the cross section with ˜ 10 km deformation steps while applying flexural loading and erosional unloading at each step to develop a high-resolution evolution of deformation, erosion, and burial over time. By assigning ages to each increment of displacement, we create a suite of modeled scenarios that are input into a 2-D thermokinematic model to predict cooling ages. Comparison of model-predicted cooling ages to published thermochronometer data reveals that cooling ages are most sensitive to (1) the location and size of fault ramps, (2) the variable shortening rates between 68 and 6.4 mm yr-1, and (3) the timing and magnitude of out-of-sequence faulting. The predicted ages are less sensitive to (4) radiogenic heat production and (5) estimates of topographic evolution. We used the observed misfit of predicted to measured cooling ages to revise the cross section geometry and separate one large ramp previously proposed for the modern décollement into two smaller ramps. The revised geometry results in an improved fit to observed ages, particularly young AFT ages (2-6 Ma) located north of the Main Central Thrust. This study presents a successful approach for using thermochronometer data to test the viability of a proposed cross section geometry and kinematics and describes a viable approach to estimating the first-order topographic evolution of a compressional orogen.
Expressions of manipulator kinematic equations via symbolic computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Shinobu
1993-09-01
While it is simple in principle to determine the position and orientation of the manipulator hand, its computational process has been regarded as extremely laborious since trigonometric functions must be calculated many times in operations of revolute or rotation. Due to development of a general class of kinematic algorithm based on iterative methods, however, we have come to a satisfactory settlement of this problem. In the present article, we consider to construct symbolic kinematic equations in an automatic fashion making use of the algorithm. To this end, recursive expressions are applied to a symbolic computation system REDUCE. As a concrete result, a complete kinematic model for a six-jointed arm having all kinematic attributes is provided. Together with work space analysis, the computer-aided generation of kinematic equations in symbolic form will serve to liberate us from their cumbersome derivations. (author)
Salimi-Badr, Armin; Ebadzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Darlot, Christian
2018-01-01
In this paper, a novel system-level mathematical model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) for kinematic planning, is proposed. An arm composed of several segments presents a geometric redundancy. Thus, selecting one trajectory among an infinite number of possible ones requires overcoming redundancy, according to some kinds of optimization. Solving this optimization is assumed to be the function of BG in planning. In the proposed model, first, a mathematical solution of kinematic planning is proposed for movements of a redundant arm in a plane, based on minimizing energy consumption. Next, the function of each part in the model is interpreted as a possible role of a nucleus of BG. Since the kinematic variables are considered as vectors, the proposed model is presented based on the vector calculus. This vector model predicts different neuronal populations in BG which is in accordance with some recent experimental studies. According to the proposed model, the function of the direct pathway is to calculate the necessary rotation of each joint, and the function of the indirect pathway is to control each joint rotation considering the movement of the other joints. In the proposed model, the local feedback loop between Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus externus is interpreted as a local memory to store the previous amounts of movements of the other joints, which are utilized by the indirect pathway. In this model, activities of dopaminergic neurons would encode, at short-term, the error between the desired and actual positions of the end-effector. The short-term modulating effect of dopamine on Striatum is also modeled as cross product. The model is simulated to generate the commands of a redundant manipulator. The performance of the model is studied for different reaching movements between 8 points in a plane. Finally, some symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as bradykinesia and akinesia are simulated by modifying the model parameters, inspired by the dopamine depletion
Geometric technique for the kinematic modeling of a 5 DOF redundant manipulator
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Makondo, N
2012-11-01
Full Text Available ,? Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Sistemistica (DEIS), Universit a di Bologna [Online]; Available at: http://www- lar.deis.unibo.it/people/cmelchiorri/Files Robotica/FIR 04 Kinem.pdf[31 October 2012] [18] Manocha, D.; Canny, J.F.; , ?Efficient... to the inverse kinematics of the Pioneer 2 robotic arm ?, Robotica, 2005, vol.23, pp.123, DOI: 10.1017/S0263574704000529 [20] De Xu, Carlos A. Acosta Calderon, John Q. Gan etc .An Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for a 5-DOF Manipulator, International...
Inverse kinematics of a dual linear actuator pitch/roll heliostat
Freeman, Joshua; Shankar, Balakrishnan; Sundaram, Ganesh
2017-06-01
This work presents a simple, computationally efficient inverse kinematics solution for a pitch/roll heliostat using two linear actuators. The heliostat design and kinematics have been developed, modeled and tested using computer simulation software. A physical heliostat prototype was fabricated to validate the theoretical computations and data. Pitch/roll heliostats have numerous advantages including reduced cost potential and reduced space requirements, with a primary disadvantage being the significantly more complicated kinematics, which are solved here. Novel methods are applied to simplify the inverse kinematics problem which could be applied to other similar problems.
Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt
Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying
2018-03-01
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.
Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu
2011-01-01
The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.
A three-dimensional kinematic model for the dissolution of crystals
Tellier, C. R.
1989-06-01
The two-dimensional kinematic theory developed by Frank is extended into three dimensions. It is shown that the theoretical equations for the propagation vector associated with the displacement of a moving surface element can be directly derived from the polar equation of the slowness surface.
El Habachi, Aimad; Moissenet, Florent; Duprey, Sonia; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël
2015-07-01
Sensitivity analysis is a typical part of biomechanical models evaluation. For lower limb multi-body models, sensitivity analyses have been mainly performed on musculoskeletal parameters, more rarely on the parameters of the joint models. This study deals with a global sensitivity analysis achieved on a lower limb multi-body model that introduces anatomical constraints at the ankle, tibiofemoral, and patellofemoral joints. The aim of the study was to take into account the uncertainty of parameters (e.g. 2.5 cm on the positions of the skin markers embedded in the segments, 5° on the orientation of hinge axis, 2.5 mm on the origin and insertion of ligaments) using statistical distributions and propagate it through a multi-body optimisation method used for the computation of joint kinematics from skin markers during gait. This will allow us to identify the most influential parameters on the minimum of the objective function of the multi-body optimisation (i.e. the sum of the squared distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions) and on the joint angles and displacements. To quantify this influence, a Fourier-based algorithm of global sensitivity analysis coupled with a Latin hypercube sampling is used. This sensitivity analysis shows that some parameters of the motor constraints, that is to say the distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions, and the kinematic constraints are highly influencing the joint kinematics obtained from the lower limb multi-body model, for example, positions of the skin markers embedded in the shank and pelvis, parameters of the patellofemoral hinge axis, and parameters of the ankle and tibiofemoral ligaments. The resulting standard deviations on the joint angles and displacements reach 36° and 12 mm. Therefore, personalisation, customisation or identification of these most sensitive parameters of the lower limb multi-body models may be considered as essential.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Gouasmi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The simulation of robot systems is becoming very popular, especially with the lowering of the cost of computers, and it can be used for layout evaluation, feasibility studies, presentations with animation and off-line programming. The trajectory planning of redundant manipulators is a very active area since many tasks require special characteristics to be satisfied. The importance of redundant manipulators has increased over the last two decades because of the possibility of avoiding singularities as well as obstacles within the course of motion. The angle that the last link of a 2 DOF manipulator makes with the x-axis is required in order to find the solution for the inverse kinematics problem. This angle could be optimized with respect to a given specified key factor (time, velocity, torques while the end-effector performs a chosen trajectory (i.e., avoiding an obstacle in the task space. Modeling and simulation of robots could be achieved using either of the following models: the geometrical model (positions, postures, the kinematic model and the dynamic model. To do so, the modelization of a 2-R robot type is implemented. Our main tasks are comparing two robot postures with the same trajectory (path and for the same length of time, and establishing a computing code to obtain the kinematic and dynamic parameters. SolidWorks and MATLAB/Simulink softwares are used to check the theory and the robot motion simulation. This could be easily generalized to a 3-R robot and possibly therefore to any serial robot (Scara, Puma, etc.. The verification of the obtained results by both softwares allows us to qualitatively evaluate and underline the validityof the chosen model and obtain the right conclusions. The results of the simulations are discussed and an agreement between the two softwares is certainly obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: girardi@oats.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); and others
2017-07-01
We perform a maximum likelihood kinematic analysis of the two dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 at z =0.44 and RXC J2248.7-4431 at z =0.35 to determine the total mass profile in modified gravity models, using a modified version of the MAMPOSSt code of Mamon, Biviano and Bou and apos;e. Our work is based on the kinematic and lensing mass profiles derived using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (hereafter CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (hereafter CLASH-VLT). We assume a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW hereafter) profile in order to obtain a constraint on the fifth force interaction range λ for models in which the dependence of this parameter on the environment is negligible at the scale considered (i.e. λ= const ) and fixing the fifth force strength to the value predicted in f (R) gravity. We then use information from lensing analysis to put a prior on the other NFW free parameters. In the case of MACSJ 1206 the joint kinematic+lensing analysis leads to an upper limit on the effective interaction range λ≤1.61 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71 on the marginalized distribution. For RXJ 2248 instead a possible tension with the ΛCDM model appears when adding lensing information, with a lower limit λ≥0.14 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71. This is consequence of the slight difference between the lensing and kinematic data, appearing in GR for this cluster, that could in principle be explained in terms of modifications of gravity. We discuss the impact of systematics and the limits of our analysis as well as future improvements of the results obtained. This work has interesting implications in view of upcoming and future large imaging and spectroscopic surveys, that will deliver lensing and kinematic mass reconstruction for a large number of galaxy clusters.
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Nonperturbative treatment of reduced model with fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez, W.R.
1983-01-01
A nonperturbative method is presented to show that the reduced model produces the correct leading large-N contribution to the fermion Green's functions. A new form of the reduced model is introduced, which avoids the quenching procedure. Also the equation for the meson bound states is discussed. The method is illustrated in the case of two-dimensional QCD
A Kinematic Model of Slow Slip Constrained by Tremor-Derived Slip Histories in Cascadia
Schmidt, D. A.; Houston, H.
2016-12-01
We explore new ways to constrain the kinematic slip distributions for large slow slip events using constraints from tremor. Our goal is to prescribe one or more slip pulses that propagate across the fault and scale appropriately to satisfy the observations. Recent work (Houston, 2015) inferred a crude representative stress time history at an average point using the tidal stress history, the static stress drop, and the timing of the evolution of tidal sensitivity of tremor over several days of slip. To convert a stress time history into a slip time history, we use simulations to explore the stressing history of a small locked patch due to an approaching rupture front. We assume that the locked patch releases strain through a series of tremor bursts whose activity rate is related to the stressing history. To test whether the functional form of a slip pulse is reasonable, we assume a hypothetical slip time history (Ohnaka pulse) timed with the occurrence of tremor to create a rupture front that propagates along the fault. The duration of the rupture front for a fault patch is constrained by the observed tremor catalog for the 2010 ETS event. The slip amplitude is scaled appropriately to match the observed surface displacements from GPS. Through a forward simulation, we evaluate the ability of the tremor-derived slip history to accurately predict the pattern of surface displacements observed by GPS. We find that the temporal progression of surface displacements are well modeled by a 2-4 day slip pulse, suggesting that some of the longer duration of slip typically found in time-dependent GPS inversions is biased by the temporal smoothing. However, at some locations on the fault, the tremor lingers beyond the passage of the slip pulse. A small percentage (5-10%) of the tremor appears to be activated ahead of the approaching slip pulse, and tremor asperities experience a driving stress on the order of 10 kPa/day. Tremor amplitude, rather than just tremor counts, is needed
Chistolini, Filippo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Consonni, Davide; Cortinovis, Silvia
2014-05-01
performed a dip-domain analysis that allowed to categorize the different fold limbs and reduce the uncertainty in the reconstruction of the fault network topology in map view. This enabled us to reconstruct a high-quality, low-uncertainty 3D structural and geological model, which unambiguously proves that deformations with a top-to-WSW Dinaric transport direction propagate farther to the west than previously supposed in this part of the Southern Alps. Our new structural reconstruction of the Vajont valley have also clarified the structural control on the 1963 catastrophic landslide (which caused over 2000 losses). Besides being a challenging natural laboratory for testing analysis and modelling methodologies to be used when reconstructing in 3D this kind of complex interference structures, the Vajont area also provides useful clues on the still-enigmatic structures in the frontal part of the Friuli-Venetian Southern Alps, buried in the Venetian Plain foredeep. These include active seismogenic thrust-faults and, at the same time, represent a growing interest for the oil industry.
A numerical study of linear and nonlinear kinematic models in fish swimming with the DSD/SST method
Tian, Fang-Bao
2015-03-01
Flow over two fish (modeled by two flexible plates) in tandem arrangement is investigated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically with the DSD/SST method to understand the differences between the geometrically linear and nonlinear models. In the simulation, the motions of the plates are reconstructed from a vertically flowing soap film tunnel experiment with linear and nonlinear kinematic models. Based on the simulations, the drag, lift, power consumption, vorticity and pressure fields are discussed in detail. It is found that the linear and nonlinear models are able to reasonably predict the forces and power consumption of a single plate in flow. Moreover, if multiple plates are considered, these two models yield totally different results, which implies that the nonlinear model should be used. The results presented in this work provide a guideline for future studies in fish swimming.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Sereno
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oh Soo Kwon
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.
Properties of kinematic singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2009-11-07
The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.
Cerveri, P; Lopomo, N; Pedotti, A; Ferrigno, G
2005-03-01
In the field of 3D reconstruction of human motion from video, model-based techniques have been proposed to increase the estimation accuracy and the degree of automation. The feasibility of this approach is strictly connected with the adopted biomechanical model. Particularly, the representation of the kinematic chain and the assessment of the corresponding parameters play a relevant role for the success of the motion assessment. In this paper, the focus is on the determination of the kinematic parameters of a general hand skeleton model using surface measurements. A novel method that integrates nonrigid sphere fitting and evolutionary optimization is proposed to estimate the centers and the functional axes of rotation of the skeletal joints. The reliability of the technique is tested using real movement data and simulated motions with known ground truth 3D measurement noise and different ranges of motion (RoM). With respect to standard nonrigid sphere fitting techniques, the proposed method performs 10-50% better in the best condition (very low noise and wide RoM) and over 100% better with physiological artifacts and RoM. Repeatability in the range of a couple of millimeters, on the localization of the centers of rotation, and in the range of one degree, on the axis directions is obtained from real data experiments.
Rojas, Nicolas; Dollar, Aaron M
2017-07-01
This paper proposes a novel and simple method to compute all possible solutions of the inverse kinematics problem of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint. This thumb model is one of the suggested results by a magnetic-resonance-imaging-based study that, in contrast to those based on cadaver fingers or on the tracking of the surface of the fingers, takes into account muscle and ligament behaviors and avoids inaccuracies resulting from the movement of the skin with respect to the bones. The proposed distance-based inverse kinematics method eliminates the use of arbitrary reference frames as is usually required by standard approaches; this is relevant because the numerical conditioning of the resulting system of equations with such traditional approaches depends on the selected reference frames. Moreover, contrary to other parametrizations (e.g., Denavit-Hartenberg parameters), the suggested distance-based parameters for the thumb have a natural, human-understandable geometric meaning that makes them easier to be determined from any posture. These characteristics make the proposed approach of interest for those working in, for instance, measuring and modeling the movement of the human hand, developing rehabilitation devices such as orthoses and prostheses, or designing anthropomorphic robotic hands.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, DR
2017-01-01
and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution....../lithosphere system to test hypotheses on the dynamics driving this change. These indicate that the arrival of the OJP at the Melanesian arc, between 10 and 5 Ma, followed by a subduction polarity reversal that marked the initiation of subduction of the Australian plate underneath the Pacific realm, were the key...... drivers of this kinematic change....
The Numerical FEM Model of the Kinematics of the Vibratory Shot Peening Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanisław Bławucki
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical calculations, with the finite element method in the ABAQUS program environment, of the vibratory shot peening process with loose peening elements. The behaviour of shot peening elements was analysed in the kinematic aspect. The impact of the initial deployment of vibratory shot peening elements on their behaviour during processing was investigated, including the displacement, velocity, acceleration and the number of collisions. The way of determining the effectiveness of the processing with the vibratory shot peening was illustrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Napolitani, P.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Armbruster, P.
2003-04-01
Secondary reactions induced by relativistic beams in inverse kinematics in a thick target are relevant in several fields of experimental physics and technology, like secondary radioactive beams, production of exotic nuclei close to the proton drip line, and cross-section measurements for applications of spallation reactions for energy production and incineration of nuclear wastes. A general mathematical formulation is presented and successively applied as a tool to disentangle the primary reaction yields from the secondary production in the measurement of fission of a 238 U projectile impinging on a proton target at the energy of 1 A GeV. (orig.)
Kinematic model of some types of motion of matter in active regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platov, Yu.V.
1983-01-01
The kinematics of matter motion in variable magnetic fields of active regions on the Sun in the MHD approximation of a strong field and cold plasma is investigated. It is shown that the variation of sunspot magnetic moments lead to the development of different active phenomena in the solar atmosphere. The development of such phenomena at first can occur at the phase of active region growth, when new sunspots together with developed sunspots emerge in an active region or relative motions take place in a sunspot group
Ngeo, Jimson G; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro
2014-08-14
Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are often used in many robot and rehabilitation applications because these reflect motor intentions of users very well. However, very few studies have focused on the accurate and proportional control of the human hand using EMG signals. Many have focused on discrete gesture classification and some have encountered inherent problems such as electro-mechanical delays (EMD). Here, we present a new method for estimating simultaneous and multiple finger kinematics from multi-channel surface EMG signals. In this study, surface EMG signals from the forearm and finger kinematic data were extracted from ten able-bodied subjects while they were tasked to do individual and simultaneous multiple finger flexion and extension movements in free space. Instead of using traditional time-domain features of EMG, an EMG-to-Muscle Activation model that parameterizes EMD was used and shown to give better estimation performance. A fast feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) and a nonparametric Gaussian Process (GP) regressor were both used and evaluated to estimate complex finger kinematics, with the latter rarely used in the other related literature. The estimation accuracies, in terms of mean correlation coefficient, were 0.85 ± 0.07, 0.78 ± 0.06 and 0.73 ± 0.04 for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) finger joint DOFs, respectively. The mean root-mean-square error in each individual DOF ranged from 5 to 15%. We show that estimation improved using the proposed muscle activation inputs compared to other features, and that using GP regression gave better estimation results when using fewer training samples. The proposed method provides a viable means of capturing the general trend of finger movements and shows a good way of estimating finger joint kinematics using a muscle activation model that parameterizes EMD. The results from this study demonstrates a potential control
Zhang, Yong-de; Jiang, Jin-gang; Liang, Ting; Hu, Wei-ping
2011-12-01
Artificial teeth are very complicated in shape, and not easy to be grasped and manipulated accurately by a single robot. The method of tooth-arrangement by multi-manipulator for complete denture manufacturing proposed in this paper. A novel complete denture manufacturing mechanism is designed based on multi-manipulator and dental arch generator. Kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot is built by analytical method based on tooth-arrangement principle for full denture. Preliminary experiments on tooth-arrangement are performed using the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system. The multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system can automatically design and manufacture a set of complete denture that is suitable for a patient according to the jaw arch parameters. The experimental results verified the validity of kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot and the feasibility of the manufacture strategy of complete denture fulfilled by multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot.
Vascular stents: Coupling full 3-D with reduced-order structural models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avdeev, I; Shams, M
2010-01-01
Self-expanding nitinol stents are used to treat peripheral arterial disease. The peripheral arteries are subjected to a combination of mechanical forces such as compression, torsion, bending, and contraction. Most commercially available peripheral self-expanding stents are composed of a series of sub-millimeter V-shaped struts, which are laser-cut from a nitinol tube and surface-treated for better fatigue performance. The numerical stent models must accurately predict location and distribution of local stresses and strains caused by large arterial deformations. Full 3-D finite element non-linear analysis of an entire stent is computationally expensive to the point of being prohibitive, especially for longer stents. Reduced-order models based on beam or shell elements are fairly accurate in capturing global deformations, but are not very helpful in predicting stent failure. We propose a mixed approach that combines the full 3-D model and reduced-order models. Several global-local, full 3-D/reduced-order finite element models of a peripheral self-expanding stent were validated and compared with experimental data. The kinematic constraint method used to couple various elements together was found to be very efficient and easily applicable to commercial FEA codes. The proposed mixed models can be used to accurately predict stent failure based on realistic (patient-specific), non-linear kinematic behavior of peripheral arteries.
Tan, Yaoyuan V; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A C
2017-09-01
As connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with human drivers. One of the challenges for CAVs is that human drivers do not communicate their decisions well. Fortunately, the kinematic behavior of a human-driven vehicle may be a good predictor of driver intent within a short time frame. We analyzed the kinematic time series data (e.g., speed) for a set of drivers making left turns at intersections to predict whether the driver would stop before executing the turn. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to generate independent dimensions that explain the variation in vehicle speed before a turn. These dimensions remained relatively consistent throughout the maneuver, allowing us to compute independent scores on these dimensions for different time windows throughout the approach to the intersection. We then linked these PCA scores to whether a driver would stop before executing a left turn using the random intercept Bayesian additive regression trees. Five more road and observable vehicle characteristics were included to enhance prediction. Our model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.84 at 94m away from the center of an intersection and steadily increased to 0.90 by 46m away from the center of an intersection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.
Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang, Youngsuk, E-mail: ysbang00@fnctech.com [FNC Technology, Co. Ltd., Yongin-si (Korea, Republic of); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S., E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jessee, Matthew A., E-mail: jesseema@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur, E-mail: mertyurek@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.
He, Zhitao; Chen, Wufan; Wang, Fenghua; Feng, Miaolin
2017-11-01
A kinematic hardening constitutive model is presented, in which a modified form of von Mises yield function is adopted, and the initial asymmetric tension and compression yield stresses of magnesium (Mg) alloys at room temperature (RT) are considered. The hardening behavior was classified into slip, twinning, and untwinning deformation modes, and these were described by two forms of back stress to capture the mechanical response of Mg sheet alloys under cyclic loading tests at RT. Experimental values were obtained for AZ31B-O and AZ31B sheet alloys under both tension-compression-tension (T-C-T) and compression-tension (C-T) loadings to calibrate the parameters of back stresses in the proposed model. The predicted parameters of back stresses in the twinning and untwinning modes were expressed as a cubic polynomial. The predicted curves based on these parameters showed good agreement with the tests.
A Generic Approach to Self-localization and Mapping of Mobile Robots Without Using a Kinematic Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kesper, Patrick; Berscheid, Lars; Wörgötter, Florentin
2015-01-01
and environment of a robot. Scan-matching is applied to compensate for noisy IMU measurements. This approach does not require any robot-specific characteristics, e.g. wheel encoders or kinematic models. In principle, this minimal sensory setup can be mounted on different robot systems without major modifications...... to the underlying algorithms. The sensory setup with the probabilistic algorithm is tested in real-world experiments on two different kinds of robots: a simple two-wheeled robot and the six-legged hexapod AMOSII. The obtained results indicate a successful implementation of the approach and confirm its generic...... nature. On both robots, the SLAM problem can be solved with reasonable accuracy....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishta, Ejona
2016-01-01
Civil engineering buildings, massive and unique, are mostly made of reinforced or prestressed concrete. Sustainability, tightness and safety are the major pillars of a building's performance. Cracking is a major phenomenon which impacts the buildings' behaviour under different loadings in terms of sustainability and structural capacity. Development of numerical models which describe accurately the response of quasi-brittle materials under complex loading remains an important research topic for the scientific community. The objective of this work is the development of a numerical model which represents explicitly cracking of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete degradation process, characterised by the appearance of several anisotropic crack families, is described by means of an anisotropic damage model accounting for oriented crack families. The kinematics of this model is enriched with a displacement jump in order to reproduce the development of cracks in the material during loading. This displacement jump is identified as the crack opening. The developed model is validated on simulations of plain concrete structures exhibiting model as well as mixed-mode failure. The performances of the enriched model are shown by the simulation of reinforced concrete structures such as a shear wall submitted to cyclic loading. (author) [fr
Rose, Michael; Curtze, Carolin; O'Sullivan, Joseph; El-Gohary, Mahmoud; Crawford, Dennis; Friess, Darin; Brady, Jacqueline M
2017-12-01
To develop a model using wearable inertial sensors to assess the performance of orthopaedic residents while performing a diagnostic knee arthroscopy. Fourteen subjects performed a diagnostic arthroscopy on a cadaveric right knee. Participants were divided into novices (5 postgraduate year 3 residents), intermediates (5 postgraduate year 4 residents), and experts (4 faculty) based on experience. Arm movement data were collected by inertial measurement units (Opal sensors) by securing 2 sensors to each upper extremity (dorsal forearm and lateral arm) and 2 sensors to the trunk (sternum and lumbar spine). Kinematics of the elbow and shoulder joints were calculated from the inertial data by biomechanical modeling based on a sequence of links connected by joints. Range of motion required to complete the procedure was calculated for each group. Histograms were used to compare the distribution of joint positions for an expert, intermediate, and novice. For both the right and left upper extremities, skill level corresponded well with shoulder abduction-adduction and elbow prono-supination. Novices required on average 17.2° more motion in the right shoulder abduction-adduction plane than experts to complete the diagnostic arthroscopy (P = .03). For right elbow prono-supination (probe hand), novices required on average 23.7° more motion than experts to complete the procedure (P = .03). Histogram data showed novices had markedly more variability in shoulder abduction-adduction and elbow prono-supination compared with the other groups. Our data show wearable inertial sensors can measure joint kinematics during diagnostic knee arthroscopy. Range-of-motion data in the shoulder and elbow correlated inversely with arthroscopic experience. Motion pattern-based analysis shows promise as a metric of resident skill acquisition and development in arthroscopy. Wearable inertial sensors show promise as metrics of arthroscopic skill acquisition among residents. Copyright © 2017
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Paredes, J.A
2007-05-15
In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k{sup -2} source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w{sup 2} model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C{sub d}. To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C{sub d}, as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M{sub w} 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)
Constraining the kinematics of metropolitan Los Angeles faults with a slip-partitioning model.
Daout, S; Barbot, S; Peltzer, G; Doin, M-P; Liu, Z; Jolivet, R
2016-11-16
Due to the limited resolution at depth of geodetic and other geophysical data, the geometry and the loading rate of the ramp-décollement faults below the metropolitan Los Angeles are poorly understood. Here we complement these data by assuming conservation of motion across the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault. Using a Bayesian approach, we constrain the geometry of the ramp-décollement system from the Mojave block to Los Angeles and propose a partitioning of the convergence with 25.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr and 3.1 ± 0.6 mm/yr of strike-slip motion along the San Andreas Fault and the Whittier Fault, with 2.7 ± 0.9 mm/yr and 2.5 ± 1.0 mm/yr of updip movement along the Sierra Madre and the Puente Hills thrusts. Incorporating conservation of motion in geodetic models of strain accumulation reduces the number of free parameters and constitutes a useful methodology to estimate the tectonic loading and seismic potential of buried fault networks.
Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.
Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S
2015-06-01
Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
BWR stability using a reducing dynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballestrin Bolea, J. M.; Blazquez Martinez, J. B.
1990-01-01
BWR stability can be treated with reduced order dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from experimental data, the predictions are accurate. In this work an alternative derivation for the void fraction equation is made, but remarking the physical structure of the parameters. As the poles of power/reactivity transfer function are related with the parameters, the measurement of the poles by other techniques such as noise analysis will lead to the parameters, but the system of equations is non-linear. Simple parametric calculation of decay ratio are performed, showing why BWRs become unstable when they are operated at low flow and high power. (Author)
Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang, Y.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Jessee, M. A.; Mertyurek, U. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2013-07-01
While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system. (authors)
Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan
2007-01-01
Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the
Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models
Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan
2007-11-01
Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the
Saidi, Hiba; Erath, Byron D.
2015-11-01
The vocal folds play a major role in human communication by initiating voiced sound production. During voiced speech, the vocal folds are set into sustained vibrations. Synthetic self-oscillating vocal fold models are regularly employed to gain insight into flow-structure interactions governing the phonation process. Commonly, a fixed boundary condition is applied to the lateral, anterior, and posterior sides of the synthetic vocal fold models. However, physiological observations reveal the presence of adipose tissue on the lateral surface between the thyroid cartilage and the vocal folds. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of including this substrate layer of adipose tissue on the dynamics of phonation. For a more realistic representation of the human vocal folds, synthetic multi-layer vocal fold models have been fabricated and tested while including a soft lateral layer representative of adipose tissue. Phonation parameters have been collected and are compared to those of the standard vocal fold models. Results show that vocal fold kinematics are affected by adding the adipose tissue layer as a new boundary condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Díaz, Ma. T.; López, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G.
2012-01-01
The three-dimensional and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret in detail given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. We present a comprehensive, spatially resolved, high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allows us to construct a velocity-resolved [N II] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km s –1 that disentangles its different kinematic components. The spectroscopic information is combined with Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a detailed three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the Eskimo using the code SHAPE. With this model we demonstrate that the Eskimo is a close analog to the Saturn and the Cat's Eye nebulae, but rotated 90° to the line of sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae or FLIERS, once the orientation is considered. We conclude that this kind of nebula belongs to a class with a complex common evolutionary sequence of events.
Kinematic cross-correlation induces sensory integration across separate objects.
Debats, Nienke B; Ernst, Marc O; Heuer, Herbert
2017-12-01
In a basic cursor-control task, the perceived positions of the hand and the cursor are biased towards each other. We recently found that this phenomenon conforms to the reliability-based weighting mechanism of optimal multisensory integration. This indicates that optimal integration is not restricted to sensory signals originating from a single source, as is the prevailing view, but that it also applies to separate objects that are connected by a kinematic relation (i.e. hand and cursor). In the current study, we examined which aspects of the kinematic relation are crucial for eliciting the sensory integration: (i) the cross-correlation between kinematic variables of the hand and cursor trajectories, and/or (ii) an internal model of the hand-cursor kinematic transformation. Participants made out-and-back movements from the centre of a semicircular workspace to its boundary, after which they judged the position where either their hand or the cursor hit the boundary. We analysed the position biases and found that the integration was strong in a condition with high kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was mapped to a straight cursor trajectory), that it was significantly reduced for reduced kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was transformed into a curved cursor trajectory) and that it was not affected by the inability to acquire an internal model of the kinematic transformation (i.e. by the trial-to-trial variability of the cursor curvature). These findings support the idea that correlations play a crucial role in multisensory integration irrespective of the number of sensory sources involved. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Modeling the kinematics of multi-axial composite laminates as a stacking of 2D TIF plies
Ibañez, Ruben; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Chinesta, Francisco; Huerta, Antonio
2016-10-01
Thermoplastic composites are widely considered in structural parts. In this paper attention is paid to sheet forming of continuous fiber laminates. In the case of unidirectional prepregs, the ply constitutive equation is modeled as a transversally isotropic fluid, that must satisfy both the fiber inextensibility as well as the fluid incompressibility. When the stacking sequence involves plies with different orientations the kinematics of each ply during the laminate deformation varies significantly through the composite thickness. In our former works we considered two different approaches when simulating the squeeze flow induced by the laminate compression, the first based on a penalty formulation and the second one based on the use of Lagrange multipliers. In the present work we propose an alternative approach that consists in modeling each ply involved in the laminate as a transversally isotropic fluid - TIF - that becomes 2D as soon as incompressibility constraint and plane stress assumption are taken into account. Thus, composites laminates can be analyzed as a stacking of 2D TIF models that could eventually interact by using adequate friction laws at the inter-ply interfaces.
Reduced cost mission design using surrogate models
Feldhacker, Juliana D.; Jones, Brandon A.; Doostan, Alireza; Hampton, Jerrad
2016-01-01
This paper uses surrogate models to reduce the computational cost associated with spacecraft mission design in three-body dynamical systems. Sampling-based least squares regression is used to project the system response onto a set of orthogonal bases, providing a representation of the ΔV required for rendezvous as a reduced-order surrogate model. Models are presented for mid-field rendezvous of spacecraft in orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem, including a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 libration point (EML-2) and a distant retrograde orbit (DRO) about the Moon. In each case, the initial position of the spacecraft, the time of flight, and the separation between the chaser and the target vehicles are all considered as design inputs. The results show that sample sizes on the order of 102 are sufficient to produce accurate surrogates, with RMS errors reaching 0.2 m/s for the halo orbit and falling below 0.01 m/s for the DRO. A single function call to the resulting surrogate is up to two orders of magnitude faster than computing the same solution using full fidelity propagators. The expansion coefficients solved for in the surrogates are then used to conduct a global sensitivity analysis of the ΔV on each of the input parameters, which identifies the separation between the spacecraft as the primary contributor to the ΔV cost. Finally, the models are demonstrated to be useful for cheap evaluation of the cost function in constrained optimization problems seeking to minimize the ΔV required for rendezvous. These surrogate models show significant advantages for mission design in three-body systems, in terms of both computational cost and capabilities, over traditional Monte Carlo methods.
Boser, Quinn A; Valevicius, Aïda M; Lavoie, Ewen B; Chapman, Craig S; Pilarski, Patrick M; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Vette, Albert H
2018-04-27
Quantifying angular joint kinematics of the upper body is a useful method for assessing upper limb function. Joint angles are commonly obtained via motion capture, tracking markers placed on anatomical landmarks. This method is associated with limitations including administrative burden, soft tissue artifacts, and intra- and inter-tester variability. An alternative method involves the tracking of rigid marker clusters affixed to body segments, calibrated relative to anatomical landmarks or known joint angles. The accuracy and reliability of applying this cluster method to the upper body has, however, not been comprehensively explored. Our objective was to compare three different upper body cluster models with an anatomical model, with respect to joint angles and reliability. Non-disabled participants performed two standardized functional upper limb tasks with anatomical and cluster markers applied concurrently. Joint angle curves obtained via the marker clusters with three different calibration methods were compared to those from an anatomical model, and between-session reliability was assessed for all models. The cluster models produced joint angle curves which were comparable to and highly correlated with those from the anatomical model, but exhibited notable offsets and differences in sensitivity for some degrees of freedom. Between-session reliability was comparable between all models, and good for most degrees of freedom. Overall, the cluster models produced reliable joint angles that, however, cannot be used interchangeably with anatomical model outputs to calculate kinematic metrics. Cluster models appear to be an adequate, and possibly advantageous alternative to anatomical models when the objective is to assess trends in movement behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fereshteh Dardmeh
Full Text Available Probiotics have been proposed as alternatives to pharmacological products in several medical conditions including the modulation of obesity, which is frequently associated with poor semen quality. However, effects of probiotics on male fertility have been less investigated. This study assessed the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM-14870 on sperm kinematic parameters in Normal-weight (NW and diet-induced obese (DIO models. NW and DIO C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into two subgroups with or without a single daily dose (1x109CFU of L. rhamnosus for four weeks. Sperm motility and kinematics together with blood lipid profiles and reproductive hormone levels were assessed using the sperm class analyzer system. Probiotic supplementation increased serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels in both NW and DIO groups resulting in significantly (P<0.05 higher velocity (VSL, VCL and VAP and percentages of progressively motile sperm and significantly lower percentages of immotile sperm. Other kinematic parameters (Lin, STR, ALH and BCF were also increased in both probiotic supplemented DIO and NW groups at the 10% level of significance. Probiotic supplemented DIO mice demonstrated significantly higher percentages of progressively motile sperm versus DIO controls. This study demonstrated the potential of L. rhamnosus PB01 as a regulatory agent with positive effects on weight loss and reproductive-hormones, significantly improving sperm motility and kinematic parameters in male DIO models.
BWR stability using a reduced dynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballestrin Bolea, J.M.; Blazquez, J.B.
1990-01-01
BWR stability can be treated with reduced order dynamical models. When the parameters of the model came from experimental data, the predictions are accurate. In this work an alternative derivation for the void fraction equation is made, but remarking the physical struct-ure of the parameters. As the poles of power/reactivity transfer function are related with the parameters, the measurement of the poles by other techniques such as noise analysis will lead to the parameters, but the system of equations in non-linear. Simple parametric calculat-ion of decay ratio are performed, showing why BWRs become unstable when they are operated at low flow and high power. (Author). 7 refs
Begon, Mickaël; Andersen, Michael Skipper; Dumas, Raphaël
2018-03-01
Multibody kinematics optimization (MKO) aims to reduce soft tissue artefact (STA) and is a key step in musculoskeletal modeling. The objective of this review was to identify the numerical methods, their validation and performance for the estimation of the human joint kinematics using MKO. Seventy-four papers were extracted from a systematized search in five databases and cross-referencing. Model-derived kinematics were obtained using either constrained optimization or Kalman filtering to minimize the difference between measured (i.e., by skin markers, electromagnetic or inertial sensors) and model-derived positions and/or orientations. While hinge, universal, and spherical joints prevail, advanced models (e.g., parallel and four-bar mechanisms, elastic joint) have been introduced, mainly for the knee and shoulder joints. Models and methods were evaluated using: (i) simulated data based, however, on oversimplified STA and joint models; (ii) reconstruction residual errors, ranging from 4 mm to 40 mm; (iii) sensitivity analyses which highlighted the effect (up to 36 deg and 12 mm) of model geometrical parameters, joint models, and computational methods; (iv) comparison with other approaches (i.e., single body kinematics optimization and nonoptimized kinematics); (v) repeatability studies that showed low intra- and inter-observer variability; and (vi) validation against ground-truth bone kinematics (with errors between 1 deg and 22 deg for tibiofemoral rotations and between 3 deg and 10 deg for glenohumeral rotations). Moreover, MKO was applied to various movements (e.g., walking, running, arm elevation). Additional validations, especially for the upper limb, should be undertaken and we recommend a more systematic approach for the evaluation of MKO. In addition, further model development, scaling, and personalization methods are required to better estimate the secondary degrees-of-freedom (DoF).
Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity
Tiglio, Manuel
2014-03-01
Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).
Rak, Adam J.; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ehlers, Todd A.
2017-11-01
Quantifying mountain building processes in convergent orogens requires determination of the timing and rate of deformation in the overriding plate. In the central Andes, large discrepancies in both timing and rate of deformation prevent evaluating the shortening history in light of internal or external forcing factors. Geologic map patterns, age and location of reset thermochronometer systems, and synorogenic sediment distribution are all a function of the geometry, kinematics, and rate of deformation in a fold-thrust-belt-foreland basin (FTB-FB) system. To determine the timing and rate of deformation in the northern Bolivian Andes, we link thermokinematic modeling to a sequentially forward modeled, balanced cross section isostatically accounting for thrust loads and erosion. Displacement vectors, in 10 km increments, are assigned variable ages to create velocity fields in a thermokinematic model for predicting thermochronometer ages. We match both the pattern of predicted cooling ages with the across strike pattern of measured zircon fission track, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages as well as the modeled age of FB formations to published sedimentary sections. Results indicate that northern Bolivian FTB deformation started at 50 Ma and may have begun as early as 55 Ma. Acceptable rates of shortening permit either a constant rate of shortening ( 4-5 mm/yr) or varying shortening rates with faster rates (7-10 mm/yr) at 45-50 Ma and 12-8 Ma, significantly slower rates (2-4 mm/yr) from 35 to 15 Ma and indicate the northern Bolivian Subandes started deforming between 19 and 14 Ma.
Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F
2004-08-01
In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).
Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU.
Zhao, Xu; Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning
2018-03-16
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot's motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot's navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.
Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Zhao
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU. First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD. In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.
Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU
Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning
2018-01-01
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots. PMID:29547515
Uncertainty estimation and multi sensor fusion for kinematic laser tracker measurements
Ulrich, Thomas
2013-08-01
Laser trackers are widely used to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in the kinematic measurement include approximations specified by the manufacturers, various analytical adjustment methods and the Kalman filter. In this paper a new, real-time technique is proposed, which estimates the 4D-path (3D-position + time) uncertainty of an arbitrary path in space. Here a hybrid system estimator is applied in conjunction with the kinematic measurement model. This method can be applied to processes, which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. The new approach is compared with the Kalman filter and a manufacturer's approximations. The comparison was made using data obtained by tracking an industrial robot's tool centre point with a Leica laser tracker AT901 and a Leica laser tracker LTD500. It shows that the new approach is more appropriate to analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter, as it reduces overshoots and decreases the estimated variance. In comparison with the manufacturer's approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour with an improved description of the real measurement process and a reduction in estimated variance. This approach is therefore well suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour as well as the fusion among laser trackers.
The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction
Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen
2014-01-01
Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)
1996-09-01
Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.
Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo
2010-12-01
The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.
Internal kinematics and dynamical models of dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way
Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Breddels, Maarten
We review our current understanding of the internal dynamical properties of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies surrounding the Milky Way. These are the most dark matter dominated galaxies, and as such may be considered ideal laboratories to test the current concordance cosmological model, and in
Modeling for control of a kinematic wobble-yoke Stirling engine
Garcia-Canseco, Eloisa; Alvarez-Aguirre, Alejandro; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.
In this paper we derive the dynamical model of a four-cylinder double-acting wobble-yoke Stirling engine. In addition to the classical thermodynamics methods that dominate the literature of Stirling mechanisms, we present a control systems viewpoint to analyze the dynamic properties of the engine.
Marra, M.A.; Andersen, M.S.; Damsgaard, M.; Koopman, B.; Janssen, D.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.
2017-01-01
Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal (MS) models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact, and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal
Marra, Marco Antonio; Andersen, Michael S.; Damsgaard, Michael; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico
2017-01-01
Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal (MS) models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact, and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal
Luijendijk, Elco; von Hagke, Christoph; Hindle, David
2017-04-01
Due to a wealth of geological and thermochronology data the northern foreland basin of the European Alps is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. The northern foreland basin of the Alps has been exhumed since the Miocene. The timing, rate and cause of this phase of exhumation are still enigmatic. We compile all available thermochronology and organic maturity data and use a new thermal history model, PyBasin, to quantify the rate and timing of exhumation that can explain these data. In addition we quantify the amount of tectonic exhumation using a new kinematic model for the part of the basin that is passively moved above the detachment of the Jura Mountains. Our results show that the vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track data and cooling rates show no clear difference between the thrusted and folded part of the foreland basin and the undeformed part of the foreland basin. The undeformed plateau Molasse shows a high rate of cooling during the Neogene of 40 to 100 °C, which is equal to >1.0 km of exhumation. Calculated rates of exhumation suggest that drainage reorganization can only explain a small part of the observed exhumation and cooling. Similarly, tectonic transport over a detachment ramp cannot explain the magnitude, timing and wavelength of the observed cooling signal. We conclude that the observed cooling rates suggest large wavelength exhumation that is probably caused by lithospheric-scale processes. In contrast to previous studies we find that the timing of exhumation is poorly constrained. Uncertainty analysis shows that models with timing starting as early as 12 Ma or as late as 2 Ma can all explain the observed data.
Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic
2013-06-01
Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model described by Leardini et al. [2] in people aged 50 years or older. Twenty healthy adults participated (mean age 65.4 years SD 8.4). A repeated measures study design was used with data collected from four testing sessions on two days from two observers. Intra (within-day and between-day) and inter-observer coefficient of multiple correlations revealed moderate to excellent similarity of stance phase joint range of motion (0.621-0.975). Relative to the joint range of motion (ROM), mean differences (MD) between sessions were highest for the within-day comparison for all planar ROM at the metatarsus-midfoot articulation (sagittal plane ROM 5.2° vs. 3.9°, MD 3.1°; coronal plane ROM 3.9 vs. 3.1°, MD 2.3°; transverse plane ROM 6.8° vs. 5.16°, MD 3.5°). Consequently, data from the metatarsus-midfoot articulation in the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (IOR) foot model in adults aged over 50 years needs to be considered with respect to the findings of this study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Probabilistic error bounds for reduced order modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdo, M.G.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.S., E-mail: abdo@purdue.edu, E-mail: wang1730@purdue.edu, E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)
2015-07-01
Reduced order modeling has proven to be an effective tool when repeated execution of reactor analysis codes is required. ROM operates on the assumption that the intrinsic dimensionality of the associated reactor physics models is sufficiently small when compared to the nominal dimensionality of the input and output data streams. By employing a truncation technique with roots in linear algebra matrix decomposition theory, ROM effectively discards all components of the input and output data that have negligible impact on reactor attributes of interest. This manuscript introduces a mathematical approach to quantify the errors resulting from the discarded ROM components. As supported by numerical experiments, the introduced analysis proves that the contribution of the discarded components could be upper-bounded with an overwhelmingly high probability. The reverse of this statement implies that the ROM algorithm can self-adapt to determine the level of the reduction needed such that the maximum resulting reduction error is below a given tolerance limit that is set by the user. (author)
Spatio-kinematic modelling: Testing the link between planetary nebulae and close binaries
Jones, David; Tyndall, Amy A.; Huckvale, Leo; Prouse, Barnabas; Lloyd, Myfanwy
2011-01-01
It is widely believed that central star binarity plays an important role in the formation and evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae, however observational support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present the most recent results of a continuing programme to model the morphologies of all planetary nebulae known to host a close binary central star. Initially, this programme allows us to compare the inclination of the nebular symmetry axis to that of the binary plane, testing the theo...
Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems
Gariffo, James Michael
Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly
Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bui Thi Hai Linh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.
Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B
2010-10-01
Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators
Vuskovic, Marko I.
1989-01-01
Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.
Reduced order model of draft tube flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudolf, P; Štefan, D
2014-01-01
Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations
Comparison of Models for GPS Kinematic Data Processing%GPS动态定位数据处理模型的比较研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘立龙; 文鸿雁; 刘斌
2008-01-01
The characteristics of three GPS kinematic data processing models, Least Squares (LS), Kalman filtering and H ∞ filtering are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. With observational data and pertinent data processing software, the applicable condition, context and effect of the three models are experimented. Results show that when the mobile platform is in uniform motion, the accuracy of the three models are almost equal; when the mobile platform is in stochastic acceleration, the accuracy of H∞ filtering model is superior to that of LS, while that of Kalman filtering is the worst.
Duran, Cassidy; Estrada, Sean; O'Malley, Marcia; Lumsden, Alan B; Bismuth, Jean
2015-02-01
Endovascular robotics systems, now approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, are seeing rapid growth in interest. Determining who has sufficient expertise for safe and effective clinical use remains elusive. Our aim was to analyze performance on a robotic platform to determine what defines an expert user. During three sessions, 21 subjects with a range of endovascular expertise and endovascular robotic experience (novices 20 hours) performed four tasks on a training model. All participants completed a 2-hour training session on the robot by a certified instructor. Completion times, global rating scores, and motion metrics were collected to assess performance. Electromagnetic tracking was used to capture and to analyze catheter tip motion. Motion analysis was based on derivations of speed and position including spectral arc length and total number of submovements (inversely proportional to proficiency of motion) and duration of submovements (directly proportional to proficiency). Ninety-eight percent of competent subjects successfully completed the tasks within the given time, whereas 91% of noncompetent subjects were successful. There was no significant difference in completion times between competent and noncompetent users except for the posterior branch (151 s:105 s; P = .01). The competent users had more efficient motion as evidenced by statistically significant differences in the metrics of motion analysis. Users with >20 hours of experience performed significantly better than those newer to the system, independent of prior endovascular experience. This study demonstrates that motion-based metrics can differentiate novice from trained users of flexible robotics systems for basic endovascular tasks. Efficiency of catheter movement, consistency of performance, and learning curves may help identify users who are sufficiently trained for safe clinical use of the system. This work will help identify the learning curve and specific movements that
Kenaley, Christopher P; Lauder, George V
2016-07-01
The vast majority of ray-finned fishes capture prey through suction feeding. The basis of this behavior is the generation of subambient pressure through rapid expansion of a highly kinetic skull. Over the last four decades, results from in vivo experiments have elucidated the general relationships between morphological parameters and subambient pressure generation. Until now, however, researchers have been unable to tease apart the discrete contributions of, and complex relationships among, the musculoskeletal elements that support buccal expansion. Fortunately, over the last decade, biorobotic models have gained a foothold in comparative research and show great promise in addressing long-standing questions in vertebrate biomechanics. In this paper, we present BassBot, a biorobotic model of the head of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). BassBot incorporates a 3D acrylic plastic armature of the neurocranium, maxillary apparatus, lower jaw, hyoid, suspensorium and opercular apparatus. Programming of linear motors permits precise reproduction of live kinematic behaviors including hyoid depression and rotation, premaxillary protrusion, and lateral expansion of the suspensoria. BassBot reproduced faithful kinematic and pressure dynamics relative to live bass. We show that motor program speed has a direct relationship to subambient pressure generation. Like vertebrate muscle, the linear motors that powered kinematics were able to produce larger magnitudes of force at slower velocities and, thus, were able to accelerate linkages more quickly and generate larger magnitudes of subambient pressure. In addition, we demonstrate that disrupting the kinematic behavior of the hyoid interferes with the anterior-to-posterior expansion gradient. This resulted in a significant reduction in subambient pressure generation and pressure impulse of 51% and 64%, respectively. These results reveal the promise biorobotic models have for isolating individual parameters and assessing
Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.
2013-12-01
The great earthquake attacked the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. The system of electrical facilities to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following tsunamis. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and been diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure becomes a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplified the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed an exact model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that the above method accord too much with the actual mechanism of metabolism in human bodies, it becomes rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional hydrological tank model. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of this method is to estimate the energy radiated from the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of E. Fermi of beta decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this study are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no intentional and operational parameters of coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to observation of ICRP. Figure.1 compares time
Osth, Jonas; Olafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin
2013-11-01
The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13-44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3-19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible.
Latest Advances in Robot Kinematics
Husty, Manfred
2012-01-01
This book is of interest to researchers inquiring about modern topics and methods in the kinematics, control and design of robotic manipulators. It considers the full range of robotic systems, including serial, parallel and cable driven manipulators, both planar and spatial. The systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. In addition to recognized areas, this book also presents recent advances in emerging areas such as the design and control of humanoids and humanoid subsystems, and the analysis, modeling and simulation of human body motions, as well as the mobility analysis of protein molecules and the development of machines which incorporate man.
Yakirevich, Alexander; Dody, Avraham; Adar, Eilon M.; Borisov, Viacheslav; Geyh, Mebus
A new mathematical method based on a double-component model of kinematic wave flow and approach assesses the dynamic isotopic distribution in arid rain storms and runoff. This model describes the transport and δ18O evolution of rainfall to overland flow and runoff in an arid rocky watershed with uniformly distributed shallow depression storage. The problem was solved numerically. The model was calibrated using a set of temporal discharge and δ18O distribution data for rainfall and runoff collected on a small rocky watershed at the Sede Boker Experimental Site, Israel. Simulation of a reliable result with respect to observation was obtained after parameter adjustment by trial and error. Sensitivity analysis and model application were performed. The model is sensitive to changes in parameters characterizing the depression storage zones. The model reflects the effect of the isotopic memory in the water within the depression storage between sequential rain spells. The use of the double-component model of kinematic wave flow and transport provides an appropriate qualitative and quantitative fitting between computed and observed δ18O distribution in runoff. RésuméUne nouvelle méthode mathématique basée sur un modèle à double composante d'écoulement et de transport par une onde cinématique a été développée pour évaluer la distribution dynamique en isotopes dans les précipitations et dans l'écoulement en région aride. Ce modèle décrit le transport et les variations des δ18O de la pluie vers le ruissellement et l'écoulement de surface dans un bassin aride rocheux où le stockage se fait dans des dépressions peu profondes uniformément réparties. Le problème a été résolu numériquement. Le modèle a été calibré au moyen d'une chronique de débits et d'une distribution des δ18O dans la pluie et dans l'écoulement de surface sur un petit bassin versant rocheux du site expérimental de Sede Boker (Israël). La simulation d'un résultat cr
Zernickel, A.
2015-05-01
Context. How massive stars (M>8 Ms) form and how they accrete gas is still an open research field, but it is known that their influence on the interstellar medium (ISM) is immense. Star formation involves the gravitational collapse of gas from scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) down to dense hot molecular cores (HMCs). Thus, it is important to understand the mass flows and kinematics in the ISM. Aims. This dissertation focuses on the detailed study of the region NGC 6334, located in the Galaxy at a distance of 1.7 kpc. It is aimed to trace the gas velocities in the filamentary, massive star-forming region NGC 6334 at several scales and to explain its dynamics. For that purpose, different scales are examined from 0.01-10 pc to collect information about the density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity, and consequently to gain insights about the physio-chemical conditions of molecular clouds. The two embedded massive protostellar clusters NGC 6334I and I(N), which are at different stages of development, were selected to determine their infall velocities and mass accretion rates. Methods. This astronomical source was surveyed by a combination of different observatories, namely with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), the single-dish telescope Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). It was mapped with APEX in carbon monoxide (13CO and C18O, J=2-1) at 220.4 GHz to study the filamentary structure and turbulent kinematics on the largest scales of 10 pc. The spectral line profiles are decomposed by Gaussian fitting and a dendrogram algorithm is applied to distinguish velocity-coherent structures and to derive statistical properties. The velocity gradient method is used to derive mass flow rates. The main filament was mapped with APEX in hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and oxomethylium (HCO+, J=3-2) at 267.6 GHz to trace the dense gas. To reproduce the position- velocity diagram (PVD), a cylindrical model with the radiative transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-01-23
The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.
Reduced-order modelling of wind turbines
Elkington, K.; Slootweg, J.G.; Ghandhari, M.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.
2012-01-01
In this chapter power system dynamics simulation(PSDS) isused to study the dynamics of large-scale power systems. It is necessary to incorporate models of wind turbine generating systems into PSDS software packages in order to analyse the impact of high wind power penetration on electrical power
Reduced Order Modeling Methods for Turbomachinery Design
2009-03-01
and Ma- terials Conference, May 2006. [45] A. Gelman , J. B. Carlin, H. S. Stern, and D. B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis. New York, NY: Chapman I& Hall...Macian- Juan , and R. Chawla, “A statistical methodology for quantif ca- tion of uncertainty in best estimate code physical models,” Annals of Nuclear En
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Alipour, Hiva; Gazerani, Parisa
2017-01-01
Probiotics have been proposed as alternatives to pharmacological products in several medical conditions including the modulation of obesity, which is frequently associated with poor semen quality. However, effects of probiotics on male fertility have been less investigated. This study assessed...... the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM-14870) on sperm kinematic parameters in Normal-weight (NW) and diet-induced obese (DIO) models. NW and DIO C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into two subgroups with or without a single daily dose (1x109CFU) of L. rhamnosus for four weeks. Sperm motility...
Żuk, Magdalena; Pezowicz, Celina
2015-01-01
Objective. The purpose of the present work was to assess the validity of a six-degrees-of-freedom gait analysis model based on the ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems (ISB 6DOF) through a quantitative comparison with the Helen Hays model (HH) and repeatability assessment. Methods. Four healthy subjects were analysed with both marker sets: an HH marker set and four marker clusters in ISB 6DOF. A navigated pointer was used to indicate the anatomical landmark position in the cluster reference system according to the ISB recommendation. Three gait cycles were selected from the data collected simultaneously for the two marker sets. Results. Two protocols showed good intertrial repeatability, which apart from pelvic rotation did not exceed 2°. The greatest differences between protocols were observed in the transverse plane as well as for knee angles. Knee internal/external rotation revealed the lowest subject-to-subject and interprotocol repeatability and inconsistent patterns for both protocols. Knee range of movement in transverse plane was overestimated for the HH set (the mean is 34°), which could indicate the cross-talk effect. Conclusions. The ISB 6DOF anatomically based protocol enabled full 3D kinematic description of joints according to the current standard with clinically acceptable intertrial repeatability and minimal equipment requirements.
ADAPTATION MODEL FOR REDUCING THE MANAGERIAL STRESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VIOLETA GLIGOROVSKI
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Changes are an inseparable component of the company's life cycle and they can contribute to its essential growth in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explain managerial stress caused by implementation of changes and creating an adaptation model to decrease managerial stress. How much the manager will successfully lead the project for implementation of a change and how much they will manage to amortize stress among employees, mostly depends on their expertise, knowledge and skills to accurately and comprehensively inform and integrate the employees in the overall process. The adaptation model is actually a new approach and recommendation for managers for dealing with stress when the changes are implemented. Methodology. For this purpose, the data presented, in fact, were collected through a questionnaire that was submitted to 61 respondents/ managers. The data were measured using the Likert scale from 1 to 7. Namely, with the help of the Likert scale, quantification of stress was made in relation to the various variables that were identified as the most important for the researched issues. An adaption model (new approach for amortizing changes was created using the DIA Diagram application, to show the relations between manager and the relevant amortization approaches.
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....
Zurek, B.; Burnett, W. A.; deMartin, B.
2017-12-01
Ground motion models (GMMs) have historically been used as input in the development of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and as an engineering tool to assess risk in building design. Generally these equations are developed from empirical analysis of observations that come from fairly complete catalogs of seismic events. One of the challenges when doing a PSHA analysis in a region where earthquakes are anthropogenically induced is that the catalog of observations is not complete enough to come up with a set of equations to cover all expected outcomes. For example, PSHA analysis at the Groningen gas field, an area of known induced seismicity, requires estimates of ground motions from tremors up to a maximum magnitude of 6.5 ML. Of the roughly 1300 recordable earthquakes the maximum observed magnitude to date has been 3.6ML. This paper is part of a broader study where we use a deterministic finite-difference wave-form modeling tool to compliment the traditional development of GMMs. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of the GMM's to uncertainty in the rupture process and how this scales to larger magnitude events that have not been observed. A kinematic fault rupture model is introduced to our waveform simulations to test the sensitivity of the GMMs to variability in the fault rupture process that is physically consistent with observations. These tests will aid in constraining the degree of variability in modeled ground motions due to a realistic range of fault parameters and properties. From this study it is our conclusion that in order to properly capture the uncertainty of the GMMs with magnitude up-scaling one needs to address the impact of uncertainty in the near field (risk. Further, by investigating and constraining the range of fault rupture scenarios and earthquake magnitudes on ground motion models, hazard and risk analysis in regions with incomplete earthquake catalogs, such as the Groningen gas field, can be better understood.
Generalized reduced fluid model with finite ion-gyroradius effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, C.T.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-04-01
Reduced fluid models have become important tools for studying the nonlinear dynamics of plasma in a large aspect-ratio tokamak. A self-consistent nonlinear reduced fluid model, with finite ion-gyroradius effects is presented. The model is distinctive in allowing for arbitrary beta and in satisfying an exact, relatively simple energy conservation law
Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broto, K.
1999-04-01
The access to a reliable image of the subsurface requires a kinematically correct velocity depth model.Reflection tomography allows to meet this requirement if a complete and coherent pre-stack kinematic database can be provided. However, in case of complex sub-surfaces, wave propagation may lead to hardly interpretable seismic events in the time data. The SMART method is a sequential method that relies on reflection tomography for updating the velocity model and on the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting kinematic information that is not readily accessible in the time domain. For determining 3-D subsurface velocity models in case of complex structures, we propose the seriated SMART 2-D method as an alternative to the currently inconceivable SMART 3-D method. In order to extract kinematic information from a 3-D pre-stack data set, we combine detours through the 2-D pre-stack depth domain for a number of selected lines of the studied 3-D survey and 3-D reflection tomography for updating the velocity model. The travel-times from the SMART method being independent of the velocity model used for passing through the pre-stack depth migrated domain, the access to 3-D travel-times is ensured, even if they have been obtained via a 2-D domain. Besides, we propose to build a kinematical guide for ensuring the coherency of the seriated 2-D pre-stack depth interpretations and the access to a complete 3-D pre-stack kinematic database when dealing with structures associated with 3-D wave propagation. We opt for a blocky representation of the velocity model in order to be able to cope with complex structures. This representation leads us to define specific methodological rules for carrying out the different steps of the seriated SMART 2-D method. We also define strategies, built from the analysis of first inversion results, for an efficient application of reflection tomography. Besides, we discuss the problem of uncertainties to be assigned to travel-times obtained
Khatib, Oussama
2014-01-01
The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.
Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2009-08-07
Aug 7, 2009 ... Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process, for the purposes of parameter estimation and process optimisation: Benchmark process with ASM1 and UCT reduced biological models. S du Plessis and R Tzoneva*. Department of Electrical Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of ...
A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akhmatov, Vladislav; Lund, Torsten; Hansen, Anca Daniela
2007-01-01
A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by Energinet.dk, Transmission...
A reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, L.C.L.
1989-01-01
It is studied a reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string by using Polyakov's path integral formalism. On the basis of this reduced model it is suggested that the extrinsic string has its critical dimension given by 13. Additionally, it is calculated in a simple way Poliakov's renormalization group law for the string rigidity coupling constants. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Tersi, Luca; Barré, Arnaud; Fantozzi, Silvia; Stagni, Rita
2013-03-01
Model-based mono-planar and bi-planar 3D fluoroscopy methods can quantify intact joints kinematics with performance/cost trade-off. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of mono- and bi-planar setups to a marker-based gold-standard, during dynamic phantom knee acquisitions. Absolute pose errors for in-plane parameters were lower than 0.6 mm or 0.6° for both mono- and bi-planar setups. Mono-planar setups resulted critical in quantifying the out-of-plane translation (error bi-planar in quantifying the rotation along bone longitudinal axis (error bi-planar (error comparable to bi-planar, but with halved computational costs, halved segmentation time and halved ionizing radiation dose. Bi-planar analysis better compensated for the out-of-plane uncertainty that is differently propagated to relative kinematics depending on the setup. To take its full benefits, the motion task to be investigated should be designed to maintain the joint inside the visible volume introducing constraints with respect to mono-planar analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Geha, Marla; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
2017-01-01
In low-mass galaxies, stellar feedback can drive gas outflows that generate non-equilibrium fluctuations in the gravitational potential. Using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, we investigate how these fluctuations affect stellar kinematics and the reliability of Jeans dynamical modeling in low-mass galaxies. We find that stellar velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles fluctuate significantly over the course of galaxies’ starburst cycles. We therefore predict an observable correlation between star formation rate and stellar kinematics: dwarf galaxies with higher recent star formation rates should have systemically higher stellar velocity dispersions. This prediction provides an observational test of the role of stellar feedback in regulating both stellar and dark-matter densities in dwarf galaxies. We find that Jeans modeling, which treats galaxies as virialized systems in dynamical equilibrium, overestimates a galaxy’s dynamical mass during periods of post-starburst gas outflow and underestimates it during periods of net inflow. Short-timescale potential fluctuations lead to typical errors of ∼20% in dynamical mass estimates, even if full three-dimensional stellar kinematics—including the orbital anisotropy—are known exactly. When orbital anisotropy is not known a priori, typical mass errors arising from non-equilibrium fluctuations in the potential are larger than those arising from the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. However, Jeans modeling alone cannot reliably constrain the orbital anisotropy, and problematically, it often favors anisotropy models that do not reflect the true profile. If galaxies completely lose their gas and cease forming stars, fluctuations in the potential subside, and Jeans modeling becomes much more reliable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kelbadry@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)
2017-02-01
In low-mass galaxies, stellar feedback can drive gas outflows that generate non-equilibrium fluctuations in the gravitational potential. Using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, we investigate how these fluctuations affect stellar kinematics and the reliability of Jeans dynamical modeling in low-mass galaxies. We find that stellar velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles fluctuate significantly over the course of galaxies’ starburst cycles. We therefore predict an observable correlation between star formation rate and stellar kinematics: dwarf galaxies with higher recent star formation rates should have systemically higher stellar velocity dispersions. This prediction provides an observational test of the role of stellar feedback in regulating both stellar and dark-matter densities in dwarf galaxies. We find that Jeans modeling, which treats galaxies as virialized systems in dynamical equilibrium, overestimates a galaxy’s dynamical mass during periods of post-starburst gas outflow and underestimates it during periods of net inflow. Short-timescale potential fluctuations lead to typical errors of ∼20% in dynamical mass estimates, even if full three-dimensional stellar kinematics—including the orbital anisotropy—are known exactly. When orbital anisotropy is not known a priori, typical mass errors arising from non-equilibrium fluctuations in the potential are larger than those arising from the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. However, Jeans modeling alone cannot reliably constrain the orbital anisotropy, and problematically, it often favors anisotropy models that do not reflect the true profile. If galaxies completely lose their gas and cease forming stars, fluctuations in the potential subside, and Jeans modeling becomes much more reliable.
Tian, Y.; Vermeesch, P.; Carter, A.; Zhang, P.
2017-12-01
The Cenozoic deformation of the Tibetan Plateau were dominated by the north-south collision between the Indian and Eurasian continents since Early Cenozoic time. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the plateau has expanded outward after the collision, forming a diverging stress-regime from the collisional belt to plateau margins. When and how the expansional strain had propagated to the current plateau margins has been hotly debated. This work presents results of an on-going projects for understanding the long-term strain history along the Longmen Shan, the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, where deformation is controlled by three parallel NW-dipping faults. From foreland (southeast) to hinterland (northwest), the main faults are the Guanxian-Anxian fault, Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Wenchuan-Maowen fault. Exhumation pattern constrained by one-dimensional modelling made from a compilation of published and unpublished thermochronometry data shows a strong structural control, with highest amounts of exhumation in the hinterland region, a pattern that is characteristic of out-of-sequence reverse faulting (Tian et al., 2013, Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20043; Tian et al., 2015, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2014GL062383). Three-dimensional thermo-kinematic modelling of these data suggests that the Longmen Shan faults are listric in geometry, merging into a detachment at a depth of 20-30 km. The models require a marked decrease in slip-rate along the frontal Yingxiu-Beichuan in the late Miocene, whereas the slip-rate along the hinterland Wenchuan-Maowen fault remained relatively constant since early Miocene time. The long-term pattern of strain accommodation revealed by the three-dimensional thermo-kinematic modelling have important implications for distinguishing geodynamic models proposed for explaining the eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau.
Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A
2016-09-01
The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with
Symons, J E; Garcia, T C; Stover, S M
2014-03-01
The effect of racetrack surface (dirt or synthetic) on distal hindlimb kinematics of racehorses running at competition speeds is not known. To compare distal hindlimb and hoof kinematics during stance of breezing (unrestrained gallop) racehorses between dirt and synthetic surfaces. Two-dimensional kinematic video analysis of 5 Thoroughbred racehorses galloping at high speeds (12-17 m/s) on a dirt racetrack and a synthetic racetrack. The positions of kinematic markers applied to the left hindlimb were recorded at 500 Hz. Position, velocity and acceleration of joint angles and hoof translation during stance were calculated in the sagittal plane. Peak translational and angular kinematic values were compared between the dirt and synthetic race surfaces using mixed model analyses of covariance. Maximum and heel-strike metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) angles were greater (Pdirt surface than on the synthetic surface. Maximum fetlock angle occurred earlier during stance on the dirt surface (Pdirt surface (Pdirt surface than on a synthetic surface. Synthetic race surfaces may mitigate risk of injury to hindlimb fetlock structures by reducing fetlock hyperextension and associated strains in fetlock support structures. Differences in hoof slide may contribute to different distal hindlimb kinematics between surfaces. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.
Inverse kinematic control of LDUA and TWRMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yih, T.C.; Burks, B.L.; Kwon, Dong-Soo
1995-01-01
A general inverse kinematic analysis is formulated particularly for the redundant Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS). The developed approach is applicable to the inverse kinematic simulation and control of LDUA, TWRMS, and other general robot manipulators. The 4 x 4 homogeneous Cylindrical coordinates-Bryant angles (C-B) notation is adopted to model LDUA, TWRMS, and any robot composed of R (revolute), P (prismatic), and/or S (spherical) joints
Heavy baryon spectroscopy with relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valcarce, A.; Garcilazo, H.; Vijande, J.
2014-01-01
We present a comparative Faddeev study of heavy baryon spectroscopy with nonrelativistic and relativistic kinematics. We show results for different standard hyperfine interactions with both kinematics in an attempt to learn about the light quark dynamics. We highlight the properties of particular states accessible in nowadays laboratories that would help in discriminating between different dynamical models. The advance in the knowledge of light quark dynamics is a key tool for the understanding of the existence of exotic hadrons.
A reduced order model of a quadruped walking system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Naganuma, Nobuyuki
1990-01-01
Trot walking has recently been studied by several groups because of its stability and realizability. In the trot, diagonally opposed legs form pairs. While one pair of legs provides support, the other pair of legs swings forward in preparation for the next step. In this paper, we propose a reduced order model for the trot walking. The reduced order model is derived by using two dominant modes of the closed loop system in which the local feedback at each joint is implemented. It is shown by numerical examples that the obtained reduced order model can well approximate the original higher order model. (author)
Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan, E-mail: vaziri@coe.neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
2014-12-08
Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.
Analisys and Choice of the Exoskeleton’s Actuator Kinematic Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Vereikin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The urgency of designing of robotic exoskeletons as one of the most prospective means of modern robotics is proved. A literature review concerning the design issues of anthropomorphic walking robots and exoskeletons is performed. Some problems, accompanying the designing process of exoskeleton actuator, are highlighted. Among them synthesis of its tree-like kinematic structure takes leading place. Its complication is explained by the specific human-machine interaction.The problem of exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme synthesis is formulated and possible approaches to its solution are shown. The paper presents the synthesis results obtained using the software complex CATIA-based means of ergonomic design. It investigates the degrees of freedom of human-operator’s foot, shin, and thigh. And it identifies a number of shortcomings of this software complex associated with the ambiguity to solve the inverse kinematics problem, leading to a significant complication of kinematics synthesis.A model of human lower limb on which further studies of the exoskeleton actuator kinematic scheme, ensuring fulfillment of the human-operator standard movements (squats, kick their feet, bending body, walking, running stairs, etc., are based, is developed in SolidWorks software complex. The reasonability of the exoskeleton kinematic scheme synthesis in software package SolidWorks using anthropometric data from the software complex CATIA, is justified.The proposed method allows to analyze different kinematic schemes of actuator for the stage of conceptual design and to choose the best of them in accordance with established criterions. Thus, the developer receives the final version of the kinematic scheme before the detailed design of the actuator starts, thus significantly reducing its labor costs.
Lasbleis, M.; Day, E. A.; Waszek, L.
2017-12-01
The complex nature of inner core structure has been well-established from seismic studies, with heterogeneities at various length scales, both radially and laterally. Despite this, no geodynamic model has successfully explained all of the observed seismic features. To facilitate comparisons between seismic observations and geodynamic models of inner core growth we have developed a new, open access Python tool - GrowYourIC - that allows users to compare models of inner core structure. The code allows users to simulate different evolution models of the inner core, with user-defined rates of inner core growth, translation and rotation. Once the user has "grown" an inner core with their preferred parameters they can then explore the effect of "their" inner core's evolution on the relative age and growth rate in different regions of the inner core. The code will convert these parameters into seismic properties using either built-in mineral physics models, or user-supplied ones that calculate these seismic properties with users' own preferred mineralogical models. The 3D model of isotropic inner core properties can then be used to calculate the predicted seismic travel time anomalies for a random, or user-specified, set of seismic ray paths through the inner core. A real dataset of inner core body-wave differential travel times is included for the purpose of comparing user-generated models of inner core growth to actual observed travel time anomalies in the top 100km of the inner core. Here, we explore some of the possibilities of our code. We investigate the effect of the limited illumination of the inner core by seismic waves on the robustness of kinematic model interpretation. We test the impact on seismic differential travel time observations of several kinematic models of inner core growth: fast lateral translation; slow differential growth; and inner core super-rotation. We find that a model of inner core evolution incorporating both differential growth and slow
The APT model as reduced-rank regression
Bekker, P.A.; Dobbelstein, P.; Wansbeek, T.J.
Integrating the two steps of an arbitrage pricing theory (APT) model leads to a reduced-rank regression (RRR) model. So the results on RRR can be used to estimate APT models, making estimation very simple. We give a succinct derivation of estimation of RRR, derive the asymptotic variance of RRR
Reduced modeling of signal transduction – a modular approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ederer Michael
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinatorial complexity is a challenging problem in detailed and mechanistic mathematical modeling of signal transduction. This subject has been discussed intensively and a lot of progress has been made within the last few years. A software tool (BioNetGen was developed which allows an automatic rule-based set-up of mechanistic model equations. In many cases these models can be reduced by an exact domain-oriented lumping technique. However, the resulting models can still consist of a very large number of differential equations. Results We introduce a new reduction technique, which allows building modularized and highly reduced models. Compared to existing approaches further reduction of signal transduction networks is possible. The method also provides a new modularization criterion, which allows to dissect the model into smaller modules that are called layers and can be modeled independently. Hallmarks of the approach are conservation relations within each layer and connection of layers by signal flows instead of mass flows. The reduced model can be formulated directly without previous generation of detailed model equations. It can be understood and interpreted intuitively, as model variables are macroscopic quantities that are converted by rates following simple kinetics. The proposed technique is applicable without using complex mathematical tools and even without detailed knowledge of the mathematical background. However, we provide a detailed mathematical analysis to show performance and limitations of the method. For physiologically relevant parameter domains the transient as well as the stationary errors caused by the reduction are negligible. Conclusion The new layer based reduced modeling method allows building modularized and strongly reduced models of signal transduction networks. Reduced model equations can be directly formulated and are intuitively interpretable. Additionally, the method provides very good
Estimation of kinematic parameters in CALIFA galaxies: no-assumption on internal dynamics
García-Lorenzo, B.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; CALIFA Team
2016-06-01
We propose a simple approach to homogeneously estimate kinematic parameters of a broad variety of galaxies (elliptical, spirals, irregulars or interacting systems). This methodology avoids the use of any kinematical model or any assumption on internal dynamics. This simple but novel approach allows us to determine: the frequency of kinematic distortions, systemic velocity, kinematic center, and kinematic position angles which are directly measured from the two dimensional-distributions of radial velocities. We test our analysis tools using the CALIFA Survey
On reducibility and ergodicity of population projection matrix models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stott, Iain; Townley, Stuart; Carslake, David
2010-01-01
from all stages to all other stages) and therefore ergodic (whatever initial stage structure is used in the population projection, it will always exhibit the same stable asymptotic growth rate). 2. Evaluation of 652 PPM models for 171 species from the literature suggests that 24·7% of PPM models...... structure used in the population projection). In our sample of published PPMs, 15·6% are non-ergodic. 3. This presents a problem: reducible–ergodic models often defy biological rationale in their description of the life cycle but may or may not prove problematic for analysis as they often behave similarly...... of reducibility in published PPMs, with significant implications for the predictive power of such models in many cases. We suggest that as a general rule, reducibility of PPM models should be avoided. However, we provide a guide to the pertinent analysis of reducible matrix models, largely based upon whether...
Nonlinear thermal reduced model for Microwave Circuit Analysis
Chang, Christophe; Sommet, Raphael; Quéré, Raymond; Dueme, Ph.
2004-01-01
With the constant increase of transistor power density, electro thermal modeling is becoming a necessity for accurate prediction of device electrical performances. For this reason, this paper deals with a methodology to obtain a precise nonlinear thermal model based on Model Order Reduction of a three dimensional thermal Finite Element (FE) description. This reduced thermal model is based on the Ritz vector approach which ensure the steady state solution in every case. An equi...
Carey, L. D.; Koshak, W. J.; Peterson, H. S.; Matthee, R.; Bain, A. L.
2013-12-01
The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment seeks to quantify the relationship between storm physics, lightning characteristics and the production of nitrogen oxides via lightning (LNOX). The focus of this study is to investigate the kinematic and microphysical control of lightning properties, particularly those that may govern LNOX production, such as flash rate, type and extent across Alabama during DC3. Prior studies have demonstrated that lightning flash rate and type is correlated to kinematic and microphysical properties in the mixed-phase region of thunderstorms such as updraft volume and graupel mass. More study is required to generalize these relationships in a wide variety of storm modes and meteorological conditions. Less is known about the co-evolving relationship between storm physics, morphology and three-dimensional flash extent, despite its importance for LNOX production. To address this conceptual gap, the NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) and Vaisala National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) observations following ordinary convective cells through their lifecycle. LNOM provides estimates of flash rate, flash type, channel length distributions, lightning segment altitude distributions (SADs) and lightning NOX production profiles. For this study, LNOM is applied in a Lagrangian sense to multicell thunderstorms over Northern Alabama on two days during DC3 (21 May and 11 June 2012) in which aircraft observations of NOX are available for comparison. The LNOM lightning characteristics and LNOX production estimates are compared to the evolution of updraft and precipitation properties inferred from dual-Doppler and polarimetric radar analyses applied to observations from a nearby radar network, including the UAH Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Given complex multicell evolution, particular attention is paid to storm morphology, cell
Carey, Lawrence; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Matthee, Retha; Bain, Lamont
2013-01-01
The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment seeks to quantify the relationship between storm physics, lightning characteristics and the production of nitrogen oxides via lightning (LNOx). The focus of this study is to investigate the kinematic and microphysical control of lightning properties, particularly those that may govern LNOx production, such as flash rate, type and extent across Alabama during DC3. Prior studies have demonstrated that lightning flash rate and type is correlated to kinematic and microphysical properties in the mixed-phase region of thunderstorms such as updraft volume and graupel mass. More study is required to generalize these relationships in a wide variety of storm modes and meteorological conditions. Less is known about the co-evolving relationship between storm physics, morphology and three-dimensional flash extent, despite its importance for LNOx production. To address this conceptual gap, the NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) and Vaisala National Lightning Detection Network(TM) (NLDN) observations following ordinary convective cells through their lifecycle. LNOM provides estimates of flash rate, flash type, channel length distributions, lightning segment altitude distributions (SADs) and lightning NOx production profiles. For this study, LNOM is applied in a Lagrangian sense to multicell thunderstorms over Northern Alabama on two days during DC3 (21 May and 11 June 2012) in which aircraft observations of NOx are available for comparison. The LNOM lightning characteristics and LNOX production estimates are compared to the evolution of updraft and precipitation properties inferred from dual-Doppler and polarimetric radar analyses applied to observations from a nearby radar network, including the UAH Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Given complex multicell evolution, particular attention is paid to storm morphology, cell
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahato, Niladri K.; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian
2016-01-01
Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T 1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T 1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4
Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian
2016-05-18
Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4
Sensitivity study of reduced models of the activated sludge process ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The problem of derivation and calculation of sensitivity functions for all parameters of the mass balance reduced model of the COST benchmark activated sludge plant is formulated and solved. The sensitivity functions, equations and augmented sensitivity state space models are derived for the cases of ASM1 and UCT ...
Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2015-07-01
This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low dimensional bilinear state representation, enables the reproduction of the heat transfer dynamics along the collector tube for system analysis. Moreover, presented as a reduced order bilinear state space model, the well established control theory for this class of systems can be applied. The approximation efficiency has been proven by several simulation tests, which have been performed considering parameters of the Acurex field with real external working conditions. Model accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to the analytical solution of the hyperbolic distributed model and its semi discretized approximation highlighting the benefits of using the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, model sensitivity to the different parameters of the gaussian interpolation has been studied.
Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Tao
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trąbka Arkadiusz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of two kinematic structures of the support system (with supports with bilateral and unilateral constraints, which were used in an experimental model of a crane. The computational model was developed by using the ADAMS software. The impact of the kinematic structure of the support system on selected kinematic and dynamic values that were recorded during the slewing motion was analysed. It was found, among other things, that an increased number of degrees of freedom of the support system leads to multiple distortions of time characteristics of kinematic and dynamic quantities.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Niels
There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...
Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim
2009-01-01
Written by Jim and Jane Nelson, Teaching About Kinematics is the latest AAPT/PTRA resource book. Based on physics education research, the book provides teachers with the resources needed to introduce students to some of the fundamental building blocks of physics. It is a carefully thought-out, step-by-step laboratory-based introduction to the…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hazra, Gopal; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Miesch, Mark S., E-mail: ghazra@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: miesch@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)
2017-01-20
We develop a three-dimensional kinematic self-sustaining model of the solar dynamo in which the poloidal field generation is from tilted bipolar sunspot pairs placed on the solar surface above regions of strong toroidal field by using the SpotMaker algorithm, and then the transport of this poloidal field to the tachocline is primarily caused by turbulent diffusion. We obtain a dipolar solution within a certain range of parameters. We use this model to study the build-up of the polar magnetic field and show that some insights obtained from surface flux transport models have to be revised. We present results obtained by putting a single bipolar sunspot pair in a hemisphere and two symmetrical sunspot pairs in two hemispheres. We find that the polar fields produced by them disappear due to the upward advection of poloidal flux at low latitudes, which emerges as oppositely signed radial flux and which is then advected poleward by the meridional flow. We also study the effect that a large sunspot pair, violating Hale’s polarity law, would have on the polar field. We find that there would be some effect—especially if the anti-Hale pair appears at high latitudes in the mid-phase of the cycle—though the effect is not very dramatic.
The brown dwarf kinematics project
Faherty, Jackie K.
2010-10-01
Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.
Reverse time migration by Krylov subspace reduced order modeling
Basir, Hadi Mahdavi; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Firouz-Abadi, Roohollah Dehghani; Gholamy, Shaban Ali
2018-04-01
Imaging is a key step in seismic data processing. To date, a myriad of advanced pre-stack depth migration approaches have been developed; however, reverse time migration (RTM) is still considered as the high-end imaging algorithm. The main limitations associated with the performance cost of reverse time migration are the intensive computation of the forward and backward simulations, time consumption, and memory allocation related to imaging condition. Based on the reduced order modeling, we proposed an algorithm, which can be adapted to all the aforementioned factors. Our proposed method benefit from Krylov subspaces method to compute certain mode shapes of the velocity model computed by as an orthogonal base of reduced order modeling. Reverse time migration by reduced order modeling is helpful concerning the highly parallel computation and strongly reduces the memory requirement of reverse time migration. The synthetic model results showed that suggested method can decrease the computational costs of reverse time migration by several orders of magnitudes, compared with reverse time migration by finite element method.
Probabilistic approach to manipulator kinematics and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, S.S.; Bhatti, P.K.
2001-01-01
A high performance, high speed robotic arm must be able to manipulate objects with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. As with any other physical system, there are a number of factors causing uncertainties in the behavior of a robotic manipulator. These factors include manufacturing and assembling tolerances, and errors in the joint actuators and controllers. In order to study the effect of these uncertainties on the robotic end-effector and to obtain a better insight into the manipulator behavior, the manipulator kinematics and dynamics are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Based on the probabilistic model, kinematic and dynamic performance criteria are defined to provide measures of the behavior of the robotic end-effector. Techniques are presented to compute the kinematic and dynamic reliabilities of the manipulator. The effects of tolerances associated with the various manipulator parameters on the reliabilities are studied. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cornu, T.
2001-01-01
The present work deals with three-dimensional deformation of sedimentary basins. The main goal of the work was to propose new ways to study tectonic deformation and to insert it into basin-modeling environment for hydrocarbon migration applications. To handle the complexity of the deformation, the model uses kinematic laws, a discrete approach, and the construction of a code that allows the greatest diversity in the deformation mechanisms we can take into account. The 3-D-volume deformation is obtained through the calculation of the behavior of the neutral surface of each basin layer. The main idea is to deform the neutral surface of each layer with the help of geometrical laws and to use the result to rebuild the volume deformation of the basin. The constitutive algorithm includes three characteristic features. The first one deals with the mathematical operator we use to describe the flexural-slip mechanism which is a combination of the translation of the neutral surface nodes and the rotation of the vertical edges attached to these nodes. This performs the reversibility that was required for the basin modeling. The second one is about. the use of a discrete approach, which gives a better description of the global deformation and offers to locally control volume evolutions. The knowledge of volume variations can become a powerful tool in structural geology analysis and the perfect complement for a field study. The last one concerns the modularity of the developed code. Indeed, the proposed model uses three main mechanisms of deformation. But the architecture of the code allows the insertion of new mechanisms or a better interaction between them. The model has been validated first with 2-D cases, then with 3-D natural cases. They give good results from a qualitative point of view. They also show the capacity of the model to provide a deformation path that is geologically acceptable, and its ability to control the volume variations of the basin through the
Harvey, E.; Redman, M. P.; Boumis, P.; Akras, S.
2016-10-01
Aims: The shaping mechanisms of old nova remnants are probes for several important and unexplained processes, such as dust formation and the structure of evolved star nebulae. To gain a more complete understanding of the dynamics of the GK Per (1901) remnant, an examination of symmetry of the nova shell is explored, followed by a kinematical analysis of the previously detected jet-like feature in the context of the surrounding fossil planetary nebula. Methods: Faint-object high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations and imaging were undertaken covering the knots which comprise the nova shell and the surrounding nebulosity. New imaging from the Aristarchos telescope in Greece and long-slit spectra from the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer instrument at the San Pedro Mártir observatory in Mexico were obtained, supplemented with archival observations from several other optical telescopes. Position-velocity arrays are produced of the shell, and also individual knots, and are then used for morpho-kinematic modelling with the shape code. The overall structure of the old knotty nova shell of GK Per and the planetary nebula in which it is embedded is then analysed. Results: Evidence is found for the interaction of knots with each other and with a wind component, most likely the periodic fast wind emanating from the central binary system. We find that a cylindrical shell with a lower velocity polar structure gives the best model fit to the spectroscopy and imaging. We show in this work that the previously seen jet-like feature is of low velocity. Conclusions: The individual knots have irregular tail shapes; we propose here that they emanate from episodic winds from ongoing dwarf nova outbursts by the central system. The nova shell is cylindrical, not spherical, and the symmetry axis relates to the inclination of the central binary system. Furthermore, the cylinder axis is aligned with the long axis of the bipolar planetary nebula in which it is embedded. Thus, the
Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiebe, R.; Perez, R.A.; Spottswood, S.M.
2016-01-01
Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties. (paper)
Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling
Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.
2016-09-01
Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.
AN OVERVIEW OF REDUCED ORDER MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.
2016-10-01
The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).
Finite Element Method-Based Kinematics and Closed-Loop Control of Soft, Continuum Manipulators.
Bieze, Thor Morales; Largilliere, Frederick; Kruszewski, Alexandre; Zhang, Zhongkai; Merzouki, Rochdi; Duriez, Christian
2018-06-01
This article presents a modeling methodology and experimental validation for soft manipulators to obtain forward kinematic model (FKM) and inverse kinematic model (IKM) under quasi-static conditions (in the literature, these manipulators are usually classified as continuum robots. However, their main characteristic of interest in this article is that they create motion by deformation, as opposed to the classical use of articulations). It offers a way to obtain the kinematic characteristics of this type of soft robots that is suitable for offline path planning and position control. The modeling methodology presented relies on continuum mechanics, which does not provide analytic solutions in the general case. Our approach proposes a real-time numerical integration strategy based on finite element method with a numerical optimization based on Lagrange multipliers to obtain FKM and IKM. To reduce the dimension of the problem, at each step, a projection of the model to the constraint space (gathering actuators, sensors, and end-effector) is performed to obtain the smallest number possible of mathematical equations to be solved. This methodology is applied to obtain the kinematics of two different manipulators with complex structural geometry. An experimental comparison is also performed in one of the robots, between two other geometric approaches and the approach that is showcased in this article. A closed-loop controller based on a state estimator is proposed. The controller is experimentally validated and its robustness is evaluated using Lypunov stability method.
Martelet, G.; Calcagno, Ph.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.
2003-04-01
for the interpretation of crustal-scale tectonics and kinematics. Important geological results derived from this modelling are: (i) the 3D imaging of the south-dipping thrust band interpreted in the seismic profile; its compatibility with a kinematic model in which the folding of the Champtoceaux metamorphic complex and global thrust movements toward the north during late strike-slip movements along the SASZ are contemporaneous, (ii) the relatively shallowly rooted character of the northern limb of Champtoceaux anticline, a feature which was not expected from geological data, (iii) the 3D shape of granitic massifs sheared along the SASZ strike-slip: Vigneux syntectonic leucogranite rooted in the southern branch of the SASZ down to about 10-15 km and spread in subsurface, in the core of Champtoceaux arc, and Lanvaux orthogneiss, elongated along the hanging wall of the south-dipping thrust for more than 150 km, in subsurface as well.
Reduced order modeling of flashing two-phase jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurecky, William, E-mail: william.gurecky@utexas.edu; Schneider, Erich, E-mail: eschneider@mail.utexas.edu; Ballew, Davis, E-mail: davisballew@utexas.edu
2015-12-01
Highlights: • Accident simulation requires ability to quickly predict two-phase flashing jet's damage potential. • A reduced order modeling methodology informed by experimental or computational data is described. • Zone of influence volumes are calculated for jets of various upstream thermodynamic conditions. - Abstract: In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor, the escaping coolant produces a highly energetic flashing jet with the potential to damage surrounding structures. In LOCA analysis, the goal is often to evaluate many break scenarios in a Monte Carlo style simulation to evaluate the resilience of a reactor design. Therefore, in order to quickly predict the damage potential of flashing jets, it is of interest to develop a reduced order model that relates the damage potential of a jet to the pressure and temperature upstream of the break and the distance from the break to a given object upon which the jet is impinging. This work presents framework for producing a Reduced Order Model (ROM) that may be informed by measured data, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, or a combination of both. The model is constructed by performing regression analysis on the pressure field data, allowing the impingement pressure to be quickly reconstructed for any given upstream thermodynamic condition within the range of input data. The model is applicable to both free and fully impinging two-phase flashing jets.
Decuyper, J.; De Troyer, T.; Runacres, M. C.; Tiels, K.; Schoukens, J.
2018-01-01
The flow-induced vibration of bluff bodies is an important problem of many marine, civil, or mechanical engineers. In the design phase of such structures, it is vital to obtain good predictions of the fluid forces acting on the structure. Current methods rely on computational fluid dynamic simulations (CFD), with a too high computational cost to be effectively used in the design phase or for control applications. Alternative methods use heuristic mathematical models of the fluid forces, but these lack the accuracy (they often assume the system to be linear) or flexibility to be useful over a wide operating range. In this work we show that it is possible to build an accurate, flexible and low-computational-cost mathematical model using nonlinear system identification techniques. This model is data driven: it is trained over a user-defined region of interest using data obtained from experiments or simulations, or both. Here we use a Van der Pol oscillator as well as CFD simulations of an oscillating circular cylinder to generate the training data. Then a discrete-time polynomial nonlinear state-space model is fit to the data. This model relates the oscillation of the cylinder to the force that the fluid exerts on the cylinder. The model is finally validated over a wide range of oscillation frequencies and amplitudes, both inside and outside the so-called lock-in region. We show that forces simulated by the model are in good agreement with the data obtained from CFD.
Accelerating transient simulation of linear reduced order models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Keiter, Eric Richard; Bond, Brad
2011-10-01
Model order reduction (MOR) techniques have been used to facilitate the analysis of dynamical systems for many years. Although existing model reduction techniques are capable of providing huge speedups in the frequency domain analysis (i.e. AC response) of linear systems, such speedups are often not obtained when performing transient analysis on the systems, particularly when coupled with other circuit components. Reduced system size, which is the ostensible goal of MOR methods, is often insufficient to improve transient simulation speed on realistic circuit problems. It can be shown that making the correct reduced order model (ROM) implementation choices is crucial to the practical application of MOR methods. In this report we investigate methods for accelerating the simulation of circuits containing ROM blocks using the circuit simulator Xyce.
Reduced Complexity Volterra Models for Nonlinear System Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hacıoğlu Rıfat
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A broad class of nonlinear systems and filters can be modeled by the Volterra series representation. However, its practical use in nonlinear system identification is sometimes limited due to the large number of parameters associated with the Volterra filter′s structure. The parametric complexity also complicates design procedures based upon such a model. This limitation for system identification is addressed in this paper using a Fixed Pole Expansion Technique (FPET within the Volterra model structure. The FPET approach employs orthonormal basis functions derived from fixed (real or complex pole locations to expand the Volterra kernels and reduce the number of estimated parameters. That the performance of FPET can considerably reduce the number of estimated parameters is demonstrated by a digital satellite channel example in which we use the proposed method to identify the channel dynamics. Furthermore, a gradient-descent procedure that adaptively selects the pole locations in the FPET structure is developed in the paper.
Quantum deformed magnon kinematics
Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael
2007-01-01
The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...
Software Development for the Kinematic Analysis of a Lynx 6 Robot Arm
Baki Koyuncu; Mehmet Güzel
2007-01-01
The kinematics of manipulators is a central problem in the automatic control of robot manipulators. Theoretical background for the analysis of the 5 Dof Lynx-6 educational Robot Arm kinematics is presented in this paper. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. The Denavit-Harbenterg (D-H) model of representation is used to model robot links and joints in this study. Both forward and inverse kinematics solutions for th...
Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.
Chen, Wei; Li, Xin
2016-11-01
In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail: malo@cfht.hawaii.edu, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)
2014-09-01
Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.
Empirical Reduced-Order Modeling for Boundary Feedback Flow Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seddik M. Djouadi
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the practical and theoretical implications of model reduction for aerodynamic flow-based control problems. Various aspects of model reduction are discussed that apply to partial differential equation- (PDE- based models in general. Specifically, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD of a high dimension system as well as frequency domain identification methods are discussed for initial model construction. Projections on the POD basis give a nonlinear Galerkin model. Then, a model reduction method based on empirical balanced truncation is developed and applied to the Galerkin model. The rationale for doing so is that linear subspace approximations to exact submanifolds associated with nonlinear controllability and observability require only standard matrix manipulations utilizing simulation/experimental data. The proposed method uses a chirp signal as input to produce the output in the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA. This method estimates the system's Markov parameters that accurately reproduce the output. Balanced truncation is used to show that model reduction is still effective on ERA produced approximated systems. The method is applied to a prototype convective flow on obstacle geometry. An H∞ feedback flow controller is designed based on the reduced model to achieve tracking and then applied to the full-order model with excellent performance.
Reduced order surrogate modelling (ROSM) of high dimensional deterministic simulations
Mitry, Mina
Often, computationally expensive engineering simulations can prohibit the engineering design process. As a result, designers may turn to a less computationally demanding approximate, or surrogate, model to facilitate their design process. However, owing to the the curse of dimensionality, classical surrogate models become too computationally expensive for high dimensional data. To address this limitation of classical methods, we develop linear and non-linear Reduced Order Surrogate Modelling (ROSM) techniques. Two algorithms are presented, which are based on a combination of linear/kernel principal component analysis and radial basis functions. These algorithms are applied to subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data, as well as a model for a chemical spill in a channel. The results of this thesis show that ROSM can provide a significant computational benefit over classical surrogate modelling, sometimes at the expense of a minor loss in accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar E. Ruiz
2009-12-01
Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar simulaciones del comportamiento de materiales compuestos basado en restricciones cinemáticas entre las mismas fibras y entre las fibras y la resina circundante. En la revisión de literatura, los autores han encontrado que las restricciones cinemáticas no han sido plenamente explotadas para modelar materiales compuestos, probablemente debido a su alto costo computacional. El propósito de este articulo es exponer la implementación y resultados de tal modelo, usando Análisis por Elementos Finitos de restricciones geométricas prescritas a los nodos de la resina y las fibras. Las descripciones analíticas del comportamiento de materiales compuestos raramente aparecen. Muchas aproximaciones para describir materiales compuestos en capas son basadas en la teoría de funciones C1Z y C0 Z, tal como la Teoría Clásica de Capas (CLT. Estas teorías de funciones contienen significativas simplificaciones del material, especialmente para compuestos tejidos. Una aproximación hibrida para modelar materiales compuestos con Elementos Finitos (FEA fue desarrollada por Sidhu y Averill y adaptada por Li y Sherwood para materiales compuestos tejidos con polipropileno de vidrio.The purpose of this article is to present simulations of the behavior of composite materials based on kinematic restrictions among the fibers themselves and among fibers and the surrounding resine. In the literature review the authors have found that the kinematic restrictions have not been fully exploited for modeling composite materials, probably due to their high computational expense. The purpose of this article is to show the implementation and results of such a model, by using a Finite Element Analysis of geometric restrictions prescribed to the resine and fiber nodes. Closed analytic descriptions on behavior of layered composite materials are very rare. Many approaches to describe layered composite material are based on the theory of
Hayes, Spencer J.; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J.
2016-01-01
We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only…
Identification of the reduced order models of a BWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez S, A.
2004-01-01
The present work has as objective to analyze the relative stability of a BWR type reactor. It is analyzed that so adaptive it turns out to identify the parameters of a model of reduced order so that this it reproduces a condition of given uncertainty. This will take of a real fact happened in the La Salle plant under certain operation conditions of power and flow of coolant. The parametric identification is carried out by means of an algorithm of recursive least square and an Output Error model (Output Error), measuring the output power of the reactor when the instability is present, and considering that it is produced by a change in the reactivity of the system in the same way that a sign of type step. Also it is carried out an analytic comparison of the relative stability, analyzing two types of answers: the original answer of the uncertainty of the reactor vs. the obtained response identifying the parameters of the model of reduced order, reaching the conclusion that it is very viable to adapt a model of reduced order to study the stability of a reactor, under the only condition to consider that the dynamics of the reactivity is of step type. (Author)
MODELING CONTROLLED ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES WITH MATCHING REDUCERS AND TRANSFORMERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Petrushin
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Working out of mathematical models of the speed-controlled induction electric drives ensuring joint consideration of transformers, motors and loadings, and also matching reducers and transformers, both in static, and in dynamic regimes for the analysis of their operating characteristics. Methodology. At mathematical modelling are considered functional, mass, dimensional and cost indexes of reducers and transformers that allows observing engineering and economic aspects of speed-controlled induction electric drives. The mathematical models used for examination of the transitive electromagnetic and electromechanical processes, are grounded on systems of nonlinear differential equations with nonlinear coefficients (parameters of equivalent circuits of motors, varying in each operating point, including owing to appearances of saturation of magnetic system and current displacement in a winding of a rotor of an induction motor. For the purpose of raise of level of adequacy of models a magnetic circuit iron, additional and mechanical losses are considered. Results. Modelling of the several speed-controlled induction electric drives, different by components, but working on a loading equal on character, magnitude and a demanded control range is executed. At use of characteristic families including mechanical, at various parameters of regulating on which performances of the load mechanism are superimposed, the adjusting characteristics representing dependences of a modification of electrical, energy and thermal magnitudes from an angular speed of motors are gained. Originality. The offered complex models of speed-controlled induction electric drives with matching reducers and transformers, give the chance to realize well-founded sampling of components of drives. They also can be used as the design models by working out of speed-controlled induction motors. Practical value. Operating characteristics of various speed-controlled induction electric
Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.
Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio
2017-11-06
The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Startle reduces recall of a recently learned internal model.
Wright, Zachary; Patton, James L; Ravichandran, Venn
2011-01-01
Recent work has shown that preplanned motor programs are released early from subcortical areas by the using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS). Our question is whether this response might also contain a recently learned internal model, which draws on experience to predict and compensate for expected perturbations in a feedforward manner. Studies of adaptation to robotic forces have shown some evidence of this, but were potentially confounded by cocontraction caused by startle. We performed a new adaptation experiment using a visually distorted field that could not be confounded by cocontraction. We found that in all subjects that exhibited startle, the startle stimulus (1) reduced performance of the recently learned task (2) reduced after-effect magnitudes. Because startle reduced but did not eliminate the recall of learned control, we suggest that multiple neural centers (cortical and subcortical) are involved in such learning and adaptation, which can impact training areas such as piloting, teleoperation, sports, and rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE
About the kinematics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.; Recami, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan; Campinas State Univ., SP
1995-06-01
Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v 2 . The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) P μ v μ =m is here derived in a self-consistent way
Plastic frames: Reduction of the kinematical inequality and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brousse, P.
1979-01-01
It is well-known that the following inequality plays an essential part in the theory of perfectly plastic frames: for all kinematically admissible mechanisms and for bending moments associated with the hinge rotations by the flow rule, the plastic dissipation power is greater than or equal to the load power. This inequality will be termed as the kinematic inequality. It contains parameters generating the mechanisms. In simple cases, several ingenious authors obtained appreciable results excluding parameters. But, in more complicated cases, for instance when the given quantities are not numerical, the parameters remain in the kinematic inequality, thereby precluding exploitation of the kinematic approach. In the present work we overcome this dificulty: we reduce the kinematic inequality, i.e., we replace it by inequalities containing no variable parameter; we then state a process giving automatically such inequalities; finally, we treat a practical application. (orig.)
A Reduced Wind Power Grid Model for Research and Education
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmatov, V. [Energinet.dk, Fjordvejen 1-11, DK-7000 Fredericia (Denmark); Lund, T.; Hansen, A.D.; Sorensen, P.E. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, A.H. [Centre for Electric Technology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2006-07-01
A reduced grid model of a transmission system with a number of central power plants, consumption centers, local wind turbines and a large offshore wind farm is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory (DIgSILENT). The reduced grid model is given by Energinet.dk, Transmission System Operator of Denmark (TSO) for Natural Gas and Electricity, to the Danish Universities and the Risoe National Laboratory. Its intended usage is education and studying of interaction between electricity-producing wind turbines and a realistic transmission system. Focus in these studies is on voltage stability issues and on the ride-through capability of different wind turbine concepts, equipped with advanced controllers, developed by the Risoe National Laboratory.
Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.
Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic
2014-02-01
Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A model for reducing health care employee turnover.
Nowak, Paul; Holmes, Gary; Murrow, Jim
2010-01-01
Explaining the rationale as to why employees leave their jobs has led to many different strategies to retain employees. The model presented here seeks to explain why employees choose to stay or to leave their place of employment. The information from the analysis will provide managers with well-tested tools to reduce turnover and to ascertain what employees value from their work environment in order to help the organization to retain those employees. The model identifies key factors that management can utilize to provide barriers to exit and retain professional employees in their health care units. Recommendations are provided that reward loyalty and build barriers to exit.
Predictive modeling and reducing cyclic variability in autoignition engines
Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob
2016-08-30
Methods and systems are provided for controlling a vehicle engine to reduce cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A predictive model is applied to predict cycle-to-cycle combustion behavior of an engine based on observed engine performance variables. Conditions are identified, based on the predicted cycle-to-cycle combustion behavior, that indicate high cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. Corrective measures are then applied to prevent the predicted high cycle-to-cycle combustion variation.
Can agent based models effectively reduce fisheries management implementation uncertainty?
Drexler, M.
2016-02-01
Uncertainty is an inherent feature of fisheries management. Implementation uncertainty remains a challenge to quantify often due to unintended responses of users to management interventions. This problem will continue to plague both single species and ecosystem based fisheries management advice unless the mechanisms driving these behaviors are properly understood. Equilibrium models, where each actor in the system is treated as uniform and predictable, are not well suited to forecast the unintended behaviors of individual fishers. Alternatively, agent based models (AMBs) can simulate the behaviors of each individual actor driven by differing incentives and constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using AMBs to capture macro scale behaviors of the US West Coast Groundfish fleet. Agent behavior was specified at the vessel level. Agents made daily fishing decisions using knowledge of their own cost structure, catch history, and the histories of catch and quota markets. By adding only a relatively small number of incentives, the model was able to reproduce highly realistic macro patterns of expected outcomes in response to management policies (catch restrictions, MPAs, ITQs) while preserving vessel heterogeneity. These simulations indicate that agent based modeling approaches hold much promise for simulating fisher behaviors and reducing implementation uncertainty. Additional processes affecting behavior, informed by surveys, are continually being added to the fisher behavior model. Further coupling of the fisher behavior model to a spatial ecosystem model will provide a fully integrated social, ecological, and economic model capable of performing management strategy evaluations to properly consider implementation uncertainty in fisheries management.
Vortex network community based reduced-order force model
Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko
2017-11-01
We characterize the vortical wake interactions by utilizing network theory and cluster-based approaches, and develop a data-inspired unsteady force model. In the present work, the vortical interaction network is defined by nodes representing vortical elements and the edges quantified by induced velocity measures amongst the vortices. The full vorticity field is reduced to a finite number of vortical clusters based on network community detection algorithm, which serves as a basis for a skeleton network that captures the essence of the wake dynamics. We use this reduced representation of the wake to develop a data-inspired reduced-order force model that can predict unsteady fluid forces on the body. The overall formulation is demonstrated for laminar flows around canonical bluff body wake and stalled flow over an airfoil. We also show the robustness of the present network-based model against noisy data, which motivates applications towards turbulent flows and experimental measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant 1632003).
The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in Rollover Crash
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyun Li
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.
Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.
Simulation of reactive nanolaminates using reduced models: II. Normal propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salloum, Maher; Knio, Omar M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States)
2010-03-15
Transient normal flame propagation in reactive Ni/Al multilayers is analyzed computationally. Two approaches are implemented, based on generalization of earlier methodology developed for axial propagation, and on extension of the model reduction formalism introduced in Part I. In both cases, the formulation accommodates non-uniform layering as well as the presence of inert layers. The equations of motion for the reactive system are integrated using a specially-tailored integration scheme, that combines extended-stability, Runge-Kutta-Chebychev (RKC) integration of diffusion terms with exact treatment of the chemical source term. The detailed and reduced models are first applied to the analysis of self-propagating fronts in uniformly-layered materials. Results indicate that both the front velocities and the ignition threshold are comparable for normal and axial propagation. Attention is then focused on analyzing the effect of a gap composed of inert material on reaction propagation. In particular, the impacts of gap width and thermal conductivity are briefly addressed. Finally, an example is considered illustrating reaction propagation in reactive composites combining regions corresponding to two bilayer widths. This setup is used to analyze the effect of the layering frequency on the velocity of the corresponding reaction fronts. In all cases considered, good agreement is observed between the predictions of the detailed model and the reduced model, which provides further support for adoption of the latter. (author)
Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.
Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle
2017-04-01
This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.
Dooner, David B
2012-01-01
Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat
Modeling of automotive driveline system for reducing gear rattles
Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xue-Lai; Yin, Yuming; Rakheja, Subhash
2018-03-01
A nonlinear torsional model for a driveline system with 4 degrees of freedom is proposed for studying gear rattle if a car is at idle. The time-varying meshing stiffness of geared teeth, gear backlash, and the damping from oil film are included in the model. The dynamic responses of the driveline system, such as clutch angular displacement, meshing force and relative displacement between geared teeth, are calculated using the presented model. The influences of stiffness and damping of a clutch on gear rattle of geared teeth in a generic transmission are investigated. Based on the calculation and analysis results, a design guideline to select clutch's stiffness and damping is developed to reduce gear rattle for a car at idle. Taking a generic driveline system of a passenger car as an example, the developed method is experimentally validated by comparing the baseline clutch and revised clutch, in terms of the measured noise inside engine compartment and cab and vibrations at transmission housing.
Reduced order methods for modeling and computational reduction
Rozza, Gianluigi
2014-01-01
This monograph addresses the state of the art of reduced order methods for modeling and computational reduction of complex parametrized systems, governed by ordinary and/or partial differential equations, with a special emphasis on real time computing techniques and applications in computational mechanics, bioengineering and computer graphics. Several topics are covered, including: design, optimization, and control theory in real-time with applications in engineering; data assimilation, geometry registration, and parameter estimation with special attention to real-time computing in biomedical engineering and computational physics; real-time visualization of physics-based simulations in computer science; the treatment of high-dimensional problems in state space, physical space, or parameter space; the interactions between different model reduction and dimensionality reduction approaches; the development of general error estimation frameworks which take into account both model and discretization effects. This...
Startle stimuli reduce the internal model control in discrete movements.
Wright, Zachary A; Rogers, Mark W; MacKinnon, Colum D; Patton, James L
2009-01-01
A well known and major component of movement control is the feedforward component, also known as the internal model. This model predicts and compensates for expected forces seen during a movement, based on recent experience, so that a well-learned task such as reaching to a target can be executed in a smooth straight manner. It has recently been shown that the state of preparation of planned movements can be tested using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS). SAS, presented 500, 250 or 0 ms before the expected "go" cue resulted in the early release of the movement trajectory associated with the after-effects of the force field training (i.e. the internal model). In a typical motor adaptation experiment with a robot-applied force field, we tested if a SAS stimulus influences the size of after-effects that are typically seen. We found that in all subjects the after-effect magnitudes were significantly reduced when movements were released by SAS, although this effect was not further modulated by the timing of SAS. Reduced after-effects reveal at least partial existence of learned preparatory control, and identify startle effects that could influence performance in tasks such as piloting, teleoperation, and sports.
Aeroelastic simulation using CFD based reduced order models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, W.; Ye, Z.; Li, H.; Yang, Q.
2005-01-01
This paper aims at providing an accurate and efficient method for aeroelastic simulation. System identification is used to get the reduced order models of unsteady aerodynamics. Unsteady Euler codes are used to compute the output signals while 3211 multistep input signals are utilized. LS(Least Squares) method is used to estimate the coefficients of the input-output difference model. The reduced order models are then used in place of the unsteady CFD code for aeroelastic simulation. The aeroelastic equations are marched by an improved 4th order Runge-Kutta method that only needs to compute the aerodynamic loads one time at every time step. The computed results agree well with that of the direct coupling CFD/CSD methods. The computational efficiency is improved 1∼2 orders while still retaining the high accuracy. A standard aeroelastic computing example (isogai wing) with S type flutter boundary is computed and analyzed. It is due to the system has more than one neutral points at the Mach range of 0.875∼0.9. (author)
Kinematic Analysis of Continuum Robot Consisted of Driven Flexible Rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingzhong Tian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic analysis of a continuum bionic robot with three flexible actuation rods. Since the motion of the end-effector is actuated by the deformation of the rods, the robot structure is with high elasticity and good compliance and the kinematic analysis of the robot requires special treatment. We propose a kinematic model based on the geometry with constant curvature. The analysis consists of two independent mappings: a general mapping for the kinematics of all robots and a specific mapping for this kind of robots. Both of those mappings are developed for the single section and for the multisections. We aim at providing a guide for kinematic analysis of the similar manipulators through this paper.
2nd Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications in Kinematics
Flores, Francisco
2015-01-01
This book collects a number of important contributions presented during the Second Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications of Kinematics (IAK 2013) held in Lima, Peru. The conference brought together scientists from several research fields, such as computational kinematics, multibody systems, industrial machines, robotics, biomechanics, mechatronics, computational chemistry, and vibration analysis, and embraced all key aspects of kinematics, namely, theoretical methods, modeling, optimization, experimental validation, industrial applications, and design. Kinematics is an exciting area of computational mechanics and plays a central role in a great variety of fields and industrial applications nowadays. Apart from research in pure kinematics, the field deals with problems of practical relevance that need to be solved in an interdisciplinary manner in order for new technologies to develop. The results presented in this book should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. stud...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faucher, Vincent
2014-01-01
Simulating fast transient phenomena involving fluids and structures in interaction for safety purposes requires both accurate and robust algorithms, and parallel computing to reduce the calculation time for industrial models. Managing kinematic constraints linking fluid and structural entities is thus a key issue and this contribution promotes a dual approach over the classical penalty approach, introducing arbitrary coefficients in the solution. This choice however severely increases the complexity of the problem, mainly due to non-permanent kinematic constraints. An innovative parallel strategy is therefore described, whose performances are demonstrated on significant examples exhibiting the full complexity of the target industrial simulations. (authors)
Multiscale Reduced Order Modeling of Complex Multi-Bay Structures
2013-07-01
fuselage panel studied in [28], see Fig. 2 for a picture of the actual hardware taken from [28]. The finite element model of the 9-bay panel, shown in...discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored. iii A mi familia ...results at P=0.98-1.82 lb/in, P=1.4-2.6 lb/in. The baseline solution P=1.4-2.6 lb/in has a 46 mean value of 2 lb/in and it is actually very close to
Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.
2016-12-01
The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) illuminated crustal and upper mantle structure of the Salton Trough, the northern-most rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary. The crust is 17-18 km thick and homogeneous for 100 km in the plate motion direction. New crust is being created by distributed rift magmatism, Colorado River sedimentation, and metamorphism of the sediment. A 5 km thick pre-existing crustal layer may still exist. The crust has not broken apart to enable initiation of seafloor spreading. A one-dimensional time-dependent kinematic and thermal model was developed to simulate these observations. We assume that all crustal layers are stretched uniformly during extension. Distributed mafic magmatism and sedimentation are added simultaneously to compensate for the crustal thinning. The ratio of magmatism to sedimentation is constrained by the seismic observations. Heat is transported by thermal conduction and by advection due to stretching of the crust. A constant temperature boundary at the Moho is used to represent partial melting in the upper mantle. Assuming a constant plate motion rate, the zone of active rifting extends linearly with time. The crustal thickness and internal structure also evolve with time. The model constraints are the observed seismic structure and heat flow. The model rapidly reaches quasi-steady state, and could continue for many millions of years. The observed seismic structure and heat flow are reproduced after 3 Myr. The yield strength profile calculated from lithology and model temperature indicates that ductile deformation in the middle and lower crust dominates the crustal rheology. Rapid sedimentation delays crustal breakup and the initiation of seafloor spreading by maintaining the thickness of the crust and keeping it predominantly ductile. This process probably occurs wherever a large river flows into an active rift driven by far-field extension. It may have built passive margins in many locations
Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala
2012-01-01
increases the amount of unrepaired DNA damage. Despite this vicious circle, we ask, can cells maintain a high DNA repair capacity for some time or is repair capacity bound to continuously decline with age? We here present a simple mathematical model for ageing in multicellular systems where cells subjected...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity......DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...
A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DOHNER,JEFFREY L.
2000-11-06
As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.
Reduced order modeling in topology optimization of vibroacoustic problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Creixell Mediante, Ester; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Brunskog, Jonas
2017-01-01
complex 3D parts. The optimization process can therefore become highly time consuming due to the need to solve a large system of equations at each iteration. Projection-based parametric Model Order Reduction (pMOR) methods have successfully been applied for reducing the computational cost of material......There is an interest in introducing topology optimization techniques in the design process of structural-acoustic systems. In topology optimization, the design space must be finely meshed in order to obtain an accurate design, which results in large numbers of degrees of freedom when designing...... or size optimization in large vibroacoustic models; however, new challenges are encountered when dealing with topology optimization. Since a design parameter per element is considered, the total number of design variables becomes very large; this poses a challenge to most existing pMOR techniques, which...
Hybrid Reduced Order Modeling Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations
Bang, Youngsuk
Reduced order modeling (ROM) has been recognized as an indispensable approach when the engineering analysis requires many executions of high fidelity simulation codes. Examples of such engineering analyses in nuclear reactor core calculations, representing the focus of this dissertation, include the functionalization of the homogenized few-group cross-sections in terms of the various core conditions, e.g. burn-up, fuel enrichment, temperature, etc. This is done via assembly calculations which are executed many times to generate the required functionalization for use in the downstream core calculations. Other examples are sensitivity analysis used to determine important core attribute variations due to input parameter variations, and uncertainty quantification employed to estimate core attribute uncertainties originating from input parameter uncertainties. ROM constructs a surrogate model with quantifiable accuracy which can replace the original code for subsequent engineering analysis calculations. This is achieved by reducing the effective dimensionality of the input parameter, the state variable, or the output response spaces, by projection onto the so-called active subspaces. Confining the variations to the active subspace allows one to construct an ROM model of reduced complexity which can be solved more efficiently. This dissertation introduces a new algorithm to render reduction with the reduction errors bounded based on a user-defined error tolerance which represents the main challenge of existing ROM techniques. Bounding the error is the key to ensuring that the constructed ROM models are robust for all possible applications. Providing such error bounds represents one of the algorithmic contributions of this dissertation to the ROM state-of-the-art. Recognizing that ROM techniques have been developed to render reduction at different levels, e.g. the input parameter space, the state space, and the response space, this dissertation offers a set of novel
A Taxonomic Reduced-Space Pollen Model for Paleoclimate Reconstruction
Wahl, E. R.; Schoelzel, C.
2010-12-01
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction from fossil pollen often attempts to take advantage of the rich taxonomic diversity in such data. Here, a taxonomically "reduced-space" reconstruction model is explored that would be parsimonious in introducing parameters needing to be estimated within a Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling context. This work involves a refinement of the traditional pollen ratio method. This method is useful when one (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) in a region have a strong positive correlation with a climate variable of interest and another (or a few) dominant pollen type(s) have a strong negative correlation. When, e.g., counts of pollen taxa a and b (r >0) are combined with pollen types c and d (r logistic generalized linear model (GLM). The GLM can readily model this relationship in the forward form, pollen = g(climate), which is more physically realistic than inverse models often used in paleoclimate reconstruction [climate = f(pollen)]. The specification of the model is: rnum Bin(n,p), where E(r|T) = p = exp(η)/[1+exp(η)], and η = α + β(T); r is the pollen ratio formed as above, rnum is the ratio numerator, n is the ratio denominator (i.e., the sum of pollen counts), the denominator-specific count is (n - rnum), and T is the temperature at each site corresponding to a specific value of r. Ecological and empirical screening identified the model (Spruce+Birch) / (Spruce+Birch+Oak+Hickory) for use in temperate eastern N. America. α and β were estimated using both "traditional" and Bayesian GLM algorithms (in R). Although it includes only four pollen types, the ratio model yields more explained variation ( 80%) in the pollen-temperature relationship of the study region than a 64-taxon modern analog technique (MAT). Thus, the new pollen ratio method represents an information-rich, reduced space data model that can be efficiently employed in a BHM framework. The ratio model can directly reconstruct past temperature by solving the GLM equations
Sparsity enabled cluster reduced-order models for control
Kaiser, Eurika; Morzyński, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.
2018-01-01
Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena are central goals in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. A key advantage of CROM is that it embeds nonlinear dynamics in a linear framework, which enables the application of standard linear techniques to the nonlinear system. CROM is typically computed on high-dimensional data; however, access to and computations on this full-state data limit the online implementation of CROM for prediction and control. Here, we address this key challenge by identifying a small subset of critical measurements to learn an efficient CROM, referred to as sparsity-enabled CROM. In particular, we leverage compressive measurements to faithfully embed the cluster geometry and preserve the probabilistic dynamics. Further, we show how to identify fewer optimized sensor locations tailored to a specific problem that outperform random measurements. Both of these sparsity-enabled sensing strategies significantly reduce the burden of data acquisition and processing for low-latency in-time estimation and control. We illustrate this unsupervised learning approach on three different high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems from fluids with increasing complexity, with one application in flow control. Sparsity-enabled CROM is a critical facilitator for real-time implementation on high-dimensional systems where full-state information may be inaccessible.
Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model
Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.
2017-06-01
World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.
Lacquaniti, F; Ivanenko, Y P; Zago, M
2002-10-01
The planar law of inter-segmental co-ordination we described may emerge from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle contraction intervenes at variable times to re-excite the intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. The hypothesis that a law of coordinative control results from a minimal active tuning of the passive inertial and viscoelastic coupling among limb segments is congruent with the idea that movement has evolved according to minimum energy criteria (1, 8). It is known that multi-segment motion of mammals locomotion is controlled by a network of coupled oscillators (CPGs, see 18, 33, 37). Flexible combination of unit oscillators gives rise to different forms of locomotion. Inter-oscillator coupling can be modified by changing the synaptic strength (or polarity) of the relative spinal connections. As a result, unit oscillators can be coupled in phase, out of phase, or with a variable phase, giving rise to different behaviors, such as speed increments or reversal of gait direction (from forward to backward). Supra-spinal centers may drive or modulate functional sets of coordinating interneurons to generate different walking modes (or gaits). Although it is often assumed that CPGs control patterns of muscle activity, an equally plausible hypothesis is that they control patterns of limb segment motion instead (22). According to this kinematic view, each unit oscillator would directly control a limb segment, alternately generating forward and backward oscillations of the segment. Inter-segmental coordination would be achieved by coupling unit oscillators with a variable phase. Inter-segmental kinematic phase plays the role of global control variable previously postulated for the network of central oscillators. In fact, inter-segmental phase shifts systematically with increasing speed both in man (4) and cat (38). Because this phase-shift is correlated with the net mechanical power
Kinematic adjustments to seismic recordings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.
1981-01-01
The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.
Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew McAuley
Full Text Available Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions.To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities.Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a 'living wage'; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII.Introduction of a 'living wage' generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted.Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and inequalities. The most effective (and likely cost
Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots
Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Takano, Masaharu; Inoue, Kenji
1992-03-01
This paper proposes a general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Unlike robotic manipulators which are modeled as 3-dimensional serial link mechanism, WMRs will be modeled as planar linkage mechanism with multiple links branching out from the base and/or another link. Since this model resembles a tree with branches, it will be called 'tree-structured-link'. The end of each link corresponds to the wheel which is in contact with the floor. In dynamics of WMR, equation of motion of a WMR is derived from joint input torques incorporating wheel dynamics. The wheel dynamics determines forces and moments acting on wheels as a function of slip velocity. This slippage of wheels is essential in dynamics of WMR. It will also be shown that the dynamics of WMR reduces to kinematics when slippage of wheels is neglected. Furthermore, the equation of dynamics is rewritten in velocity input form, since most of industrial motors are velocity controlled.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuai Su
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to the energy efficiency in metro systems to reduce the operational cost and to advocate the sustainability of railway systems. Classical research has studied the energy-efficient operational strategy and the energy-efficient system design separately to reduce the traction energy consumption. This paper aims to combine the operational strategies and the system design by analyzing how the infrastructure and vehicle parameters of metro systems influence the operational traction energy consumption. Firstly, a solution approach to the optimal train control model is introduced, which is used to design the Optimal Train Control Simulator(OTCS. Then, based on the OTCS, the performance of some important energy-efficient system design strategies is investigated to reduce the trains’ traction energy consumption, including reduction of the train mass, improvement of the kinematic resistance, the design of the energy-saving gradient, increasing the maximum traction and braking forces, introducing regenerative braking and timetable optimization. As for these energy-efficient strategies, the performances are finally evaluated using the OTCS with the practical operational data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. The proposed approach gives an example to quantitatively analyze the energy reduction of different strategies in the system design procedure, which may help the decision makers to have an overview of the energy-efficient performances and then to make decisions by balancing the costs and the benefits.
Fredrickson, S. M.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.
2013-12-01
Walker Lane is a broad (~100-200 km) zone of dextral shear located between the Sierra Nevada microplate and the Basin and Range Province. We consider Bodie Hills a part of the greater Walker Lane because it has experienced clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks due to dextral shear accommodation. This strain is variable, resulting in rotations ranging from ~10°-70° depending on location. The Miocene Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) is an ideal strain marker, because it is a geologically instantaneous and laterally extensive unit. We use paleomagnetic analysis of ignimbrites to improve the resolution of strain domain boundaries as well as test for doming in Bodie Hills. EVT site mean directions were compared to reference directions of the Tollhouse Flat and By Day Members collected from the stable Sierra Nevada to determine magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation. Three new sites and three previously sampled sites define a high-rotation domain including Bridgeport Valley and the East Walker River Canyon with an average clockwise rotation of ~50°-60°. We define the eastern boundary of this high-rotation domain as coinciding with a mapped fault exhibiting 11.7°×7.9° rotation of the presumed footwall. Our data corroborates and improves on Carlson's (2012) kinematic model in which the greater Bodie Hills has rotated clockwise ~30° since EVT emplacement. Eutaxitic textures, dipping up to 90°, are gross indicators of true tilt, but are also influenced by original dips in some localities, complicating interpretations. John et al. (2012) describe a simple doming model of Bodie Hills since EVT emplacement, supported by the high elevation of outflow channels compared to source areas. Our paleomagnetic data does not support simple doming, suggesting that there is either no doming of Bodie Hills, or that vertical crustal displacements have occurred without large-scale folding. John et al. (2012) dated undifferentiated EVT in Bodie Hills at ~9.4 Ma; using
Motion estimation by data assimilation in reduced dynamic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drifi, Karim
2013-01-01
Motion estimation is a major challenge in the field of image sequence analysis. This thesis is a study of the dynamics of geophysical flows visualized by satellite imagery. Satellite image sequences are currently underused for the task of motion estimation. A good understanding of geophysical flows allows a better analysis and forecast of phenomena in domains such as oceanography and meteorology. Data assimilation provides an excellent framework for achieving a compromise between heterogeneous data, especially numerical models and observations. Hence, in this thesis we set out to apply variational data assimilation methods to estimate motion on image sequences. As one of the major drawbacks of applying these assimilation techniques is the considerable computation time and memory required, we therefore define and use a model reduction method in order to significantly decrease the necessary computation time and the memory. We then explore the possibilities that reduced models provide for motion estimation, particularly the possibility of strictly imposing some known constraints on the computed solutions. In particular, we show how to estimate a divergence free motion with boundary conditions on a complex spatial domain [fr
Kinematic aspects of pion-nucleus elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, D.L.; Ernst, D.J.
1982-01-01
The inclusion of relativistic kinematics in the theory of elastic scattering of pions from nuclei is examined. The investigation is performed in the context of the first order impulse approximation which incorporates the following features: (1) Relative momentum are defined according to relativistic theories consistent with time reversal invariance. (2) The two-nucleon interaction is a new, multichannel, separable potential model consistent with the most recent data derived from a recent nonpotential model of Ernst and Johnson. (3) The recoil of the pion-nucleon interacting pair and its resultant nonlocality are included. (4) The Fermi integral is treated by an optimal factorization approximation. It is shown how a careful definition of an intrinsic target density leads to an unambiguous method for including the recoil of the target. The target recoil corrections are found to be large for elastic scattering from 4 He and not negligible for scattering from 12 C. Relativistic potential theory kinematics, kinematics which result from covariant reduction approaches, and kinematics which result from replacing masses by energies in nonrelativistic formulas are compared. The relativistic potential theory kinematics and covariant reduction kinematics are shown to produce different elastic scattering at all pion energies examined (T/sub π/<300 MeV). Simple extensions of nonrelativistic kinematics are found to be reasonable approximations to relativistic potential theory
Numerical modelling of pyrolysis in normal and reduced oxygen concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kacem, Ahmed
2016-01-01
The predictive capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fire models depends on the accuracy with which the source term due to fuel pyrolysis can be determined. The pyrolysis rate is a key parameter controlling fire behavior, which in turn drives the heat feedback from the flame to the fuel surface. In the present study an in-depth pyrolysis model of a semi-transparent solid fuel (here, clear polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA) with spectrally-resolved radiation and a moving gas/solid interface was coupled with the CFD code ISIS of the IRSN which included turbulence, combustion and radiation for the gas phase. A combined genetic algorithm/pyrolysis model was used with Cone Calorimeter data from a pure pyrolysis experiment to estimate a unique set of kinetic parameters for PMMA pyrolysis. In order to validate the coupled model, ambient air flaming experiments were conducted on square slabs of PMMA with side lengths of 10, 20 and 40 cm. From measurements at the center of the slab, it was found that i) for any sample size, the experimental regression rate becomes almost constant with time, and ii) although the radiative and total heat transfers increase significantly with the sample size, the radiative contribution to the total heat flux remains almost constant (∼80%). Coupled model results show a fairly good agreement with the literature and with current measurements of the heat fluxes, gas temperature and regressing surface rate at the center of the slabs. Discrepancies between predicted and measured total pyrolysis rate are observed, which result from the underestimation of the flame heat flux feedback at the edges of the slab, as confirmed by the comparison between predicted and observed topography of burned samples. Predicted flame heights based on a threshold temperature criterion were found to be close to those deduced from the correlation of Heskestad. Finally, in order to predict the pyrolysis of PMMA under reduced ambient oxygen concentration, a two
Computational design of patterned interfaces using reduced order models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vattre, A.J.; Abdolrahim, N.; Kolluri, K.; Demkowicz, M.J.
2014-01-01
Patterning is a familiar approach for imparting novel functionalities to free surfaces. We extend the patterning paradigm to interfaces between crystalline solids. Many interfaces have non-uniform internal structures comprised of misfit dislocations, which in turn govern interface properties. We develop and validate a computational strategy for designing interfaces with controlled misfit dislocation patterns by tailoring interface crystallography and composition. Our approach relies on a novel method for predicting the internal structure of interfaces: rather than obtaining it from resource-intensive atomistic simulations, we compute it using an efficient reduced order model based on anisotropic elasticity theory. Moreover, our strategy incorporates interface synthesis as a constraint on the design process. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the design of interfaces with rapid, 1-D point defect diffusion. Patterned interfaces may be integrated into the microstructure of composite materials, markedly improving performance. (authors)
Kinematic Optimization in Birds, Bats and Ornithopters
Reichert, Todd
Birds and bats employ a variety of advanced wing motions in the efficient production of thrust. The purpose of this thesis is to quantify the benefit of these advanced wing motions, determine the optimal theoretical wing kinematics for a given flight condition, and to develop a methodology for applying the results in the optimal design of flapping-wing aircraft (ornithopters). To this end, a medium-fidelity, combined aero-structural model has been developed that is capable of simulating the advanced kinematics seen in bird flight, as well as the highly non-linear structural deformations typical of high-aspect ratio wings. Five unique methods of thrust production observed in natural species have been isolated, quantified and thoroughly investigated for their dependence on Reynolds number, airfoil selection, frequency, amplitude and relative phasing. A gradient-based optimization algorithm has been employed to determined the wing kinematics that result in the minimum required power for a generalized aircraft or species in any given flight condition. In addition to the theoretical work, with the help of an extended team, the methodology was applied to the design and construction of the world's first successful human-powered ornithopter. The Snowbird Human-Powered Ornithopter, is used as an example aircraft to show how additional design constraints can pose limits on the optimal kinematics. The results show significant trends that give insight into the kinematic operation of natural species. The general result is that additional complexity, whether it be larger twisting deformations or advanced wing-folding mechanisms, allows for the possibility of more efficient flight. At its theoretical optimum, the efficiency of flapping-wings exceeds that of current rotors and propellers, although these efficiencies are quite difficult to achieve in practice.
Reduced Order Modeling of Combustion Instability in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor
Arnold-Medabalimi, Nicholas; Huang, Cheng; Duraisamy, Karthik
2017-11-01
Hydrocarbon fuel based propulsion systems are expected to remain relevant in aerospace vehicles for the foreseeable future. Design of these devices is complicated by combustion instabilities. The capability to model and predict these effects at reduced computational cost is a requirement for both design and control of these devices. This work focuses on computational studies on a dual swirl model gas turbine combustor in the context of reduced order model development. Full fidelity simulations are performed utilizing URANS and Hybrid RANS-LES with finite rate chemistry. Following this, data decomposition techniques are used to extract a reduced basis representation of the unsteady flow field. These bases are first used to identify sensor locations to guide experimental interrogations and controller feedback. Following this, initial results on developing a control-oriented reduced order model (ROM) will be presented. The capability of the ROM will be further assessed based on different operating conditions and geometric configurations.
Meyer, Sven Erik; Passchier, Cees; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt
2014-05-01
Metamorphic core complexes usually develop as extensional features during continental crustal thinning, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15 km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140 km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE-trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and changes by more than 90 degrees from a NS-trending strike-slip zone to an EW-trending 40 degree south-dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike-slip shear zone during 40 km of horizontal strike-slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed later during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip
An adaptive inverse kinematics algorithm for robot manipulators
Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.
1990-01-01
An adaptive algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics problem for robot manipulators is presented. The algorithm is derived using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) theory and is computationally efficient for online applications. The scheme requires no a priori knowledge of the kinematics of the robot if Cartesian end-effector sensing is available, and it requires knowledge of only the forward kinematics if joint position sensing is used. Computer simulation results are given for the redundant seven-DOF robotics research arm, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm yields accurate joint angle trajectories for a given end-effector position/orientation trajectory.
Rigid-body kinematics versus flapping kinematics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle
Caetano, J.V.; Weehuizen, M.B.; De Visser, C.C.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Mulder, M.
2015-01-01
Several formulations have been proposed to model the dynamics of ornithopters, with inconclusive results regarding the need for complex kinematic formulations. Furthermore, the impact of assumptions made in the collected results was never assessed by comparing simulations with real flight data. In
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pánek, T.; Tábořík, P.; Klimeš, Jan; Komárková, V.; Hradecký, J.; Šťastný, Martin
2011-01-01
Roč. 129, 1-2 (2011), s. 92-112 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : deep-seated gravitational slope deformations * kinematic analysis * electrical resistivity tomography Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X11000444
Mining on Big Data Using Hadoop MapReduce Model
Salman Ahmed, G.; Bhattacharya, Sweta
2017-11-01
Customary parallel calculations for mining nonstop item create opportunity to adjust stack of similar data among hubs. The paper aims to review this process by analyzing the critical execution downside of the common parallel recurrent item-set mining calculations. Given a larger than average dataset, data apportioning strategies inside the current arrangements endure high correspondence and mining overhead evoked by repetitive exchanges transmitted among registering hubs. We tend to address this downside by building up a learning apportioning approach referred as Hadoop abuse using the map-reduce programming model. All objectives of Hadoop are to zest up the execution of parallel recurrent item-set mining on Hadoop bunches. Fusing the comparability metric and furthermore the locality-sensitive hashing procedure, Hadoop puts to a great degree comparative exchanges into an information segment to lift neighborhood while not making AN exorbitant assortment of excess exchanges. We tend to execute Hadoop on a 34-hub Hadoop bunch, driven by a decent change of datasets made by IBM quest market-basket manufactured data generator. Trial uncovers the fact that Hadoop contributes towards lessening system and processing masses by the uprightness of dispensing with excess exchanges on Hadoop hubs. Hadoop impressively outperforms and enhances the other models considerably.
Kinematics of the symbiotic system R Aqr
Navarro, S.; Corral, L. J.; Steffen, W.
2014-04-01
We present the results of the kinematical analysis of the symbiotic system R Aqr. We obtained high dispersion spectra with the MES spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (MEZCAL). The used filter were Ha + [NII], (λc = 6575Å, Δλ = 90Å). We analyse the [NII] λλ6583 line. When the observations are compared with previous ones by Solf (1992) we detected an important change in the projected velocities of the observed knots, supporting the idea of a precessing jet. We are working also in a 3-D kinematic model for the object using the measured velocities and the state of the model is presented.
State reduced order models for the modelling of the thermal behavior of buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menezo, Christophe; Bouia, Hassan; Roux, Jean-Jacques; Depecker, Patrick [Institute National de Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL). Equipe Thermique du Batiment]. E-mail: menezo@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; bouia@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; roux@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; depecker@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr
2000-07-01
This work is devoted to the field of building physics and related to the reduction of heat conduction models. The aim is to enlarge the model libraries of heat and mass transfer codes through limiting the considerable dimensions reached by the numerical systems during the modelling process of a multizone building. We show that the balanced realization technique, specifically adapted to the coupling of reduced order models with the other thermal phenomena, turns out to be very efficient. (author)
Analyzing Robotic Kinematics Via Computed Simulations
Carnahan, Timothy M.
1992-01-01
Computing system assists in evaluation of kinematics of conceptual robot. Displays positions and motions of robotic manipulator within work cell. Also displays interactions between robotic manipulator and other objects. Results of simulation displayed on graphical computer workstation. System includes both off-the-shelf software originally developed for automotive industry and specially developed software. Simulation system also used to design human-equivalent hand, to model optical train in infrared system, and to develop graphical interface for teleoperator simulation system.
Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists
Mckinney, William S., Jr.
1988-01-01
The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.
A Soft Parallel Kinematic Mechanism.
White, Edward L; Case, Jennifer C; Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca
2018-02-01
In this article, we describe a novel holonomic soft robotic structure based on a parallel kinematic mechanism. The design is based on the Stewart platform, which uses six sensors and actuators to achieve full six-degree-of-freedom motion. Our design is much less complex than a traditional platform, since it replaces the 12 spherical and universal joints found in a traditional Stewart platform with a single highly deformable elastomer body and flexible actuators. This reduces the total number of parts in the system and simplifies the assembly process. Actuation is achieved through coiled-shape memory alloy actuators. State observation and feedback is accomplished through the use of capacitive elastomer strain gauges. The main structural element is an elastomer joint that provides antagonistic force. We report the response of the actuators and sensors individually, then report the response of the complete assembly. We show that the completed robotic system is able to achieve full position control, and we discuss the limitations associated with using responsive material actuators. We believe that control demonstrated on a single body in this work could be extended to chains of such bodies to create complex soft robots.
Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, H.J.
1979-01-01
This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group
Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks
Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles
1992-01-01
In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.
Anatomical kinematic constraints: consequences on muscular forces and joint reactions
MOISSENET, F; CHEZE, L; DUMAS, R
2011-01-01
This paper presents a method to determine musculo-tendon forces and joint reactions during gait, using a 3D right leg model with 5 DoFs: spherical joint at the hip and parallel mechanisms at both knee and ankle. A typical set of natural coordinates is used to obtain the dynamic equations. First, using a global optimization method, "anatomical" kinematic constraints (i.e., parallel mechanisms) are applied on the kinematics obtained from motion capture data. Consistent derivatives are computed ...
Kinematics of roller chain drives - Exact and approximate analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
An exact and approximate kinematic analysis of a roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism is presented. The span connects the sprockets such that they rotate in the same direction, and the sprocket size, number of teeth, and shaft center distance can be arbitrary. The driven sprocket...... to be very good agreement. All together this gives new insights into the characteristics of chain drive kinematics and the influence of main design parameters....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Arif Hamzah
2010-01-01
This paper presents the preliminary software development for the kinematics analysis of 5 DOF rescue robot. The kinematics analysis is the study of relationship between the individual joints of the robot manipulator, the position and orientation of the end-effector. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) model is used to model the robot links and joints. Both forward and inverse kinematic are presented. The simulation software has been developed by using MATLAB to solve the robot arms kinematic behavior. (author)
A mathematical model for reducing the composting time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Estefanía Larreategui
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The environment is still affected by the inappropriate use of organic matter waste, but a culture of recycling and reuse has been promoted in Ecuador to reduce carbon footprint. The composting, a technique to digest organic matter, which traditionally takes 16-24 weeks, is still inefficient to use. Therefore, this paper concerns the optimization of the composting process in both quality and production time. The variables studied were: type of waste (fruits and vegetables and type of bioaccelerator (yeast and indigenous microorganisms. By using a full factorial random design 22, a quality compost was obtained in 7 weeks of processing. Quality factors as temperature, density, moisture content, pH and carbon-nitrogen ratio allowed the best conditions for composting in the San Gabriel del Baba community (Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. As a result of this study, a mathematical surface model which explains the relationship between the temperature and the digestion time of organic matter was obtained.
Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone
Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.
2016-01-01
Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the
Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.
Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina
2013-10-01
Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.
Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes
Johansson, Henrik
2016-01-01
We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...
Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution
Moulton, Derek E.
2012-11-18
A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
The kinematic advantage of electric cars
Meyn, Jan-Peter
2015-11-01
Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.
Kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in car-pedestrian collisions
Teng, T. L.; Liang, C. C.; Hsu, C. Y.; Tai, S. F.
2017-10-01
How to protect pedestrians and reduce the collision injury has gradually become the new field of automotive safety research and focus in the world. Many engineering studies have appeared and their purpose is trying to reduce the pedestrian injuries caused by traffic accident. The physical model involving impactor model and full scale pedestrian model are costly when taking the impact test. This study constructs a vehicle-pedestrian collision model by using the MADYMO. To verify the accuracy of the proposed vehicle-pedestrian collision model, the experimental data are used in the pedestrian model test. The proposed model also will be applied to analyze the kinematic responses and injuries of pedestrian in collisions in this study. The modeled results can help assess the pedestrian friendliness of vehicles and assist in the future development of pedestrian friendliness vehicle technologies.
Taylor, Philip; Federrath, Christoph; Kobayashi, Chiaki
2018-06-01
Integral field spectroscopy surveys provide spatially resolved gas and stellar kinematics of galaxies. They have unveiled a range of atypical kinematic phenomena, which require detailed modelling to understand. We present results from a cosmological simulation that includes stellar and AGN feedback. We find that the distribution of angles between the gas and stellar angular momenta of galaxies is not affected by projection effects. We examine five galaxies (≈6 per cent of well resolved galaxies) that display atypical kinematics; two of the galaxies have kinematically distinct cores (KDC), while the other three have counter-rotating gas and stars. All five form the majority of their stars in the field, subsequently falling into cosmological filaments where the relative orientation of the stellar angular momentum and the bulk gas flow leads to the formation of a counter-rotating gas disc. The accreted gas exchanges angular momentum with pre-existing co-rotating gas causing it to fall to the centre of the galaxy. This triggers low-level AGN feedback, which reduces star formation. Later, two of the galaxies experience a minor merger (stellar mass ratio ˜1/10) with a galaxy on a retrograde orbit compared to the spin of the stellar component of the primary. This produces the KDCs, and is a different mechanism than suggested by other works. The role of minor mergers in the kinematic evolution of galaxies may have been under-appreciated in the past, and large, high-resolution cosmological simulations will be necessary to gain a better understanding in this area.
Reducing Excellence Gaps: A Research-Based Model
Plucker, Jonathan A.; Peters, Scott J.; Schmalensee, Stephanie
2017-01-01
As the awareness of the existence and negative effects of excellence gaps has grown among educators and policy makers, so too has a desire for research-supported interventions to reduce these gaps. A recent review of research related to promoting equitable outcomes for all gifted students identified six specific strategies for reducing excellence…
Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis
Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia
2015-01-01
Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0–135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, “rollback” compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis. PMID:25591565
Kinematic analysis of a posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis.
Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia
2015-01-20
The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0-135° flexion. Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, "rollback" compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis.
Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Xin Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0-135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee′s kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, "rollback" compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis.
Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic
2015-01-01
To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone
Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.
2014-01-01
Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these
Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
geologists at Newmont Ahafo Mine have realised the impact of blast movement on ore losses and dilution and have ... Movement to Reduce Ore Losses and Dilution at Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, pp. .... classification.
Nonlinear kinematic hardening under non-proportional loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottosen, N.S.
1979-07-01
Within the framework of conventional plasticity theory, it is first determined under which conditions Melan-Prager's and Ziegler's kinematic hardening rules result in identical material behaviour. Next, assuming initial isotropy and adopting the von Mises yield criterion, a nonlinear kinematic hardening function is proposed for prediction of metal behaviour. The model assumes that hardening at a specific stress point depends on the direction of the new incremental loading. Hereby a realistic response is obtained for general reversed loading, and a smooth behaviour is assured, even when loading deviates more and more from proportional loading and ultimately results in reversed loading. The predictions of the proposed model for non-proportional loading under plane stress conditions are compared with those of the classical linear kinematic model, the isotropic model and with published experimental data. Finally, the limitations of the proposaed model are discussed. (author)
Simulation study of a rectifying bipolar ion channel: Detailed model versus reduced model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ható
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We study a rectifying mutant of the OmpF porin ion channel using both all-atom and reduced models. The mutant was created by Miedema et al. [Nano Lett., 2007, 7, 2886] on the basis of the NP semiconductor diode, in which an NP junction is formed. The mutant contains a pore region with positive amino acids on the left-hand side and negative amino acids on the right-hand side. Experiments show that this mutant rectifies. Although we do not know the structure of this mutant, we can build an all-atom model for it on the basis of the structure of the wild type channel. Interestingly, molecular dynamics simulations for this all-atom model do not produce rectification. A reduced model that contains only the important degrees of freedom (the positive and negative amino acids and free ions in an implicit solvent, on the other hand, exhibits rectification. Our calculations for the reduced model (using the Nernst-Planck equation coupled to Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations reveal a rectification mechanism that is different from that seen for semiconductor diodes. The basic reason is that the ions are different in nature from electrons and holes (they do not recombine. We provide explanations for the failure of the all-atom model including the effect of all the other atoms in the system as a noise that inhibits the response of ions (that would be necessary for rectification to the polarizing external field.
A kinematic view of loop closure.
Coutsias, Evangelos A; Seok, Chaok; Jacobson, Matthew P; Dill, Ken A
2004-03-01
We consider the problem of loop closure, i.e., of finding the ensemble of possible backbone structures of a chain segment of a protein molecule that is geometrically consistent with preceding and following parts of the chain whose structures are given. We reduce this problem of determining the loop conformations of six torsions to finding the real roots of a 16th degree polynomial in one variable, based on the robotics literature on the kinematics of the equivalent rotator linkage in the most general case of oblique rotators. We provide a simple intuitive view and derivation of the polynomial for the case in which each of the three pair of torsional axes has a common point. Our method generalizes previous work on analytical loop closure in that the torsion angles need not be consecutive, and any rigid intervening segments are allowed between the free torsions. Our approach also allows for a small degree of flexibility in the bond angles and the peptide torsion angles; this substantially enlarges the space of solvable configurations as is demonstrated by an application of the method to the modeling of cyclic pentapeptides. We give further applications to two important problems. First, we show that this analytical loop closure algorithm can be efficiently combined with an existing loop-construction algorithm to sample loops longer than three residues. Second, we show that Monte Carlo minimization is made severalfold more efficient by employing the local moves generated by the loop closure algorithm, when applied to the global minimization of an eight-residue loop. Our loop closure algorithm is freely available at http://dillgroup. ucsf.edu/loop_closure/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 510-528, 2004
Null-strut calculus. I. Kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheyfets, A.; LaFave, N.J.; Miller, W.A.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the kinematics of null-strut calculus---a 3+1 Regge calculus approach to general relativity. We show how to model the geometry of spacetime with simplicial spacelike three-geometries (TET's) linked to ''earlier'' and ''later'' momentumlike lattice surfaces (TET * ) entirely by light rays or ''null struts.'' These three-layered lattice spacetime geometries are defined and analyzed using combinatorial formulas for the structure of polytopes. The following paper in this series describes how these three-layered spacetime lattices are used to model spacetimes in full conformity with Einstein's theory of gravity
Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.
Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo
2007-03-23
Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.
Models of emergency departments for reducing patient waiting times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Laskowski
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply both agent-based models and queuing models to investigate patient access and patient flow through emergency departments. The objective of this work is to gain insights into the comparative contributions and limitations of these complementary techniques, in their ability to contribute empirical input into healthcare policy and practice guidelines. The models were developed independently, with a view to compare their suitability to emergency department simulation. The current models implement relatively simple general scenarios, and rely on a combination of simulated and real data to simulate patient flow in a single emergency department or in multiple interacting emergency departments. In addition, several concepts from telecommunications engineering are translated into this modeling context. The framework of multiple-priority queue systems and the genetic programming paradigm of evolutionary machine learning are applied as a means of forecasting patient wait times and as a means of evolving healthcare policy, respectively. The models' utility lies in their ability to provide qualitative insights into the relative sensitivities and impacts of model input parameters, to illuminate scenarios worthy of more complex investigation, and to iteratively validate the models as they continue to be refined and extended. The paper discusses future efforts to refine, extend, and validate the models with more data and real data relative to physical (spatial-topographical and social inputs (staffing, patient care models, etc.. Real data obtained through proximity location and tracking system technologies is one example discussed.
SCALING ANALYSIS OF REPOSITORY HEAT LOAD FOR REDUCED DIMENSIONALITY MODELS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MICHAEL T. ITAMUA AND CLIFFORD K. HO
1998-01-01
The thermal energy released from the waste packages emplaced in the potential Yucca Mountain repository is expected to result in changes in the repository temperature, relative humidity, air mass fraction, gas flow rates, and other parameters that are important input into the models used to calculate the performance of the engineered system components. In particular, the waste package degradation models require input from thermal-hydrologic models that have higher resolution than those currently used to simulate the T/H responses at the mountain-scale. Therefore, a combination of mountain- and drift-scale T/H models is being used to generate the drift thermal-hydrologic environment
Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation
Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia
2016-04-01
In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.
Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio
2012-05-01
The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (pfoot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Model-reduced gradient-based history matching
Kaleta, M.P.
2011-01-01
Since the world's energy demand increases every year, the oil & gas industry makes a continuous effort to improve fossil fuel recovery. Physics-based petroleum reservoir modeling and closed-loop model-based reservoir management concept can play an important role here. In this concept measured data
Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia
Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.
1974-01-01
Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)
Maiorano, Andrea; Martre, Pierre; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Mueller, Christoph; Roetter, Reimund P.; Ruane, Alex C.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Enli
2016-01-01
To improve climate change impact estimates and to quantify their uncertainty, multi-model ensembles (MMEs) have been suggested. Model improvements can improve the accuracy of simulations and reduce the uncertainty of climate change impact assessments. Furthermore, they can reduce the number of models needed in a MME. Herein, 15 wheat growth models of a larger MME were improved through re-parameterization and/or incorporating or modifying heat stress effects on phenology, leaf growth and senescence, biomass growth, and grain number and size using detailed field experimental data from the USDA Hot Serial Cereal experiment (calibration data set). Simulation results from before and after model improvement were then evaluated with independent field experiments from a CIMMYT worldwide field trial network (evaluation data set). Model improvements decreased the variation (10th to 90th model ensemble percentile range) of grain yields simulated by the MME on average by 39% in the calibration data set and by 26% in the independent evaluation data set for crops grown in mean seasonal temperatures greater than 24 C. MME mean squared error in simulating grain yield decreased by 37%. A reduction in MME uncertainty range by 27% increased MME prediction skills by 47%. Results suggest that the mean level of variation observed in field experiments and used as a benchmark can be reached with half the number of models in the MME. Improving crop models is therefore important to increase the certainty of model-based impact assessments and allow more practical, i.e. smaller MMEs to be used effectively.
Fit reduced GUTS models online: From theory to practice.
Baudrot, Virgile; Veber, Philippe; Gence, Guillaume; Charles, Sandrine
2018-05-20
Mechanistic modeling approaches, such as the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) framework, are promoted by international institutions such as the European Food Safety Authority and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to assess the environmental risk of chemical products generated by human activities. TKTD models can encompass a large set of mechanisms describing the kinetics of compounds inside organisms (e.g., uptake and elimination) and their effect at the level of individuals (e.g., damage accrual, recovery, and death mechanism). Compared to classical dose-response models, TKTD approaches have many advantages, including accounting for temporal aspects of exposure and toxicity, considering data points all along the experiment and not only at the end, and making predictions for untested situations as realistic exposure scenarios. Among TKTD models, the general unified threshold model of survival (GUTS) is within the most recent and innovative framework but is still underused in practice, especially by risk assessors, because specialist programming and statistical skills are necessary to run it. Making GUTS models easier to use through a new module freely available from the web platform MOSAIC (standing for MOdeling and StAtistical tools for ecotoxIClogy) should promote GUTS operability in support of the daily work of environmental risk assessors. This paper presents the main features of MOSAIC_GUTS: uploading of the experimental data, GUTS fitting analysis, and LCx estimates with their uncertainty. These features will be exemplified from literature data. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;00:000-000. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.
What occupant kinematics and neuromuscular responses tell us about whiplash injury.
Siegmund, Gunter P
2011-12-01
Literature-based review. To review the published data on occupant kinematic and neuromuscular responses during low-speed impacts and analyze how these data inform our understanding of whiplash injury. A stereotypical kinematic and neuromuscular response has been observed in human subjects exposed to rear-end impacts. Combined with various models of injury, these response data have been used to develop anti-whiplash seats that prevent whiplash injury in many, but not all, individuals exposed to a rear-end crash. Synthesis of the literature. Understanding of the occupant kinematics and neuromuscular responses, combined with data from various seat-related interventions, have shown that differential motion between the superior and inferior ends of the cervical spine is responsible for many whiplash injuries. The number of whiplash injuries not prevented by current anti-whiplash seats suggests than further work remains, possibly related to designing seats that respond dynamically to the occupant and collision properties. Neck muscles alter the head and neck kinematics during the interval in which injury likely occurs, even in initially relaxed occupants. It remains unclear whether muscle activation mitigates or exacerbates whiplash injury. If muscle activation mitigates injury, then advance warning could be used to help occupant tense their muscles before impact. Alternatively, if muscle activation exacerbates whiplash injury, then a loud preimpact sound that uncouples the startle and postural components of the muscle response could reduce peak muscle activation during a whiplash exposure. Our improved understanding of whiplash injury has led to anti-whiplash seats that have prevented many whiplash injuries. Further work remains to optimize these and possibly other systems to further reduce the number of whiplash injuries.
Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston
2013-07-01
Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.
Kinematic seismic response of piles in layered soil profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.N.
2006-01-01
This paper is aimed at highlighting the importance of Kinematic Seismic Response of Piles, a phenomenon often ignored in dynamic analysis. A case study is presented where the end bearing pile is embedded in two layer soil system of highly contrasting stiffnesses; a typical case where kinematic loading plays important role. The pile soil system is modeled as continuous system and as discrete parameter system; both are based on BDWF (Beam on Dynamic Winkler Foundation) formulation. For discrete parameter system, a finite element software SAP2000 is used and the modeling technique of kinematic interaction in finite element software is discussed. For pile soil system modeled as continuous system, a general MATLAB code is developed capable of performing elastic site response analysis in two layer soil system, solving differential equation governing kinematic interaction, and giving as output the maximum ground displacement, maximum pile displacement, rotation, moment and shear distribution along pile length. The paper concludes that kinematic seismic actions must be evaluated particularly at the interface of soil layers of significantly differing soil stiffnesses. (author)
Kinematics of machinery through hyperworks
Rao, J S
2011-01-01
Using animations, this book explains the theory of machines concepts and the evolution of Kinematics. The book adopts HyperWorks MotionSolve to perform the analysis and visualizations, though the book is independent of the requirement of any software.
2016-03-15
muzzle devices, such as flash suppressors and muzzle compensators, if the items are designed to be operator removable. Use the ammunition that will...muzzle brake or adding a sound suppressor . A kinematics study is also a diagnostic tool to investigate weapon problems such as poor functioning with
Impact of AMS-02 Measurements on Reducing GCR Model Uncertainties
Slaba, T. C.; O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Norbury, J. W.
2015-01-01
For vehicle design, shield optimization, mission planning, and astronaut risk assessment, the exposure from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant and complex problem both in low Earth orbit and in deep space. To address this problem, various computational tools have been developed to quantify the exposure and risk in a wide range of scenarios. Generally, the tool used to describe the ambient GCR environment provides the input into subsequent computational tools and is therefore a critical component of end-to-end procedures. Over the past few years, several researchers have independently and very carefully compared some of the widely used GCR models to more rigorously characterize model differences and quantify uncertainties. All of the GCR models studied rely heavily on calibrating to available near-Earth measurements of GCR particle energy spectra, typically over restricted energy regions and short time periods. In this work, we first review recent sensitivity studies quantifying the ions and energies in the ambient GCR environment of greatest importance to exposure quantities behind shielding. Currently available measurements used to calibrate and validate GCR models are also summarized within this context. It is shown that the AMS-II measurements will fill a critically important gap in the measurement database. The emergence of AMS-II measurements also provides a unique opportunity to validate existing models against measurements that were not used to calibrate free parameters in the empirical descriptions. Discussion is given regarding rigorous approaches to implement the independent validation efforts, followed by recalibration of empirical parameters.
Reducing uncertainty based on model fitness: Application to a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A weakness of global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methodologies is the often subjective definition of prior parameter probability distributions, especially ... The reservoir representing the central part of the wetland, where flood waters separate into several independent distributaries, is a keystone area within the model.
Kinematic Measures of Imitation Fidelity in Primary School Children
Williams, Justin H. G.; Casey, Jackie M.; Braadbaart, Lieke; Culmer, Peter R.; Mon-Williams, Mark
2014-01-01
We sought to develop a method for measuring imitation accuracy objectively in primary school children. Children imitated a model drawing shapes on the same computer-tablet interface they saw used in video clips, allowing kinematics of model and observers' actions to be directly compared. Imitation accuracy was reported as a correlation reflecting…
Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Xie, Yunlong; Klauer, Sheila G; Albert, Paul S
2014-08-01
This study examined the driving behavior of 42 parent-teenager dyads for 18 months, under naturalistic driving conditions. At baseline participants' personality characteristics were assessed. Objective risky driving measures (kinematic risky driving) were captured by accelerometers for the duration of the study. To estimate teenage and parent correlations in kinematic risky driving, separate Poisson regression models were fit for teenagers and parents. Standardized residuals were computed for each trip for each individual. Correlations were obtained by estimating the Spearman rank correlations of the individual average residuals across teenagers and parents. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors associated with the parent-teenager correlations. The overall correlation between teenage and parent kinematic risky driving for the 18-month study period was positive, but weak (r=0.18). When the association between parent and teenagers' risky driving was adjusted for shared personality characteristics, the correlation reduced to 0.09. Although interesting, the 95% confidence intervals on the difference between these two estimates overlapped zero. We conclude that the weak similarity in parent-teen kinematic risky driving was partly explained by shared personality characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A comparison of updating algorithms for large N reduced models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-XI Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ramos, Alberto [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2015-06-29
We investigate Monte Carlo updating algorithms for simulating SU(N) Yang-Mills fields on a single-site lattice, such as for the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai model (TEK). We show that performing only over-relaxation (OR) updates of the gauge links is a valid simulation algorithm for the Fabricius and Haan formulation of this model, and that this decorrelates observables faster than using heat-bath updates. We consider two different methods of implementing the OR update: either updating the whole SU(N) matrix at once, or iterating through SU(2) subgroups of the SU(N) matrix, we find the same critical exponent in both cases, and only a slight difference between the two.
A comparison of updating algorithms for large $N$ reduced models
Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori; Ramos, Alberto
2015-01-01
We investigate Monte Carlo updating algorithms for simulating $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills fields on a single-site lattice, such as for the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai model (TEK). We show that performing only over-relaxation (OR) updates of the gauge links is a valid simulation algorithm for the Fabricius and Haan formulation of this model, and that this decorrelates observables faster than using heat-bath updates. We consider two different methods of implementing the OR update: either updating the whole $SU(N)$ matrix at once, or iterating through $SU(2)$ subgroups of the $SU(N)$ matrix, we find the same critical exponent in both cases, and only a slight difference between the two.
Multivariable robust adaptive controller using reduced-order model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wang
1990-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper a multivariable robust adaptive controller is presented for a plant with bounded disturbances and unmodeled dynamics due to plant-model order mismatches. The robust stability of the closed-loop system is achieved by using the normalization technique and the least squares parameter estimation scheme with dead zones. The weighting polynomial matrices are incorporated into the control law, so that the open-loop unstable or/and nonminimum phase plants can be handled.
Improved Inverse Kinematics Algorithm Using Screw Theory for a Six-DOF Robot Manipulator
Chen, Qingcheng; Zhu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xuequn
2015-01-01
Based on screw theory, a novel improved inverse-kinematics approach for a type of six-DOF serial robot, “Qianjiang I”, is proposed in this paper. The common kinematics model of the robot is based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation method while its inverse kinematics has inefficient calculation and complicated solution, which cannot meet the demands of online real-time application. To solve this problem, this paper presents a new method to improve the efficiency of the inverse kinematics...
A Closed Loop Inverse Kinematics Solver Intended for Offline Calculation Optimized with GA
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Emil Dale Bjoerlykhaug
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple approach to building a robotic control system. Instead of a conventional control system which solves the inverse kinematics in real-time as the robot moves, an alternative approach where the inverse kinematics is calculated ahead of time is presented. This approach reduces the complexity and code necessary for the control system. Robot control systems are usually implemented in low level programming language. This new approach enables the use of high level programming for the complex inverse kinematics problem. For our approach, we implement a program to solve the inverse kinematics, called the Inverse Kinematics Solver (IKS, in Java, with a simple graphical user interface (GUI to load a file with desired end effector poses and edit the configuration of the robot using the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH convention. The program uses the closed-loop inverse kinematics (CLIK algorithm to solve the inverse kinematics problem. As an example, the IKS was set up to solve the kinematics for a custom built serial link robot. The kinematics for the custom robot is presented, and an example of input and output files is also presented. Additionally, the gain of the loop in the IKS is optimized using a GA, resulting in almost a 50% decrease in computational time.
General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials
Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao
2016-09-01
The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.
Nonlinear kinematics for piezoelectricity in ALEGRA-EMMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, John Anthony; Fuller, Timothy Jesse
2013-09-01
This report develops and documents nonlinear kinematic relations needed to implement piezoelectric constitutive models in ALEGRA-EMMA [5], where calculations involving large displacements and rotations are routine. Kinematic relationships are established using Gausss law and Faradays law; this presentation on kinematics goes beyond piezoelectric materials and is applicable to all dielectric materials. The report then turns to practical details of implementing piezoelectric models in an application code where material principal axes are rarely aligned with user defined problem coordinate axes. This portion of the report is somewhat pedagogical but is necessary in order to establish documentation for the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA. This involves transforming elastic, piezoelectric, and permittivity moduli from material principal axes to problem coordinate axes. The report concludes with an overview of the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA and small verification examples.
Stepanova, D. L.; Nikulin, P. A.
2017-01-01
Nowadays, there are many types of reducers based on work of gear trains, which transfer torque. The most popular reducers are with such type of gearing as an involute gear, a worm drive and an eccentrically cycloid gear. A new type of the reducer will be represented in this work. It is a wave reducer with the modified profile of the tooth close to the profile of the tooth of Novikov gearing. So such reducers can be widely used in drives of difficult technical mechanisms, for example, in mechatronics, robotics and in drives of exact positioning. In addition, the distribution of loading in gearing of teeth of a reducer was analyzed in this paper. It proves that the modified profile of the tooth allows distributing loading to several teeth in gearing. As a result, an admissible loading ability of a reducer becomes higher. The aim of the research is to define a possibility to reduce overall dimensions of a reducer without changing the gear ratio or to increase the gear ratio without changing overall dimensions. So, the result of this work will be used in further research.
Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.
Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C
2014-07-01
Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia; Trihastuti Agustinah
2015-01-01
In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...
Sitagliptin reduces urinary microalbumin in experimental model of diabetic nephropathy.
Tsavdaridis, Ioannis; Papadimitriou, Dimochristos; Karanikola, Dora; Kalousis, Kostas; Katsouda, Areti; Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria
2015-01-01
.0001). The administration of sitagliptin reduces in a statistically significant manner the urinary microalbumin. In addition, hsCRP was greatly reduced but the reduction did not reach the required significance level. The other biochemical data presented a reduction which could not be considered as statistically significant. However, it should be mentioned that the exact mechanisms by which sitagliptin achieves this reduction in the biochemical parameters measured, except for the glucose reduction, remain unclear. Although it is suggested that the reduction of glucotoxicity due to sitagliptin treatment is the main reason for those results, the effects of sitagliptin on inflammation, protection of the endothelium and reduction of arterial blood pressure might play a facilitating role.
Neutral current in reduced minimal 3-3-1 model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu Thi Ngoc Huyen; Hoang Ngoc Long; Tran Thanh Lam; Vo Quoc Phong
2014-01-01
This work is devoted for gauge boson sector of the recently proposed model based on SU(3) C ⊗SU(3) L ⊗ U(1) X group with minimal content of leptons and Higgs. The limits on the masses of the bilepton gauge bosons and on the mixing angle among the neutral ones are deduced. Using the Fritzsch anzats on quark mixing, we show that the third family of quarks should be different from the first two. We obtain a lower bound on mass of the new heavy neutral gauge boson as 4.032 TeV. Using data on branching decay rates of the Z boson, we can fix the limit to the Z and Z' mixing angle φ as - 0.001 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. (author)
Basic physical processes and reduced models for plasma detachment
Stangeby, P. C.
2018-04-01
The divertor of a tokamak reactor will have to satisfy a number of critical constraints, the first of which is that the divertor targets not fail due to excessive heating or sputter-erosion. This paramount constraint of target survival defines the operating window for the principal plasma properties at the divertor target, the density n t and temperature, T t. In particular T et constitute, in effect, ‘code-experiments’ that—just as for actual experiments—can benefit from interpretation in terms of simple conceptual frameworks. 2 Point Model Formatting, 2PMF, of edge code output can provide such a conceptual framework. Methods of applying 2PMF are illustrated here with some examples.
A KINEMATIC STUDY OF FINSWIMMING AT SURFACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pier-Giorgio Zanone
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01. Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01. This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance
Finite-correlation-time effects in the kinematic dynamo problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Kulsrud, Russell M.
2001-01-01
Most of the theoretical results on the kinematic amplification of small-scale magnetic fluctuations by turbulence have been confined to the model of white-noise-like (δ-correlated in time) advecting turbulent velocity field. In this work, the statistics of the passive magnetic field in the diffusion-free regime are considered for the case when the advecting flow is finite-time correlated. A new method is developed that allows one to systematically construct the correlation-time expansion for statistical characteristics of the field such as its probability density function or the complete set of its moments. The expansion is valid provided the velocity correlation time is smaller than the characteristic growth time of the magnetic fluctuations. This expansion is carried out up to first order in the general case of a d-dimensional arbitrarily compressible advecting flow. The growth rates for all moments of the magnetic-field strength are derived. The effect of the first-order corrections due to the finite correlation time is to reduce these growth rates. It is shown that introducing a finite correlation time leads to the loss of the small-scale statistical universality, which was present in the limit of the δ-correlated velocity field. Namely, the shape of the velocity time-correlation profile and the large-scale spatial structure of the flow become important. The latter is a new effect, that implies, in particular, that the approximation of a locally-linear shear flow does not fully capture the effect of nonvanishing correlation time. Physical applications of this theory include the small-scale kinematic dynamo in the interstellar medium and protogalactic plasmas
Compressing climate model simulations: reducing storage burden while preserving information
Hammerling, Dorit; Baker, Allison; Xu, Haiying; Clyne, John; Li, Samuel
2017-04-01
Climate models, which are run at high spatial and temporal resolutions, generate massive quantities of data. As our computing capabilities continue to increase, storing all of the generated data is becoming a bottleneck, which negatively affects scientific progress. It is thus important to develop methods for representing the full datasets by smaller compressed versions, which still preserve all the critical information and, as an added benefit, allow for faster read and write operations during analysis work. Traditional lossy compression algorithms, as for example used for image files, are not necessarily ideally suited for climate data. While visual appearance is relevant, climate data has additional critical features such as the preservation of extreme values and spatial and temporal gradients. Developing alternative metrics to quantify information loss in a manner that is meaningful to climate scientists is an ongoing process still in its early stages. We will provide an overview of current efforts to develop such metrics to assess existing algorithms and to guide the development of tailored compression algorithms to address this pressing challenge.
Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok
2008-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening
Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2007-05-01
The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.
Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinclair Jonathan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.
Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics
Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron
2010-01-01
In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.
Collision-free inverse kinematics of a 7 link cucumber picking robot
Henten, van E.J.; Schenk, E.J.J.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Meuleman, J.; Barreiro, P.
2008-01-01
The paper presents results of research on inverse kinematics algorithms to be used in a functional model of a cucumber harvesting robot consisting of a redundant manipulator with one prismatic and six rotational joints (P6R). Within a first generic approach, the inverse kinematics problem was
Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis toward Robotic Power Assistance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario I. Chacon-Murguia
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs' angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassmann, H.; CDF Collaboration
1995-03-01
We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup {minus}1} of data from the 1992--1993 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup {minus}1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{bar t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+ {ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+ {ge} 3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks, in agreement with expectations from top, but not compatible with expectations from backgrounds. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992--1993 collider run.
Kinematic signature of a rotating bar near a resonance
Weinberg, Martin D.
1994-01-01
Recent work based on H I, star count and emission data suggests that the Milky Way has rotating bar-like features. In this paper, I show that such features cause distinctive stellar kinematic signatures near Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR) and Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR). The effect of these resonances may be observable far from the peak density of the pattern and relatively nearby the solar position. The details of the kinematic signatures depend on the evolutionary history of the 'bar' and therefore velocity data, both systematic and velocity dispersion, may be used to probe the evolutionary history as well as the present state of Galaxy. Kinematic models for a variety of sample scenarios are presented. Models with evolving pattern speeds show significantly stronger dispersion signatures than those with static pattern speeds, suggesting that useful observational constraints are possible. The models are applied to the proposed rotating spheroid and bar models; we find (1) none of these models chosen to represent the proposed large-scale rotating spheroid are consistent with the stellar kinematics and (2) a Galactic bar with semimajor axis of 3 kpc will cause a large increase in velocity dispersion in the vicinity of OLR (approximately 5 kpc) with little change in the net radial motion and such a signature is suggested by K-giant velocity data. Potential future observations and analyses are discussed.
Whole analogy between Daniel Bernoulli solution and direct kinematics solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filipović Mirjana
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between the original Euler-Bernoulli's rod equation and contemporary knowledge is established. The solution which Daniel Bernoulli defined for the simplest conditions is essentially the solution of 'direct kinematics'. For this reason, special attention is devoted to dynamics and kinematics of elastic mechanisms configuration. The Euler-Bernoulli equation and its solution (used in literature for a long time should be expanded according to the requirements of the mechanisms motion complexity. The elastic deformation is a dynamic value that depends on the total mechanism movements dynamics. Mathematical model of the actuators comprises also elasticity forces.
Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots
WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao
2017-03-01
Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.
Optimization model using Markowitz model approach for reducing the number of dengue cases in Bandung
Yong, Benny; Chin, Liem
2017-05-01
Dengue fever is one of the most serious diseases and this disease can cause death. Currently, Indonesia is a country with the highest cases of dengue disease in Southeast Asia. Bandung is one of the cities in Indonesia that is vulnerable to dengue disease. The sub-districts in Bandung had different levels of relative risk of dengue disease. Dengue disease is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedesaegypti mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. Prevention of dengue disease is by controlling the vector mosquito. It can be done by various methods, one of the methods is fogging. The efforts made by the Health Department of Bandung through fogging had constraints in terms of limited funds. This problem causes Health Department selective in fogging, which is only done for certain locations. As a result, many sub-districts are not handled properly by the Health Department because of the unequal distribution of activities to prevent the spread of dengue disease. Thus, it needs the proper allocation of funds to each sub-district in Bandung for preventing dengue transmission optimally. In this research, the optimization model using Markowitz model approach will be applied to determine the allocation of funds should be given to each sub-district in Bandung. Some constraints will be added to this model and the numerical solution will be solved with generalized reduced gradient method using Solver software. The expected result of this research is the proportion of funds given to each sub-district in Bandung correspond to the level of risk of dengue disease in each sub-district in Bandung so that the number of dengue cases in this city can be reduced significantly.
Daentzer, Dorothea; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Husmann, Nathalie; Jansen, Christina; Flamme, Christian Heinrich; Richter, Berna Ida
2015-03-24
As an alternative technique to arthrodesis of the cervical spine, total disc replacement (TDR) has increasingly been used with the aim of restoration of the physiological function of the treated and adjacent motions segments. The purpose of this experimental study was to analyze the kinematics of the target level as well as of the adjacent segments, and to measure the pressures in the proximal and distal disc after arthrodesis as well as after arthroplasty with two different semi-constrained types of prosthesis. Twelve cadaveric ovine cervical spines underwent polysegmental (C2-5) multidirectional flexibility testing with a sensor-guided industrial serial robot. Additionally, pressures were recorded in the proximal and distal disc. The following three conditions were tested: (1) intact specimen, (2) single-level arthrodesis C3/4, (3) single-level TDR C3/4 using the Discover® in the first six specimens and the activ® C in the other six cadavers. Statistical analysis was performed for the total range of motion (ROM), the intervertebral ROM (iROM) and the intradiscal pressures (IDP) to compare both the three different conditions as well as the two disc prosthesis among each other. The relative iROM in the target level was always lowered after fusion in the three directions of motion. In almost all cases, the relative iROM of the adjacent segments was almost always higher compared to the physiologic condition. After arthroplasty, we found increased relative iROM in the treated level in comparison to intact state in almost all cases, with relative iROM in the adjacent segments observed to be lower in almost all situations. The IDP in both adjacent discs always increased in flexion and extension after arthrodesis. In all but five cases, the IDP in each of the adjacent level was decreased below the values of the intact specimens after TDR. Overall, in none of the analyzed parameters were statistically significantly differences between both types of prostheses
Uncertainty modelling of real-time observation of a moving object: photogrammetric measurements
Ulrich, Thomas
2015-04-01
Photogrametric systems are widely used in the field of industrial metrology to measure kinematic tasks such as tracking robot movements. In order to assess spatiotemporal deviations of a kinematic movement, it is crucial to have a reliable uncertainty of the kinematic measurements. Common methods to evaluate the uncertainty in kinematic measurements include approximations specified by the manufactures, various analytical adjustment methods and Kalman filters. Here a hybrid system estimator in conjunction with a kinematic measurement model is applied. This method can be applied to processes which include various types of kinematic behaviour, constant velocity, variable acceleration or variable turn rates. Additionally, it has been shown that the approach is in accordance with GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement). The approach is compared to the Kalman filter using simulated data to achieve an overall error calculation. Furthermore, the new approach is used for the analysis of a rotating system as this system has both a constant and a variable turn rate. As the new approach reduces overshoots it is more appropriate for analysing kinematic processes than the Kalman filter. In comparison with the manufacturer’s approximations, the new approach takes account of kinematic behaviour, with an improved description of the real measurement process. Therefore, this approach is well-suited to the analysis of kinematic processes with unknown changes in kinematic behaviour.
Kinematics of our Galaxy from the PMA and TGAS catalogues
Velichko, Anna B.; Akhmetov, Volodymyr S.; Fedorov, Peter N.
2018-04-01
We derive and compare kinematic parameters of the Galaxy using the PMA and Gaia TGAS data. Two methods are used in calculations: evaluation of the Ogorodnikov-Milne model (OMM) parameters by the least square method (LSM) and a decomposition on a set of vector spherical harmonics (VSH). We trace dependencies on the distance of the derived parameters including the Oort constants A and B and the rotational velocity of the Galaxy V rot at the Solar distance for the common sample of stars of mixed spectral composition of the PMA and TGAS catalogues. The distances were obtained from the TGAS parallaxes or from reduced proper motions for fainter stars. The A, B and V rot parameters derived from proper motions of both catalogues used show identical behaviour but the values are systematically shifted by about 0.5 mas/yr. The Oort B parameter derived from the PMA sample of red giants shows gradual decrease with increasing the distance while the Oort A has a minimum at about 2 kpc and then gradually increases. As for models chosen for calculations, first, we confirm conclusions of other authors about the existence of extra-model harmonics in the stellar velocity field. Secondly, not all parameters of the OMM are statistically significant, and the set of parameters depends on the stellar sample used.
Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Triolo, Ronald J
2012-05-06
The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM) acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI). In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS), and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its superior robustness and small number of inputs required.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataraj Raviraj
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative effectiveness of feedback control systems for maintaining standing balance based on joint kinematics or total body center of mass (COM acceleration, and assess their clinical practicality for standing neuroprostheses after spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods In simulation, controller performance was measured according to the upper extremity effort required to stabilize a three-dimensional model of bipedal standing against a variety of postural disturbances. Three cases were investigated: proportional-derivative control based on joint kinematics alone, COM acceleration feedback alone, and combined joint kinematics and COM acceleration feedback. Additionally, pilot data was collected during external perturbations of an individual with SCI standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS, and the resulting joint kinematics and COM acceleration data was analyzed. Results Compared to the baseline case of maximal constant muscle excitations, the three control systems reduced the mean upper extremity loading by 51%, 43% and 56%, respectively against external force-pulse perturbations. Controller robustness was defined as the degradation in performance with increasing levels of input errors expected with clinical deployment of sensor-based feedback. At error levels typical for body-mounted inertial sensors, performance degradation due to sensor noise and placement were negligible. However, at typical tracking error levels, performance could degrade as much as 86% for joint kinematics feedback and 35% for COM acceleration feedback. Pilot data indicated that COM acceleration could be estimated with a few well-placed sensors and efficiently captures information related to movement synergies observed during perturbed bipedal standing following SCI. Conclusions Overall, COM acceleration feedback may be a more feasible solution for control of standing with FNS given its
Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J
2014-10-01
Musculoskeletal injuries in the lower extremities are common in military recruits. Army boots have frequently been cited as a potential mechanism behind these high injury rates. In response to this, the British Army introduced new footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), which are issued to each new recruit in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematic of the PT-03 and PT1000 footwear in relation to conventional army boots. Thirteen participants ran at 4.0 m·s in each footwear condition. Three-dimensional kinematics from the hip, knee, and ankle were measured using an 8-camera motion analysis system. In addition, simultaneous ground reaction forces were obtained. Kinetic parameters were obtained alongside joint kinematics and compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The kinetic analysis revealed that impact parameters were significantly greater when running in the army boot compared with the PT-03 and PT1000. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison with the PT-03 and PT1000, running in army boots was associated with significantly greater eversion and tibial internal rotation. It was also found that when running in the PT-03 footwear, participants exhibited significantly greater hip adduction and knee abduction compared with the army boots and PT1000. The results of this study suggest that the army boots and PT-03 footwear are associated with kinetic and kinematic parameters that have been linked to the etiology of injury; thus, it is recommended that the PT1000 footwear be adopted for running exercises.
SPACEBAR: Kinematic design by computer graphics
Ricci, R. J.
1975-01-01
The interactive graphics computer program SPACEBAR, conceived to reduce the time and complexity associated with the development of kinematic mechanisms on the design board, was described. This program allows the direct design and analysis of mechanisms right at the terminal screen. All input variables, including linkage geometry, stiffness, and applied loading conditions, can be fed into or changed at the terminal and may be displayed in three dimensions. All mechanism configurations can be cycled through their range of travel and viewed in their various geometric positions. Output data includes geometric positioning in orthogonal coordinates of each node point in the mechanism, velocity and acceleration of the node points, and internal loads and displacements of the node points and linkages. All analysis calculations take at most a few seconds to complete. Output data can be viewed at the scope and also printed at the discretion of the user.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.
The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....
Evaluating and reducing a model of radiocaesium soil-plant uptake
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarsitano, D.; Young, S.D. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Crout, N.M.J., E-mail: neil.crout@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
An existing model of radiocaesium transfer to grasses was extended to include wheat and barley and parameterised using data from a wide range of soils and contact times. The model structure was revised and evaluated using a subset of the available data which was not used for model parameterisation. The resulting model was then used as a basis for systematic model reduction to test the utility of the model components. This analysis suggested that the use of 4 model variables (relating to radiocaesium adsorption on organic matter and the pH sensitivity of soil solution potassium concentration) and 1 model input (pH) are not required. The results of this analysis were used to develop a reduced model which was further evaluated in terms of comparisons to observations. The reduced model had an improved empirical performance and fewer adjustable parameters and soil characteristic inputs. - Research highlights: {yields} A model of plant radiocesium uptake is evaluated and re-parameterised. {yields} The representation of time dependent changes in plant uptake is improved. {yields} Model reduction is applied to evaluate the model structure. {yields} A reduced model is identified which outperforms the previously reported model. {yields} The reduced model requires fewer soil specific inputs.
Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia
2015-04-01
Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MaMR: High-performance MapReduce programming model for material cloud applications
Jing, Weipeng; Tong, Danyu; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Yaqiu; Zhao, Peng
2017-02-01
With the increasing data size in materials science, existing programming models no longer satisfy the application requirements. MapReduce is a programming model that enables the easy development of scalable parallel applications to process big data on cloud computing systems. However, this model does not directly support the processing of multiple related data, and the processing performance does not reflect the advantages of cloud computing. To enhance the capability of workflow applications in material data processing, we defined a programming model for material cloud applications that supports multiple different Map and Reduce functions running concurrently based on hybrid share-memory BSP called MaMR. An optimized data sharing strategy to supply the shared data to the different Map and Reduce stages was also designed. We added a new merge phase to MapReduce that can efficiently merge data from the map and reduce modules. Experiments showed that the model and framework present effective performance improvements compared to previous work.
Shah, A A; Xing, W W; Triantafyllidis, V
2017-04-01
In this paper, we develop reduced-order models for dynamic, parameter-dependent, linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The main challenges are to accurately and efficiently approximate the POD bases for new parameter values and, in the case of nonlinear problems, to efficiently handle the nonlinear terms. We use a Bayesian nonlinear regression approach to learn the snapshots of the solutions and the nonlinearities for new parameter values. Computational efficiency is ensured by using manifold learning to perform the emulation in a low-dimensional space. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a linear and a nonlinear example, with comparisons with a global basis approach.
Hone, Edward; Kraus, Stefan; Kreplin, Alexander; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Weigelt, Gerd; Harries, Tim; Kluska, Jacques
2017-10-01
Aims: Circumstellar accretion disks and outflows play an important role in star formation. By studying the continuum and Brγ-emitting region of the Herbig B[e] star MWC297 with high-spectral and high-spatial resolution we aim to gain insight into the wind-launching mechanisms in young stars. Methods: We present near-infrared AMBER (R = 12 000) and CRIRES (R = 100 000) observations of the Herbig B[e] star MWC297 in the hydrogen Brγ-line. Using the VLTI unit telescopes, we obtained a uv-coverage suitable for aperture synthesis imaging. We interpret our velocity-resolved images as well as the derived two-dimensional photocenter displacement vectors, and fit kinematic models to our visibility and phase data in order to constrain the gas velocity field on sub-AU scales. Results: The measured continuum visibilities constrain the orientation of the near-infrared-emitting dust disk, where we determine that the disk major axis is oriented along a position angle of 99.6 ± 4.8°. The near-infrared continuum emission is 3.6 × more compact than the expected dust-sublimation radius, possibly indicating the presence of highly refractory dust grains or optically thick gas emission in the inner disk. Our velocity-resolved channel maps and moment maps reveal the motion of the Brγ-emitting gas in six velocity channels, marking the first time that kinematic effects in the sub-AU inner regions of a protoplanetary disk could be directly imaged. We find a rotation-dominated velocity field, where the blue- and red-shifted emissions are displaced along a position angle of 24° ± 3° and the approaching part of the disk is offset west of the star. The visibility drop in the line as well as the strong non-zero phase signals can be modeled reasonably well assuming a Keplerian velocity field, although this model is not able to explain the 3σ difference that we measure between the position angle of the line photocenters and the position angle of the dust disk. We find that the fit can be
Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammed Arif Sen
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.
Kinematics Control and Analysis of Industrial Robot
Zhu, Tongbo; Cai, Fan; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Wei
2018-03-01
The robot’s development present situation, basic principle and control system are introduced briefly. Research is mainly focused on the study of the robot’s kinematics and motion control. The structural analysis of a planar articulated robot (SCARA) robot is presented,the coordinate system is established to obtain the position and orientation matrix of the end effector,a method of robot kinematics analysis based on homogeneous transformation method is proposed, and the kinematics solution of the robot is obtained.Establishment of industrial robot’s kinematics equation and formula for positive kinematics by example. Finally,the kinematic analysis of this robot was verified by examples.It provides a basis for structural design and motion control.It has active significance to promote the motion control of industrial robot.
Nuclear reaction studies using inverse kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapira, D.
1985-01-01
Reaction studies with reversed kinematics refer to studies of nuclear reactions induced by a heavy projectile colliding with lighter target nuclei. The technique of using reversed kinematics is costly in terms of the available center-of-mass energy. Most of the projectile's energy goes into forward motion of the reaction products in the laboratory system. Examples are presented where the use of reversed kinematics techniques has provided new information on certain reaction processes. A list of kinematic properties and advantages they may afford is shown. Clearly the possible studies listed can be done without using reversed kinematics but because of the difficulty associated with some of these studies they were never performed until more energetic heavier beams have become available and the reversed kinematics technique was utilized
On the Nonlinear Structural Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades using Reduced Degree-of-Freedom Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2008-01-01
, modelling geometrical and inertial nonlinear couplings in the fundamental flap and edge direction. The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of such a reduced-degree-of-freedom model in predicting the nonlinear response and stability of a blade by comparison to a full model based...... on a nonlinear co-rotating FE formulation. By use of the reduced-degree-of-freedom model it is shown that under strong resonance excitation of the fundamental flap or edge modes, significant energy is transferred to higher modes due to parametric or nonlinear coupling terms, which influence the response...... of the small number of included modes. The qualitative erratic response and stability prediction of the reduced order models take place at frequencies slightly above normal operation. However, for normal operation of the wind turbine without resonance excitation 4 modes in the reduced-degree-of-freedom model...
Kinematic correction for roller skewing
Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.
1980-01-01
A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is developed for high-speed cylindrical roller bearings. This stabilization requires race and roller crowning to product changes in the rolling geometry as the roller shifts axially. These changes put a reverse skew in the rolling elements by changing the rolling taper. Twelve basic possible bearing modifications are identified in this paper. Four have single transverse convex curvature in the rollers while eight have rollers with compound transverse curvature composed of a central cylindrical band of constant radius surrounded by symmetric bands with both slope and transverse curvature.
Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm
DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ
2015-01-01
The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...
Qi, D.; Majda, A.
2017-12-01
A low-dimensional reduced-order statistical closure model is developed for quantifying the uncertainty in statistical sensitivity and intermittency in principal model directions with largest variability in high-dimensional turbulent system and turbulent transport models. Imperfect model sensitivity is improved through a recent mathematical strategy for calibrating model errors in a training phase, where information theory and linear statistical response theory are combined in a systematic fashion to achieve the optimal model performance. The idea in the reduced-order method is from a self-consistent mathematical framework for general systems with quadratic nonlinearity, where crucial high-order statistics are approximated by a systematic model calibration procedure. Model efficiency is improved through additional damping and noise corrections to replace the expensive energy-conserving nonlinear interactions. Model errors due to the imperfect nonlinear approximation are corrected by tuning the model parameters using linear response theory with an information metric in a training phase before prediction. A statistical energy principle is adopted to introduce a global scaling factor in characterizing the higher-order moments in a consistent way to improve model sensitivity. Stringent models of barotropic and baroclinic turbulence are used to display the feasibility of the reduced-order methods. Principal statistical responses in mean and variance can be captured by the reduced-order models with accuracy and efficiency. Besides, the reduced-order models are also used to capture crucial passive tracer field that is advected by the baroclinic turbulent flow. It is demonstrated that crucial principal statistical quantities like the tracer spectrum and fat-tails in the tracer probability density functions in the most important large scales can be captured efficiently with accuracy using the reduced-order tracer model in various dynamical regimes of the flow field with
VALIDITY OF THE DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATION OF THE REDUCED POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE MODEL IN SKI JUMPING
Ulaga, Maja; Čoh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan
2007-01-01
The aim of the study was to establish the validity of the dimensional configuration of the reduced po-tential performance model in ski jumping. Two performance models were prepared (models A and B), dif-fering only in terms of their method of determining the weights (dimensional configuration). Model A in-volves the dependent determination of weights while model B includes the independent determination of weights. The sample consisted of 104 Slovenian ski jumpers from the senior-men’s categor...
Ballistic representation for kinematic access
Alfano, Salvatore
2011-01-01
This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.
Kinematics Analysis and Simulation on Transfer Robot with Six Degrees of Freedom
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Lu
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Study focuses on transfer robot with Six Degrees of Freedom, establishing kinematic equation by D-H method, analyzing forward kinematics and obtaining inverse kinematics by using method of inverse transform. Based on vector product, it develops velocity Jacobian matrix of robot. The geometric model of robot virtual prototype is established by SolidWorks software and generates parameters such as mass and moment. Kinematic simulation for robot is performed by Mathematica software and develops curve graph of displacement, velocity and accelerated speed in x, y and z direction in end executor center of robot with measurement, analysis and assessment, which provides foundation for further kinematics analysis and structure optimization as well as motion control of robot.
How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S
2014-01-01
Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Pyung-Hun; Park, Joon-Young
2002-01-01
This paper presents a Task Oriented Design method for robot kinematics based on grid method, widely used in finite difference method and heat transfer/fluid flow analyses. This approach drastically reduces complexities and computational burden due to previous approaches. More specifically, the grid method with a new formulation simplifies the design to a problem of three-design-variable unit grid, which does not require to solve inverse/forward kinematics. The effectiveness of the grid method has been confirmed through a kinematics design of a robot for nuclear power plants. (author)
Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration
Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan; Chen, Ye; Rousseau, Bernard; PhonoSim Team
2017-11-01
Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which can be applied in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model that is the same as in the full 3D model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin.
Reduced order for nuclear reactor model in frequency and time domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nugroho, D.H.
1997-01-01
In control system theory, a model can be represented by frequency or time domain. In frequency domain, the model was represented by transfer function. in time domain, the model was represented by state space. for the sake of simplification in computation, it is necessary to reduce the model order. the main aim of this research is to find the best in nuclear reactor model. Model order reduction in frequency domain can be done utilizing pole-zero cancellation method; while in time domain utilizing balanced aggregation method the balanced aggregation method was developed by moore (1981). In this paper, the two kinds of method were applied to reduce a nuclear reactor model which was constructed by neutron dynamics and heat transfer equations. to validate that the model characteristics were not change when model order reduction applied, the response was utilized for full and reduced order. it was shown that the nuclear reactor order model can be reduced from order 8 to 2 order 2 is the best order for nuclear reactor model
Reduced order dynamic model for polysaccharides molecule attached to an atomic force microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Deman; Li Aiqin; Attar, Peter; Dowell, Earl H.
2004-01-01
A dynamic analysis and numerical simulation has been conducted of a polysaccharides molecular structure (a ten (10) single-α-D-glucose molecule chain) connected to a moving atomic force microscope (AFM). Sinusoidal base excitation of the AFM cantilevered beam is considered. First a linearized perturbation model is constructed for the complex polysaccharides molecular structure. Then reduced order (dynamic) models based upon a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are constructed using global modes for both the linearized perturbation model and for the full nonlinear model. The agreement between the original and reduced order models (ROM/POD) is very good even when only a few global modes are included in the ROM for either the linear case or for the nonlinear case. The computational advantage of the reduced order model is clear from the results presented
Amir, Sahar Z.
2017-06-09
A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.
Amir, Sahar Z.; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.
On the kinematics of the two-photon Cherenkov effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.
2003-01-01
We study the kinematics of the two-photon Cherenkov effect. In the general case, the emission angles of two photons satisfy certain inequalities and the corresponding radiation intensities are rather diffused. In special cases, when the above inequalities reduce to equalities, the emission angles of two photons are fixed and the corresponding radiation intensities should have sharp maxima at these angles. This makes easier the experimental study of the two-photon Cherenkov effect
Kinematic Analysis of 3-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jolly Atit Shah
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 3-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 3-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.
Parametric reduced models for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Harlim, John; Li, Xiantao
2015-05-01
Reduced models for the (defocusing) nonlinear Schrödinger equation are developed. In particular, we develop reduced models that only involve the low-frequency modes given noisy observations of these modes. The ansatz of the reduced parametric models are obtained by employing a rational approximation and a colored-noise approximation, respectively, on the memory terms and the random noise of a generalized Langevin equation that is derived from the standard Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The parameters in the resulting reduced models are inferred from noisy observations with a recently developed ensemble Kalman filter-based parametrization method. The forecasting skill across different temperature regimes are verified by comparing the moments up to order four, a two-time correlation function statistics, and marginal densities of the coarse-grained variables.
Target Lagrangian kinematic simulation for particle-laden flows.
Murray, S; Lightstone, M F; Tullis, S
2016-09-01
The target Lagrangian kinematic simulation method was motivated as a stochastic Lagrangian particle model that better synthesizes turbulence structure, relative to stochastic separated flow models. By this method, the trajectories of particles are constructed according to synthetic turbulent-like fields, which conform to a target Lagrangian integral timescale. In addition to recovering the expected Lagrangian properties of fluid tracers, this method is shown to reproduce the crossing trajectories and continuity effects, in agreement with an experimental benchmark.
Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies
Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.
An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the
Kinematics and design of a class of parallel manipulators
Hertz, Roger Barry
1998-12-01
This dissertation is concerned with the kinematic analysis and design of a class of three degree-of-freedom, spatial parallel manipulators. The class of manipulators is characterized by two platforms, between which are three legs, each possessing a succession of revolute, spherical, and revolute joints. The class is termed the "revolute-spherical-revolute" class of parallel manipulators. Two members of this class are examined. The first mechanism is a double-octahedral variable-geometry truss, and the second is termed a double tripod. The history the mechanisms is explored---the variable-geometry truss dates back to 1984, while predecessors of the double tripod mechanism date back to 1869. This work centers on the displacement analysis of these three-degree-of-freedom mechanisms. Two types of problem are solved: the forward displacement analysis (forward kinematics) and the inverse displacement analysis (inverse kinematics). The kinematic model of the class of mechanism is general in nature. A classification scheme for the revolute-spherical-revolute class of mechanism is introduced, which uses dominant geometric features to group designs into 8 different sub-classes. The forward kinematics problem is discussed: given a set of independently controllable input variables, solve for the relative position and orientation between the two platforms. For the variable-geometry truss, the controllable input variables are assumed to be the linear (prismatic) joints. For the double tripod, the controllable input variables are the three revolute joints adjacent to the base (proximal) platform. Multiple solutions are presented to the forward kinematics problem, indicating that there are many different positions (assemblies) that the manipulator can assume with equivalent inputs. For the double tripod these solutions can be expressed as a 16th degree polynomial in one unknown, while for the variable-geometry truss there exist two 16th degree polynomials, giving rise to 256
A Reduced Order Model to Predict Transient Flows around Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soledad Le Clainche
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We develop a reduced order model to represent the complex flow behaviour around vertical axis wind turbines. First, we simulate vertical axis turbines using an accurate high order discontinuous Galerkin–Fourier Navier–Stokes Large Eddy Simulation solver with sliding meshes and extract flow snapshots in time. Subsequently, we construct a reduced order model based on a high order dynamic mode decomposition approach that selects modes based on flow frequency. We show that only a few modes are necessary to reconstruct the flow behaviour of the original simulation, even for blades rotating in turbulent regimes. Furthermore, we prove that an accurate reduced order model can be constructed using snapshots that do not sample one entire turbine rotation (but only a fraction of it, which reduces the cost of generating the reduced order model. Additionally, we compare the reduced order model based on the high order Navier–Stokes solver to fast 2D simulations (using a Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes turbulent model to illustrate the good performance of the proposed methodology.
Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?
Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.
2017-12-01
The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.
A digital database of wrist bone anatomy and carpal kinematics.
Moore, Douglas C; Crisco, Joseph J; Trafton, Theodore G; Leventhal, Evan L
2007-01-01
The skeletal wrist consists of eight small, intricately shaped carpal bones. The motion of these bones is complex, occurs in three dimensions, and remains incompletely defined. Our previous efforts have been focused on determining the in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the normal and abnormal carpus. In so doing we have developed an extensive database of carpal bone anatomy and kinematics from a large number of healthy subjects. The purpose of this paper is to describe that database and to make it available to other researchers. CT volume images of both wrists from 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were acquired in multiple wrist positions throughout the normal range of wrist motion. The outer cortical surfaces of the carpal bones, radius and ulna, and proximal metacarpals were segmented and the 3-D motion of each bone was calculated for each wrist position. The database was constructed to include high-resolution surface models, measures of bone volume and shape, and the 3-D kinematics of each segmented bone. The database does not include soft tissues of the wrist. While there are numerous digital anatomical databases, this one is unique in that it includes a large number of subjects and it contains in vivo kinematic data as well as the bony anatomy.
Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Slater, Richard D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina O.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Bianchi, Daniele; Claret, Mariona; Rodgers, Keith B.; Marvasti, Seyedehsafoura Sedigh
2015-12-01
Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of-the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded in the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. These results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate "sub-ecosystem-scale" parameterizations.
Reply to 'Comment on 'The evidence for a pentaquark signal and kinematic reflections''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzierba, A.R.; Krop, D.; Swat, M.; Teige, S.; Szczepaniak, A.P.
2005-01-01
The quantitative aspects of the model used, together with kinematic reflections to explain the K + n spectrum in K + K - photoproduction on deuterium, were recently criticized. Here we respond to these criticisms
Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints
Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Matias, Luis; Omira, Rachid
2017-07-01
In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.
Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.
Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J
2015-04-01
It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Wisneski, Kimberly J; Johnson, Michelle J
2007-03-23
Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER) was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects), with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability). In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY) and the sagittal plane of torso (XZ) were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup reach showed more curvature than in the object
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wisneski Kimberly J
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects, with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability. In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY and the saggital plane of torso (XZ were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup
An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions
Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin
2016-03-01
A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.
Evaluation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms used for modeling mild combustion for natural gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamdi Mohamed
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical and parametric study was performed to evaluate the potential of reduced chemistry mechanisms to model natural gas chemistry including NOx chemistry under mild combustion mode. Two reduced mechanisms, 5-step and 9-step, were tested against the GRI-Mech3.0 by comparing key species, such as NOx, CO2 and CO, and gas temperature predictions in idealized reactors codes under mild combustion conditions. It is thus concluded that the 9-step mechanism appears to be a promising reduced mechanism that can be used in multi-dimensional codes for modeling mild combustion of natural gas.
D2 Delta Robot Structural Design and Kinematics Analysis
Yang, Xudong; wang, Song; Dong, Yu; Yang, Hai
2017-12-01
In this paper, a new type of Delta robot with only two degrees of freedom is proposed on the basis of multi - degree - of - freedom delta robot. In order to meet our application requirements, we have carried out structural design and analysis of the robot. Through SolidWorks modeling, combined with 3D printing technology to determine the final robot structure. In order to achieve the precise control of the robot, the kinematics analysis of the robot was carried out. The SimMechanics toolbox of MATLAB is used to establish the mechanism model, and the kinematics mathematical model is used to simulate the robot motion control in Matlab environment. Finally, according to the design mechanism, the working space of the robot is drawn by the graphic method, which lays the foundation for the motion control of the subsequent robot.
On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs
A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.; Zhao, Zhenlong; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Methodology for developing a reduced fidelity rotary CLC reactor model is presented. • The reduced model determines optimal reactor configuration that meets design and operating requirements. • A 4-order of magnitude reduction in computational cost is achieved with good prediction accuracy. • Sensitivity studies demonstrate importance of accurate kinetic parameters for reactor optimization. - Abstract: The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO_2 capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous reactor operation. Though this detailed model provides a high resolution representation of the rotary reactor performance, it is too computationally expensive for studies that require multiple model evaluations. Specifically, it is not ideal for system-level studies where the reactor is a single component in an energy conversion system. In this study, we present a reduced fidelity model (RFM) of the rotary reactor that reduces computational cost and determines an optimal combination of variables that satisfy reactor design requirements. Simulation results for copper, nickel and iron-based oxygen carriers show a four-order of magnitude reduction in simulation time, and reasonable prediction accuracy. Deviations from the detailed reference model predictions range from 3% to 20%, depending on oxygen carrier type and operating conditions. This study also demonstrates how the reduced model can be modified to deal with both optimization and design oriented problems. A parametric study using the reduced model is then applied to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal reactor design to changes in selected operating and kinetic parameters. These studies show that temperature and activation energy have a greater impact on optimal geometry than parameters like pressure or feed fuel
A Positive Model for Reducing and Preventing School Burnout in High School Students
Aypay, Ayse
2017-01-01
This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…
Structural and reduced-form modeling and forecasting with application to Armenia
Poghosyan, K.
2012-01-01
The thesis deals with structural and reduced-form modeling and forecasting of key macroeconomic variables (real growth of GDP, inflation, exchange rate, and policy interest rate). The central part of the thesis (Chapters 2-4) consists of three chapters. Chapter 2 considers the structural DSGE model
Kinematic analyses during stair descent in young women with patellofemoral pain.
Grenholm, Anton; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Häger-Ross, Charlotte
2009-01-01
Compensatory movement strategies may develop in response to pain to avoid stress on the affected area. Patellofemoral pain is characterised by intermittent periods of pain and the present study addresses whether long-term pain leads to compensatory movement strategies that remain even when the pain is absent. Lower extremity kinematics in three dimensions was studied in stair descent in 17 women with patellofemoral and in 17 matched controls. A two-dimensional geometric model was constructed to normalise kinematic data for subjects with varying anthropometrics when negotiating stairs of fixed proportions. There were minor differences in movement patterns between groups. Knee joint angular velocity in the stance leg at foot contact was lower and the movement trajectory tended to be jerkier in the patellofemoral group. The two-dimensional model showed greater plantar flexion in the swing leg in preparation for foot placement in the patellofemoral group. The results indicate that an altered stair descent strategy in the patellofemoral group may remain also in the absence of pain. The biomechanical interpretation presumes that the strategy is aimed to reduce knee joint loading by less knee joint moment and lower impact force.
A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.
2013-07-01
A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)
Surgical gesture classification from video and kinematic data.
Zappella, Luca; Béjar, Benjamín; Hager, Gregory; Vidal, René
2013-10-01
Much of the existing work on automatic classification of gestures and skill in robotic surgery is based on dynamic cues (e.g., time to completion, speed, forces, torque) or kinematic data (e.g., robot trajectories and velocities). While videos could be equally or more discriminative (e.g., videos contain semantic information not present in kinematic data), they are typically not used because of the difficulties associated with automatic video interpretation. In this paper, we propose several methods for automatic surgical gesture classification from video data. We assume that the video of a surgical task (e.g., suturing) has been segmented into video clips corresponding to a single gesture (e.g., grabbing the needle, passing the needle) and propose three methods to classify the gesture of each video clip. In the first one, we model each video clip as the output of a linear dynamical system (LDS) and use metrics in the space of LDSs to classify new video clips. In the second one, we use spatio-temporal features extracted from each video clip to learn a dictionary of spatio-temporal words, and use a bag-of-features (BoF) approach to classify new video clips. In the third one, we use multiple kernel learning (MKL) to combine the LDS and BoF approaches. Since the LDS approach is also applicable to kinematic data, we also use MKL to combine both types of data in order to exploit their complementarity. Our experiments on a typical surgical training setup show that methods based on video data perform equally well, if not better, than state-of-the-art approaches based on kinematic data. In turn, the combination of both kinematic and video data outperforms any other algorithm based on one type of data alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarathy, Mani
2018-04-03
Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.
Sarathy, Mani; Atef, Nour; Alfazazi, Adamu; Badra, Jihad; Zhang, Yu; Tzanetakis, Tom; Pei, Yuanjiang
2018-01-01
Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.
Wang, Tianmiao; Wu, Yao; Liang, Jianhong; Han, Chenhao; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Qiteng
2015-04-24
Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR) of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed ), including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model's stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid-steering robot.
A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model for lithium-ion batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Jiuchun; Ruan, Haijun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Linjing
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed. • A novel frequency-dependent equation for polarization parameters is presented. • The model is validated under different frequency and low-temperature conditions. • The reduced model exhibits a high accuracy with a low computational effort. • The adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified. - Abstract: A low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model, which is based on the electrochemical mechanism, is developed to accurately capture both electrical and thermal behaviors of batteries. Activation energies reveal that temperature dependence of resistances is greater than that of capacitances. The influence of frequency on polarization voltage and irreversible heat is discussed, and frequency dependence of polarization resistance and capacitance is obtained. Based on the frequency-dependent equation, a reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed and experimentally validated under different temperature, frequency and amplitude conditions. Simulation results exhibit good agreement with experimental data, where the maximum relative voltage error and temperature error are below 2.65% and 1.79 °C, respectively. The reduced model is demonstrated to have almost the same accuracy as the original model and require a lower computational effort. The effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified using batteries with three different cathode materials from different manufacturers. The reduced model, thanks to its high accuracy and simplicity, provides a promising candidate for development of rapid internal heating and optimal charging strategies at low temperature, and for evaluation of the state of battery health in on-board battery management system.
On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, P.
1995-10-01
A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room
Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.
2012-01-01
We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.
A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor
Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.
2017-01-11
The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous reactor operation. Though this detailed model provides a high resolution representation of the rotary reactor performance, it is too computationally expensive for studies that require multiple model evaluations. Specifically, it is not ideal for system-level studies where the reactor is a single component in an energy conversion system. In this study, we present a reduced fidelity model (RFM) of the rotary reactor that reduces computational cost and determines an optimal combination of variables that satisfy reactor design requirements. Simulation results for copper, nickel and iron-based oxygen carriers show a four-order of magnitude reduction in simulation time, and reasonable prediction accuracy. Deviations from the detailed reference model predictions range from 3% to 20%, depending on oxygen carrier type and operating conditions. This study also demonstrates how the reduced model can be modified to deal with both optimization and design oriented problems. A parametric study using the reduced model is then applied to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal reactor design to changes in selected operating and kinetic parameters. These studies show that temperature and activation energy have a greater impact on optimal geometry than parameters like pressure or feed fuel fraction for the selected oxygen carrier materials.
A Projected Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Inverse Kinematics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
Inverse kinematics is the problem of posing an articulated figure to obtain a wanted goal, without regarding inertia and forces. Joint limits are modeled as bounds on individual degrees of freedom, leading to a box-constrained optimization problem. We present A projected Non-linear Conjugate...... Gradient optimization method suitable for box-constrained optimization problems for inverse kinematics. We show application on inverse kinematics positioning of a human figure. Performance is measured and compared to a traditional Jacobian Transpose method. Visual quality of the developed method...
End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm
Jolly Atit Shah; S.S. Rattan; B.C. Nakra
2013-01-01
Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to m...
Xiang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Fei; Li, Hong
2018-04-01
A fully coupled modeling approach is developed for piezoelectric energy harvesters in this work based on the use of available robust finite element packages and efficient reducing order modeling techniques. At first, the harvester is modeled using finite element packages. The dynamic equilibrium equations of harvesters are rebuilt by extracting system matrices from the finite element model using built-in commands without any additional tools. A Krylov subspace-based scheme is then applied to obtain a reduced-order model for improving simulation efficiency but preserving the key features of harvesters. Co-simulation of the reduced-order model with nonlinear energy harvesting circuits is achieved in a system level. Several examples in both cases of harmonic response and transient response analysis are conducted to validate the present approach. The proposed approach allows to improve the simulation efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the parameters used in the equivalent circuit model can be conveniently obtained by the proposed eigenvector-based model order reduction technique. More importantly, this work establishes a methodology for modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with any complicated mechanical geometries and nonlinear circuits. The input load may be more complex also. The method can be employed by harvester designers to optimal mechanical structures or by circuit designers to develop novel energy harvesting circuits.
Numerical simulation for the design analysis of kinematic Stirling engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis for kinematic Stirling engines was presented. • The analysis integrated thermal, mechanical and thermodynamic interactions. • The analyses considered geometrical and operational parameters. • The results allowed to map the performance of the engine. • The analysis allow the design assessment of Stirling engines. - Abstract: The Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative system that presents good theoretical properties. These include a high thermodynamic efficiency, low emissions levels thanks to a controlled external heat source, and multi-fuel capability among others. However, the performance of actual prototypes largely differs from the mentioned theoretical potential. Actual engine prototypes present low electrical power outputs and high energy losses. These are mainly attributed to the complex interaction between the different components of the engine, and the challenging heat transfer and fluid dynamics requirements. Furthermore, the integration of the engine into decentralized energy systems such as the Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP) entails additional complications. These has increased the need for engineering tools that could assess design improvements, considering a broader range of parameters that would influence the engine performance when integrated within overall systems. Following this trend, the current work aimed to implement an analysis that could integrate the thermodynamics, and the thermal and mechanical interactions that influence the performance of kinematic Stirling engines. In particular for their use in Combined Heat and Power systems. The mentioned analysis was applied for the study of an engine prototype that presented very low experimental performance. The numerical methodology was selected for the identification of possible causes that limited the performance. This analysis is based on a second order Stirling engine model that was previously developed and validated. The
Investigating The Kinematics of Canids and Felids
Sur, D.
2016-12-01
For all organisms, metabolic energy is critical for survival. While moving efficiently is a necessity for large carnivores, the influence of kinematics on energy demand remains poorly understood. We measured the kinematics of dogs, wolves, and pumas to detect any differences in their respective energy expenditures. Using 22 kinematic parameters measured on 78 videos, we used one-way ANOVAs and paired T-tests to compare 5 experimental treatments among gaits in dogs (n=11 in 3 breed groups), wolves (n=2), and pumas (n=2). Across the measured parameters, we found greater kinematic similarity than expected among dog breeds and no trend in any of the 22 parameters regarding the effect of steepness on locomotion mechanics. Similarly, treadmill kinematics were nearly identical to those measured during outdoor movement. However, in 3 inches of snow, we observed significant differences (pwolf. When comparing canids (wolves and dogs) to a felid (pumas), we found that pumas and dogs are the most kinematically distinct (differing in 13 of 22 parameters, compared with 5 of 22 for wolves and pumas). Lastly, compared with wolves, walking pumas had larger head angles (p=0.0025), forelimb excursion angles (p=0.0045), and hindlimb excursion angles (p=0.0327). After comparing the energetics of pumas and dogs with their respective kinematics, we noted that less dynamic kinematics result in energy savings. Through tracking the locations and gait behavior of large carnivores, novel sensor technology can reveal how indoor kinematics applies to wild animals and improve the conservation of these species.
A novel mechanism for emulating insect wing kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshadri, Pranay; Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit
2012-01-01
A novel dual-differential four-bar flapping mechanism that can accurately emulate insect wing kinematics in all three degrees of freedom (translation, rotation and stroke plane deviation) is developed. The mechanism is specifically designed to be simple and scalable such that it can be utilized on an insect-based flapping wing micro air vehicle. Kinematic formulations for the wing stroke position, pitch angle and coning angle for this model are derived from first principles and compared with a 3D simulation. A benchtop flapping mechanism based on this model was designed and built, which was also equipped with a balance for force measurements. 3D motion capture tests were conducted on this setup to demonstrate the capability of generating complex figure-of-eight flapping motions along with dynamic pitching. The dual-differential four-bar mechanism was implemented on a light-weight vehicle that demonstrated tethered hover. (paper)
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.
Kinematic relations in heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gippner, P.; Kalpakchieva, R.
1988-01-01
The present work gives a short overview of the non-relativistic kinematics of nuclear reactions derived on the basis of the conservation laws of energy and linear momentum. Section 2 contains kinematic relations valid for two-body reactions, sections 3 makes use of these relations to describe sequential fission as a special case of reactions with three particles in the exit channel. It is the aim of this work to comprise the kinematic formulae essential for planning of experiments, data analysis and critical examination of the obtained results. (author)
Qi, Di
Turbulent dynamical systems are ubiquitous in science and engineering. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) in turbulent dynamical systems is a grand challenge where the goal is to obtain statistical estimates for key physical quantities. In the development of a proper UQ scheme for systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities, significant model errors compared with the true natural signal are always unavoidable due to both the imperfect understanding of the underlying physical processes and the limited computational resources available. One central issue in contemporary research is the development of a systematic methodology for reduced order models that can recover the crucial features both with model fidelity in statistical equilibrium and with model sensitivity in response to perturbations. In the first part, we discuss a general mathematical framework to construct statistically accurate reduced-order models that have skill in capturing the statistical variability in the principal directions of a general class of complex systems with quadratic nonlinearity. A systematic hierarchy of simple statistical closure schemes, which are built through new global statistical energy conservation principles combined with statistical equilibrium fidelity, are designed and tested for UQ of these problems. Second, the capacity of imperfect low-order stochastic approximations to model extreme events in a passive scalar field advected by turbulent flows is investigated. The effects in complicated flow systems are considered including strong nonlinear and non-Gaussian interactions, and much simpler and cheaper imperfect models with model error are constructed to capture the crucial statistical features in the stationary tracer field. Several mathematical ideas are introduced to improve the prediction skill of the imperfect reduced-order models. Most importantly, empirical information theory and statistical linear response theory are
Approaches for Reduced Order Modeling of Electrically Actuated von Karman Microplates
Saghir, Shahid
2016-07-25
This article presents and compares different approaches to develop reduced order models for the nonlinear von Karman rectangular microplates actuated by nonlinear electrostatic forces. The reduced-order models aim to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of the plate under small and large actuation forces. A fully clamped microplate is considered. Different types of basis functions are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method to discretize the governing equations. First we investigate the convergence with the number of modes retained in the model. Then for validation purpose, a comparison of the static results is made with the results calculated by a nonlinear finite element model. The linear eigenvalue problem for the plate under the electrostatic force is solved for a wide range of voltages up to pull-in. Results among the various reduced-order modes are compared and are also validated by comparing to results of the finite-element model. Further, the reduced order models are employed to capture the forced dynamic response of the microplate under small and large vibration amplitudes. Comparison of the different approaches are made for this case. Keywords: electrically actuated microplates, static analysis, dynamics of microplates, diaphragm vibration, large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear dynamics
The i-V curve characteristics of burner-stabilized premixed flames: detailed and reduced models
Han, Jie
2016-07-17
The i-V curve describes the current drawn from a flame as a function of the voltage difference applied across the reaction zone. Since combustion diagnostics and flame control strategies based on electric fields depend on the amount of current drawn from flames, there is significant interest in modeling and understanding i-V curves. We implement and apply a detailed model for the simulation of the production and transport of ions and electrons in one-dimensional premixed flames. An analytical reduced model is developed based on the detailed one, and analytical expressions are used to gain insight into the characteristics of the i-Vcurve for various flame configurations. In order for the reduced model to capture the spatial distribution of the electric field accurately, the concept of a dead zone region, where voltage is constant, is introduced, and a suitable closure for the spatial extent of the dead zone is proposed and validated. The results from the reduced modeling framework are found to be in good agreement with those from the detailed simulations. The saturation voltage is found to depend significantly on the flame location relative to the electrodes, and on the sign of the voltage difference applied. Furthermore, at sub-saturation conditions, the current is shown to increase linearly or quadratically with the applied voltage, depending on the flame location. These limiting behaviors exhibited by the reduced model elucidate the features of i-V curves observed experimentally. The reduced model relies on the existence of a thin layer where charges are produced, corresponding to the reaction zone of a flame. Consequently, the analytical model we propose is not limited to the study of premixed flames, and may be applied easily to others configurations, e.g.~nonpremixed counterflow flames.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2009-01-01
In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations
REDUCING PROCESS VARIABILITY BY USING DMAIC MODEL: A CASE STUDY IN BANGLADESH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Now-a-day's many leading manufacturing industry have started to practice Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing concepts to boost up their productivity as well as quality of products. In this paper, the Six Sigma approach has been used to reduce process variability of a food processing industry in Bangladesh. DMAIC (Define,Measure, Analyze, Improve, & Control model has been used to implement the Six Sigma Philosophy. Five phases of the model have been structured step by step respectively. Different tools of Total Quality Management, Statistical Quality Control and Lean Manufacturing concepts likely Quality function deployment, P Control chart, Fish-bone diagram, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Pareto analysis have been used in different phases of the DMAIC model. The process variability have been tried to reduce by identify the root cause of defects and reducing it. The ultimate goal of this study is to make the process lean and increase the level of sigma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harish, V.S.K.V.; Kumar, Arun
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A BES model based on 1st principles is developed and solved numerically. • Parameters of lumped capacitance model are fitted using the proposed optimization routine. • Validations are showed for different types of building construction elements. • Step response excitations for outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are analyzed. - Abstract: Different control techniques together with intelligent building technology (Building Automation Systems) are used to improve energy efficiency of buildings. In almost all control projects, it is crucial to have building energy models with high computational efficiency in order to design and tune the controllers and simulate their performance. In this paper, a set of partial differential equations are formulated accounting for energy flow within the building space. These equations are then solved as conventional finite difference equations using Crank–Nicholson scheme. Such a model of a higher order is regarded as a benchmark model. An optimization algorithm has been developed, depicted through a flowchart, which minimizes the sum squared error between the step responses of the numerical and the optimal model. Optimal model of the construction element is nothing but a RC-network model with the values of Rs and Cs estimated using the non-linear time invariant constrained optimization routine. The model is validated with comparing the step responses with other two RC-network models whose parameter values are selected based on a certain criteria. Validations are showed for different types of building construction elements viz., low, medium and heavy thermal capacity elements. Simulation results show that the optimal model closely follow the step responses of the numerical model as compared to the responses of other two models.
Adaptive control of an exoskeleton robot with uncertainties on kinematics and dynamics.
Brahmi, Brahim; Saad, Maarouf; Ochoa-Luna, Cristobal; Rahman, Mohammad H
2017-07-01
In this paper, we propose a new adaptive control technique based on nonlinear sliding mode control (JSTDE) taking into account kinematics and dynamics uncertainties. This approach is applied to an exoskeleton robot with uncertain kinematics and dynamics. The adaptation design is based on Time Delay Estimation (TDE). The proposed strategy does not necessitate the well-defined dynamic and kinematic models of the system robot. The updated laws are designed using Lyapunov-function to solve the adaptation problem systematically, proving the close loop stability and ensuring the convergence asymptotically of the outputs tracking errors. Experiments results show the effectiveness and feasibility of JSTDE technique to deal with the variation of the unknown nonlinear dynamics and kinematics of the exoskeleton model.
Robot Kinematics, using Dual Quaternions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Gouasmi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available From the point of view of classical mechanics, deriving the equations of motion for systems of coupled rigid bodies is regarded as a straightforward procedure: once a suitable set of generalized coordinates and reference frames have been chosen, what remains is to either apply Lagrange’s equations or Newton and Euler’s equations to obtain the differential equations of motion. As the complexity of multibody system increases, the need for more elegant formulation of the equation of motion becomes an issue of paramount importance. Our primary focus is on the kinematic analysis of rigid bodies and serial manipulators (robotic systems using simultaneously, both homogeneous transformations (4x4 matrices and Dual Quaternions, for the sake of results comparisons (cost,complexity,storage capacity etc. . This paper has been done mainly for educational and peadagogical purposes, hoping that the scientific community will finally adopt and use Dual Quaternions at least when dealing with multibody systems and specially robotics.
Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model for Manufacturing Costs Estimation of Piping Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nibaldo Rodriguez
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an estimation model of manufacturing costs of piping elements through the application of a Reduced Multivariate Polynomial (RMP. The model allows obtaining accurate estimations, even when enough and adequate information is not available. This situation typically occurs in the early stages of the design process of industrial products. The experimental evaluations show that the approach is capable, with a low complexity, of reducing uncertainties and to predict costs with significant precision. Comparisons with a neural network showed also that the RMP performs better considering a set of classical performance measures with the corresponding lower complexity and higher accuracy.
Escitalopram reduces increased hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M
2008-01-01
to stressors, but, so far, not in models of depression. Here we report that the number of BrdU positive cells in hippocampus was (1) significantly higher in a rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to control FRL, (2) increased in both FSL and FRL following maternal separation, (3......) reduced by escitalopram treatment in maternally separated animals to the level found in non-separated animals. These results argue against the prevailing hypothesis that adult cytogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism underlying antidepressant treatments is to increase adult...
Mindfulness as a personal resource to reduce work stress in the job demands-resources model.
Grover, Steven L; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Roche, Maree
2017-10-01
Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study examines the different ways that the personal resource of mindfulness reduces stress. Structural equation modeling based on data from 415 Australian nurses shows that mindfulness relates directly and negatively to work stress and perceptions of emotional demands as well as buffering the relation of emotional demands on psychological stress. This study contributes to the literature by employing empirical analysis to the task of unravelling how personal resources function within the JD-R model. It also introduces mindfulness as a personal resource in the JD-R model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henten, van E.J.; Schenk, E.J.J.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Meuleman, J.; Barreiro, P.
2010-01-01
The paper presents results of research on an inverse kinematics algorithm that has been used in a functional model of a cucumber-harvesting robot consisting of a redundant P6R manipulator. Within a first generic approach, the inverse kinematics problem was reformulated as a non-linear programming
Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty
Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan
2016-01-01
Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance ima...
Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.
Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna
2014-01-15
Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. © 2013.
Mechanical disequilibria in two-phase flow models: approaches by relaxation and by a reduced model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labois, M.
2008-10-01
This thesis deals with hyperbolic models for the simulation of compressible two-phase flows, to find alternatives to the classical bi-fluid model. We first establish a hierarchy of two-phase flow models, obtained according to equilibrium hypothesis between the physical variables of each phase. The use of Chapman-Enskog expansions enables us to link the different existing models to each other. Moreover, models that take into account small physical unbalances are obtained by means of expansion to the order one. The second part of this thesis focuses on the simulation of flows featuring velocity unbalances and pressure balances, in two different ways. First, a two-velocity two-pressure model is used, where non-instantaneous velocity and pressure relaxations are applied so that a balancing of these variables is obtained. A new one-velocity one-pressure dissipative model is then proposed, where the arising of second-order terms enables us to take into account unbalances between the phase velocities. We develop a numerical method based on a fractional step approach for this model. (author)
Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.
Raghupathy, Arun; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila
2008-11-01
Compact Thermal Models (CTM) to represent IC packages has been traditionally developed using the DELPHI-based (DEvelopment of Libraries of PHysical models for an Integrated design) methodology. The drawbacks of this method are presented, and an alternative method is proposed. A reduced-order model that provides the complete thermal information accurately with less computational resources can be effectively used in system level simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), a statistical method, can be used to reduce the order of the degree of freedom or variables of the computations for such a problem. POD along with the Galerkin projection allows us to create reduced-order models that reproduce the characteristics of the system with a considerable reduction in computational resources while maintaining a high level of accuracy. The goal of this work is to show that this method can be applied to obtain a boundary condition independent reduced-order thermal model for complex components. The methodology is applied to the 1D transient heat equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.
2013-03-31
Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus® [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Design’s ENERGICO® [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for
Kinematics of electroweak single top quark production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lueck, Jan; Karlsruhe U., EKP
2006-01-01
In this thesis, the t-channel matching procedure of two single-top signal Monte Carlo samples is optimized. The s- and matched t-channel samples, generated by MadEvent, are validated by comparing to ZTOP next-to-leading-order calculations. We find good agreement for all kinematic distributions we investigate, except for softer light quark jets due to gluon radiation. Since this has only minor impact on the s-channel, the corresponding MadEvent sample performs its task as expected. For the t-channel, we can conclude that the applied matching procedure leads to a MadEvent sample that successfully describes the kinematic distributions and rates of the 2nd-b quark. However, small differences remain. The discrepancy in the p T -ordered 2nd-leading light jets is mainly due to the absence of initial state gluon splitting and initial and final state gluon radiation matrix elements in the MadEvent sample production. The subsequent PYTHIA showering of the partons is apparently inappropriate for modeling those contributions and not intended for this purpose. The proper way would be to produce all relevant NLO matrix elements and match them as proposed in reference [15]. At present, an NLO-MC-generator for single-top is in preparation [41]. Probably it will be available for future iterations of single-top analyses and will redundantize further matching procedures. We estimate the systematic uncertainty on the single-top acceptance due to the Monte Carlo modeling and find an uncertainty of about 1% on the t-channel acceptance. We obtain a negligible uncertainty well below 1% on the s-channel acceptance. These acceptance uncertainties are very well acceptable for the single-top analyses that are currently under way. A sensitivity study of the simultaneous cross section measurement of the s- and t-channel single-top production modes is conducted. For this purpose, only statistical uncertainties are included. For a future integrated luminosity of 1 fb -1 , we expect to obtain an s
Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution
Moulton, Derek E.; Goriely, Alain
2012-01-01
of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying
Kinematic anharmonicity of internal rotation of molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bataev, V.A.; Pupyshev, V.I.; Godunov, I.A.
2017-01-01
The methods of analysis the strongly coupled vibrations are proposed for a number of molecules of aromatic and heterocyclic carbonyl (and some others) compounds. The qualitative principles are formulated for molecular systems with a significant kinematic anharmonicity.
A Comparison of Reduced Order Modeling Techniques Used in Dynamic Substructuring [PowerPoint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roettgen, Dan [Wisc; Seeger, Benjamin [Stuttgart; Tai, Wei Che [Washington; Baek, Seunghun [Michigan; Dossogne, Tilan [Liege; Allen, Matthew S [Wisc; Kuether, Robert J.; Brake, Matthew Robert; Mayes, Randall L.
2016-01-01
Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the response. Recently, various methods have been proposed that use a transmission simulator to overcome sensitivity to measurement errors and to exercise the interface between the substructures; including the Craig-Bampton, Dual Craig-Bampton, and Craig-Mayes methods. This work compares the advantages and disadvantages of these reduced order modeling strategies for two dynamic substructuring problems. The methods are first used on an analytical beam model to validate the methodologies. Then they are used to obtain an experimental model for structure consisting