WorldWideScience

Sample records for kinematic gps positioning

  1. Earth tide effects on kinematic/static GPS positioning in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.C.; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    A detailed Study of the Earth tide effects on the GPS kinematic/static positioning is presented in this paper by using theoretical Earth tide computation and practical GPS data processing. Tidal effects could reach up to 30 cm in Denmark and Greenland depending on the measuring time...... and the position of reference station. With a baseline less than 80 km, the difference of the Earth tide effects could reach more than 5 mm. So, in precise applications of GPS positioning, the Earth tide effect has to be taken into account even for a relative small local GPS network. Several examples are given...... for demonstrating that the Earth tide effects can be viewed by GPS surveying. They are given through static GPS data static processing, static GPS data kinematic processing, and airborne kinematic GPS data processing. In these cases, the Earth tide effects can be subtracted from the GPS results. The determination...

  2. Assessment of long-range kinematic GPS positioning errors by comparison with airborne laser altimetry and satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Forsberg, René

    2007-01-01

    Long-range airborne laser altimetry and laser scanning (LIDAR) or airborne gravity surveys in, for example, polar or oceanic areas require airborne kinematic GPS baselines of many hundreds of kilometers in length. In such instances, with the complications of ionospheric biases, it can be a real...... challenge for traditional differential kinematic GPS software to obtain reasonable solutions. In this paper, we will describe attempts to validate an implementation of the precise point positioning (PPP) technique on an aircraft without the use of a local GPS reference station. We will compare PPP solutions...... of the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland, near-coincident in time and space with the ICESat satellite laser altimeter. Both of these flights were more than 800 km long. Comparisons between different GPS methods and four different software packages do not suggest a clear preference for any one, with the heights...

  3. FAST INTEGER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN GPS KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING LEFT NULL SPACE AND MULTI-TIME (INVERSE PAIRED CHOLESKY DECORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Duan

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems that huge amount of computation in ambiguity resolution with multiple epochs and high-order matrix inversion occurred in the GPS kinematic relative positioning, a modified algorithm for fast integer ambiguity resolution is proposed. Firstly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is applied to construct the left null space matrix in order to eliminate the baselines components, which is able to separate ambiguity parameters from the position parameters efficiently. Kalman filter is applied only to estimate the ambiguity parameters so that the real-time ambiguity float solution is obtained. Then, sorting and multi-time (inverse paired Cholesky decomposition are adopted for decorrelation of ambiguity. After diagonal elements preprocessing and diagonal elements sorting according to the results of Cholesky decomposition, the efficiency of decomposition and decorrelation is improved. Lastly, the integer search algorithm implemented in LAMBDA method is used for searching the integer ambiguity. To verify the validity and efficacy of the proposed algorithm, static and kinematic tests are carried out. Experimental results show that this algorithm has good performance of decorrelation and precision of float solution, with computation speed also increased effectively. The final positioning accuracy result with static baseline error less than 1 cm and kinematic error less than 2 cm, which indicates that it can be used for fast kinematic positioning of high precision carrier.

  4. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  5. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  6. goGPS: open source software for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost receivers by single-frequency relative kinematic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realini, Eugenio; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    goGPS is a free and open source satellite positioning software package aiming to provide a collaborative platform for research and teaching purposes. It was first published in 2009 and since then several related projects are on-going. Its objective is the investigation of strategies for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers, mainly by relative positioning with respect to a base station and by a tailored extended Kalman filter working directly on code and phase observations. In this paper, the positioning algorithms implemented in goGPS are presented, emphasizing the modularity of the software design; two specific strategies to support the navigation with low-cost receivers are also proposed and discussed, namely an empirical observation weighting function calibrated on the receiver signal-to-noise ratio and the inclusion of height information from a digital terrain model as an additional observation in the Kalman filter. The former is crucial when working with high-sensitivity receivers, while the latter can significantly improve the positioning in the vertical direction. The overall goGPS positioning accuracy is assessed by comparison with a dual-frequency receiver and with the positioning computed by a standard low-cost receiver. The benefits of the calibrated weighting function and the digital terrain model are investigated by an experiment in a dense urban environment. It comes out that the use of goGPS and low-cost receivers leads to results comparable with those obtained by higher level receivers; goGPS has good performances also in a dense urban environment, where its additional features play an important role. (paper)

  7. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  8. Kinematic-PPP using Single/Dual Frequency Observations from (GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS) Constellations for Hydrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is ideally suited for inshore and offshore positioning because of its high accuracy and the short observation time required for a position fix. Precise point positioning (PPP) is a technique used for position computation with a high accuracy using a single GNSS receiver. It relies on highly accurate satellite position and clock data that can be acquired from different sources such as the International GNSS Service (IGS). PPP precision varies based on positioning technique (static or kinematic), observations type (single or dual frequency) and the duration of observations among other factors. PPP offers comparable accuracy to differential GPS with safe in cost and time. For many years, PPP users depended on GPS (American system) which considered the solely reliable system. GLONASS's contribution in PPP techniques was limited due to fail in maintaining full constellation. Yet, GLONASS limited observations could be integrated into GPS-based PPP to improve availability and precision. As GLONASS reached its full constellation early 2013, there is a wide interest in PPP systems based on GLONASS only and independent of GPS. This paper investigates the performance of kinematic PPP solution for the hydrographic applications in the Nile river (Aswan, Egypt) based on GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS constellations. The study investigates also the effect of using two different observation types; single-frequency and dual frequency observations from the tested constellations.

  9. ALGORITHM OF SAR SATELLITE ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT USING GPS AIDED BY KINEMATIC VECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)satellite attitude using Global Positioning System (GPS) wide-band carrier phase, the SAR satellite attitude kinematic vector and Kalman filter are introduced. Introducing the state variable function of GPS attitude determination algorithm in SAR satellite by means of kinematic vector and describing the observation function by the GPS wide-band carrier phase, the paper uses the Kalman filter algorithm to obtian the attitude variables of SAR satellite. Compared the simulation results of Kalman filter algorithm with the least square algorithm and explicit solution, it is indicated that the Kalman filter algorithm is the best.

  10. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  11. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  12. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  13. Development of position measuring technology by GPS; GPS ni yoru sokui gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, T [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    With regard to the GPS (global positioning system) which uses the satellites launched and administered by the U.S.A. and has been utilized worldwide for ships, automobiles and geodetic surveys in recent years, Ministry of Transport started investigation and research on the application of its position measuring system from FY 1989. In this fiscal year, a study on position measuring methods and selection of the position measuring system to be developed were made, in FY 1991, the real-time functioning and track display were developed, in FY 1992, the initialization aboard the ship, the measure to prevent cycle slip, and the radio data communication technology were developed, and in FY 1993, a long term demonstration experiment presuming its practical use was conducted attaining the expected purpose. In this article, the developed real-time kinematic position measuring system is introduced. Regarding the position measuring methods by the GPS, there are the one point position measuring method and the relative position measuring method. Regarding this newly developed position measuring device, its application to work ships and structures can be considered in various ways. 4 figs.

  14. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  15. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  16. Location - Global Positioning System (GPS) Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital photos tagged with GPS location information. The St. Paul District maintains a digital library of over 10,000 GPS photos. Photos are often associated with...

  17. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…

  18. Development of Real-Time Precise Positioning Algorithm Using GPS L1 Carrier Phase Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Joh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed Real-time Phase DAta Processor(RPDAP for GPS L1 carrier. And also, we tested the RPDAP's positioning accuracy compared with results of real time kinematic(RTK positioning. While quality of the conventional L1 RTK positioning highly depend on receiving condition, the RPDAP can gives more stable positioning result because of different set of common GPS satellites, which searched by elevation mask angle and signal strength. In this paper, we demonstrated characteristics of the RPDAP compared with the L1 RTK technique. And we discussed several improvement ways to apply the RPDAP to precise real-time positioning using low-cost GPS receiver. With correcting the discussed weak points in near future, the RPDAP will be used in the field of precise real-time application, such as precise car navigation and precise personal location services.

  19. Global Positioning System (GPS) Energetic Particle Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Energetic particle data from the CXD and BDD instrument on the GPS constellation are available to the space weather research community. The release of these data...

  20. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  1. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Pan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF. All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  2. Static and kinematic positioning using WADGPS from geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalo, R.; Gatti, M.

    2003-04-01

    STATIC AND KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING WADGPS CORRECTIONS FROM GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES Cefalo R. (1), Gatti M (2) (1) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy, cefalo@dic.univ.trieste.it, (2) Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, Italy, mgatti@ing.unife.it ABSTRACT. Starting from February 2000, static and kinematic experiments have been performed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Trieste, Italy and the Department of Engineering of University of Ferrara, Italy, using the WADGPS (Wide Area Differential GPS) corrections up linked by Geostationary Satellites belonging to the American WAAS and European EGNOS. Recently, a prototypal service by ESA (European Space Agency) named SISNet (Signal In Space through Internet), has been introduced using Internet to diffuse the messages up linked through AOR-E and IOR Geostationary Satellites. This service will overcome the problems relative to the availability of the corrections in urban areas. This system is currently under tests by the authors in order to verify the latency of the message and the applicability and accuracies obtainable in particular in dynamic applications.

  3. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  4. Influence of Ephemeris Error on GPS Single Point Positioning Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Ma; Wang, Meng

    2013-09-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) user makes use of the navigation message transmitted from GPS satellites to achieve its location. Because the receiver uses the satellite's location in position calculations, an ephemeris error, a difference between the expected and actual orbital position of a GPS satellite, reduces user accuracy. The influence extent is decided by the precision of broadcast ephemeris from the control station upload. Simulation analysis with the Yuma almanac show that maximum positioning error exists in the case where the ephemeris error is along the line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Meanwhile, the error is dependent on the relationship between the observer and spatial constellation at some time period.

  5. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  6. A Kalman Filter Implementation for Precision Improvement in Low-Cost GPS Positioning of Tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain. PMID:24217355

  7. A Demonstration of GPS Landslide Monitoring Using Online Positioning User Service (OPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to landslide study, both as a complement, and as an alternative to conventional surveying methods. However, most applications of GPS for landslide monitoring have been limited to the academic community for research purposes. High-accuracy GPS has not been widely equipped in geotechnical companies and used by technicians. The main issue that limits the applications of GPS in the practice of high-accuracy landslide monitoring is the complexity of GPS data processing. This study demonstrated an approach using the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS) provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to process GPS data and conduct long-term landslide monitoring in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region. Continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide site during two years were used to evaluate different scenarios for landslide surveying: continuous or campaign, long duration or short duration, morning or afternoon (different weather conditions). OPUS uses Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) managed by NGS (http://www.ngs.noaa.giv/CORS/) as references and user data as a rover to solve a position. There are 19 CORS permanent GPS stations in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands region. The dense GPS network provides a precise and reliable reference frame for subcentimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring in this region. Our criterion for the accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of OPUS solutions over a 2-year period with respect to true landslide displacement time series overt the same period. The true landslide displacements were derived from a single-baseline (130 m) GPS processing by using 24-hour continuous data. If continuous GPS surveying is performed in the field, then OPUS static processing can provide 0.6 cm horizontal and 1.1 cm vertical precision with few outliers. If repeated

  8. Flight-Test Evaluation of Kinematic Precise Point Positioning of Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring system with GPS (global positioning system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Itsuro

    2000-01-01

    This system combines a radiation monitoring car with GPS and a data processor (personal computer). It distributes the position information acquired through GPS to the data such as measured environmental radiation dose rate and energy spectrum. It also displays and edits the data for each measuring position on a map. Transmitting the data to the power station through mobile phone enables plan managers to easily monitor the environmental radiation dose rate nearby and proper emergency monitoring. (author)

  10. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  11. GPS-based satellite tracking system for precise positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Melbourne, W. G.; Thornton, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is developing a Global Positioning System (GPS) based measurement system to provide precise determination of earth satellite orbits, geodetic baselines, ionospheric electron content, and clock offsets between worldwide tracking sites. The system will employ variations on the differential GPS observing technique and will use a network of nine fixed ground terminals. Satellite applications will require either a GPS flight receiver or an on-board GPS beacon. Operation of the system for all but satellite tracking will begin by 1988. The first major satellite application will be a demonstration of decimeter accuracy in determining the altitude of TOPEX in the early 1990's. By then the system is expected to yield long-baseline accuracies of a few centimeters and instantaneous time synchronization to 1 ns.

  12. Design about position and display of GPS based on singlechip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available GPS is used in ships,vehicles,aircraft and other moving objects.GPS also has the important application in vehicle monitoring system.However,with the expansion of the specialized functions of GPS,its high cost makes so many ordinary consumers unbearable.This paper proposes a simple design of GPS based on singlechip.The design Improves the basic utility functions of system and adds the speed and mileage measurement.GPS module uses the differential technology to improve the positioning accuracy.Therefore,the navigation device is compact,easy to carry and of high precision positioning.Through getting the data of 3D coordinates from the observation point and the factor of position accuracy,the average of which is less than five,indicating that the position accuracy can be improved by differential technology to achieve the desired range.At last,the feasibility of this design is verified through the current data tested in the outdoors.

  13. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  14. Lane Determination with GPS Precise Point Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Modern intelligent transport solutions can achieve an improvement of traffic flow on motorways. With lane-specific measurements and lane-specific control, more measures are possible. Single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a newly developed and affordable technique to achieve an

  15. Improving vertex position determination by using a kinematic fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forden, G.E.; Saxon, D.H.

    1985-05-01

    A method is developed for improving decay vertex reconstruction by using kinematic fits. This is applied to generated charm meson decays. An improvement of 16% in the vertex position measurement along the flight path is achieved. (author)

  16. Low Cost Multisensor Kinematic Positioning and Navigation System with Linux/RTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, the development of an embedded real-time multisensor kinematic positioning and navigation system discourages many researchers and developers due to its complicated hardware environment setup and time consuming device driver development. To address these issues, this paper proposed a multisensor kinematic positioning and navigation system built on Linux with Real Time Application Interface (RTAI, which can be constructed in a fast and economical manner upon popular hardware platforms. The authors designed, developed, evaluated and validated the application of Linux/RTAI in the proposed system for the integration of the low cost MEMS IMU and OEM GPS sensors. The developed system with Linux/RTAI as the core of a direct geo-referencing system provides not only an excellent hard real-time performance but also the conveniences for sensor hardware integration and real-time software development. A software framework is proposed in this paper for a universal kinematic positioning and navigation system with loosely-coupled integration architecture. In addition, general strategies of sensor time synchronization in a multisensor system are also discussed. The success of the loosely-coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation Kalman filter is represented via post-processed solutions from road tests.

  17. Present-day kinematics of the Danakil block (southern Red Sea-Afar) constrained by GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladron de Guevara, R.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.; Doubre, C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Ogubazghi, G.; Floyd, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.

    2017-12-01

    The rifting of the Arabian plate from the Nubian and Somalian plates is primarily accommodated by seismic and magmatic activity along two rift arms of the Afar triple junction (the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts). The spatial distribution of active deformation in the Afar region have been constrained with geodetic observations. However, the plate boundary configuration in which this deformation occurs is still not fully understood. South of 17°N, the Red Sea rift is composed of two parallel and overlapping rift branches separated by the Danakil block. The distribution of the extension across these two overlapping rifts, their potential connection through a transform fault zone and the counterclockwise rotation of the Danakil block have not yet been fully resolved. Here we analyze new GPS observations from the Danakil block, the Gulf of Zula area (Eritrea) and Afar (Ethiopia) together with previous geodetic survey data to better constrain the plate kinematics and active deformation of the region. The new data has been collected in 2016 and add up to 5 years to the existing geodetic observations (going back to 2000). Our improved GPS velocity field shows differences with previously modeled GPS velocities, suggesting that the rate and rotation of the Danakil block need to be updated. The new velocity field also shows that the plate-boundary strain is accommodated by broad deformation zones rather than across sharp boundaries between tectonic blocks. To better determine the spatial distribution of the strain, we first implement a rigid block model to constrain the overall regional plate kinematics and to isolate the plate-boundary deformation at the western boundary of the Danakil block. We then study whether the recent southern Red Sea rifting events have caused detectable changes in observed GPS velocities and if the observations can be used to constrain the scale of this offshore rift activity. Finally, we investigate different geometries of transform faults that

  18. Video-Aided GPS/INS Positioning and Attitude Determination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Silva, Randy

    2006-01-01

    ... precise positioning and attitude information to be maintained, even during periods of extended GPS dropouts. This relies on information extracted from the video images of reference points and features to continue to update the inertial navigation solution. In this paper, the principles of the video-update method aredescribed.

  19. PRECISE POSITIONING OF UAVS – DEALING WITH CHALLENGING RTK-GPS MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS DURING AUTOMATED UAV FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zimmermann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic GPS (global positioning system receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors. In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  20. Global optimization applied to GPS positioning by ambiguity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baselga, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Differential GPS positioning with carrier-phase observables is commonly done in a process that involves determination of the unknown integer ambiguity values. An alternative approach, named the ambiguity function method, was already proposed in the early days of GPS positioning. By making use of a trigonometric function ambiguity unknowns are eliminated from the functional model before the estimation process. This approach has significant advantages, such as ease of use and insensitivity to cycle slips, but requires such high accuracy in the initial approximate coordinates that its use has been practically dismissed from consideration. In this paper a novel strategy is proposed so that the need for highly accurate initial coordinates disappears: the application of a global optimization method to the ambiguity functions model. The use of this strategy enables the ambiguity function method to compete with the present prevailing approach of ambiguity resolution

  1. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  2. Deceleration system for kinematic linkages of positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, G.

    2017-08-01

    Flexible automation is used more and more in various production processes, so that both machining itself on CNC machine tools and workpiece handling means are performed through programming the needed working cycle. In order to obtain a successful precise positioning, each motion degree needs a certain deceleration before stopping at a programmed point. The increase of motion speed of moving elements within the manipulators structure depends directly on deceleration duty quality before the programmed stop. Proportional valves as well as servo-valves that can perform hydraulic decelerations are well known, but they feature several disadvantages, such as: high price, severe conditions for oil filtering and low reliability under industrial conditions. This work presents a new deceleration system that allows adjustment of deceleration slope according to actual conditions: inertial mass, speed etc. The new solution of hydraulic decelerator allows its integration to a position loop or its usage in case of positioning large elements that only perform fixed cycles. The results being obtained on the positioning accuracy of a linear axis using the new solution of the hydraulic decelerator are presented, too. The price of the new deceleration system is much lower compared to the price of proportional valves or servo-valves.

  3. 78 FR 13396 - 90th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighty-ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). DATES...

  4. 78 FR 57672 - 91st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the ninety-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) DATES...

  5. 77 FR 12106 - 88th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... 159, Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The..., Global Positioning System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held March 13-16, 2012, from 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m...

  6. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  7. 75 FR 2581 - Eighty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held February 2-5, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (unless stated...

  8. 76 FR 27744 - Eighty-Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held May 26, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  9. 76 FR 67019 - Eighty-Seventh: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) 87th meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held November 14-18...

  10. 76 FR 33022 - Eighty-Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held June 13-17, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  11. Kinematics with the assistance of smartphones: Measuring data via GPS - Visualizing data with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Patrik; Backhaus, Udo

    2013-04-01

    Nearly every smartphone is now GPS capable. The widespread use of GPS navigation has developed alongside less expensive hardware and user-friendly software interfaces, which may help to bring scientific research and teaching closer to real life.

  12. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  13. The International GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous Reference System for Precise GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James

    1996-01-01

    The International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.

  14. PosQ : Unsupervised Fingerprinting and Visualization of GPS Positioning Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Weckemann, Kay

    2010-01-01

    GPS positioning does not provide pervasive coverage and the accuracy depends on the local environment. When deploying and managing position-based applications it is important to know when to depend on GPS and when to deploy supplementary means of positioning, such as local or inertial positioning...

  15. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  16. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multi...

  17. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. PDOP values for simulated GPS/Galileo positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates satellite coverage and PDOP values for a simulated combined GPS/Galileo system. The designed GPS satellite constellation and the planned Galileo satellite constellation are presented. The combined system is simulated and the number of visible satellites and PDOP values...

  19. DARPA looks beyond GPS for positioning, navigating, and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, David

    2014-10-01

    Cold-atom interferometry, microelectromechanical systems, signals of opportunity, and atomic clocks are some of the technologies the defense agency is pursuing to provide precise navigation when GPS is unavailable.

  20. Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Design For Multipaths Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gadallah, El-Sayed

    1998-01-01

    .... This research introduces a new estimator that can detect the presence of multipath, can determine the unknown number of multipath components and can estimate multipath parameters in the GPS receiver...

  1. NONLINEAR FILTER METHOD OF GPS DYNAMIC POSITIONING BASED ON BANCROFT ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQin; TAOBen-zao; ZHAOChao-ying; WANGLi

    2005-01-01

    Because of the ignored items after linearization, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) becomes a form of suboptimal gradient descent algorithm. The emanative tendency exists in GPS solution when the filter equations are ill-posed. The deviation in the estimation cannot be avoided. Furthermore, the true solution may be lost in pseudorange positioning because the linearized pseudorange equations are partial solutions. To solve the above problems in GPS dynamic positioning by using EKF, a closed-form Kalman filter method called the two-stage algorithm is presented for the nonlinear algebraic solution of GPS dynamic positioning based on the global nonlinear least squares closed algorithm--Bancroft numerical algorithm of American. The method separates the spatial parts from temporal parts during processing the GPS filter problems, and solves the nonlinear GPS dynamic positioning, thus getting stable and reliable dynamic positioning solutions.

  2. Present kinematics of the Tjornes Fracture Zone, North Iceland, from campaign and continuous GPS measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, S.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Danielsen, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jouanne, F.; Giardini, D.; Villemin, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improved velocity field based on 58 GPS stations confirms the robustness of our previous model and allows to better constrain the free model parameters. For the HFF we find a slightly shallower locking depth of ∼6.2 km and a slightly higher slip-rate of ∼6.8 mm yr−1 that again result in the same seismic potential equivalent to a Mw6.8 earthquake. The much larger number of GPS velocities improves the statistically estimated model parameter uncertainties by a factor of two, when compared to our previous study, a result that we validate using Bayesian estimation.

  3. On the effect of ionospheric delay on geodetic relative GPS positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Kleusberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Uncorrected ionospheric delay is one of the factors limiting the accuracy in geodetic relative positioning with single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase observations. Dual frequency measurements can be combined to eliminate the ionospheric delay in the observations. A

  4. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  5. An alternative methodology for the mathematical treatment of GPS positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a simple alternative method is developed to solve the GPS navigation equations directly without linearization and iteration. A practical study was done to evaluate the new model. Performance analysis was conducted using data collected by Trimble 4000SSE dual frequency receiver. The results indicated that the alternative methodology is simple, fast, and accurate as compared to Taylor method.

  6. Present kinematics of the Tjornes Fracture Zone, North Iceland, from campaign and continuous GPS measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, S.

    2012-11-19

    The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ), North Iceland, is a 120 km transform offset of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge that accommodates 18 mm yr−1 plate motion on two parallel transform structures and connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north to the on-shore Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in the south. This transform zone is offshore except for a part of the right-lateral strike-slip Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF) system that lies close to the coastal town of Húsavík, inducing a significant seismic risk to its inhabitants. In our previous work we constrained the locking depth and slip-rate of the HFF using 4 yr of continuous GPS measurements and found that the accumulated slip-deficit on the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 earthquake, assuming a complete stress release in the last major earthquakes in 1872 and a steady accumulation since then. In this paper we improve our previous analysis by adding 44 campaign GPS (EGPS) data points, which have been regularly observed since 1997. We extract the steady-state interseismic velocities within the TFZ by correcting the GPS data for volcanic inflation of Theistareykir—the westernmost volcano of the NVZ—using a model with a magma volume increase of 25 × 106 m3, constrained by InSAR time-series analysis results. The improved velocity field based on 58 GPS stations confirms the robustness of our previous model and allows to better constrain the free model parameters. For the HFF we find a slightly shallower locking depth of ∼6.2 km and a slightly higher slip-rate of ∼6.8 mm yr−1 that again result in the same seismic potential equivalent to a Mw6.8 earthquake. The much larger number of GPS velocities improves the statistically estimated model parameter uncertainties by a factor of two, when compared to our previous study, a result that we validate using Bayesian estimation.

  7. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS surveys: relative positioning is concerned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Huseyin; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    Over more than a decade, researchers have been interested in studying the accuracy of GPS positioning solutions. Recently, reporting the accuracy of GPS velocities has been added to this. Researchers studying landslide motion, tectonic motion, uplift, sea level rise, and subsidence still report results from GPS experiments in which repeated GPS measurements from short sessions are used. This motivated some other researchers to study the accuracy of GPS deformation rates/velocities from various repeated GPS surveys. In one of the efforts, the velocity accuracy was derived from repeated GPS static surveys using short observation sessions and Precise Point Positioning mode of GPS software. Velocities from short GPS sessions were compared with the velocities from 24 h sessions. The accuracy of velocities was obtained using statistical hypothesis testing and quantifying the accuracy of least squares estimation models. The results reveal that 45-60 % of the horizontal and none of the vertical solutions comply with the results from 24 h solutions. We argue that this case in which the data was evaluated using PPP should also apply to the case in which the data belonging to long GPS base lengths is processed using fundamental relative point positioning. To test this idea we chose the two IGS stations ANKR and NICO and derive their velocities from the reference stations held fixed in the stable EURASIAN plate. The University of Bern's GNSS software BERNESE was used to produce relative positioning solutions, and the results are compared with those of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP results. First impressions indicate that it is worth designing a global experiment and test these ideas in detail.

  8. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  9. Kinematics and Seismotectonics of the Montello Thrust Fault (Southeastern Alps, Italy) Revealed by Local GPS and Seismic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, E.; Anderlini, L.; Cavaliere, A.; Danesi, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Danecek, P.; Massa, M.; Lovati, S.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Alps fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) in northern Italy is a tectonically active area accommodating large part of the ~N-S Adria-Eurasia plate convergence, that in the southeastern Alps ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 mm/yr, as constrained by a geodetically defined rotation pole. Because of the high seismic hazard of northeastern Italy, the area is well monitored at a regional scale by seismic and GPS networks. However, more localized seismotectonic and kinematic features, at the scale of the fault segments, are not yet resolved, limiting our knowledge about the seismic potential of the different fault segments belonging to the southeastern Alps FTB. Here we present the results obtained from the analysis of data collected during local seismic and geodetic experiments conducted installing denser geophysical networks across the Montello-Bassano-Belluno system, a segment of the FTB that is presently characterized by a lower sismicity rate with respect to the surrounding domains. The Montello anticline, which is the southernmost tectonic features of the southeastern Alps FTB (located ~15 km south of the mountain front), is a nice example of growing anticline associated with a blind thrust fault. However, how the Adria-Alps convergence is partitioned across the FTB and the seismic potential of the Montello thrust (the area has been struck by a Mw~6.5 in 1695 but the causative fault is still largely debated) remained still unresolved. The new, denser, GPS data show that this area is undergoing among the highest geodetic deformation rates of the entire south Alpine chain, with a steep velocity gradient across the Montello anticline. The earthquakes recorded during the experiment, precisely relocated with double difference methods, and the new earthquake focal mechanisms well correlate with available information about sub-surface geological structures and highlight the seismotectonic activity of the Montello thrust fault. We model the GPS velocities using elastic

  10. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Global Positioning System (GPS) Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment is to evaluate the maximum transmitted power levels of adjacent band radiofrequency (RF) systems that can be tolerated by G...

  11. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  12. GPS Users Positioning Errors during Disturbed Near-Earth Space Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afraimovich, E. L; Demyanov, V. V; Tatarinov, P. V; Astafieva, E. I; Zhivetiev, I. V

    2006-01-01

    .... (GPS Solutions, 2003, V7, N2, 109) showed, that during geomagnetic disturbances in the near space deterioration of GNSS operation quality is appeared and, as consequence, reduction of positioning accuracy and occurrence of failures...

  13. MDOT implementation plan for global positioning systems (GPS) technology in planning, design, and construction delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  14. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0175 TITLE: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions PRINCIPAL...Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0175 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...genetic diversity in the population, in hospitalized children with severe dengue illness and cluster investigation of their neighborhoods, and by using

  15. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobeiey, Mohamed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCB P2-C2 , are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  16. Modular Software for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hartman, K. R.; Weidow, D. A.; Berry, D. L.; Oza, D. H.; Long, A. C.; Joyce, E.; Steger, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics and Mission Operations Divisions have jointly investigated the feasibility of engineering modular Global Positioning SYSTEM (GPS) navigation software to support both real time flight and ground postprocessing configurations. The goals of this effort are to define standard GPS data interfaces and to engineer standard, reusable navigation software components that can be used to build a broad range of GPS navigation support applications. The paper discusses the GPS modular software (GMOD) system and operations concepts, major requirements, candidate software architecture, feasibility assessment and recommended software interface standards. In additon, ongoing efforts to broaden the scope of the initial study and to develop modular software to support autonomous navigation using GPS are addressed,

  17. Positioning performance of the NTCM model driven by GPS Klobuchar model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammed Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) utilize the Ionospheric Correction Algorithm (ICA) also known as Klobuchar model for correcting ionospheric signal delay or range error. Recently, we developed an ionosphere correction algorithm called NTCM-Klobpar model for single frequency GNSS applications. The model is driven by a parameter computed from GPS Klobuchar model and consecutively can be used instead of the GPS Klobuchar model for ionospheric corrections. In the presented work we compare the positioning solutions obtained using NTCM-Klobpar with those using the Klobuchar model. Our investigation using worldwide ground GPS data from a quiet and a perturbed ionospheric and geomagnetic activity period of 17 days each shows that the 24-hour prediction performance of the NTCM-Klobpar is better than the GPS Klobuchar model in global average. The root mean squared deviation of the 3D position errors are found to be about 0.24 and 0.45 m less for the NTCM-Klobpar compared to the GPS Klobuchar model during quiet and perturbed condition, respectively. The presented algorithm has the potential to continuously improve the accuracy of GPS single frequency mass market devices with only little software modification.

  18. An investigation of airborne GPS/INS for high accuracy position and velocity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Cannon, M.E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    An airborne test using a differential GPS-INS system in a Twin Otter was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of using the integrated system for cm-level position and cm/s velocity. The INS is a miniaturized ring-laser gyro IMU jointly developed by Sandia and Honeywell while the GPS system consists of the NovAtel GPSCard{trademark}. INS position, velocity and attitude data were computed using Sandia`s SANDAC flight computer system and logged at 4 Hz and GPS data was acquired at a 1 Hz rate. The mission was approximately 2.5 hours in duration and the aircraft reached separations of up to 19 km from the base station. The data was post-processed using a centralized Kalman filter approach in which the double differenced carrier phase measurements are used to update the INS data. The INS position is in turn used to detect and correct GPS carrier phase cycle slips and also to bridge GPS outages. Results are presented for the GPS-only case and also for integrated GPS/INS.

  19. Seismic and GPS constraints on the dynamics and kinematics of the Yellowstone volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C.; Waite, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    The seismically and volcanically Yellowstone hotspot resulted from interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding North America plate. This feature and related processes have modified continental lithosphere producing the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry silicic volcanic field (YSRPN) system, with its NE volcanically active Yellowstone volcanic field. The size and accessibility of the Yellowstone area has allowed a range of geophysical experiments including earthquake monitoring and seismic and GPS imaging of this system. Seismicity is dominated by small-magnitude normal- to oblique-slip faulting earthquake swarms with shallow focal depths, maximum of ~5 km, restricted by high temperatures and a weak elastic layer. There is developing evidence of non-double couple events. Outside the caldera, earthquakes are deeper, ~20 km, and capable of M 7+ earthquakes. We integrate the results from a multi-institution experiment that recorded data from 110 seismic stations and 180 GPS stations for 1999-2004. The tomographic images confirm the existence of a low Vp-body beneath the Yellowstone caldera at depths greater than 8 km, possibly representing hot, crystallizing magma. A key result of our study is a volume of anomalously low Vp and Vp/Vs in the northwestern part of the volcanic field at shallow depths of stress field inverted from seismic and GPS data is dominated by regional SW extension with superimposed volumetric expansion and uplift from local volcanic sources. Mantle tomography derived from integrated inversion of teleseismic and local earthquake data constrained by geoid, crustal structure, discontinuity structure reveals an upper-mantle low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected westward tilt to the west at ~60° with a 1% to 2% melt. This geometry is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. Some remaining

  20. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Triandi

    2010-01-01

    GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits...

  1. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pisoňová; Jozef Ornth; Vladimír Sedlák

    2007-01-01

    By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System) apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measureme...

  2. PosQ: Unsupervised Fingerprinting and Visualization of GPS Positioning Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Weckemann, Kay

    . This paper proposes PosQ, a system for unsupervised fingerprinting and visualization of GPS positioning quality. PosQ provides quality maps to position-based applications and visual overlays to users and managers to reveal the positioning quality in a local environment. The system reveals the quality both...

  3. BDS/GPS Dual Systems Positioning Based on the Modified SR-UKF Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaeHyok Kong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System can provide all-day three-dimensional position and speed information. Currently, only using the single navigation system cannot satisfy the requirements of the system’s reliability and integrity. In order to improve the reliability and stability of the satellite navigation system, the positioning method by BDS and GPS navigation system is presented, the measurement model and the state model are described. Furthermore, the modified square-root Unscented Kalman Filter (SR-UKF algorithm is employed in BDS and GPS conditions, and analysis of single system/multi-system positioning has been carried out, respectively. The experimental results are compared with the traditional estimation results, which show that the proposed method can perform highly-precise positioning. Especially when the number of satellites is not adequate enough, the proposed method combine BDS and GPS systems to achieve a higher positioning precision.

  4. A novel fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages for land vehicle positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Song, Xiang; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2015-01-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle position information whether in open-sky environments or in Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environments. However, there remains a challenging task for land vehicles to achieve such positioning performance using low-cost sensors, especially microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. In this paper, a novel and cost-effective fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages is proposed and applied in the Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS/ compass integrated positioning system. In the implementation of the proposed methodology, a key data preprocessing algorithm is first developed to eliminate the noise in inertial sensors in order to provide more accurate information for subsequent modeling. Then, a novel hybrid strategy incorporating the designed autoregressive model (AR model)-based forward estimator (ARFE) with Kalman filter (KF) is presented to predict the INS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, real road tests with various scenarios were performed. The proposed methodology illustrates significant improvement in positioning accuracy during GPS outages. (paper)

  5. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  6. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Triandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits and receives signals from computer and two slave modules to collect GPS data from vehicles. The result of experiment shows that this system is able to track the vehicle on digital map with accuracy as high as 95%.Keywords: GPS, microcontroller, monitoring, RF

  7. The limits of direct satellite tracking with the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, W. I.; Yunck, T. P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in high precision differential Global Positioning System-based satellite tracking can be applied to the more conventional direct tracking of low earth satellites. To properly evaluate the limiting accuracy of direct GPS-based tracking, it is necessary to account for the correlations between the a-priori errors in GPS states, Y-bias, and solar pressure parameters. These can be obtained by careful analysis of the GPS orbit determination process. The analysis indicates that sub-meter accuracy can be readily achieved for a user above 1000 km altitude, even when the user solution is obtained with data taken 12 hours after the data used in the GPS orbit solutions.

  8. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pisoňová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measurement testing practice with aim of the phase centre real position determining of several in a market available GPS receivers in the paper. Investigation up to what standard the GPS receiver antenna phase centre variation achieves to float in an inaccuracy into GPS measurements. Testing was realized on the temporary testing baseline closely village Badín at Banská Bystrica in the Central Slovak Region. GPS receivers Locus Survey System (Ashtech, ProMark2 (Ashtech were tested.

  9. Monitoring of Landslides using Repeated Kinematics GPS Observables in Sevketiye Town, Biga Peninsula, Çanakkale, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun; Karaca, Zeki; Erenoglu, Oya; Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Yucel, Mehmet Ali

    2014-05-01

    Landslide is one of the most important natural events, and is also a result of earth's crust movements. Landslides generally result in the outward and downward movement of slope-forming materials consisting soil, rock, artificial fill and etc. Moreover, possible earthquakes are one of the main reasons of triggering landslides in active areas seismically. There have been many studies based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables to compute the three dimensional positioning of established sites, and to model landslides precisely. We can monitor landslide with GPS using continuous data collection or the type of campaign surveying. While continuous data collection provide a millimetre-level of accuracy, the accuracy decreases with the shorter sessions, e.g. campaign surveying, due to possible sources of error. The area, located west of the Çanakkale, has been studied to identify the landslide susceptibility and geology. Çanakkale, NW Turkey, is located on the territory of the Biga Peninsula and the Gallipoli Peninsula. The section of remaining at the west of the line from the Gulf of Edremit to the Gulf of Erdek is called Biga Peninsula, and it covers an area of approximately 10 thousand km². In the Biga Peninsula, the main morphological units are at the western, northern and southern of coastal plains, and on their behind the hills, plateaus and mountainous areas of the inland. But at the middle areas, it is often possible to find the tectonic depressions sandwiched between the masses plateau and mountainous. In general, moving down the slope of a rock, soil or debris can be defined as landslides that are ranks second in terms of caused losses after earthquakes in Turkey. Landslides, harm to urbanization as well as loss of lives and economic losses. Moreover they adversely affects to agricultural, forest areas and the quality of the rivers. For example, the gas pipeline connecting Turkey and Greece, which will provide gas to the Southern Europe passes

  10. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS development. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50–80 km/h mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS were better than 0.15 m (horizontal and 0.25 m (vertical for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal and 0.45 m (vertical for the kinematic test.

  11. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-12-21

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10-20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3-5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50-80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test.

  12. Time Study of Harvesting Equipment Using GPS-Derived Positional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The objectives in this study were to develop and test a data analysis system for calculating machine productivity from GPS-derived positional information alone. A technique was used where positions were `filtered' initially to locate specific events that were independent of what actually traveled the path, then these events were combined using user-specified rules...

  13. Detection test of wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal in underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Ling

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of selecting positioning technology for inspection robot in underground pipeline environment, the wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal testing are carried out in the actual underground pipeline environment. Firstly, the strength variation of the 3G wireless network signal and Wi-Fi wireless signal provided by China Telecom and China Unicom ground base stations are tested, and the attenuation law of these wireless signals along the pipeline is analyzed quantitatively and described. Then, the receiving data of the GPS satellite signal in the pipeline are tested, and the attenuation of GPS satellite signal under underground pipeline is analyzed. The testing results may be reference for other related research which need to consider positioning in pipeline.

  14. A method of undifferenced ambiguity resolution for GPS+GLONASS precise point positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenting; Song, Weiwei; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Yibin

    2016-05-25

    Integer ambiguity resolution is critical for achieving positions of high precision and for shortening the convergence time of precise point positioning (PPP). However, GLONASS adopts the signal processing technology of frequency division multiple access and results in inter-frequency code biases (IFCBs), which are currently difficult to correct. This bias makes the methods proposed for GPS ambiguity fixing unsuitable for GLONASS. To realize undifferenced GLONASS ambiguity fixing, we propose an undifferenced ambiguity resolution method for GPS+GLONASS PPP, which considers the IFCBs estimation. The experimental result demonstrates that the success rate of GLONASS ambiguity fixing can reach 75% through the proposed method. Compared with the ambiguity float solutions, the positioning accuracies of ambiguity-fixed solutions of GLONASS-only PPP are increased by 12.2%, 20.9%, and 10.3%, and that of the GPS+GLONASS PPP by 13.0%, 35.2%, and 14.1% in the North, East and Up directions, respectively.

  15. Travel patterns during pregnancy: comparison between Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and questionnaire data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Jaimes, Guillermo; Bartell, Scott; Dang, Andy; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph J

    2013-10-09

    Maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants are strongly influenced by time spent near traffic. However, little is known about women's travel activities during pregnancy and whether questionnaire-based data can provide reliable information on travel patterns during pregnancy. Examine women's in-vehicle travel behavior during pregnancy and examine the difference in travel data collected by questionnaire and global positioning system (GPS) and their potential for exposure error. We measured work-related travel patterns in 56 pregnant women using a questionnaire and one-week GPS tracking three times during pregnancy (30 weeks of gestation). We compared self-reported activities with GPS-derived trip distance and duration, and examined potentially influential factors that may contribute to differences. We also described in-vehicle travel behavior by pregnancy periods and influences of demographic and personal factors on daily travel times. Finally, we estimated personal exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH) and examined the magnitude of exposure misclassification using self-reported vs. GPS travel data. Subjects overestimated both trip duration and trip distance compared to the GPS data. We observed moderately high correlations between self-reported and GPS-recorded travel distance (home to work trips: r = 0.88; work to home trips: r = 0.80). Better agreement was observed between the GPS and the self-reported travel time for home to work trips (r = 0.77) than work to home trips (r = 0.64). The subjects on average spent 69 and 93 minutes traveling in vehicles daily based on the GPS and self-reported data, respectively. Longer daily travel time was observed among participants in early pregnancy, and during certain pregnancy periods in women with higher education attainment, higher income, and no children. When comparing

  16. Hurricane Inner-Core Structure as Revealed by GPS Dropwindsondes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leejoice, Robert

    2000-01-01

    New high-resolution information of the vertical thermodynamic and kinematic structure of the hurricane inner-core is now available from aircraft released Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes...

  17. Autonomous Navigation of the SSTI/Lewis Spacecraft Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. C.; Long, A. C.; Lee, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is pursuing the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are being flight qualified in conjunction with GSFC's GPS Attitude Determination Flyer (GADFLY) experiment on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Preflight performance assessments indicate that these algorithms can provide a real-time total position accuracy of better than 10 meters (1 sigma) and velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 meter per second (1 sigma), with selective availability at typical levels. This accuracy is projected to improve to the 2-meter level if corrections to be provided by the GPS Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are included.

  18. Kinematic structure at the early flight position in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodičar, Janez; Coh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our research was to establish the variability of correlation between the length of the jumps and selected multi-item kinematic variables (n=9) in the early flight phase technique of ski jumping. This study was conducted on a sample of elite Slovenian ski jumpers (N=29) who participated in the experiment on a jumping hill in Hinterzarten, Germany (HS95m) on the 20(th) of August, 2008. The highest and most significant correlations (p=0.01) with the length of the ski jump were found in the multi-item variable height of flying, which was also expressed with the highest level of stability of the explained total variance (TV) on the first factor (TV=69.13%). The most important characteristic of the aerodynamic aspect of early flight was the variable angle between the body chord and the horizontal axis with significantly high correlations (pjump. Only two more variables, the angle between the upper body and the horizontal plane (TV=53.69%), and the angle between left ski and left leg (TV=50.13%), had an explained common variance on the first factor greater than 50% of total variance. The results indicated that some kinematic parameters of ski jumping early flight technique were more important for success considering the length of the jump.

  19. Fast interpolation for Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, James R.; Sagovac, Christopher Patrick; Danielson, D. A. (Donald A.); Neta, Beny

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we discuss and compare several methods for polynomial interpolation of Global Positioning Systems ephemeris data. We show that the use of difference tables is more efficient than the method currently in use to construct and evaluate the Lagrange polynomials.

  20. Integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based INS using unscented particle filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rabbou, Mahmoud; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-03-25

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models. However, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is commonly used as the estimation filter, which might lead to solution divergence. This is usually encountered during GPS outages, when low-cost micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. To enhance the navigation system performance, alternatives to the standard EKF should be considered. Particle filtering (PF) is commonly considered as a nonlinear estimation technique to accommodate severe MEMS inertial sensor biases and noise behavior. However, the computation burden of PF limits its use. In this study, an improved version of PF, the unscented particle filter (UPF), is utilized, which combines the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and PF for the integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based inertial systems. The proposed filter is examined and compared with traditional estimation filters, namely EKF, UKF and PF. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw GPS and INS measurement domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combinations of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements are used for PPP. The performance of the UPF is analyzed using a real test scenario in downtown Kingston, Ontario. It is shown that the use of UPF reduces the number of samples needed to produce an accurate solution, in comparison with the traditional PF, which in turn reduces the processing time. In addition, UPF enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 15% during GPS outages, in comparison with EKF. However, all filters produce comparable results when the GPS measurement updates are available.

  1. 77 FR 56254 - 89th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... held March 16, 2012. Review Working Group (WG) Progress and Identify Issues for Resolution. GPS/3nd... Standards for Global Positioning System/Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne Equipment Assignment/Review of Future Work. Other Business. Date and Place of Next Meeting. Adjourn Attendance is open to the...

  2. Fuzzy path tracking and position estimation of autonomous vehicles using differential GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Castaño, Ángel; Heredia Benot, José Guillermo; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an autonomous vehicle position estimation system based on GPS, that uses a fuzzy sensor fusion technique. A fuzzy path tracking algorithm is also proposed. Both systems have been implemented in the ROMEO-4R vehicle developed at the University of Seville.

  3. Multi-Flight-Phase GPS Navigation Filter Applications to Terrestrial Vehicle Navigation and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young W.; Montez, Moises N.

    1994-01-01

    A candidate onboard space navigation filter demonstrated excellent performance (less than 8 meter level RMS semi-major axis accuracy) in performing orbit determination of a low-Earth orbit Explorer satellite using single-frequency real GPS data. This performance is significantly better than predicted by other simulation studies using dual-frequency GPS data. The study results revealed the significance of two new modeling approaches evaluated in the work. One approach introduces a single-frequency ionospheric correction through pseudo-range and phase range averaging implementation. The other approach demonstrates a precise axis-dependent characterization of dynamic sample space uncertainty to compute a more accurate Kalman filter gain. Additionally, this navigation filter demonstrates a flexibility to accommodate both perturbational dynamic and observational biases required for multi-flight phase and inhomogeneous application environments. This paper reviews the potential application of these methods and the filter structure to terrestrial vehicle and positioning applications. Both the single-frequency ionospheric correction method and the axis-dependent state noise modeling approach offer valuable contributions in cost and accuracy improvements for terrestrial GPS receivers. With a modular design approach to either 'plug-in' or 'unplug' various force models, this multi-flight phase navigation filter design structure also provides a versatile GPS navigation software engine for both atmospheric and exo-atmospheric navigation or positioning use, thereby streamlining the flight phase or application-dependent software requirements. Thus, a standardized GPS navigation software engine that can reduce the development and maintenance cost of commercial GPS receivers is now possible.

  4. Precision positioning of SuperKamiokande with GPS for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noumi, H.; Ieiri, M.; Ishii, H.; Katoh, Y.; Minakawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Takasaki, M.; Tanaka, K.H.; Yamanoi, Y.; Kurodai, M.; Kasa, H.; Yoshimura, K.

    1997-01-01

    A positioning of the neutrino detector superkamiokande (SK) was made for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment planned at KEK. For positioning, global positioning system (GPS) was employed. It has been demonstrated that GPS is of practical use for measuring the positions of SK and KEK, being 250 km distance from each other, to a better resolution. The geodetic coordinates at the SK center were obtained to be Lat. 36 25'32.5862'' N., Long. 137 18'37.1241'' E., H. 371.839 m in the global ellipsoidal coordinate system, WGS-84. The obtained coordinates are based on the coordinates given at a triangulation point at the KEK site. The present work will be fed back for constructing the neutrino beam line. (orig.)

  5. Precise Positioning of BDS, BDS/GPS: Implications for Tsunami Early Warning in South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejie Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS has been proved to be a powerful tool for measuring co-seismic ground displacements with an application to seismic source inversion. Whereas most of the tsunamis are triggered by large earthquakes, GPS can contribute to the tsunami early warning system (TEWS by helping to obtain tsunami source parameters in near real-time. Toward the end of 2012, the second phase of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS constellation was accomplished, and BDS has been providing regional positioning service since then. Numerical results indicate that precision of BDS nowadays is equivalent to that of the GPS. Compared with a single Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS, combined BDS/GPS real-time processing can improve accuracy and especially reliability of retrieved co-seismic displacements. In the present study, we investigate the potential of BDS to serve for the early warning system of tsunamis in the South China Sea region. To facilitate early warnings of tsunamis and forecasting capabilities in this region, we propose to distribute an array of BDS-stations along the Luzon Island (Philippines. By simulating an earthquake with Mw = 8 at the Manila trench as an example, we demonstrate that such an array will be able to detect earthquake parameters in real time with a high degree of accuracy and, hence, contribute to the fast and reliable tsunami early warning system in this region.

  6. Enhancing the accuracy of GPS point positioning by converting the single frequency data to dual frequency data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS has been used to support a wide variety of applications, such as high-accuracy positioning and navigation. Differential GPS techniques can largely eliminate common-mode errors between the reference and the rover GPS stations resulting from ionospheric and tropospheric refraction and delays, satellite and receiver clock biases, and orbital errors [1]. The ionospheric delay in the propagation of global positioning system (GPS signals is one of the main sources of error in GPS precise positioning and navigation. A dual-frequency GPS receiver can eliminate (to the first order the ionospheric delay through a linear combination of the L1 and L2 observations [2]. The most significant effect of ionospheric delay appear in case of using single frequency data. In this paper the single frequency data of concerned station are converted to dual frequency data by employing dual frequency data from 11 regional GPS stations distributed around it. Total electron content (TEC was calculated at every GPS station to produce the mathematical model of TEC which is a function of latitude (Φ and longitude (λ. By using this mathematical model the values of TEC and L2 can be predicted at the single frequency GPS station for each satellite, after that the comparison between predicted and observation values of TEC and L2 was performed. The estimation method and test results of the proposed method indicates that the difference between predicted and observation values is very small.

  7. Comparison of Models for GPS Kinematic Data Processing%GPS动态定位数据处理模型的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立龙; 文鸿雁; 刘斌

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of three GPS kinematic data processing models, Least Squares (LS), Kalman filtering and H ∞ filtering are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. With observational data and pertinent data processing software, the applicable condition, context and effect of the three models are experimented. Results show that when the mobile platform is in uniform motion, the accuracy of the three models are almost equal; when the mobile platform is in stochastic acceleration, the accuracy of H∞ filtering model is superior to that of LS, while that of Kalman filtering is the worst.

  8. Geometrically constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning: Implementation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Jamal; Mohammadloo, Tannaz H.; Amiri-Simkooei, Ali Reza

    2015-09-01

    GNSS kinematic techniques are capable of providing precise coordinates in extremely short observation time-span. These methods usually determine the coordinates of an unknown station with respect to a reference one. To enhance the precision, accuracy, reliability and integrity of the estimated unknown parameters, GNSS kinematic equations are to be augmented by possible constraints. Such constraints could be derived from the geometric relation of the receiver positions in motion. This contribution presents the formulation of the constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning. Constraints effectively restrict the definition domain of the unknown parameters from the three-dimensional space to a subspace defined by the equation of motion. To test the concept of the constrained kinematic positioning method, the equation of a circle is employed as a constraint. A device capable of moving on a circle was made and the observations from 11 positions on the circle were analyzed. Relative positioning was conducted by considering the center of the circle as the reference station. The equation of the receiver's motion was rewritten in the ECEF coordinates system. A special attention is drawn onto how a constraint is applied to kinematic positioning. Implementing the constraint in the positioning process provides much more precise results compared to the unconstrained case. This has been verified based on the results obtained from the covariance matrix of the estimated parameters and the empirical results using kinematic positioning samples as well. The theoretical standard deviations of the horizontal components are reduced by a factor ranging from 1.24 to 2.64. The improvement on the empirical standard deviation of the horizontal components ranges from 1.08 to 2.2.

  9. Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the

  10. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  11. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  12. Analysis of web-based online services for GPS relative and precise point positioning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ocalan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS has been used effectively in several engineering applications for the survey purposes by multiple disciplines. Web-based online services developed by several organizations; which are user friendly, unlimited and most of them are free; have become a significant alternative against the high-cost scientific and commercial software on achievement of post processing and analyzing the GPS data. When centimeter (cm or decimeter (dm level accuracies are desired, that can be obtained easily regarding different quality engineering applications through these services. In this paper, a test study was conducted at ISKI-CORS network; Istanbul-Turkey in order to figure out the accuracy analysis of the most used web based online services around the world (namely OPUS, AUSPOS, SCOUT, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, APPS, magicGNSS. These services use relative and precise point positioning (PPP solution approaches. In this test study, the coordinates of eight stations were estimated by using of both online services and Bernese 5.0 scientific GPS processing software from 24-hour GPS data set and then the coordinate differences between the online services and Bernese processing software were computed. From the evaluations, it was seen that the results for each individual differences were less than 10 mm regarding relative online service, and less than 20 mm regarding precise point positioning service. The accuracy analysis was gathered from these coordinate differences and standard deviations of the obtained coordinates from different techniques and then online services were compared to each other. The results show that the position accuracies obtained by associated online services provide high accurate solutions that may be used in many engineering applications and geodetic analysis.

  13. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or

  14. Automated time activity classification based on global positioning system (GPS) tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Houston, Douglas; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph

    2011-11-14

    Air pollution epidemiological studies are increasingly using global positioning system (GPS) to collect time-location data because they offer continuous tracking, high temporal resolution, and minimum reporting burden for participants. However, substantial uncertainties in the processing and classifying of raw GPS data create challenges for reliably characterizing time activity patterns. We developed and evaluated models to classify people's major time activity patterns from continuous GPS tracking data. We developed and evaluated two automated models to classify major time activity patterns (i.e., indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking, and in-vehicle travel) based on GPS time activity data collected under free living conditions for 47 participants (N = 131 person-days) from the Harbor Communities Time Location Study (HCTLS) in 2008 and supplemental GPS data collected from three UC-Irvine research staff (N = 21 person-days) in 2010. Time activity patterns used for model development were manually classified by research staff using information from participant GPS recordings, activity logs, and follow-up interviews. We evaluated two models: (a) a rule-based model that developed user-defined rules based on time, speed, and spatial location, and (b) a random forest decision tree model. Indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking and in-vehicle travel activities accounted for 82.7%, 6.1%, 3.2% and 7.2% of manually-classified time activities in the HCTLS dataset, respectively. The rule-based model classified indoor and in-vehicle travel periods reasonably well (Indoor: sensitivity > 91%, specificity > 80%, and precision > 96%; in-vehicle travel: sensitivity > 71%, specificity > 99%, and precision > 88%), but the performance was moderate for outdoor static and outdoor walking predictions. No striking differences in performance were observed between the rule-based and the random forest models. The random forest model was fast and easy to execute, but was likely less robust

  15. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  16. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  17. Scattering forms and the positive geometry of kinematics, color and the worldsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; He, Song; Yan, Gongwang

    2018-05-01

    The search for a theory of the S-Matrix over the past five decades has revealed surprising geometric structures underlying scattering amplitudes ranging from the string worldsheet to the amplituhedron, but these are all geometries in auxiliary spaces as opposed to the kinematical space where amplitudes actually live. Motivated by recent advances providing a reformulation of the amplituhedron and planar N = 4 SYM amplitudes directly in kinematic space, we propose a novel geometric understanding of amplitudes in more general theories. The key idea is to think of amplitudes not as functions, but rather as differential forms on kinematic space. We explore the resulting picture for a wide range of massless theories in general spacetime dimensions. For the bi-adjoint ϕ 3 scalar theory, we establish a direct connection between its "scattering form" and a classic polytope — the associahedron — known to mathematicians since the 1960's. We find an associahedron living naturally in kinematic space, and the tree level amplitude is simply the "canonical form" associated with this "positive geometry". Fundamental physical properties such as locality and unitarity, as well as novel "soft" limits, are fully determined by the combinatorial geometry of this polytope. Furthermore, the moduli space for the open string worldsheet has also long been recognized as an associahedron. We show that the scattering equations act as a diffeomorphism between the interior of this old "worldsheet associahedron" and the new "kinematic associahedron", providing a geometric interpretation and simple conceptual derivation of the bi-adjoint CHY formula. We also find "scattering forms" on kinematic space for Yang-Mills theory and the Non-linear Sigma Model, which are dual to the fully color-dressed amplitudes despite having no explicit color factors. This is possible due to a remarkable fact—"Color is Kinematics"— whereby kinematic wedge products in the scattering forms satisfy the same Jacobi

  18. Application of robot kinematics methods to the simulation and control of neutron beam line positioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Jonathan A. [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.a.j.james@open.ac.uk; Edwards, Lyndon [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-11

    Neutron stress measurements require specimens of complex geometry to be speedily and accurately positioned and oriented with respect to the neutron beam. Recognition that a majority of the specimen positioning systems in use at strain scanning facilities are effectively serial robot manipulators, suggests that the methods of serial robot kinematic modelling may be applied to advantage. The adoption of robotics methods provides a simple and reliable framework for controlling positioning systems of arbitrary geometry and complexity. In addition the numerical solution of the inverse kinematic problem is facilitated, allowing specimens to be automatically positioned and orientated so that pre-determined strain components are measured. It is also shown that, given sufficient degrees of freedom, a secondary characteristic of the measurement position such as the measurement count time may be simultaneously optimised.

  19. Bds/gps Integrated Positioning Method Research Based on Nonlinear Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Yuan, W.; Sun, H.

    2017-09-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate BDS/GPS integrated positioning, it is necessary to overcome the adverse effects of signal attenuation, multipath effect and echo interference to ensure the result of continuous and accurate navigation and positioning. In this paper, pseudo-range positioning is used as the mathematical model. In the stage of data preprocessing, using precise and smooth carrier phase measurement value to promote the rough pseudo-range measurement value without ambiguity. At last, the Extended Kalman Filter(EKF), the Unscented Kalman Filter(UKF) and the Particle Filter(PF) algorithm are applied in the integrated positioning method for higher positioning accuracy. The experimental results show that the positioning accuracy of PF is the highest, and UKF is better than EKF.

  20. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

  1. Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) web service to support Area Navigation (RNAV) flight planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-28

    The Volpe Center designed, implemented, and deployed a Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) prediction system in the mid 1990s to support both Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) use of TSO C...

  2. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  3. Application of TaiWan Ionosphere Model to Single-Frequency Ionospheric Delay Correction for GPS Static Position Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E. P.; Tsai, L.; Wu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric delay is one of the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges can vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. This effect can be practically removed using dual-frequency receivers. However, these types of receivers are very expensive and thus, impractical for most users. Therefore, for single-frequency receivers, ionosphere is usually modeled to attempt to remove this effect analytically. Numerous ionosphere models have been introduced in the past. Some of which are the Klobuchar (or broadcast) model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, another model, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model (TWIM) was used to correct this effect. TWIM is a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, was used to calculate ionospheric delay for GPS single-frequency positioning. The ne profiles were used to calculate the slant TEC (STEC) between a receiver and each GPS satellite and correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to calculate the position of the receiver. Observations were made in a low-latitude location near one of the peaks of the equatorial anomaly. It was shown that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models. That is, on the average, the horizontal accuracy, represented by the circular error probable (CEP), distance RMS (DRMS) and twice the DRMS (2DRMS), were better by 15-18% as compared with the CEP, DRMS and 2DRMS of uncorrected, Klobuchar and GIM. Moreover

  4. Global Application of TaiWan Ionospheric Model to Single-Frequency GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E.; Tsai, L. C.; Wu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ionospheric delay is one the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. For single-frequency receivers, this delay is usually removed using ionospheric models. Two of them are the Klobuchar, or broadcast, model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model, is used. It was used to calculate the slant total electron content (STEC) between receiver and GPS satellites to correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to determine a more accurate position of the receiver. Observations were made in July 2, 2011(Kp index = 0-2) in five randomly selected sites across the globe, four of which are IGS stations (station ID: cnmr, coso, irkj and morp) while the other is a low-cost single-frequency receiver located in Chungli City, Taiwan (ID: isls). It was illustrated that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited a detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for single-frequency static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models for all stations. The average %error of the corrections made by Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM in DRMS are 3.88%, 0.78% and 17.45%, respectively. While the average %error in VRMS for Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM are 53.55%, 62.09%, 66.02%, respectively. This shows the capability of TWIM to provide a good global 3-dimensional ionospheric model.

  5. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  6. GPS, BDS and Galileo ionospheric correction models: An evaluation in range delay and position domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Huo, Xingliang

    2018-05-01

    The performance of GPS Klobuchar (GPSKlob), BDS Klobuchar (BDSKlob) and NeQuick Galileo (NeQuickG) ionospheric correction models are evaluated in the range delay and position domains over China. The post-processed Klobuchar-style (CODKlob) coefficients provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and our own fitted NeQuick coefficients (NeQuickC) are also included for comparison. In the range delay domain, BDS total electrons contents (TEC) derived from 20 international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) stations and GPS TEC obtained from 35 Crust Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC) stations are used as references. Compared to BDS TEC during the short period (doy 010-020, 2015), GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG can correct 58.4, 66.7 and 54.7% of the ionospheric delay. Compared to GPS TEC for the long period (doy 001-180, 2015), the three ionospheric models can mitigate the ionospheric delay by 64.8, 65.4 and 68.1%, respectively. For the two comparison cases, CODKlob shows the worst performance, which only reduces 57.9% of the ionospheric range errors. NeQuickC exhibits the best performance, which outperforms GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG by 6.7, 2.1 and 6.9%, respectively. In the position domain, single-frequency stand point positioning (SPP) was conducted at the selected 35 CMONC sites using GPS C/A pseudorange with and without ionospheric corrections. The vertical position error of the uncorrected case drops significantly from 10.3 m to 4.8, 4.6, 4.4 and 4.2 m for GPSKlob, CODKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG, however, the horizontal position error (3.2) merely decreases to 3.1, 2.7, 2.4 and 2.3 m, respectively. NeQuickG outperforms GPSKlob and BDSKlob by 5.8 and 1.9% in vertical component, and by 25.0 and 3.2% in horizontal component.

  7. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  8. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  9. Design and Implementation of Browser based GPS/GPRS Vehicle Positioning and Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly describes a vehicle positioning and tracking system which is based on browser, GPS and GPRS. And this system takes advantage of Baidu Map as basic material to show vehicle status, which enables drivers and supervisor to monitor the vehicle’s current and past positions. The vehicle’s location data is got from satellites, and these data is sent to the central server through GPRS, the central server will store formatted data into the database after the data is parsed; Later, these data stored in the database will be used by web application and displayed on the map as markers. This paper also involves the implementation on mobile side, and this system used Baidu map JavaScript interface, Ajax, JSP and JSON to implement the vehicle positioning and tracking system.

  10. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  11. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  12. A pilot study using global positioning systems (GPS) devices and surveys to ascertain older adults' travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy W; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Kayekjian, Karen C; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-04-01

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Assessing the Performance of GPS Precise Point Positioning Under Different Geomagnetic Storm Conditions during Solar Cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic storm, which is an abnormal space weather phenomenon, can sometimes severely affect GPS signal propagation, thereby impacting the performance of GPS precise point positioning (PPP. However, the investigation of GPS PPP accuracy over the global scale under different geomagnetic storm conditions is very limited. This paper for the first time presents the performance of GPS dual-frequency (DF and single-frequency (SF PPP under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions during solar cycle 24 using a large data set collected from about 500 international GNSS services (IGS stations. The global root mean square (RMS maps of GPS PPP results show that stations with degraded performance are mainly distributed at high-latitude, and the degradation level generally depends on the storm intensity. The three-dimensional (3D RMS of GPS DF PPP for high-latitude during moderate, intense, and super storms are 0.393 m, 0.680 m and 1.051 m, respectively, with respect to only 0.163 m on quiet day. RMS errors of mid- and low-latitudes show less dependence on the storm intensities, with values less than 0.320 m, compared to 0.153 m on quiet day. Compared with DF PPP, the performance of GPS SF PPP is inferior regardless of quiet or disturbed conditions. The degraded performance of GPS positioning during geomagnetic storms is attributed to the increased ionospheric disturbances, which have been confirmed by our global rate of TEC index (ROTI maps. Ionospheric disturbances not only lead to the deteriorated ionospheric correction but also to the frequent cycle-slip occurrence. Statistical results show that, compared with that on quiet day, the increased cycle-slip occurrence are 13.04%, 56.52%, and 69.57% under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions, respectively.

  14. Evaluation on the performance of single and dual frequency low cost GPS module observation using geodetic antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Atunggal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available GPS modules have been used for various applications in recent years. Its early development came in parallel with the advancement of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology. Nowadays, it is also used in in geographic information system (GIS data acquisition/census, mapping surveys, structure stability monitoring systems and many other applications. GPS modules generally have several positioning features, including standard positioning service (SPS, static positioning, precise point positioning (PPP, post processing kinematic (PPK and real time kinematic (RTK GPS. GPS modules in general are only equipped with a microstrip-type antenna or better known as patch antenna. Results from related research show that GPS module with this type of antenna has sub meter accuracy when used for PPK or RTK GPS method. The use of geodetic antennas is very potential to increase GPS position accuracy by up to centimeter level. This paper discusses the evaluation of GPS module measurements with geodetic type antennas for precise positioning using RTK GPS. This paper is focused on the resolution of GPS cycle ambiguity that is often expressed by the term fixing ratio and the accuracy of measurement results obtained. To provide a comprehensive description of the performance of GPS module, in this research two types of GPS module were used; single and dual frequency. Both types of GPS modules were used to conduct simultaneous observation on an open and obstructed observation location.

  15. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the

  16. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Zuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS/Global Positioning System (GPS positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to

  17. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-10

    Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the

  18. High Classification Rates for Continuous Cow Activity Recognition using Low-cost GPS Positioning Sensors and Standard Machine Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    activities. By preprocessing the raw cow position data, we obtain high classification rates using standard machine learning techniques to recognize cow activities. Our objectives were to (i) determine to what degree it is possible to robustly recognize cow activities from GPS positioning data, using low...... and their activities manually logged to serve as ground truth. For our dataset we managed to obtain an average classification success rate of 86.2% of the four activities: eating/seeking (90.0%), walking (100%), lying (76.5%), and standing (75.8%) by optimizing both the preprocessing of the raw GPS data...

  19. Kinematic parameter calibration method for industrial robot manipulator using the relative position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, In Chul

    2008-01-01

    A new calibration method for industrial robot system calibration on a manufacturing floor is presented in this paper. To calibrate the robot system, a laser sensor to measure the distance between robot tool and measurement surface is attached to the robot end-effector and a grid is established in the floor. Given two position command pulses for a robot manipulator and using the position difference between two command pulses, the relative position measurement calibration method will find the real robot kinematic parameters. The procedures developed have been applied to an industrial robot. Finally, the effects of the models used to calibrate the robot are discussed. This calibration method represents an effective, low cost and feasible technique for the industrial robot calibration in lab. projects and industrial environments

  20. 75 FR 28318 - Eighty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ..., GPS/Inertial, Colson Board Room. Wednesday, June 9th All Day, Working Group 2, GPS/WAAS, Hilton-ATA...-NBAA Room & Hilton-ATA Room. Friday, June 11th Plenary Session--See Agenda Below Agenda--Plenary Session--Agenda June 11th, 2010--starting at 9 a.m. MacIntosh-NBAA & Hilton-ATA Rooms Chairman's...

  1. The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005, the L2C signal was introduced to improve the accuracy, tracking and redundancy of the GPS system for civilian users. The L2C signal also provides improved SNR data when compared with the L2P(Y) legacy signal, comparable to that of the L1 C/A-code, which allows for better tracking at lower elevations. With the recent launch of the first block II-F satellite (SVN62/PRN25), there are 8 healthy satellites broadcasting L2C signals, or 25% of the constellation. However, GNSS network operators such as the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) have been hesitant to use the new signal as it is not well determined how tracking and logging L2C could affect the positions derived from L2 carrier phase measurements for a given receiver. The L2C carrier phase is in quadrature (90° out of phase) with the L2P(Y) phase that has been used by high-precision positioning software since the beginning of GPS. To complicate matters further, some receiver manufacturers (e.g. Trimble) correct for this when logging L2C phase while others (e.g. Topcon) do not. The L2C capability of receivers currently in widespread use in permanent networks can depend on firmware as well as hardware; in some cases receivers can simultaneously track L2C and L2P(Y) phases and some can track only one or the other, and the resulting observation files can depend on how individual operators configure the devices. In cases where both L2C and L2P(Y) are logged simultaneously, translation software (such as UNAVCO’s teqc) must be used carefully in order to select which L2 observation is written to RINEX (2.11) and used in positioning. Modifications were recently made to teqc to eliminate potential confusion in that part of the process; if L2C code observations appear in a RINEX (2.11) file produced by teqc, the L2 phase and S2 SNR observations were from the L2C carrier for those satellites. To date L2C analyses have been restricted to special applications such as snow depth and soil moisture using SNR data

  2. Comparison of attitude determination approaches using multiple Global Positioning System (GPS antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available GPS-based attitude system is an important research field, since it is a valuable technique for the attitude determination of platforms. There exist two classes approaches for attitude determination using the GPS. The one determines attitude via baseline estimates in two frames, the other one solves for attitude by incorporating the attitude parameters directly into the GPS measurements. However, comparisons between these two classes approaches have been unexplored. First of all, two algorithms are introduced in detail which on behalf of these two kinds of approaches. Then we present numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of our algorithms and provide a comparison evaluating.

  3. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis Daerah Pariwisata Kabupaten Temanggung Berbasis Android dengan Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pariwisata merupakan aspek yang berharga bagi suatu daerah, dan semakin banyak pengunjung maka dapat memajukan kesejahteraan masyarakat di sekitar obyek pariwisata. Kabupaten Temanggung memiliki banyak obyek pariwisata, penggunaan teknologi informasi seperti menggunakan aplikasi smartphone berbasis Android dapat digunakan untuk membantu wisatawan untuk mengenal daerah pariwisata dan mengetahui rute menuju ke obyek pariwisata yang diinginkan. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG di daerah wisata Temanggung bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi Wisata Temanggung berbasis Android dan menerapkan layanan Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API untuk memudahkan wisatawan dalam memperoleh informasi pemetaan lokasi objek wisata, rute dan fasilitas pendukung wisata yang ada di Kabupaten Temanggung. Metode yang digunakan adalah model proses air terjun (waterfall. Implementasi Aplikasi Wisata Temanggung menggunakan pemrograman Javascript dengan Eclipse Luna, basis data SQLite, serta peta yang bersumber dari Google Maps API. Hasilnya berupa aplikasi Wisata Temanggung berbasis Android yang membantu memudahkan wisatawan dalam memperoleh informasi tentang obyek wisata alam, buatan, budaya, kuliner, hotel dan rute dari lokasi sekarang ke lokasi obyek wisata yang diinginkan di Kabupaten Temanggung dengan bantuan Global Positioning System (GPS.  

  4. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis Daerah Pariwisata Kota Semarang Berbasis Android dengan Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard RF Siahaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pariwisata merupakan aspek yang berharga bagi suatu daerah, dengan adanya daerah wisata maka dapat memajukan kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitar. Kota Semarang memiliki daerah pariwisata yang sangat banyak, apabila sarana dan prasarana yang ada dikembangkan lebih lanjut maka dipastikan peningkatan parwisata di Kota Semarang akan semakin bertambah. Penggunaan Teknologi Informasi dapat memajukan daerah pariwisata, sehingga daerah pariwisata dapat dikenal oleh wisatawan yang ingin berkunjung ke Semarang. Sistem Informasi Geografis yang dibangun menggunakan platform android. Pada Tugas Akhir ini menggunakan Java sebagai bahasa pemorgraman dengan eclipse sebagai perangkat lunak pengembangan. Penggunaan Google Map API sebagai fungsi utama peta dalam menjalankan aplikasi serta PHP sebagai bahasa pemorgaraman sisi server dan MySQL dalam penggunaan basis data. Hasil dari perancangan Aplikasi Sistem Infomasi Geografis Kota Semarang berbasis Android ini nantinya akan memberikan informasi dalam bentuk peta yang dapat digunakan sebagai referensi bagi wisatawan yang berkunjung. Penggunaan Global Positioning System (GPS dalam aplikasi ini menjadi hal yang sangat penting dalam menentukan keberadaan wisatawan. Selain itu terdapat rute untuk menuju objek wisata yang dipilih, dalam aplikasi ini juga tersedia fasilitas-fasilitas umum seperti ATM dan Bank, Bandara, Mesjid, Gereja, Rumah Sakit dan lainnya.

  5. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  6. Military/Civilian Mixed-Mode Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver (MMGR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peczalski, Andy; Kriz, Jeff; Carlson, Stephen G; Sampson, Steven J

    2004-01-01

    ... AND T) MMGR objective of meeting pervasive defense system requirements and civilian needs for ultra-small GPS receiver technology is dependent in part upon the creation of multi- L-band reconfigurable...

  7. Comparing Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Measures of Team Sport Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter

    2018-02-21

    To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.

  8. A design proposal of a certain missile tactical command system based on Beidou satellite communication and GPS positioning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Hao, Yongsheng; Miao, Jian; Zhang, Jianmao

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduced a design proposal of tactical command system that applied to a kind of anti-tank missile carriers. The tactical command system was made up of embedded computer system based on PC104 bus, Linux operating system, digital military map, Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments. The geographic coordinates was measured by the GPS receiver, the positioning data, commands and information were transmitted real-time between tactical command systems, tactical command systems and command center, by the Beidou satellite communication systems. The Beidou satellite communication equipments and GPS positioning equipments were integrated to an independent module, exchanging data with embedded computer through RS232 serial ports and USB ports. The decision support system software based on information fusion, calculates positioning data, geography information and battle field information synthetically, shows the position of allies and the position of enemy on the military map, and assesses the various threats of different enemy objects, educes a situation assessment and threat assessment.

  9. GPS satellite clock determination in case of inter-frequency clock biases for triple-frequency precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Geng, Jianghui

    2017-12-01

    Significant time-varying inter-frequency clock biases (IFCBs) within GPS observations prevent the application of the legacy L1/L2 ionosphere-free clock products on L5 signals. Conventional approaches overcoming this problem are to estimate L1/L5 ionosphere-free clocks in addition to their L1/L2 counterparts or to compute IFCBs between the L1/L2 and L1/L5 clocks which are later modeled through a harmonic analysis. In contrast, we start from the undifferenced uncombined GNSS model and propose an alternative approach where a second satellite clock parameter dedicated to the L5 signals is estimated along with the legacy L1/L2 clock. In this manner, we do not need to rely on the correlated L1/L2 and L1/L5 ionosphere-free observables which complicates triple-frequency GPS stochastic models, or account for the unfavorable time-varying hardware biases in undifferenced GPS functional models since they can be absorbed by the L5 clocks. An extra advantage over the ionosphere-free model is that external ionosphere constraints can potentially be introduced to improve PPP. With 27 days of triple-frequency GPS data from globally distributed stations, we find that the RMS of the positioning differences between our GPS model and all conventional models is below 1 mm for all east, north and up components, demonstrating the effectiveness of our model in addressing triple-frequency observations and time-varying IFCBs. Moreover, we can combine the L1/L2 and L5 clocks derived from our model to calculate precisely the L1/L5 clocks which in practice only depart from their legacy counterparts by less than 0.006 ns in RMS. Our triple-frequency GPS model proves convenient and efficient in combating time-varying IFCBs and can be generalized to more than three frequency signals for satellite clock determination.

  10. EPPUR SI MUOVE: POSITIONAL AND KINEMATIC CORRELATIONS OF SATELLITE PAIRS IN THE LOW Z UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Martin, Nicolas; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution

  11. EPPUR SI MUOVE: POSITIONAL AND KINEMATIC CORRELATIONS OF SATELLITE PAIRS IN THE LOW Z UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Martin, Nicolas [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ibata, Neil G., E-mail: rodrigo.ibata@astro.unistra.fr [Trinity College, Trinity Street, Cambridge, CB2 1TQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-20

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  12. Mesoscale kinematics derived from X-band Doppler radar observations of convective versus stratiform precipitation and comparison with GPS radiosonde profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin M.; Dhangar, N.; Das, S. K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Chakravarty, K.; Sonbawne, S.; Konwar, M.

    2015-11-01

    Single Doppler analysis techniques known as velocity azimuth display (VAD) and volume velocity processing (VVP) are used to analyze kinematics of mesoscale flow such as horizontal wind and divergence using X-band Doppler weather radar observations, for selected cases of convective, stratiform, and shallow cloud systems near tropical Indian sites Pune (18.58°N, 73.92°E, above sea level (asl) 560 m) and Mandhardev (18.51°N, 73.85°E, asl 1297 m). The vertical profiles of horizontal wind estimated from radar VVP/VAD methods agree well with GPS radiosonde profiles, with the low-level jet at about 1.5 km during monsoon season well depicted in both. The vertical structure and temporal variability of divergence and reflectivity profiles are indicative of the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of shallow convective, deep convective, and stratiform cloud systems. In shallow convective systems, vertical development of reflectivity profiles is limited below 5 km. In deep convective systems, reflectivity values as large as 55 dBZ were observed above freezing level. The stratiform system shows the presence of a reflectivity bright band (~35 dBZ) near the melting level. The diagnosed vertical profiles of divergence in convective and stratiform systems are distinct. In shallow convective conditions, convergence was seen below 4 km with divergence above. Low-level convergence and upper level divergence are observed in deep convective profiles, while stratiform precipitation has midlevel convergence present between lower level and upper level divergence. The divergence profiles in stratiform precipitation exhibit intense shallow layers of "melting convergence" at 0°C level, near 4.5 km altitude, with a steep gradient on the both sides of the peak. The level of nondivergence in stratiform situations is lower than that in convective situations. These observed vertical structures of divergence are largely indicative of latent heating profiles in the atmosphere, an

  13. Evaluating the performance of a low-cost GPS in precision agriculture applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Simonsen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Field Robots are often equipped with a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS to obtain precise positioning. In many precision agriculture applications, however, the robot operates in semi-structured environments like orchards and row crops, where local sensors such as computer vision and laser range...... scanners can produce accurate positioning relative to the crops. GPS is then primarily needed for robust inter-row navigation. This work evaluates a new low-cost GPS. Static tests were used to test the absolute accuracy. To test the GPS in a precision agriculture environment it was installed on a robot...

  14. Occupant Kinematics in Simulated Autonomous Driving Vehicle Collisions: Influence of Seating Position, Direction and Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki

    2017-11-01

    This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.

  15. Evaluation of a regional real-time precise positioning system based on GPS/BeiDou observations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenwu; Tan, Bingfeng; Chen, Yongchang; Teferle, Felix Norman; Yuan, Yunbin

    2018-02-01

    The performance of real-time (RT) precise positioning can be improved by utilizing observations from multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) instead of one particular system. Since the end of 2012, BeiDou, independently established by China, began to provide operational services for users in the Asia-Pacific regions. In this study, a regional RT precise positioning system is developed to evaluate the performance of GPS/BeiDou observations in Australia in providing high precision positioning services for users. Fixing three hourly updated satellite orbits, RT correction messages are generated and broadcasted by processing RT observation/navigation data streams from the national network of GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations in Australia (AUSCORS) at the server side. At the user side, RT PPP is realized by processing RT data streams and the RT correction messages received. RT clock offsets, for which the accuracy reached 0.07 and 0.28 ns for GPS and BeiDou, respectively, can be determined. Based on these corrections, an accuracy of 12.2, 30.0 and 45.6 cm in the North, East and Up directions was achieved for the BeiDou-only solution after 30 min while the GPS-only solution reached 5.1, 15.3 and 15.5 cm for the same components at the same time. A further improvement of 43.7, 36.9 and 45.0 percent in the three directions, respectively, was achieved for the combined GPS/BeiDou solution. After the initialization process, the North, East and Up positioning accuracies were 5.2, 8.1 and 17.8 cm, respectively, for the BeiDou-only solution, while 1.5, 3.0, and 4.7 cm for the GPS-only solution. However, we only noticed a 20.9% improvement in the East direction was obtained for the GPS/BeiDou solution, while no improvements in the other directions were detected. It is expected that such improvements may become bigger with the increasing accuracy of the BeiDou-only solution.

  16. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  17. The State of GPS Vertical Positioning Precision : Separation of Earth Processes by Space Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Observed signals in GPS data are the sum of noise and real crustal motions. Interpretation of the data depends on our ability to extract a signal of interest from the total signal. This workshop will highlight the difficulties associated with extracting a signal such as post-glacial rebound, plate tectonics or loading, from vertical geodetic data.

  18. 75 FR 61818 - Eighty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ..., Working Group 2C, GPS/Inertial, MacIntosh-NBAA Room and Hilton-ATA Room. Tuesday, October 26 All Day... and Hilton-ATA Room. Thursday, October 28 (Proposed) 9--Noon, Joint Working Groups 2 & 4, Discussion--Nav and ADS-B Out Equipment Requirements, MacIntosh-NBAA Room and Hilton-ATA Room. (Otherwise WG-4...

  19. Backstroke start kinematic and kinetic changes due to different feet positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pereira, Suzana Matheus; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The backstroke swimming start international rules changed in 2005. This study compared two backstroke start variants, both with feet parallel to each other but in complete immersion and emersion. Six elite swimmers performed two sets of 4 maximal 15 m bouts, each set using one of the variants. The starts were videotaped in the sagittal plane with two cameras, providing bi-dimensional dual-media kinematic evaluation, and an underwater force plate and a handgrip instrumented with a load cell collected kinetic data. Backstroke start with feet immerged displayed greater centre-of-mass horizontal starting position, centre-of-mass horizontal velocity at hands-off and take-off angle. Backstroke start with feet emerged showed greater wall contact time, centre-of-mass horizontal and downward vertical velocity at take-off, lower limbs horizontal impulse, and centre-of-mass downward vertical velocity during flight phase. Backstroke start with feet immerged and emerged displayed similar centre-of-mass horizontal water reach, back arc angle and 5 m starting time. Irrespective of the swimmer's feet positioning, coaches should emphasise each variant's mechanical advantages during the wall contact phases. Furthermore, the maintenance of those advantages throughout the flight should be stressed for better backstroke start performance.

  20. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  1. MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

  2. A fast and robust kinematic model for a 12 DoF hyper-redundant robot positioning: An optimization proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José; Pereira, Ana I.; Costa, Paulo; Pinto, Andry; Costa, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes an optimization procedure for a robot with 12 degrees of freedom avoiding the inverse kinematics problem, which is a hard task for this type of robot manipulator. This robot can be used to pick and place tasks in complex designs. Combining an accurate and fast direct kinematics model with optimization strategies, it is possible to achieve the joints angles for a desired end-effector position and orientation. The optimization methods stretched simulated annealing algorithm and genetic algorithm were used. The solutions found were validated using data originated by a real and by a simulated robot formed by 12 servomotors with a gripper.

  3. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly Atit Shah; S.S. Rattan; B.C. Nakra

    2013-01-01

    Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to m...

  4. Pengembangan Sistem Navigasi Otomatis Pada UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle dengan GPS(Global Positioning System Waypoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV adalah salah satu wahana tanpa awak di udara yang mana dapat terbang tanpa pilot, menggunakan gaya aerodinamik untuk menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift, dapat terbang secara autonomous atau dioperasikan dengan radio kontrol. UAV digunakan untuk berbagai keperluan baik di lingkup militer maupun sipil. Pada tugas akhir ini dirancang dan direalisasikan pengembangan sistem navigasi otomatis pada UAV dengan GPS waypoint. Sistem ini menggunakan kontrol manual dan autopilot. Pada mode manual, pengguna secara manual mengendalikan pergerakan pesawat melalui radio kontroler sedangkan pada mode autopilot pesawat dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroler Arduino Mega 2560 yang mengolah data-data sensor IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit yang didalamnya terdapat gyroscope dan accelerometer, GPS dan barometric altimeter sehingga dapat terbang secara otomatis dengan sesuai waypoint GPS yang dimasukkan. Mikrokontroler menerima dan menolah data dari sensor dan menghasilkan keluaran untuk menggerakkan servo aktuator. Pengolahan data dari sensor menggunakan kontrol PID (Proportional Integral Derivative. Pesawat akan terkoneksi dengan ground station melalui perangkat telemetri untuk mengirimkan data penerbangan ke darat. Sistem navigasi ini diharapkan dapat secara tepat mengarahkan pesawat menuju satu titik atau lebih dengan toleransi kesalahan ≤ 30 meter pada ketinggian 30-100 meter. Selain itu pesawat diharapkan dapat terbang dengan radius ± 2 km dari ground station. Hasil dari pengujian dapat dilaksanakan kontrol manual dan otomatis pada UAV melalui 5 channel (aileron, elevator, throttle, rudder dan saklar. Distorsi pada kontrol manual diminimalisir dengan memperbesar faktor pembagi sinyal PWM sebesar 50μs-100μs. Kontrol otomatis dapat menstabilkan sikap pesawat di udara (sudut roll 45° dan sudut pitch 30° Setting Kp 1,2 dan Ki 0,01, setting Kp navigasi GPS 0,2 Ki 0,01 dan Kd 4 dengan sudut roll maksimal 15°.

  5. Conceptual Approach for Precise Relative Positioning with Miniaturized GPS Loggers and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    readily met by standard single frequency GPS receiver modules as used in car navigation systems or latest generation cell phones. However...different strategies can now be applied as shown in Figure 5. btbξ SPP bξδ iξ itbiβ (a) Over-all solution btbξ SPP bξδ iξ it nn ,1−β 1− nt1 −nξ nξ nt (b... cells . The mass of the complete logging unit did not exceed 100 g. Some receivers additionally featured 3 axis MEMS accelerometers. Mounting on the

  6. A Self-Tuning Kalman Filter for Autonomous Navigation using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Most navigation systems currently operated by NASA are ground-based, and require extensive support to produce accurate results. Recently developed systems that use Kalman filter and GPS data for orbit determination greatly reduce dependency on ground support, and have potential to provide significant economies for NASA spacecraft navigation. These systems, however, still rely on manual tuning from analysts. A sophisticated neuro-fuzzy component fully integrated with the flight navigation system can perform the self-tuning capability for the Kalman filter and help the navigation system recover from estimation errors in real time.

  7. Determination of dopant atomic positions with kinematical X-ray standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, Bente

    2011-11-01

    Recent advances in the kinematic X-ray standing wave technique (KXSW) for the determination of the atomic coordinates and displacement parameters in nonperfect crystalline materials are described in this thesis. The methodology has been improved by considering three significant aspects: - the inclusion of weak multiple beam contributions - the excitation of secondary fluorescence in multiple-element samples - the influence of the crystal mosaicity on the fluorescence yield. The improvements allowed to successfully apply the method to investigate complex oxide materials of current interest for potential device applications. The thermally-induced interdiffusion of cobalt and manganese thin films on zinc oxide single crystals has been studied to determine which lattice sites are occupied preferentially. The data analysis revealed that after thermal diffusion the adsorbed atoms occupied zinc sites in the host lattice. The mean deviation of the cobalt atomic position from the zinc lattice site was comparable to the thermal displacement parameter of the zinc atoms. In the case of manganese a secondary phase was found on the surface. Measurements performed on LaSrMnO 4 provided new insight concerning the rotation of the oxygen octahedron around the manganese atoms and the concomitant displacements of the strontium and lanthanum atoms. It was found that the oxygen octahedra are rotated around the [100]-direction by 4,5 . The measurements in transmission geometry performed on titanium dioxide (rutile) demonstrated that KXSW measurements in the Laue geometry is a viable technique. By performing KXSW under grazing-incidence conditions it is possible to achieve depth resolution. The results clearly show that the extended KXSW technique is a versatile method for characterizing complex material systems. (orig.)

  8. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-02-09

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  9. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  10. Singularity kinematics principle and position-singularity analyses of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Zhou, Hui; Li, Baokun; Shen, Long

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new principle and method of kinematics to analyze the singularity of Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators and addresses the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations. Based on the kinematic relationship of a rigid body, a necessary and sufficient condition that three velocities of three non-collinear points in a moving rigid body can determine a screw motion is addressed and some typical singular configurations of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators are also addressed in detail. With the above-mentioned condition, a symbolic analytical polynomial expression of degree three in the moving platform position parameters, representing the position-singularity locus of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations, is derived: and the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulator for these special orientations is investigated at length. It is shown that position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulator for these special orientations will be a plane and a hyperbolic paraboloid, even three intersecting planes

  11. Impact of habitat-specific GPS positional error on detection of movement scales by first-passage time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Advances in animal tracking technologies have reduced but not eliminated positional error. While aware of such inherent error, scientists often proceed with analyses that assume exact locations. The results of such analyses then represent one realization in a distribution of possible outcomes. Evaluating results within the context of that distribution can strengthen or weaken our confidence in conclusions drawn from the analysis in question. We evaluated the habitat-specific positional error of stationary GPS collars placed under a range of vegetation conditions that produced a gradient of canopy cover. We explored how variation of positional error in different vegetation cover types affects a researcher's ability to discern scales of movement in analyses of first-passage time for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. We placed 11 GPS collars in 4 different vegetative canopy cover types classified as the proportion of cover above the collar (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. We simulated the effect of positional error on individual movement paths using cover-specific error distributions at each location. The different cover classes did not introduce any directional bias in positional observations (1 m≤mean≤6.51 m, 0.24≤p≤0.47, but the standard deviation of positional error of fixes increased significantly with increasing canopy cover class for the 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% classes (SD = 2.18 m, 3.07 m, and 4.61 m, respectively and then leveled off in the 76-100% cover class (SD = 4.43 m. We then added cover-specific positional errors to individual deer movement paths and conducted first-passage time analyses on the noisy and original paths. First-passage time analyses were robust to habitat-specific error in a forest-agriculture landscape. For deer in a fragmented forest-agriculture environment, and species that move across similar geographic extents, we suggest that first-passage time analysis is robust with regard to

  12. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  13. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin

    2010-01-01

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  14. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p < 0.001, HSR% (absolute = 5.15 ± 3.18, individualised = 7.06 ± 2.48, p < 0.001 and HSR efforts (HSRE (absolute = 18.81 ± 12.25; individualised = 24.78 ± 8.30, p < 0.001. In contrast, there was a significant overestimation of the same HSR metrics for backs with the use of an absolute threshold (HSRD absolute = 697.79 ± 198.11, individualised = 570.02 ± 171.14, p < 0.001; HSR% absolute = 10.85 ± 2.82, individualised = 8.95 ± 2.76, p < 0.001; HSRE absolute = 41.55 ± 11.25; individualised = 34.54 ± 9.24, p < 0.001. This under- or overestimation associated with an absolute speed zone applies to varying degrees across the ten positional sub-categories analyzed and also to individuals within the same positional sub-category. The results of the present study indicated that although use of an individulised HSR threshold improves the interpretation of the HSR demands on a positional basis, inter

  15. The Global Positioning System--Direction for the Future [and] GPS Technology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Paul R.; Ginsburg, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Edmondson introduces a satellite-based radio navigation, positioning, and timing system that can be integrated into a variety of curriculum areas. Ginsburg describes how the global positioning system brings far-reaching benefits for crop growers and the environment. (Author)

  16. Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level.

  17. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-12-22

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  18. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  19. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  20. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  1. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  2. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of mobile harvesting equipment and sediment delivery to streams during forest harvest operations on steep terrain: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff Stringer; Chris Barton; Songlin Fei

    2011-01-01

    Sediment mobilized by forest harvest machine traffic contributes substantially to the degradation of headwater stream systems. This study monitored forest harvest machine traffic to analyze how it affects sediment delivery to stream channels. Harvest machines were outfitted with global positioning system (GPS) dataloggers, recording machine movements and working status...

  3. Exatidão de posicionamento de um receptor GPS, operando sob diferentes coberturas vegetais Evaluation of the accuracy of positioning a GPS receiver operating under different vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Angulo Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico do receptor GPS Trimble/Pro-XL, operando sob diferentes condições de cobertura vegetal (pastagem, seringueira, eucalipto e pinus, o equipamento foi posicionado alternadamente sobre 6 pontos, locados ao acaso nas áreas de estudo, variando o tempo de permanência (1 , 5 e 10 min mas com a mesma taxa de aquisição de dados (1 s fazendo-se, posteriormente, a correção diferencial (DGPS pós-processada dos dados. Os pontos também tiveram suas coordenadas levantadas pelo método topográfico, segundo a NBR 13133 - Execução de Levantamento Topográfico, para fins de comparação. De acordo com o método empregado e os resultados obtidos, foi possível separar as exatidões de posicionamento planimétrico, conforme o tipo de cobertura vegetal, em dois grupos: sem e com cobertura arbórea confirmando, assim, a interferência do dossel na recepção dos sinais emitidos pelos satélites GPS. O aumento do tempo de permanência melhorou a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico, o que ratifica a escolha da metodologia de levantamento como sendo fundamental para a obtenção de bons resultados de posicionamento.To evaluate planimetric positioning accuracy of a GPS receiver (Trimble/Pro-XL, operating under different conditions of vegetation cover (pasture, rubber trees, eucalyptus and pine trees, 6 control points were located randomly in the study area. For comparison, their coordinates were first obtained by a conventional surveying method, according to NBR 13133 of Brazilian Surveying Standards. Afterwards, the GPS receiver was positioned on those control points, maintaining the acquisition rate of 1 s while changing the time for 1, 5 and 10 min, the DGPS method was used to correct the positioning coordinate data. According to the methodology applied and the results obtained, it was possible to distinguish planimetric positioning accuracy, according to the vegetation cover, in two groups

  4. The Statistics of GPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsakis, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an extremely effective satellite-based system that broadcasts sufficient information for a user to determine time and position from any location on or near the Earth...

  5. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  6. Hacking GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley-Hughes, Kathie

    2005-01-01

    * This is the "user manual" that didn't come with any of the 30 million GPS receivers currently in use, showing readers how to modify, tweak, and hack their GPS to take it to new levels!* Crazy-cool modifications include exploiting secret keycodes, revealing hidden features, building power cords and cables, hacking the battery and antenna, protecting a GPS from impact and falls, making a screen protector, and solar-powering a GPS* Potential power users will take the function and performance of their GPS to a whole new level by hacking into the firmware and hacking into a PC connection with a GPS* Fear not! Any potentially dangerous mod (to the device) is clearly labeled, with precautions listed that should be taken* Game time! Readers can check out GPS games, check into hacking geocaching, and even use a GPS as a metal detector

  7. Accuracy, intra- and inter-unit reliability, and comparison between GPS and UWB-based position-tracking systems used for time-motion analyses in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Castillo, Alejandro; Gómez Carmona, Carlos D; De la Cruz Sánchez, Ernesto; Pino Ortega, José

    2018-05-01

    There is interest in the accuracy and inter-unit reliability of position-tracking systems to monitor players. Research into this technology, although relatively recent, has grown exponentially in the last years, and it is difficult to find professional team sport that does not use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology at least. The aim of this study is to know the accuracy of both GPS-based and Ultra Wide Band (UWB)-based systems on a soccer field and their inter- and intra-unit reliability. A secondary aim is to compare them for practical applications in sport science. Following institutional ethical approval and familiarization, 10 healthy and well-trained former soccer players (20 ± 1.6 years, 1.76 ± 0.08 cm, and 69.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed three course tests: (i) linear course, (ii) circular course, and (iii) a zig-zag course, all using UWB and GPS technologies. The average speed and distance covered were compared with timing gates and the real distance as references. The UWB technology showed better accuracy (bias: 0.57-5.85%), test-retest reliability (%TEM: 1.19), and inter-unit reliability (bias: 0.18) in determining distance covered than the GPS technology (bias: 0.69-6.05%; %TEM: 1.47; bias: 0.25) overall. Also, UWB showed better results (bias: 0.09; ICC: 0.979; bias: 0.01) for mean velocity measurement than GPS (bias: 0.18; ICC: 0.951; bias: 0.03).

  8. The probability of false positives in zero-dimensional analyses of one-dimensional kinematic, force and EMG trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2016-06-14

    A false positive is the mistake of inferring an effect when none exists, and although α controls the false positive (Type I error) rate in classical hypothesis testing, a given α value is accurate only if the underlying model of randomness appropriately reflects experimentally observed variance. Hypotheses pertaining to one-dimensional (1D) (e.g. time-varying) biomechanical trajectories are most often tested using a traditional zero-dimensional (0D) Gaussian model of randomness, but variance in these datasets is clearly 1D. The purpose of this study was to determine the likelihood that analyzing smooth 1D data with a 0D model of variance will produce false positives. We first used random field theory (RFT) to predict the probability of false positives in 0D analyses. We then validated RFT predictions via numerical simulations of smooth Gaussian 1D trajectories. Results showed that, across a range of public kinematic, force/moment and EMG datasets, the median false positive rate was 0.382 and not the assumed α=0.05, even for a simple two-sample t test involving N=10 trajectories per group. The median false positive rate for experiments involving three-component vector trajectories was p=0.764. This rate increased to p=0.945 for two three-component vector trajectories, and to p=0.999 for six three-component vectors. This implies that experiments involving vector trajectories have a high probability of yielding 0D statistical significance when there is, in fact, no 1D effect. Either (a) explicit a priori identification of 0D variables or (b) adoption of 1D methods can more tightly control α. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PEMODELAN PROTOTYPE TRACKING DENGAN PEMANFAATAN GEOLOCATION SEBAGAI GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM BERBASIS WEB MOBILE PADA JASA PENGIRIMAN JNE SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Tri Meilani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available JNE merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang pengiriman barang atau dokumen yang sangat maju, karena banyak dimanfaatkan berbagai toko online dalam melakukan pengiriman barang pada customer. Sementara itu, tingkat kejahatan dijalanan semakin meningkat di berbagai kota di Indonesia. Sehingga diperlukan antisipasi pengamanan pada sebuah pengiriman untuk meningkatkan kepercayaan customer dan memberi rasa aman pada bagian pengangkutan. Selain dari sisi pengamanan, tingkat efisiensi waktu dalam pengiriman dapat berpengaruh pada tingkat kinerja perusahaan. Maka diperlukan sebuah sistem yang mampu memonitoring pengangkutan dan melakukan estimasi waktu secara efisien dalam membatasi waktu pengiriman dengan memanfaatkan geolocation sebagai GPS dengan menggunakan metode prototype model. Maka dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa Pemodelan Prototype Tracking dengan Pemanfaat Geolocation sebagai GPS dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media dalam memonitor pengiriman barang secara visual (Map. Kata Kunci : Tracking, Jasa Pengiriman, Geolocation, Google Map, GPS.

  10. An ultra-wide bandwidth-based range/GPS tight integration approach for relative positioning in vehicular ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Feng; Cheong, Joon Wayn; Dempster, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning. However, commercial global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP) techniques, through sharing the GNSS measurements between vehicles, can improve the performance of relative positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In this paper, while assuming there are no obstacles between vehicles, a new enhanced tightly coupled CP technique is presented by adding ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB)-based inter-vehicular range measurements. In the proposed CP method, each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and the inter-vehicular range measurements. Based on analytical and experimental results, in the full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP method outperforms the INS-aided tight CP method, tight CP method, and DGPS by 11%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; in the GPS outage scenario, the performance improvement achieves 60%, 65%, and 73%, respectively. (paper)

  11. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  12. Development of a rotary clap mechanism for positive-displacement rotary pumps: Kinematic analysis and working principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung Bo; Kim, Kyeong Uk; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Jong Mun

    2015-01-01

    A five-bar spatial mechanism named as a rotary clap mechanism is developed as a pumping device for positive displacement rotary pumps. The mechanism comprises a driving crank, a shaft link with two pins and two gears mounted on the middle and both ends, two rotors with jaws equally spaced along their circumferences, and two fixed internal gears. As the crank rotates, the gear pin-jointed to the crank rotates about the crank pin and at the same time rotates about the center of the fixed internal gears like a hypo-cyclic gear train. The gear-attached shaft link also rotates about the crank pin and about the fixed internal gears at the same time. This motion of the shaft link makes the pins rotate about the center of the fixed internal gears with a periodically varying radius. Therefore, two rotors driven by the pins rotate with different angular velocities. One rotor alternately leads and lags relative to the other rotor. These lead-lag motions between the two jaws of the rotors, which result in suction and discharge required for pumping, resemble hand clapping from which the mechanism was named. Construction and design parameters of the rotary clap mechanism are introduced, and kinematic analysis of this mechanism is performed. The relationships among design parameters, inherent constraints, and effects of design parameters on the is placement of mechanism are also presented.

  13. The potential for the exploration of activity patterns in the urban landscape with GPS-positioning and electronic activity diaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    rythms affects the different parts of the city. GPS-based tracking has previously mainly been used to track vehicle movements, fx. in transportation surveys. The use of personal devices makes it foremost possible to place the individual respondents use of urban space in its context of transport routes......, other locations visited and the individuals total time budget. In the cross-disciplinary research project Space – Time – Flows currently being started at Aalborg University, the GPS/electronic diary technology is intended as a means to disclosure the imprint of information and communication technologies...... on the use of urban space. The core of the work will be an equal treatment of activities in the virtual as well as the physical world. Substitution effects between the virtual and the physical world will be in focus, together with differences between the spatio-temporal patterns of groups with different...

  14. Integrated INS/GPS Navigation from a Popular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2002-01-01

    Inertial navigation, blended with other navigation aids, Global Positioning System (GPS) in particular, has gained significance due to enhanced navigation and inertial reference performance and dissimilarity for fault tolerance and anti-jamming. Relatively new concepts based upon using Differential GPS (DGPS) blended with Inertial (and visual) Navigation Sensors (INS) offer the possibility of low cost, autonomous aircraft landing. The FAA has decided to implement the system in a sophisticated form as a new standard navigation tool during this decade. There have been a number of new inertial sensor concepts in the recent past that emphasize increased accuracy of INS/GPS versus INS and reliability of navigation, as well as lower size and weight, and higher power, fault tolerance, and long life. The principles of GPS are not discussed; rather the attention is directed towards general concepts and comparative advantages. A short introduction to the problems faced in kinematics is presented. The intention is to relate the basic principles of kinematics to probably the most used navigation method in the future-INS/GPS. An example of the airborne INS is presented, with emphasis on how it works. The discussion of the error types and sources in navigation, and of the role of filters in optimal estimation of the errors then follows. The main question this paper is trying to answer is 'What are the benefits of the integration of INS and GPS and how is this, navigation concept of the future achieved in reality?' The main goal is to communicate the idea about what stands behind a modern navigation method.

  15. Kinematic Rupture Process of the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake Sequence from Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, hr-GPS, Strong-Ground Motion, InSAR interferograms and pixel offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, H.; Simons, M.; Jiang, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Riel, B. V.; Polet, J.; Duputel, Z.; Samsonov, S. V.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake ruptured the front of Himalaya thrust belt, causing more than 9,000 fatalities. 17 days after the main event, a large aftershock (Mw 7.2) ruptured to down-dip and east of the main rupture area. To investigate the kinematic rupture process of this earthquake sequence, we explored linear and non-linear inversion techniques using a variety of datasets including teleseismic, high rate and conventional GPS, InSAR interferograms and pixel-offsets. InSAR interferograms from ALOS-2, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1a satellites are used in the joint inversion. The main event is characterized by unilateral rupture extending along strike approximately 70 km to the southeast and 40 km along dip direction. The rupture velocity is well resolved to be lie between 2.8 and 3.0 km/s, which is consistent with back-projection results. An emergent initial phase is observed in teleseismic body wave records, which is consistent with a narrow area of rupture initiation near the hypocenter. The rupture mode of the main event is pulse like. The aftershock ruptured down-dip to the northeast of the main event rupture area. The aftershock rupture area is compact and contained within 40 km of its hypocenter. In contrast to the main event, teleseismic body wave records of the aftershock suggest an abrupt initial phase, which is consistent with a crack like rupture mode. The locations of most of the aftershocks (small and large) surround the rupture area of the main shock with little, if any, spatial overlap.

  16. Tightly Coupled Integration of GPS Ambiguity Fixed Precise Point Positioning and MEMS-INS through a Troposphere-Constrained Adaptive Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzeng Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP makes use of the undifferenced pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with ionospheric-free (IF combinations to achieve centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Conventionally, the IF ambiguities are estimated as float values. To improve the PPP positioning accuracy and shorten the convergence time, the integer phase clock model with between-satellites single-difference (BSSD operation is used to recover the integer property. However, the continuity and availability of stand-alone PPP is largely restricted by the observation environment. The positioning performance will be significantly degraded when GPS operates under challenging environments, if less than five satellites are present. A commonly used approach is integrating a low cost inertial sensor to improve the positioning performance and robustness. In this study, a tightly coupled (TC algorithm is implemented by integrating PPP with inertial navigation system (INS using an Extended Kalman filter (EKF. The navigation states, inertial sensor errors and GPS error states are estimated together. The troposphere constrained approach, which utilizes external tropospheric delay as virtual observation, is applied to further improve the ambiguity-fixed height positioning accuracy, and an improved adaptive filtering strategy is implemented to improve the covariance modelling considering the realistic noise effect. A field vehicular test with a geodetic GPS receiver and a low cost inertial sensor was conducted to validate the improvement on positioning performance with the proposed approach. The results show that the positioning accuracy has been improved with inertial aiding. Centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable during the test, and the PPP/INS TC integration achieves a fast re-convergence after signal outages. For troposphere constrained solutions, a significant improvement for the height component has been obtained. The overall positioning accuracies

  17. Tracking Small Satellites using Translated GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Don; Mulally, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses using translated GPS for tracking small satellites, the technical trade-offs involved, and the position and timing accuracies which are achievable using translated GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses the relative times-of-arrival of multiple spread-spectrum signals at an antenna to determine the position of the antenna. The system can also determine the time the antenna was at that position. The direct sequence spread spectrum signals are transmitted from GPS sa...

  18. An Extended ADOP for Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP, with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, Global Positioning System (GPS, and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1 ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2 when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3 in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4 ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW.

  19. GPS positioning and desktop mapping. Applications to environmental monitoring. Report on task JNT B898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansanaho, A.; Ilander, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1995-10-01

    Satellite navigation has been used for in-field applications by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety since 1993. Because of this experience, training in the use of GPS positioning and desktop mapping was chosen as a task under the Finnish Support programme to IAEA safeguards. A lecture and a field experiment was held in the training course on environmental monitoring at the IAEA headquarters in June 1995. Real-time mapping of the co-ordinates and storing information on sampling sites and procedures can make safeguards implementation more efficient and effective. Further software development are needed for these purposes. (author) (6 figs.)

  20. Standardization of GPS data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    A nationwide GPS network has been constructed with about 60 permanent GPS stations after late 1990s in Korea. For using the GPS in variety of application area like crustal deformation, positioning, or monitoring upper atmosphere, it is necessary to have ability to process the data precisely. Now Korea Astronomy Observatory has the precise GPS data processing technique in Korea because it is difficult to understand characteristics of the parameters we want to estimate, resolve the integer ambiguity, and analyze many errors. There are three reliable GPS data processing software in the world ; Bernese(University of Berne), GIPSY-OASIS(JPL), GAMIT(MIT). These software allow us to achieve millimeter accuracy in the horizontal position and about 1 cm accuracy vertically even for regional networks with a diameter of several thousand kilometers. But we established the standard of GPS data processing using Bernese as main tool and GIPSY O ASIS as side

  1. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  2. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  3. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  4. The impact of GPS receiver modifications and ionospheric activity on Swarm baseline determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van den IJssel, J.

    2018-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission is a satellite constellation launched on 22 November 2013 aiming at observing the Earth geomagnetic field and its temporal variations. The three identical satellites are equipped with high-precision dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, which make the constellation an ideal test bed for baseline determination. From October 2014 to August 2016, a number of GPS receiver modifications and a new GPS Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) converter were implemented. Moreover, the on-board GPS receiver performance has been influenced by the ionospheric scintillations. The impact of these factors is assessed for baseline determination of the pendulum formation flying Swarm-A and -C satellites. In total 30 months of data - from 15 July 2014 to the end of 2016 - is analyzed. The assessment includes analysis of observation residuals, success rate of GPS carrier phase ambiguity fixing, a consistency check between the so-called kinematic and reduced-dynamic baseline solution, and validations of orbits by comparing with Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observations. External baseline solutions from The German Space Operations Center (GSOC) and Astronomisches Institut - Universität Bern (AIUB) are also included in the comparison. Results indicate that the GPS receiver modifications and RINEX converter changes are effective to improve the baseline determination. This research eventually shows a consistency level of 9.3/4.9/3.0 mm between kinematic and reduced-dynamic baselines in the radial/along-track/cross-track directions. On average 98.3% of the epochs have kinematic solutions. Consistency between TU Delft and external reduced-dynamic baseline solutions is at a level of 1 mm level in all directions.

  5. Integrated navigation of aerial robot for GPS and GPS-denied environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Min, Hongkyu; Nonami, Kenzo; Wada, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel robust navigation system for aerial robot in GPS and GPS- denied environments is proposed. Generally, the aerial robot uses position and velocity information from Global Positioning System (GPS) for guidance and control. However, GPS could not be used in several environments, for example, GPS has huge error near buildings and trees, indoor, and so on. In such GPS-denied environment, Laser Detection and Ranging (LIDER) sensor based navigation system have generally been used. However, LIDER sensor also has an weakness, and it could not be used in the open outdoor environment where GPS could be used. Therefore, it is desired to develop the integrated navigation system which is seamlessly applied to GPS and GPS-denied environments. In this paper, the integrated navigation system for aerial robot using GPS and LIDER is developed. The navigation system is designed based on Extended Kalman Filter, and the effectiveness of the developed system is verified by numerical simulation and experiment. (paper)

  6. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  7. Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsan Eka Prasetia; Trihastuti Agustinah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...

  8. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  9. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  10. Precise Point Positioning with the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2012, China had launched 16 BeiDou-2 navigation satellites that include six GEOs, five IGSOs and five MEOs. This has provided initial navigation and precise pointing services ability in the Asia-Pacific regions. In order to assess the navigation and positioning performance of the BeiDou-2 system, Wuhan University has built up a network of BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS around the World. The Position and Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA software was modified to determine the orbits of BeiDou satellites and provide precise orbit and satellite clock bias products from the BeiDou satellite system for user applications. This article uses the BeiDou/GPS observations of the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations to realize the BeiDou and BeiDou/GPS static and kinematic precise point positioning (PPP. The result indicates that the precision of BeiDou static and kinematic PPP reaches centimeter level. The precision of BeiDou/GPS kinematic PPP solutions is improved significantly compared to that of BeiDou-only or GPS-only kinematic PPP solutions. The PPP convergence time also decreases with the use of combined BeiDou/GPS systems.

  11. Precise point positioning with the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Su, Xing; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-01-08

    By the end of 2012, China had launched 16 BeiDou-2 navigation satellites that include six GEOs, five IGSOs and five MEOs. This has provided initial navigation and precise pointing services ability in the Asia-Pacific regions. In order to assess the navigation and positioning performance of the BeiDou-2 system, Wuhan University has built up a network of BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) around the World. The Position and Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software was modified to determine the orbits of BeiDou satellites and provide precise orbit and satellite clock bias products from the BeiDou satellite system for user applications. This article uses the BeiDou/GPS observations of the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations to realize the BeiDou and BeiDou/GPS static and kinematic precise point positioning (PPP). The result indicates that the precision of BeiDou static and kinematic PPP reaches centimeter level. The precision of BeiDou/GPS kinematic PPP solutions is improved significantly compared to that of BeiDou-only or GPS-only kinematic PPP solutions. The PPP convergence time also decreases with the use of combined BeiDou/GPS systems.

  12. An Inertial Sensor-Based Method for Estimating the Athlete's Relative Joint Center Positions and Center of Mass Kinematics in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, Benedikt; Spörri, Jörg; Schütz, Pascal; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Aminian, Kamiar

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between external training load and health in competitive alpine skiing, an accurate and precise estimation of the athlete's kinematics is an essential methodological prerequisite. This study proposes an inertial sensor-based method to estimate the athlete's relative joint center positions and center of mass (CoM) kinematics in alpine skiing. Eleven inertial sensors were fixed to the lower and upper limbs, trunk, and head. The relative positions of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centers, as well as the athlete's CoM kinematics were validated against a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system during indoor carpet skiing. For all joints centers analyzed, position accuracy (mean error) was below 110 mm and precision (error standard deviation) was below 30 mm. CoM position accuracy and precision were 25.7 and 6.7 mm, respectively. Both the accuracy and precision of the system to estimate the distance between the ankle of the outside leg and CoM (measure quantifying the skier's overall vertical motion) were found to be below 11 mm. Some poorer accuracy and precision values (below 77 mm) were observed for the athlete's fore-aft position (i.e., the projection of the outer ankle-CoM vector onto the line corresponding to the projection of ski's longitudinal axis on the snow surface). In addition, the system was found to be sensitive enough to distinguish between different types of turns (wide/narrow). Thus, the method proposed in this paper may also provide a useful, pervasive way to monitor and control adverse external loading patterns that occur during regular on-snow training. Moreover, as demonstrated earlier, such an approach might have a certain potential to quantify competition time, movement repetitions and/or the accelerations acting on the different segments of the human body. However, prior to getting feasible for applications in daily training, future studies

  13. An Inertial Sensor-Based Method for Estimating the Athlete's Relative Joint Center Positions and Center of Mass Kinematics in Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Fasel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between external training load and health in competitive alpine skiing, an accurate and precise estimation of the athlete's kinematics is an essential methodological prerequisite. This study proposes an inertial sensor-based method to estimate the athlete's relative joint center positions and center of mass (CoM kinematics in alpine skiing. Eleven inertial sensors were fixed to the lower and upper limbs, trunk, and head. The relative positions of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centers, as well as the athlete's CoM kinematics were validated against a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system during indoor carpet skiing. For all joints centers analyzed, position accuracy (mean error was below 110 mm and precision (error standard deviation was below 30 mm. CoM position accuracy and precision were 25.7 and 6.7 mm, respectively. Both the accuracy and precision of the system to estimate the distance between the ankle of the outside leg and CoM (measure quantifying the skier's overall vertical motion were found to be below 11 mm. Some poorer accuracy and precision values (below 77 mm were observed for the athlete's fore-aft position (i.e., the projection of the outer ankle-CoM vector onto the line corresponding to the projection of ski's longitudinal axis on the snow surface. In addition, the system was found to be sensitive enough to distinguish between different types of turns (wide/narrow. Thus, the method proposed in this paper may also provide a useful, pervasive way to monitor and control adverse external loading patterns that occur during regular on-snow training. Moreover, as demonstrated earlier, such an approach might have a certain potential to quantify competition time, movement repetitions and/or the accelerations acting on the different segments of the human body. However, prior to getting feasible for applications in daily training

  14. Relativistic Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  15. LADOTD GPS technology management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Over many years, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has been adopted by different sections within the Louisiana : Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD), with no uniform standards for accuracy, operation, hardware, or : software....

  16. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  17. Evidential recovery from GPS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cusack

    Full Text Available Global Positioning Systems (GPS have become more affordable, are now widely used in motor vehicles and in other frequently used applications. As a consequence GPS are increasingly becoming an important source of evidential data for digital forensic investigations. This paper acknowledges there are only disparate documents for the guidance of an investigator when extracting evidence form such systems. The focus of this paper is to provide the technical details of recovering artifacts from four GPS currently available to the New Zealand market. Navman brand GPS are used, following a forensically robust process. The steps of the process are described, results analysed and the associated risks are discussed. In addition, the paper discusses techniques related to the visual presentation of evidence suitable for Google Maps. Automation attempts to speed up the analysis to visualization steps are also included. The outcome is a road map that may assist digital forensic investigators develop GPS examination strategies for implementation in their own organizations.

  18. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h -1 ) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  19. Fault Slip and GPS Velocities Across the Shan Plateau Define a Curved Southwestward Crustal Motion Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuhua; Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Weldon, Ray; Feng, Lujia; Chan, Chung-Han; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the 700 km wide system of active faults on the Shan Plateau, southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, is critical to understanding the geodynamics and seismic hazard of the large region that straddles neighboring China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. Here we evaluate the fault styles and slip rates over multi-timescales, reanalyze previously published short-term Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities, and evaluate slip-rate gradients to interpret the regional kinematics and geodynamics that drive the crustal motion. Relative to the Sunda plate, GPS velocities across the Shan Plateau define a broad arcuate tongue-like crustal motion with a progressively northwestward increase in sinistral shear over a distance of 700 km followed by a decrease over the final 100 km to the syntaxis. The cumulative GPS slip rate across the entire sinistral-slip fault system on the Shan Plateau is 12 mm/year. Our observations of the fault geometry, slip rates, and arcuate southwesterly directed tongue-like patterns of GPS velocities across the region suggest that the fault kinematics is characterized by a regional southwestward distributed shear across the Shan Plateau, compared to more block-like rotation and indentation north of the Red River fault. The fault geometry, kinematics, and regional GPS velocities are difficult to reconcile with regional bookshelf faulting between the Red River and Sagaing faults or localized lower crustal channel flows beneath this region. The crustal motion and fault kinematics can be driven by a combination of basal traction of a clockwise, southwestward asthenospheric flow around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and gravitation or shear-driven indentation from north of the Shan Plateau.

  20. Validation and Assessment of Multi-GNSS Real-Time Precise Point Positioning in Simulated Kinematic Mode Using IGS Real-Time Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a popular technology for precise applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Multi-GNSS combined PPP has become a hot topic in recent years with the development of multiple GNSSs. Meanwhile, with the operation of the real-time service (RTS of the International GNSS Service (IGS agency that provides satellite orbit and clock corrections to broadcast ephemeris, it is possible to obtain the real-time precise products of satellite orbits and clocks and to conduct real-time PPP. In this contribution, the real-time multi-GNSS orbit and clock corrections of the CLK93 product are applied for real-time multi-GNSS PPP processing, and its orbit and clock qualities are investigated, first with a seven-day experiment by comparing them with the final multi-GNSS precise product ‘GBM’ from GFZ. Then, an experiment involving real-time PPP processing for three stations in the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX network with a testing period of two weeks is conducted in order to evaluate the convergence performance of real-time PPP in a simulated kinematic mode. The experimental result shows that real-time PPP can achieve a convergence performance of less than 15 min for an accuracy level of 20 cm. Finally, the real-time data streams from 12 globally distributed IGS/MGEX stations for one month are used to assess and validate the positioning accuracy of real-time multi-GNSS PPP. The results show that the simulated kinematic positioning accuracy achieved by real-time PPP on different stations is about 3.0 to 4.0 cm for the horizontal direction and 5.0 to 7.0 cm for the three-dimensional (3D direction.

  1. Development of building security integration system using sensors, microcontroller and GPS (Global Positioning System) based android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Siregar, Y. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Turnip, A.

    2018-03-01

    Security system is one of the common problems to protect an environment such as personal house or a warehouse. There are numerous methods and technologies that can be used as part of a security system. In this paper, we present a security system that offers a better efficiency. The purpose of this study is to build a system that can monitor home security at any time in particular fire and theft. Through sensors, the system will be able to provide warning information of hazard conditions via LCD monitor, sound, and alarm. This information will be sent automatically to the home owner’s smartphone as well as to the corresponding to the security agency. Thus the prevention of theft and fire hazards can be immediately anticipated by the police and firefighters. The system will also notify the position of the coordinates of the location of the building (the house) by a link to the Google map in order to make it easier to get the location quickly.

  2. Mapping the Coastline Limits of the Mexican State Sinaloa Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    This research work presents the delimitation of the coastline limits of Sinaloa (one of the richest states of northwestern Mexico). In order to achieve this big task, it was required to use GPS (Global Positioning System) together with leveling spirit measurements. Based on the appropriate selection of the cited measurement techniques, the objective was to map the Sinaloa's state coastline to have the cartography of approximate 1600 km of littoral. The GPS measurements were performed and referred with respect to a GPS network located across the state. This GPS network consists of at least one first-order-site at each of the sixteen counties that constitute the state, and three to four second-order-sites of the ten counties of the state surrounded by sea. The leveling spirit measurements were referred to local benchmarks pre-established by the Mexican agency SEMARNAT (SEcretaría Del Medio Ambiente y Recursos NATurales). Within the main specifications of the GPS measurements and equipment, we used geodetic-dual-frequency GPS receivers in kinematic mode for both base stations (first and second order sites of the GPS state network) and rover stations (points forming the state littoral) with 5-sec log-rate interval and 10 deg cut-off angle. The GPS data processing was performed using the commercial software Trimble Geomatics Office (TGO) with Double Differences (DD) in post-processing mode. To this point, the field measurements had been totally covered including the cartography (scale 1:1000) and this includes the specifications and appropriate labeling according to the Mexican norm NOM-146-SEMARNAT-2005.

  3. Development and Testing of a High-Speed Real-Time Kinematic Precise DGPS Positioning System Between Two Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spinelli, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    ... aerial-refueling and close formation flying. Although many of the current ambiguity resolution techniques use the residuals from the least squares position estimation to determine the true ambiguity set, this thesis presents a novel approach...

  4. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  5. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Haroldo Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP, where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  6. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo Antonio; Marques, Heloísa Alves Silva; Aquino, Marcio; Veettil, Sreeja Vadakke; Monico, João Francisco Galera

    2018-02-01

    GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP), where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  7. GPS & Roadpricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina

    2005-01-01

    den enkelte bil med en computer, der ved hjælp af signaler fra satellitter, kan bestemme bilens placering på vejnettet. Herved kan bilens computer ved hjælp af elektroniske vejkort udregne kilometertaksten det pågældende sted, således at det skyldige beløb enten trækkes direkte eller akkumuleres til...... estimeringskvaliteten af positionen, som specielt ses når bilerne accelererer, deaccelererer og drejer hurtigt i sving m.m. Hver GPS-baseret observations nøjagtighed afhænger af antallet af satellitter inden for ”sigt”, kvaliteten af hvert signal (HDOP) og den retning satellitterne befinder sig i forhold til enheden og...

  8. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF RTK-GPS AND STEER-BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY TO THE AUTOMATIC DRIVING OF VEHICLES AND AN EVALUATION OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu OMAE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic vehicle driving has long been the subject of research efforts designed to improve the safety and efficiency of automobile transportation. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated sensors and automobiles have brought automatic driving systems closer to reality. In this paper we describe an attempt to apply real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS, a highly precise positioning system, and steer-by-wire body technology, which has advanced greatly in recent years, to automatic driving. In addition, we also describe the results of research into human factors related to automatic driving, which will become more and more important as automatic driving is put to practical use.

  10. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  11. GPS Navigation and Tracking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.

  12. Bridge Performance Assessment Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Wavelet Filter for the GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the performance assessment of the Huangpu Bridge in Guangzhou, China based on long-term monitoring in real-time by the kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS technique. Wavelet transformde-noising is applied to filter the GPS measurements, while the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS time series output-only model is used to predict the deformations of GPS-bridge monitoring points. In addition, GPS and accelerometer monitoring systems are used to evaluate the bridge oscillation performance. The conclusions drawn from investigating the numerical results show that: (1the wavelet de-noising of the GPS measurements of the different recording points on the bridge is a suitable tool to efficiently eliminate the signal noise and extract the different deformation components such as: semi-static and dynamic displacements; (2 the ANFIS method with two multi-input single output model is revealed to powerfully predict GPS movement measurements and assess the bridge deformations; and (3 The installed structural health monitoring system and the applied ANFIS movement prediction performance model are solely sufficient to assure bridge safety based on the analyses of the different filtered movement components.

  13. Error and Performance Analysis of MEMS-based Inertial Sensors with a Low-cost GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS, have been widely utilized and their applications are becoming popular, not only in military or commercial applications, but also for everyday life. Although GPS measurements are the essential information for currently developed land vehicle navigation systems (LVNS, GPS signals are often unavailable or unreliable due to signal blockages under certain environments such as urban canyons. This situation must be compensated in order to provide continuous navigation solutions. To overcome the problems of unavailability and unreliability using GPS and to be cost and size effective as well, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS based inertial sensor technology has been pushing for the development of low-cost integrated navigation systems for land vehicle navigation and guidance applications. This paper will analyze the characterization of MEMS based inertial sensors and the performance of an integrated system prototype of MEMS based inertial sensors, a low-cost GPS receiver and a digital compass. The influence of the stochastic variation of sensors will be assessed and modeled by two different methods, namely Gauss-Markov (GM and AutoRegressive (AR models, with GPS signal blockage of different lengths. Numerical results from kinematic testing have been used to assess the performance of different modeling schemes.

  14. Properties of kinematic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.

  15. Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Eka Prasetia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.

  16. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  17. GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Using GPS Wind up Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Walton R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of stabilizing an inertial navigation system (INS), includes the steps of: receiving data from an inertial navigation system; and receiving a finite number of carrier phase observables using at least one GPS receiver from a plurality of GPS satellites; calculating a phase wind up correction; correcting at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables using the phase wind up correction; and calculating a corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position using the corrected at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables; and performing a step selected from the steps consisting of recording, reporting, or providing the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position to another process that uses the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position. A GPS stabilized inertial navigation system apparatus is also described.

  18. Cryospheric monitoring with new low power RTK dGPS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Hart, J. K.; Bragg, G. M.; Curry, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Differential GPS is often used to measure the movement of glaciers. It requires data to be recorded at a fixed base station as well as the moving rover unit, followed by post-processing in order to compute the rover's positions. The typical dGPS units used consume considerable power and the recording times are often around one hour per reading. While this provides very precise (typically millimetre) precision it comes at a cost of power used and the data is rather large to send offsite regularly. Real-time kinematic modes of dGPS are typically used for rapid mapping and autonomous vehicles. New devices are lower cost and smaller size. They also provide a fix within a few minutes, which can be transmitted home. We describe the design, deployment and preliminary results of two tracking systems to monitor ice movement. The first used a normal GPS and Iridium satellite messaging to track the movement of a Greenland iceberg which calved from the Nattivit Apusiiat glacier (south west Greenland). This system followed the iceberg as it flowed 660 km south along the coast of Greenland. The second system was installed in Iceland to track the movement of glaciers using 2 different dGPS systems. A low power ARM Cortex M4-based controller ran Python code to schedule dGPS activity periodically and gather fixes. An Iridium short messaging unit (Rockblock) was used to transmit RTK location fixes. The aim was to experiment with the use of RTK dGPS as an alternative to recordings to measure how the glaciers responded to small scale changes in temperature and precipitation throughout the year.

  19. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Gao, Chengfa; Pan, Shuguo; Wang, Denghui; Deng, Jiadong

    2015-10-30

    The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR). We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL) ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2) ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF) strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  20. Sensing and Classifying Impairments of GPS Reception on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    Positioning using GPS receivers is a primary sensing modality in many areas of pervasive computing. However, previous work has not considered how people’s body impacts the availability and accuracy of GPS positioning and for means to sense such impacts. We present results that the GPS performance...

  1. Inverse Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.

  2. Overview of GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    January 13, 2012 National SpaceBased Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Executive Committee (EXCOM) cochair letter to National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) proposed to draft new Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  3. GPS in Travel and Activity Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2004-01-01

    The use of GPS-positioning as a monitoring tool in travel and activity surveys opens up a range of possibilities. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time. It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces...... are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed. If the personal GPS device is combined with an electronic questionnaire, for example...... area. The paper presents the possibilities in travel and activity surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive GPS registration of Copenhagen respondents is presented. The different survey possibilities given a combination of GPS and PDA based...

  4. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing o......-gauges and altimetry data. Furthermore, we prove that the geodetic reference ellipsoid WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  5. Determination of dopant atomic positions with kinematical X-ray standing waves; Untersuchung von Fremdatomen in kristallinen Materialien mit kinematischen stehenden Roentgenwellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Bente

    2011-11-15

    Recent advances in the kinematic X-ray standing wave technique (KXSW) for the determination of the atomic coordinates and displacement parameters in nonperfect crystalline materials are described in this thesis. The methodology has been improved by considering three significant aspects: - the inclusion of weak multiple beam contributions - the excitation of secondary fluorescence in multiple-element samples - the influence of the crystal mosaicity on the fluorescence yield. The improvements allowed to successfully apply the method to investigate complex oxide materials of current interest for potential device applications. The thermally-induced interdiffusion of cobalt and manganese thin films on zinc oxide single crystals has been studied to determine which lattice sites are occupied preferentially. The data analysis revealed that after thermal diffusion the adsorbed atoms occupied zinc sites in the host lattice. The mean deviation of the cobalt atomic position from the zinc lattice site was comparable to the thermal displacement parameter of the zinc atoms. In the case of manganese a secondary phase was found on the surface. Measurements performed on LaSrMnO{sub 4} provided new insight concerning the rotation of the oxygen octahedron around the manganese atoms and the concomitant displacements of the strontium and lanthanum atoms. It was found that the oxygen octahedra are rotated around the [100]-direction by 4,5 . The measurements in transmission geometry performed on titanium dioxide (rutile) demonstrated that KXSW measurements in the Laue geometry is a viable technique. By performing KXSW under grazing-incidence conditions it is possible to achieve depth resolution. The results clearly show that the extended KXSW technique is a versatile method for characterizing complex material systems. (orig.)

  6. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  7. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  8. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS...

  9. Transportation mode recognition using GPS and accelerometer data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Potential advantages of global positioning systems (GPS) in collecting travel behavior data have been discussed in several publications and evidenced in many recent studies. Most applications depend on GPS information only. However, transportation mode detection that relies only on GPS information

  10. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinematic analysis of lumbar and hip motion while rising from a forward, flexed position in patients with and without a history of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, P W; Esola, M; Schreier, R; Siegler, S

    1997-03-01

    increasing in the middle intervals and becoming the primary source of motion in the final interval. When lumbar to hip extension ratios were compared with corresponding intervals of flexion, three of four were positively correlated to flexion ratios, demonstrating a reversible lumbopelvic rhythm. Although participants with a history of low back pain had significantly tighter hamstrings than participants with no history of low back pain, hamstring length was not correlated with any of the kinematic characteristics during extension. Participants who were currently asymptomatic but had a history of low back pain moved in a manner similar to that of participants with no history of low back pain except that they demonstrated greater lumbar motion and velocity during the initial phase of extension. This may have been the result of low back pain or a contributing factor in recurrent low back pain.

  12. Development of a GPS buoy system for monitoring tsunami, sea waves, ocean bottom crustal deformation and atmospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Teruyuki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiko; Koshimura, Shun'ichi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a GPS buoy system for monitoring tsunami for over 12 years. The idea was that a buoy equipped with a GPS antenna and placed offshore may be an effective way of monitoring tsunami before its arrival to the coast and to give warning to the coastal residents. The key technology for the system is real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. We have successfully developed the system; we have detected tsunamis of about 10cm in height for three large earthquakes, namely, the 23 June 2001 Peru earthquake (Mw8.4), the 26 September 2003 Tokachi earthquake (Mw8.3) and the 5 September 2004 earthquake (Mw7.4). The developed GPS buoy system is also capable of monitoring sea waves that are mainly caused by winds. Only the difference between tsunami and sea waves is their frequency range and can be segregated each other by a simple filtering technique. Given the success of GPS buoy experiments, the system has been adopted as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information system for Port and HArborS (NOWPHAS) by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. They have established more than eight GPS buoys along the Japanese coasts and the system has been operated by the Port and Airport Research Institute. As a future scope, we are now planning to implement some other additional facilities for the GPS buoy system. The first application is a so-called GPS/Acoustic system for monitoring ocean bottom crustal deformation. The system requires acoustic waves to detect ocean bottom reference position, which is the geometrical center of an array of transponders, by measuring distances between a position at the sea surface (vessel) and ocean bottom equipments to return the received sonic wave. The position of the vessel is measured using GPS. The system was first proposed by a research group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in early 1980's. The system was extensively developed by Japanese researchers and is now capable of detecting ocean

  13. LADOTD GPS technology management plan : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has been adopted by diff erent sections within the Louisiana : Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) over the last decade with no uniform standards : for their use, procurement, training, and...

  14. GPS-deprived localisation for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available robots. Opencast mines utilise the global positioning system (GPS) to obtain location information. The unavailability of this technology in underground mining has actuated numerous researchers to investigate possible alternatives. These attempts exploit...

  15. Kinematics Control and Analysis of Industrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongbo; Cai, Fan; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The robot’s development present situation, basic principle and control system are introduced briefly. Research is mainly focused on the study of the robot’s kinematics and motion control. The structural analysis of a planar articulated robot (SCARA) robot is presented,the coordinate system is established to obtain the position and orientation matrix of the end effector,a method of robot kinematics analysis based on homogeneous transformation method is proposed, and the kinematics solution of the robot is obtained.Establishment of industrial robot’s kinematics equation and formula for positive kinematics by example. Finally,the kinematic analysis of this robot was verified by examples.It provides a basis for structural design and motion control.It has active significance to promote the motion control of industrial robot.

  16. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  17. Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.

  18. 77 FR 23668 - GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of... inform the public that the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate will be hosting an open GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group (SSWG) meeting for manufacturers of GPS constellation simulators utilized...

  19. Generation of real-time mode high-resolution water vapor fields from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Penna, Nigel T.; Li, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    Pointwise GPS measurements of tropospheric zenith total delay can be interpolated to provide high-resolution water vapor maps which may be used for correcting synthetic aperture radar images, for numeral weather prediction, and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations. Several previous studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapor, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. In this paper, we present an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent tropospheric delay components. For a 150 km × 150 km California study region, we estimate real-time mode zenith total delays at 41 GPS stations over 1 year by using the precise point positioning technique and demonstrate that the decoupled interpolation model generates improved high-resolution tropospheric delay maps compared with previous tropospheric turbulence- and elevation-dependent models. Cross validation of the GPS zenith total delays yields an RMS error of 4.6 mm with the decoupled interpolation model, compared with 8.4 mm with the previous model. On converting the GPS zenith wet delays to precipitable water vapor and interpolating to 1 km grid cells across the region, validations with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer near-IR water vapor product show 1.7 mm RMS differences by using the decoupled model, compared with 2.0 mm for the previous interpolation model. Such results are obtained without differencing the tropospheric delays or water vapor estimates in time or space, while the errors are similar over flat and mountainous terrains, as well as for both inland and coastal areas.

  20. An Introduction to the Tibet cGPS pilot project: TigiCAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Liu, J.; Galetzka, J.; Avouac, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Zeng, L.; Gan, W.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.

    2007-12-01

    The convergence between India and Eurasia is the¡¡prototype of continental collision in action. Compared¡¡to geological history and fault kinematics studies, the present-day, regional pattern of strain-partitioning¡¡is still inadequately known. Among limited geodetic¡¡efforts in the past decade or two, most have been focused¡¡on refining measurements of the current crustal¡¡shortening rate across the Himalaya. The vast region¡¡immediately to the north is sparsely instrumented, with only one continuous GPS station (Lhasa) within¡¡the plateau proper. Campaign stations are few and¡¡ill-positioned, mostly along major roads, providing¡¡poor constraints on present-day slip-rates on individual¡¡active faults. The extant GPS network configuration is thus still insufficient to discriminate between block vs continuum deformation. In November 2006, the¡¡Chinese Academy of Sciences led a pilot program and¡¡installed 6 continuous GPS stations in southern Tibet, crossing the NS-trending normal fault systems and¡¡complementing the Nepal cGPS profiles. We present¡¡here the new sites, preliminary data processing results, and the spatial relationship with ongoing or planned¡¡continuous GPS sites from a couple of other projects. Together with such projects, TigiCAS will provide¡¡a substantial increase in geodetic data in the¡¡Himalayan-Tibet convergent belt in the next few¡¡years, and lead to a better understanding of¡¡contemporary deformation of the region.

  1. Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others.   This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...

  2. Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Arif Sen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.

  3. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  4. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  5. Penerapan Teknologi GPS Tracker Untuk Identifikasi Kondisi Traffik Jalan Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM. O. Widyantara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real time tracking system technology has been made possible by integrating three technologies, namely global positioning system (GPS, database technologies such as geographic information system (GIS and mobile telecommunications technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS. This paper has proposed a vehicle tracking mechanism based on GPS tracker to build a real-time traffic information system. A GPS server is built to process data of position and speed of the vehicle for further processed into vehicle traffic information. The Server and GPS tracker is designed to communicate using GPRS services in real time. Furthermore, the server processes the data from the GPS tracker into traffic information such as traffic jam, dense, medium and smoothly. Test results showed that the GPS server is able to visualize the real position of the vehicle and is able to decide the category of traffic information in real time.

  6. Robust GPS autonomous signal quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndili, Awele Nnaemeka

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), introduced by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973, provides unprecedented world-wide navigation capabilities through a constellation of 24 satellites in global orbit, each emitting a low-power radio-frequency signal for ranging. GPS receivers track these transmitted signals, computing position to within 30 meters from range measurements made to four satellites. GPS has a wide range of applications, including aircraft, marine and land vehicle navigation. Each application places demands on GPS for various levels of accuracy, integrity, system availability and continuity of service. Radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from natural sources such as TV/FM harmonics, radar or Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS), presents a challenge in the use of GPS, by posing a threat to the accuracy, integrity and availability of the GPS navigation solution. In order to use GPS for integrity-sensitive applications, it is therefore necessary to monitor the quality of the received signal, with the objective of promptly detecting the presence of RFI, and thus provide a timely warning of degradation of system accuracy. This presents a challenge, since the myriad kinds of RFI affect the GPS receiver in different ways. What is required then, is a robust method of detecting GPS accuracy degradation, which is effective regardless of the origin of the threat. This dissertation presents a new method of robust signal quality monitoring for GPS. Algorithms for receiver autonomous interference detection and integrity monitoring are demonstrated. Candidate test statistics are derived from fundamental receiver measurements of in-phase and quadrature correlation outputs, and the gain of the Active Gain Controller (AGC). Performance of selected test statistics are evaluated in the presence of RFI: broadband interference, pulsed and non-pulsed interference, coherent CW at different frequencies; and non-RFI: GPS signal fading due to physical blockage and

  7. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  8. Effect of forest canopy on GPS-based movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. DeCesare; John R. Squires; Jay A. Kolbe

    2005-01-01

    The advancing role of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in ecology has made studies of animal movement possible for larger and more vagile species. A simple field test revealed that lengths of GPS-based movement data were strongly biased (Pof forest canopy. Global Positioning System error added an average of 27.5% additional...

  9. Development of a High Precision Displacement Measurement System by Fusing a Low Cost RTK-GPS Sensor and a Force Feedback Accelerometer for Infrastructure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Gunhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Chung, Jun Yeon; Choi, Jaemook; Kwon, Nam-Yeol; Kang, Doo-Young; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-11-28

    A displacement measurement system fusing a low cost real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) receiver and a force feedback accelerometer is proposed for infrastructure monitoring. The proposed system is composed of a sensor module, a base module and a computation module. The sensor module consists of a RTK-GPS rover and a force feedback accelerometer, and is installed on a target structure like conventional RTK-GPS sensors. The base module is placed on a rigid ground away from the target structure similar to conventional RTK-GPS bases, and transmits observation messages to the sensor module. Then, the initial acceleration, velocity and displacement responses measured by the sensor module are transmitted to the computation module located at a central monitoring facility. Finally, high precision and high sampling rate displacement, velocity, and acceleration are estimated by fusing the acceleration from the accelerometer, the velocity from the GPS rover, and the displacement from RTK-GPS. Note that the proposed displacement measurement system can measure 3-axis acceleration, velocity as well as displacement in real time. In terms of displacement, the proposed measurement system can estimate dynamic and pseudo-static displacement with a root-mean-square error of 2 mm and a sampling rate of up to 100 Hz. The performance of the proposed system is validated under sinusoidal, random and steady-state vibrations. Field tests were performed on the Yeongjong Grand Bridge and Yi Sun-sin Bridge in Korea, and the Xihoumen Bridge in China to compare the performance of the proposed system with a commercial RTK-GPS sensor and other data fusion techniques.

  10. Development of a High Precision Displacement Measurement System by Fusing a Low Cost RTK-GPS Sensor and a Force Feedback Accelerometer for Infrastructure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunhee Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A displacement measurement system fusing a low cost real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS receiver and a force feedback accelerometer is proposed for infrastructure monitoring. The proposed system is composed of a sensor module, a base module and a computation module. The sensor module consists of a RTK-GPS rover and a force feedback accelerometer, and is installed on a target structure like conventional RTK-GPS sensors. The base module is placed on a rigid ground away from the target structure similar to conventional RTK-GPS bases, and transmits observation messages to the sensor module. Then, the initial acceleration, velocity and displacement responses measured by the sensor module are transmitted to the computation module located at a central monitoring facility. Finally, high precision and high sampling rate displacement, velocity, and acceleration are estimated by fusing the acceleration from the accelerometer, the velocity from the GPS rover, and the displacement from RTK-GPS. Note that the proposed displacement measurement system can measure 3-axis acceleration, velocity as well as displacement in real time. In terms of displacement, the proposed measurement system can estimate dynamic and pseudo-static displacement with a root-mean-square error of 2 mm and a sampling rate of up to 100 Hz. The performance of the proposed system is validated under sinusoidal, random and steady-state vibrations. Field tests were performed on the Yeongjong Grand Bridge and Yi Sun-sin Bridge in Korea, and the Xihoumen Bridge in China to compare the performance of the proposed system with a commercial RTK-GPS sensor and other data fusion techniques.

  11. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  12. Ionospheric Scintillation Effects on GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenburgh, R. A.; Smithtro, C.; Groves, K.

    2007-12-01

    . Ionospheric scintillation of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals threatens navigation and military operations by degrading performance or making GPS unavailable. Scintillation is particularly active, although not limited to, a belt encircling the earth within 20 degrees of the geomagnetic equator. As GPS applications and users increases, so does the potential for detrimental impacts from scintillation. We examined amplitude scintillation data spanning seven years from Ascension Island, U.K.; Ancon, Peru; and Antofagasta, Chile in the Atlantic/Americas longitudinal sector at as well as data from Parepare, Indonesia; Marak Parak, Malaysia; Pontianak, Indonesia; Guam; and Diego Garcia, U.K.; in the Pacific longitudinal sector. From these data, we calculate percent probability of occurrence of scintillation at various intensities described by the S4 index. Additionally, we determine Dilution of Precision at one minute resolution. We examine diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics and make spatial comparisons. In general, activity was greatest during the equinoxes and solar maximum, although scintillation at Antofagasta, Chile was higher during 1998 rather than at solar maximum.

  13. GPS-Aided Video Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Feuerhake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects is both challenging and important for a large variety of applications. Different technologies based on the global positioning system (GPS and video or radio data are used to obtain the trajectories of the observed objects. However, in some use cases, they fail to provide sufficiently accurate, complete and correct data at the same time. In this work we present an approach for fusing GPS- and video-based tracking in order to exploit their individual advantages. In this way we aim to combine the reliability of GPS tracking with the high geometric accuracy of camera detection. For the fusion of the movement data provided by the different devices we use a hidden Markov model (HMM formulation and the Viterbi algorithm to extract the most probable trajectories. In three experiments, we show that our approach is able to deal with challenging situations like occlusions or objects which are temporarily outside the monitored area. The results show the desired increase in terms of accuracy, completeness and correctness.

  14. Briefing Highlights Vulnerability of GPS to Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    Through its effects on GPS and other technologies, space weather can affect a variety of industries, including agriculture, commercial air travel, and emergency response. Speakers focused on these topics at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. Solar flares can produce radio bursts that directly interfere with GPS signals. Solar activity can also cause ionospheric disturbances that produce distortions and delays in GPS signals, degrading the accuracy of positioning and navigation systems.

  15. Geomagnetic storm effects on GPS based navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The energetic events on the sun, solar wind and subsequent effects on the Earth's geomagnetic field and upper atmosphere (ionosphere comprise space weather. Modern navigation systems that use radio-wave signals, reflecting from or propagating through the ionosphere as a means of determining range or distance, are vulnerable to a variety of effects that can degrade the performance of the navigational systems. In particular, the Global Positioning System (GPS that uses a constellation of earth orbiting satellites are affected due to the space weather phenomena.

    Studies made during two successive geomagnetic storms that occurred during the period from 8 to 12 November 2004, have clearly revealed the adverse affects on the GPS range delay as inferred from the Total Electron Content (TEC measurements made from a chain of seven dual frequency GPS receivers installed in the Indian sector. Significant increases in TEC at the Equatorial Ionization anomaly crest region are observed, resulting in increased range delay during the periods of the storm activity. Further, the storm time rapid changes occurring in TEC resulted in a number of phase slips in the GPS signal compared to those on quiet days. These phase slips often result in the loss of lock of the GPS receivers, similar to those that occur during strong(>10 dB L-band scintillation events, adversely affecting the GPS based navigation.

  16. Retained satellite information influences performance of GPS devices in a forested ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Moriarty; Clinton W. Epps

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) units used in animal telemetry often suffer from nonrandom data loss and location error. GPS units use stored satellite information to estimate locations, including almanac and ephemeris data reflecting satellite positions at weekly and at <4-hr temporal scales, respectively. Using the smallest GPS collars (45–51 g) available for...

  17. WGS 84 Coordinate Validation and Improvement for the NIMA and Air Force GPS Tracking Stations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, James

    1996-01-01

    Using 10 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) pseudorange and carrier phase data collected in 1995 from 31 stations and 24 Block II/IIA satellites, estimates of GPS clocks, orbits, and tracking station coordinates were generated...

  18. Azimuth selection for sea level measurements using geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shuangcheng

    2018-03-01

    Based on analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath signals recorded by a geodetic GPS receiver, GPS Reflectometry (GPS-R) has demonstrated unique advantages in relation to sea level monitoring. Founded on multipath reflectometry theory, sea level changes can be measured by GPS-R through spectral analysis of recorded signal-to-noise ratio data. However, prior to estimating multipath parameters, it is necessary to define azimuth and elevation angle mask to ensure the reflecting zones are on water. Here, a method is presented to address azimuth selection, a topic currently under active development in the field of GPS-R. Data from three test sites: the Kachemak Bay GPS site PBAY in Alaska (USA), Friday Harbor GPS site SC02 in the San Juan Islands (USA), and Brest Harbor GPS site BRST in Brest (France) are analyzed. These sites are located in different multipath environments, from a rural coastal area to a busy harbor, and they experience different tidal ranges. Estimates by the GPS tide gauges at azimuths selected by the presented method are compared with measurements from physical tide gauges and acceptable correspondence found for all three sites.

  19. A Kalman filter-based short baseline RTK algorithm for single-frequency combination of GPS and BDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihao; Cui, Xiaowei; Guan, Feng; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-08-20

    The emerging Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) offer more visible satellites for positioning users. To employ those new satellites in a real-time kinematic (RTK) algorithm to enhance positioning precision and availability, a data processing model for the dual constellation of GPS and BDS is proposed and analyzed. A Kalman filter-based algorithm is developed to estimate the float ambiguities for short baseline scenarios. The entire work process of the high-precision algorithm based on the proposed model is deeply investigated in detail. The model is validated with real GPS and BDS data recorded from one zero and two short baseline experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm can generate fixed baseline output with the same precision level as that of either a single GPS or BDS RTK algorithm. The significantly improved fixed rate and time to first fix of the proposed method demonstrates a better availability and effectiveness on processing multi-GNSSs.

  20. A Kalman Filter-Based Short Baseline RTK Algorithm for Single-Frequency Combination of GPS and BDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihao Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS including the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS offer more visible satellites for positioning users. To employ those new satellites in a real-time kinematic (RTK algorithm to enhance positioning precision and availability, a data processing model for the dual constellation of GPS and BDS is proposed and analyzed. A Kalman filter-based algorithm is developed to estimate the float ambiguities for short baseline scenarios. The entire work process of the high-precision algorithm based on the proposed model is deeply investigated in detail. The model is validated with real GPS and BDS data recorded from one zero and two short baseline experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm can generate fixed baseline output with the same precision level as that of either a single GPS or BDS RTK algorithm. The significantly improved fixed rate and time to first fix of the proposed method demonstrates a better availability and effectiveness on processing multi-GNSSs.

  1. GPS-based system for satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Thornton, Catherine L.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance receivers and data processing systems developed for GPS are reviewed. The GPS Inferred Positioning System (GIPSY) and the Orbiter Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) are described. The OASIS software is used to assess GPS system performance using GIPSY for data processing. Consideration is given to parameter estimation for multiday arcs, orbit repeatability, orbit prediction, daily baseline repeatability, agreement with VLBI, and ambiguity resolution. Also, the dual-frequency Rogue receiver, which can track up to eight GPS satellites simultaneously, is discussed.

  2. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  3. GPS observations of coseismic deformation following the 2016, August 24, Mw 6 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy: data, analysis and preliminary fault model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cheloni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used continuous Global Positioning System (GPS measurements to infer the fault geometry and the amount of coseismic slip associated to the August 24, 2016 Mw 6 Amatrice earthquake. We realized a three dimensional coseismic displacement field by combining different geodetic solutions generated by three independent analyses of the raw GPS observations. The coseismic deformation field described in this work aims at representing a consensus solution that minimizes the systematic biases potentially present in the individual geodetic solutions. Because of the limited number of stations available we modeled the measured coseismic displacements using a uniform slip model, deriving the geometry and kinematics of the causative fault, finding good agreement between our geodetically derived fault plane and other seismological and geological observations.

  4. How and Why to Do VLBI on GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish the position of the center of mass of the Earth in the International Celestial Reference Frame, observations of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) constellation using the IVS network are important. With a good frame-tie between the coordinates of the IVS telescopes and nearby GPS receivers, plus a common local oscillator reference signal, it should be possible to observe and record simultaneously signals from the astrometric calibration sources and the GPS satellites. The standard IVS solution would give the atmospheric delay and clock offsets to use in analysis of the GPS data. Correlation of the GPS signals would then give accurate orbital parameters of the satellites in the ICRF reference frame, i.e., relative to the positions of the astrometric sources. This is particularly needed to determine motion of the center of mass of the earth along the rotation axis.

  5. Ionospheric correction for spaceborne single-frequency GPS based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified ionospheric correction method and the corresponding approximate algorithm for spaceborne single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) users are proposed in this study. Single Layer Model (SLM) mapping function for spaceborne GPS was analyzed. SLM mapping functions at different altitudes were ...

  6. Advancing Technology: GPS and GIS Outreach Training for Agricultural Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Allison; Arnold, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Information Systems (GIS) has made significant impacts on agricultural production practices. However, constant changes in the technologies require continuing educational updates. The outreach program described here introduces the operation, use, and applications of GPS receivers and GIS…

  7. Backyard Botany: Using GPS Technology in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…

  8. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  9. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum

  10. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.

  11. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  12. Integrating GPS with Dead Reckoning Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    A vehicle positioning system comprising a GPS receiver, a digital compass, and an odometer was tested on a 2.8-km stretch in Aalborg, Denmark. The system, which merges observations from the three instruments using a Kalman filter, has an update rate of 1 Hz and is intended for use in both urban a...

  13. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  14. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  15. Effect of GPS errors on Emission model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Anders; Gross, Allan

    n this paper we will show how Global Positioning Services (GPS) data obtained from smartphones can be used to model air quality in urban settings. The paper examines the uncertainty of smartphone location utilising GPS, and ties this location uncertainty to air quality models. The results presented...... in this paper indicates that the location error from using smartphones is within the accuracy needed to use the location data in air quality modelling. The nature of smartphone location data enables more accurate and near real time air quality modelling and monitoring. The location data is harvested from user...

  16. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  17. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  18. Localization system for use in GPS denied environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueblood, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The military uses to autonomous platforms to complete missions to provide standoff for the warfighters. However autonomous platforms rely on GPS to provide their global position. In many missions spaces the autonomous platforms may encounter GPS denied environments which limits where the platform operates and requires the warfighters to takes its place. GPS denied environments can occur due to tall building, trees, canyon wall blocking the GPS satellite signals or a lack of coverage. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) uses sensors to detect the vehicle movement and direction its traveling to calculate the vehicle. One of biggest challenges with an INS system is the accuracy and accumulation of errors over time of the sensors. If these challenges can be overcome the INS would provide accurate positioning information to the autonomous vehicle in GPS denied environments and allow them to provide the desired standoff for the warfighters.

  19. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  20. GPS radio collar 3D performance as influenced by forest structure and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Gamo; Mark A. Rumble; Fred Lindzey; Matt Stefanich

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry enables biologists to obtain accurate and systematic locations of animals. Vegetation can block signals from satellites to GPS radio collars. Therefore, a vegetation dependent bias to telemetry data may occur which if quantified, could be accounted for. We evaluated the performance of GPS collars in 6 structural stage...

  1. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  2. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  3. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail

  4. Seasonal and circadian biases in bird tracking with solar GPS-tags

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafa; Afán, Isabel; Gil, Juan A.; Bustamante, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. This geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite GPS geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. In addition, new solar-powered GPS tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. We use a GPS tracking dataset of bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), tracked for several years...

  5. GPS Tomography: Water Vapour Monitoring for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael; Dick, Galina; Wickert, Jens; Raabe, Armin

    2010-05-01

    Ground based GPS atmosphere sounding provides numerous atmospheric quantities with a high temporal resolution for all weather conditions. The spatial resolution of the GPS observations is mainly given by the number of GNSS satellites and GPS ground stations. The latter could considerably be increased in the last few years leading to more reliable and better resolved GPS products. New techniques such as the GPS water vapour tomography gain increased significance as data from large and dense GPS networks become available. The GPS tomography has the potential to provide spatially resolved fields of different quantities operationally, i. e. the humidity or wet refractivity as required for meteorological applications or the refraction index which is important for several space based observations or for precise positioning. The number of German GPS stations operationally processed by the GFZ in Potsdam was recently enlarged to more than 300. About 28000 IWV observations and more than 1.4 millions of slant total delay data are now available per day with a temporal resolution of 15 min and 2.5 min, respectively. The extended network leads not only to a higher spatial resolution of the tomographically reconstructed 3D fields but also to a much higher stability of the inversion process and with that to an increased quality of the results. Under these improved conditions the GPS tomography can operate continuously over several days or weeks without applying too tight constraints. Time series of tomographically reconstructed humidity fields will be shown and different initialisation strategies will be discussed: Initialisation with a simple exponential profile, with a 3D humidity field extrapolated from synoptic observations and with the result of the preceeding reconstruction. The results are compared to tomographic reconstructions initialised with COSMO-DE analyses and to the corresponding model fields. The inversion can be further stabilised by making use of independent

  6. Retrieval and Validation of Precipitable Water Vapor using GPS Datasets of Mobile Observation Vehicle in the Eastern Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, G. T.; Choi, B. C.; Shim, J.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    The results from the global positioning system (GPS) measurements of mobile observation vehicle (MOVE) in the eastern coast of Korea have been compared with a fixed observation reference (REF) values from the fixed GPS sites to assess performance of precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals in a kinematic environment. MOVE-PWV retrievals have comparatively similar trends and reasonable agreement with REF-PWV with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.4 mm and R2 of 0.61 indicating a statistical significance at the 1% level (p-value of 0.01). Especially PWV retrievals from the June cases showed better agreement (mean bias of 2.1 mm and RMSE of 3.8 mm) with the other cases. We further investigated the relationships of determinant factors of GPS signals with the PWV retrievals for the detailed error analysis. As a result, both multipath (MP) errors of L1 and L2 pseudo-range had the best indices (0.75~0.99 m) for the June cases. We also found that both position dilution of precision (PDOP) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) values in June cases during the 1st period (0000~0100 UTC) are better (lower and higher) than those in Non-June cases, which is strongly associated with good accuracy (RMSE of 3.5 mm) of PWV in June cases. These results clearly demonstrate those effects on PWV accuracy, that is, analytic results of the key factors (MP errors, PDOP, and SNR) that could affect GPS signals should be considered for obtaining more stable performance. Taking advantage of MOVE, we would provide water vapor information with high spatial and temporal resolutions in case that weather dramatically changes such as in Korean Peninsula.

  7. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Kai Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC and tightly coupled (TC schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  8. Estimation of kinematic parameters in CALIFA galaxies: no-assumption on internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; CALIFA Team

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple approach to homogeneously estimate kinematic parameters of a broad variety of galaxies (elliptical, spirals, irregulars or interacting systems). This methodology avoids the use of any kinematical model or any assumption on internal dynamics. This simple but novel approach allows us to determine: the frequency of kinematic distortions, systemic velocity, kinematic center, and kinematic position angles which are directly measured from the two dimensional-distributions of radial velocities. We test our analysis tools using the CALIFA Survey

  9. TLALOCNet continuous GPS-Met Array in Mexico supporting the 2017 NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Vivoni, E. R.; Grutter, M.; Serra, Y. L.; DeMets, C.; Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a network of continuous GPS and meteorology stations in Mexico to study atmospheric and solid earth processes. This recently completed network spans most of Mexico with a strong coverage emphasis on southern and western Mexico. This network, funded by NSF, CONACyT and UNAM, recently built 40 cGPS-Met sites to EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory standards and upgraded 25 additional GPS stations. TLALOCNet provides open and freely available raw GPS data, and high frequency surface meteorology measurements, and time series of daily positions. This is accomplished through the development of the TLALOCNet data center (http://tlalocnet.udg.mx) that serves as a collection and distribution point. This data center is based on UNAVCO's Dataworks-GSAC software and also works as part of UNAVCO's seamless archive for discovery, sharing, and access to GPS data. The TLALOCNet data center also contains contributed data from several regional GPS networks in Mexico for a total of 100+ stations. By using the same protocols and structure as the UNAVCO and other COCONet regional data centers, the scientific community has the capability of accessing data from the largest Mexican GPS network. This archive provides a fully queryable and scriptable GPS and Meteorological data retrieval point. In addition, real-time 1Hz streams from selected TLALOCNet stations are available in BINEX, RTCM 2.3 and RTCM 3.1 formats via the Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) for real-time seismic and weather forecasting applications. TLALOCNet served as a GPS-Met backbone for the binational Mexico-US North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017 campaign experiment. This innovative experiment attempts to address water vapor source regions and land-surface water vapor flux contributions to precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) during the 2017 North American Monsoon in Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona. Models suggest that moisture recycling is

  10. GPS Modeling and Analysis. Summary of Research: GPS Satellite Axial Ratio Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Penina; Reeh, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the algorithms developed at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research to model yaw and predict the axial ratio as measured from a ground station. The algorithms are implemented in a collection of Matlab functions and scripts that read certain user input, such as ground station coordinates, the UTC time, and the desired GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, and compute the above-mentioned parameters. The position information for the GPS satellites is obtained from Yuma almanac files corresponding to the prescribed date. The results are displayed graphically through time histories and azimuth-elevation plots.

  11. DOTD standards for GPS data collection accuracy : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), which includes GPS technologies : maintained by the United States, are used extensively throughout government : and industry. These technologies continue to revolutionize positional data : collection acti...

  12. Developing a GPS-based truck freight performance measure platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Although trucks move the largest volume and value of goods in urban areas, relatively little is known about their travel : patterns and how the roadway network performs for trucks. Global positioning systems (GPS) used by trucking : companies to mana...

  13. A Usability Survey of GPS Avionics Equipment: Some Preliminary Findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    The rapid introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for airborne navigation has outpaced the capacity of international aviation authorities to resolve human factors issues that concern safe and efficient use of such devices...

  14. SMEX02 Airborne GPS Bistatic Radar Data, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals reflected from the Earth’s surface and collected on an airborne platform. The...

  15. Advances in robot kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  16. GPS antenna designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Samuel J. P.

    1987-05-01

    Application of the current GPS NAVSTAR system to civilian service requires that a right hand, circularly polarized, -160 dBW spread spectrum signal be received from an orbiting satellite, where the antenna environment is also moving. This presents a design challenge when inexpensive antennas are desired. The intent of this survey is to provide information on the antennas mentioned and to construct and test prototypes to determine whether the choice made by the industry, the quadrifilar helix, is the best. The helix antenna is currently the low cost standard for GPS. Prototype versions were constructed using 12 gauge wire and subminiature coaxial hardline. The constructed antennas were tested using a signal generator and a reference turnstile. A spectrum analyzer was used to measure the level of the received signal.

  17. GPS & Galileo. Friendly Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    some of their data, others employ different techniques. United States defense contractor Lockheed Martin developed an anti-jam GPS receiver in 2000 for...Europe in a New Generation of Satellite Navigation Services,” European Commission (9 Feb 1999): 16. 25. Ibid. 26. Anne Jolis , “Problems Run Rampant...European Outer Space,” Euro Topics (19 March 2007), found at http://www.eurotopics.net/en/presseschau/archiv/archiv_dossier/DOSSIER15435. 40. Jolis

  18. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  19. Radiotracking large wilderness mammals: Integration of GPS and Argos technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n=19) and GPS unites where the data were stored on board (n=10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos united obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (Pbears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  20. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS, ground penetrating radar, resistivity surveying, cone penetrometer probing, and soil sampling were used to measure soil properties that may influence future soil and water management research inherent to a selected set of research fields. A topographic map generated fr...

  1. GPS Usage in a Population of Low-Vision Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuras, Maria; Chun, Robert; Lee, Patrick; Jay, Walter M; Pusateri, Gregg

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed bioptic and non-bioptic low-vision drivers in Illinois, USA, to determine their usage of global positioning system (GPS) devices. Low-vision patients completed an IRB-approved phone survey regarding driving demographics and usage of GPS while driving. Participants were required to be active drivers with an Illinois driver's license, and met one of the following criteria: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than or equal to 20/40, central or significant peripheral visual field defects, or a combination of both. Of 27 low-vision drivers, 10 (37%) used GPS while driving. The average age for GPS users was 54.3 and for non-users was 77.6. All 10 drivers who used GPS while driving reported increased comfort or safety level. Since non-GPS users were significantly older than GPS users, it is likely that older participants would benefit from GPS technology training from their low-vision eye care professionals.

  2. Accuracy assessment of high-rate GPS measurements for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Ekström, G.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of GPS measurements with a controlled laboratory system, built to simulate the ground motions caused by tectonic earthquakes and other transient geophysical signals such as glacial earthquakes, enables us to assess the technique of high-rate GPS. The root-mean-square (rms) position error of this system when undergoing realistic simulated seismic motions is 0.05~mm, with maximum position errors of 0.1~mm, thus providing "ground truth" GPS displacements. We have acquired an extensive set of high-rate GPS measurements while inducing seismic motions on a GPS antenna mounted on this system with a temporal spectrum similar to real seismic events. We found that, for a particular 15-min-long test event, the rms error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates was 2.5~mm, with maximum position errors of 10~mm, and the error spectrum of the GPS estimates was approximately flicker noise. These results may however represent a best-case scenario since they were obtained over a short (~10~m) baseline, thereby greatly mitigating baseline-dependent errors, and when the number and distribution of satellites on the sky was good. For example, we have determined that the rms error can increase by a factor of 2--3 as the GPS constellation changes throughout the day, with an average value of 3.5~mm for eight identical, hourly-spaced, consecutive test events. The rms error also increases with increasing baseline, as one would expect, with an average rms error for a ~1400~km baseline of 9~mm. We will present an assessment of the accuracy of high-rate GPS based on these measurements, discuss the implications of this study for seismology, and describe new applications in glaciology.

  3. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  4. FAA aircraft certification human factors and operations checklist for standalone GPS receivers (TSO C129 Class A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This document is a checklist designed to assist Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) certification personnel and global : positioning system (GPS) receiver manufacturers in the evaluation of the pilot-system interface characteristlcs of GPS : recieve...

  5. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. PMID:22574061

  6. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco de Haan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

  7. Current and planned use of the Navstar Global Positioning System by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA was quick to realize the potential that the Global Positioning System (GPS) had to offer for its many diverse vehicles, experiments and platforms. Soon after the first Block 1 GPS satellites were launched, NASA began to use the tremendous capabilities that they had to offer. Even with a partial GPS constellation in place, important results have been obtained about the shape, orientation and rotation of the earth and calibration of the ionosphere and troposphere. These calibrations enhance geophysical science and facilitate the navigation of interplanetary spacecraft. Some very important results have been obtained in the continuing NASA program for aircraft terminal area operations. Currently, a large amount of activity is being concentrated on real time kinematic carrier phase tracking which has the potential to revolutionize aircraft navigation. This year marks the launch of the first GPS receiver equipped earth-orbiting NASA spacecraft: the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon). This paper describes a cross section of GPS-based research at NASA.

  8. Why GPS makes distances bigger than they are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranacher, Peter; Brunauer, Richard; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Van der Spek, Stefan; Reich, Siegfried

    2016-02-01

    Global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most important sensors for movement analysis. GPS is widely used to record the trajectories of vehicles, animals and human beings. However, all GPS movement data are affected by both measurement and interpolation errors. In this article we show that measurement error causes a systematic bias in distances recorded with a GPS; the distance between two points recorded with a GPS is - on average - bigger than the true distance between these points. This systematic 'overestimation of distance' becomes relevant if the influence of interpolation error can be neglected, which in practice is the case for movement sampled at high frequencies. We provide a mathematical explanation of this phenomenon and illustrate that it functionally depends on the autocorrelation of GPS measurement error ( C ). We argue that C can be interpreted as a quality measure for movement data recorded with a GPS. If there is a strong autocorrelation between any two consecutive position estimates, they have very similar error. This error cancels out when average speed, distance or direction is calculated along the trajectory. Based on our theoretical findings we introduce a novel approach to determine C in real-world GPS movement data sampled at high frequencies. We apply our approach to pedestrian trajectories and car trajectories. We found that the measurement error in the data was strongly spatially and temporally autocorrelated and give a quality estimate of the data. Most importantly, our findings are not limited to GPS alone. The systematic bias and its implications are bound to occur in any movement data collected with absolute positioning if interpolation error can be neglected.

  9. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-03

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  10. Real Time Monitoring of GPS-IGU orbits and clocks as a tool to disseminate corrections to GPS-Broadcast Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, G.; Opitz, M.; Weber, R.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays RTIGS and NTRIP have become standards for real time GNSS based positioning applications. The IGS (International GNSS Service) Real-Time Working Group disseminates via Internet (RTIGS) raw observation data of a subset of stations of the IGS network. This observation data can be used to establish a real-time integrity monitoring of the IGS predicted orbits (Ultra Rapid (IGU-) Orbits) and clocks, according to the recommendations of the IGS Workshop 2004 in Bern and in a further step correction terms for improving the accuracy of the GPS broadcast ephemerides can be calculated. The Institute for "Geodesy and Geophysics" of the TU-Vienna develops in cooperation with the IGS Real-Time Working Group the software "RTR- Control", which currently provides a real-time integrity monitoring of predicted IGU Satellite Clock Corrections to GPS Time. The real-time orbit calculation and monitoring of the predicted IGU satellite orbits is currently in a testing phase and will be operable in the near future. A kinematic model and calculated ranges to the satellites are combined in a KALMAN-Filter approach. Currently the most recent GPS- Satellite Clock Corrections are published in Real Time via Internet. A 24 - hour clock RINEX file and the IGU SP3 files modified for the associated clock corrections are stored on the ftp-server of the institute. To perform the task of calculating corrections to the broadcast ephemerides three programs are used, which are BNC (BKG Ntrip Client) and BNS (BKG Ntrip State Space Server) from BKG (Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geoinformation) as well as RTR-Control. BNC receives the GPS-broadcast ephemerides from the Ntrip-Caster and forwards them to BNS. RTR-Control calculates the satellite clocks and in future also the satellite orbits and forwards them in SP3-format to BNS. BNS calculates the correction terms to the broadcast ephemerides and delivers it in RTCM 3.x format (proprietary message 4056) back to the Ntrip-caster. Subsequently

  11. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  12. GPS: Public Utility or Software Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    train for GPS loss, encourage use of GPS signal integrity monitors , develop in- vehicle GPS backups, and evaluate the range of radio...literature prevent the full quantification of exactly how vulnerable GPS is to service interruption. This thesis used constant comparison analysis to...criticality, resilience, and vulnerability. This methodology overcomes research limitations by using GPS system design, operations, and policies as

  13. Forward and inverse kinematics of double universal joint robot wrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1991-01-01

    A robot wrist consisting of two universal joints can eliminate the wrist singularity problem found on many individual robots. Forward and inverse position and velocity kinematics are presented for such a wrist having three degrees of freedom. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters are derived to find the transforms required for the kinematic equations. The Omni-Wrist, a commercial double universal joint robot wrist, is studied in detail. There are four levels of kinematic parameters identified for this wrist; three forward and three inverse maps are presented for both position and velocity. These equations relate the hand coordinate frame to the wrist base frame. They are sufficient for control of the wrist standing alone. When the wrist is attached to a manipulator arm; the offset between the two universal joints complicates the solution of the overall kinematics problem. All wrist coordinate frame origins are not coincident, which prevents decoupling of position and orientation for manipulator inverse kinematics.

  14. Inverse kinematic-based robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.

  15. Global Geodesy Using GPS Without Fiducial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Michael B.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1994-01-01

    Global Positioning System, GPS, used to make global geodetic measurements without use of fiducial site coordinates. Baseline lengths and geocentric radii for each site determined without having to fix any site coordinates. Given n globally distributed sites, n baseline lengths and n geocentric radii form polyhedron with each site at vertex and with geocenter at intersection of all radii. Geodetic information derived from structure of polyhedron and its change with time. Approach applied to any global geodetic technique.

  16. Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles

  17. Routing Unmanned Vehicles in GPS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Kaarthik; Misra, Sohum; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Sharma, Rajnikant

    2017-01-01

    Most of the routing algorithms for unmanned vehicles, that arise in data gathering and monitoring applications in the literature, rely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) information for localization. However, disruption of GPS signals either intentionally or unintentionally could potentially render these algorithms not applicable. In this article, we present a novel method to address this difficulty by combining methods from cooperative localization and routing. In particular, the article...

  18. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Bikonis; Jerzy Demkowicz

    2013-01-01

    The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS) is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The c...

  19. The GPS odograph user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GPS-based Odograph Prototype (GOP or GPS Odograph) was developed in an effort sponsored by The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The purpose of this effort was to develop a means of using inexpensive commercial off-the-self laptop (or notebo...

  20. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  1. Sensing human activity : GPS tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, P.G.; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for

  2. Selected Problems of Determining the Course of Railway Routes by Use of GPS Network Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary

    2011-09-01

    The main problem related to railroad surveying design and its maintenance is the necessity to operate in local geodetic reference systems caused by the long rail sections with straight lines and curvatures of the running edge. Due to that reason the geodetic railroad classical surveying methods requires to divide all track for a short measurement section and that caused additional errors. Development of the Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning methods operating in the standardized World Geodetic System (WGS-84) allowed verification of capability of utilization GPS measurements for railroad surveying. It can be stated that implemented satellite measurement techniques opens a whole new perspective on applied research and enables very precise determination of data for railway line determining, modernization and design. The research works focused on implementation GNSS multi-receivers measurement positioning platform for projecting and stock-taking working based on polish active geodesic network ASG-EUPOS, as a reference frame. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track few campaigns were realized in 2009 and 2010. Leica GPS Total station system 1200 SmartRover (with ATX1230 GG antennas) receivers were located in the diameter of the measurement platform. Polish Active Geodetic Network ASG-EUPOS was used as a reference network transmitted Real Time Kinematic Positioning Service according to RTCM 3.1 standard. Optimum time period were selected for GNSS campaign and testing area was chosen without large obstructions. The article presents some surveying results of the measurement campaigns and also discusses the accuracy of the course determination. Analyzes and implementation of results in railroad design process are also discussed.

  3. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were 50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  4. Coordinate transformations, orthographic projections, and robot kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochetiere, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Humans do not consciously think of moving each of their joints while they move their hands from one place to another. Likewise, robot arms can be commanded to move about in cartesian space without the need to address the individual joints. To do this, the direct and inverse kinematic equations of any robot arm must be derived. The direct kinematic equations uniquely transform the joint positions into the position (and orientation) of the hand, whereas the inverse kinematic equations transform the position (and orientation) of the hand into joint positions. The derivation of the inverse kinematic equations for any particular robot is a difficult problem which may have more than one solution. In this paper, these equations are derived for a six degree of freedom robot arm. A combination of matrix operations to perform coordinate rotations, and trigonometry within the appropriate orthographic projects to perform coordinate translations is employed. This complementary approach yields a solution which is more easily obtained, and also more easily visualized. The resulting solution was programmed into a real-time computer as a part of a higher level software system to control the motion of the arm

  5. Dynamic characteristics of mirrors' kinematic mount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenkai; Du Qiang; Li Jingze; Chen Gang; Chen Xiaojuan; Xu Yuanli

    2002-01-01

    Applying exact constrain design principles, kinematic mount for precision positioning large aperture mirrors is designed; theoretical method is introduced to analyze its dynamic characteristics and the result of the experiment for mirrors, stability; accordingly, the methods to improve design are put forward

  6. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  7. Teaching about Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written by Jim and Jane Nelson, Teaching About Kinematics is the latest AAPT/PTRA resource book. Based on physics education research, the book provides teachers with the resources needed to introduce students to some of the fundamental building blocks of physics. It is a carefully thought-out, step-by-step laboratory-based introduction to the…

  8. Transport on prescription: How can GPs contribute to the promotion of active transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoll, Chance; Furler, John

    2017-10-01

    Active transport (ie walking, cycling, using public transport) can play a part in reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Very little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) can contribute to promoting active transport. We explored GPs' ideas around active transport, and potential barriers and facilitators to its promotion in the clinical setting. Using a maximal variation sample, we conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The socioecological model informed data collection and analysis. The idea of active transport resonated with GPs. Limited awareness around active transport and safety concerns regarding commuter cycling were barriers to clinical promotion. GPs believed patients' health, cultural norms, socioeconomic position and access to supportive environments could facilitate participation. Future efforts should prioritise awareness of active transport among GPs. The perspectives of GPs would be valuable to policymakers, particularly in designing programs to mitigate inequalities around active transport access and use.

  9. Tightly-Coupled Integration of Multi-GNSS Single-Frequency RTK and MEMS-IMU for Enhanced Positioning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuan; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Gao, Zhouzheng

    2017-10-27

    Dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) Real-time Kinematics (RTK) has been proven in the past few years to be a reliable and efficient technique to obtain high accuracy positioning. However, there are still challenges for GPS single-frequency RTK, such as low reliability and ambiguity resolution (AR) success rate, especially in kinematic environments. Recently, multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (multi-GNSS) has been applied to enhance the RTK performance in terms of availability and reliability of AR. In order to further enhance the multi-GNSS single-frequency RTK performance in terms of reliability, continuity and accuracy, a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) is adopted in this contribution. We tightly integrate the single-frequency GPS/BeiDou/GLONASS and MEMS-IMU through the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which directly fuses the ambiguity-fixed double-differenced (DD) carrier phase observables and IMU data. A field vehicular test was carried out to evaluate the impacts of the multi-GNSS and IMU on the AR and positioning performance in different system configurations. Test results indicate that the empirical success rate of single-epoch AR for the tightly-coupled single-frequency multi-GNSS RTK/INS integration is over 99% even at an elevation cut-off angle of 40°, and the corresponding position time series is much more stable in comparison with the GPS solution. Besides, GNSS outage simulations show that continuous positioning with certain accuracy is possible due to the INS bridging capability when GNSS positioning is not available.

  10. GPS Water Vapor Tomography Based on Accurate Estimations of the GPS Tropospheric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champollion, C.; Masson, F.; Bock, O.; Bouin, M.; Walpersdorf, A.; Doerflinger, E.; van Baelen, J.; Brenot, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now a common technique for the retrieval of zenithal integrated water vapor (IWV). Further applications in meteorology need also slant integrated water vapor (SIWV) which allow to precisely define the high variability of tropospheric water vapor at different temporal and spatial scales. Only precise estimations of IWV and horizontal gradients allow the estimation of accurate SIWV. We present studies developed to improve the estimation of tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. Results are obtained from several field experiments (MAP, ESCOMPTE, OHM-CV, IHOP, .). First IWV are estimated using different GPS processing strategies and results are compared to radiosondes. The role of the reference frame and the a priori constraints on the coordinates of the fiducial and local stations is generally underestimated. It seems to be of first order in the estimation of the IWV. Second we validate the estimated horizontal gradients comparing zenith delay gradients and single site gradients. IWV, gradients and post-fit residuals are used to construct slant integrated water delays. Validation of the SIWV is under progress comparing GPS SIWV, Lidar measurements and high resolution meteorological models (Meso-NH). A careful analysis of the post-fit residuals is needed to separate tropospheric signal from multipaths. The slant tropospheric delays are used to study the 3D heterogeneity of the troposphere. We develop a tomographic software to model the three-dimensional distribution of the tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. The software is applied to the ESCOMPTE field experiment, a dense network of 17 dual frequency GPS receivers operated in southern France. Three inversions have been successfully compared to three successive radiosonde launches. Good resolution is obtained up to heights of 3000 m.

  11. GPS on Every Roof, GPS Sensor Network for Post-Seismic Building-Wise Damage Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Oguni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of wireless sensor network equipped with GPS for post-seismic building-wise damage identification is presented in this paper. This system is called GPS on Every Roof. Sensor node equipped with GPS antenna and receiver is installed on the top of the roof of each and every building. The position of this sensor node is measured before and after earthquake. The final goal of this system is to i identify the displacement of the roof of each house and ii collect the information of displacement of the roof of the houses through wireless communication. Superposing this information on GIS, building-wise damage distribution due to earthquake can be obtained. The system overview, hardware and some of the key components of the system such as on-board GPS relative positioning algorithm to achieve the accuracy in the order of several centimeters are described in detail. Also, the results from a field experiment using a wireless sensor network with 39 sensor nodes are presented.

  12. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  13. Using cluster analysis to organize and explore regional GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert W.; Thatcher, Wayne; Savage, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers a simple visual exploratory tool for the initial investigation of regional Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity observations, which are providing increasingly precise mappings of actively deforming continental lithosphere. The deformation fields from dense regional GPS networks can often be concisely described in terms of relatively coherent blocks bounded by active faults, although the choice of blocks, their number and size, can be subjective and is often guided by the distribution of known faults. To illustrate our method, we apply cluster analysis to GPS velocities from the San Francisco Bay Region, California, to search for spatially coherent patterns of deformation, including evidence of block-like behavior. The clustering process identifies four robust groupings of velocities that we identify with four crustal blocks. Although the analysis uses no prior geologic information other than the GPS velocities, the cluster/block boundaries track three major faults, both locked and creeping.

  14. A Mobile GPS Application: Mosque Tracking with Prayer Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rathiah; Ikhmatiar, Mohammad Sibghotulloh; Surip, Miswan; Karmin, Masiri; Herawan, Tutut

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular technology applied in many areas and embedded in many devices, facilitating end-users to navigate effectively to user's intended destination via the best calculated route. The ability of GPS to track precisely according to coordinates of specific locations can be utilized to assist a Muslim traveler visiting or passing an unfamiliar place to find the nearest mosque in order to perform his prayer. However, not many techniques have been proposed for Mosque tracking. This paper presents the development of GPS technology in tracking the nearest mosque using mobile application software embedded with the prayer time's synchronization system on a mobile application. The prototype GPS system developed has been successfully incorporated with a map and several mosque locations.

  15. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  16. Application of GPS systems on a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peter; Saxena, Mayank; Tedder, Maurice; Mischalske, Steve; Hall, Ernest L.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as geographic information and navigational system for a ground based mobile robot. Several low cost wireless systems are now available for a variety of innovative automobile applications including location, messaging and tracking and security. Experiments were conducted with a test bed mobile robot, Bearcat II, for point-to-point motion using a Motorola GPS in June 2001. The Motorola M12 Oncore GPS system is connected to the Bearcat II main control computer through a RS232 interface. A mapping program is used to define a desired route. Then GPS information may be displayed for verification. However, the GPS information is also used to update the control points of the mobile robot using a reinforcement learning method. Local position updates are also used when found in the environment. The significance of the method is in extending the use of GPS to local vehicle control that requires more resolution that is available from the raw data using the adaptive control method.

  17. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  19. Hastighedskort for Danmark vha. GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Hastighed på vejnettet er en central metrik indenfor trafikplanlægning og trafikoptimering. I denne artikel beskrives, hvorledes et hastighedskort for hele Danmark er skabt udelukkende vha. GPS data. To tilgangsvinkler til at beregne hastigheder vha. GPS data er præsenteret. Dette er hhv. en....... Opsummeret anses den turbaseret for at beregne det mest akkurate estimat, men metoden er meget datakrævende. Det er derfor nødvendigt at have den punktbaserede at falde tilbage på. Generelt mangler metoder til beregning af hastigheder vha. GPS data at blive valideret. Hvordan en sådan validering kan...

  20. Kinematic segmentation of accretive wedges based on scaled sandbox experiments and their application to nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, J.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.

    2003-04-01

    Recording the incremental displacement field of scaled analogue simulations provides detailed data on wedge kinematics and timing of internal deformation. This is a very efficient tool to develop kinematic concepts and test mechanical theories, e.g. the critical-taper theory. Such models could not be validated until now by the available geological and geophysical data, since there was no information about the incremental displacement field. Recent GPS measurements and seismological investigations at convergent margins provide well-constrained strain-rates and kinematics of short-termed processes. These data allow the kinematic models that are based on analogue simulations to be tested against field observations. We investigate convergent accretive sand wedges in scaled analogue simulations. We define three kinematic segments based on distinctive wedge taper, displacement field and timing of deformation (recorded at a slow sampling rate, which represents the geological scale). Only one of these segments is in a critical state of stress, whereas the other segments are either in a sub-critical or stable state of stress. Such a kinematic segmentation is not predicted for ideally homogeneous wedge-shaped bodies by the critical-taper theory, but can be explained by the formation of localised weak shear zones, which preferentially accommodate deformation. These weak zones are formed in granular analogue materials, and also in natural rocks, since these materials show a strain-softening phase prior to the achievement of stable mechanical conditions. Therefore we suggest that the kinematic segmentation of convergent sand wedges should also be observed in natural settings, such as accretionary wedges, foreland fold-and-thrust belts and even entire orogens. To validate this hypothesis we compare strain rates from GPS measurements and kinematics deduced from focal mechanisms with the respective data from sandbox experiments. We present a strategy to compare strain rates and

  1. Kinematics and Dynamics of an Asymmetrical Parallel Robotic Wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an asymmetrical parallel robotic wrist, which can generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and achieve high positioning accuracy. The kinematics, dexterity, and singularities of the manipulator are investigated to visualize the performance contours of the manipulator...

  2. Dose exposure work planning using DMU kinematics tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan

    2010-01-01

    The study on the possibility of using DMU Kinematics module in CAE tools for dose exposure work planning was carried out. A case scenario was created using 3D CAD software and transferred to DMU Kinematics module in CAE software. A work plan was created using DMU Kinematics tools and animated to simulate a real time scenario. Data on the phantom position against the radioactive source was collected by activating positioning sensors in the module. The data was used to estimate dose rate exposure for the phantom. The results can be used to plan the safest and optimum procedures in carrying out the radiation related task. (author)

  3. An adaptive inverse kinematics algorithm for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics problem for robot manipulators is presented. The algorithm is derived using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) theory and is computationally efficient for online applications. The scheme requires no a priori knowledge of the kinematics of the robot if Cartesian end-effector sensing is available, and it requires knowledge of only the forward kinematics if joint position sensing is used. Computer simulation results are given for the redundant seven-DOF robotics research arm, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm yields accurate joint angle trajectories for a given end-effector position/orientation trajectory.

  4. GPS Monitoring of Surface Change During and Following the Fortuitous Occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers Earthquake in our Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our

  5. 75 FR 8928 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS-800 Interface Control Working Group (ICWG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS... document/s IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces), IS-GPS-705A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L5 Interfaces), and IS-GPS-800A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L1C...

  6. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  7. Evaluation of some software measuring displacements using GPS in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, John

    2006-01-01

    from an linear combination of the L1 and L2 carrier phase and code data. The lowest noise observable is the L1 carrier, but it is biased by ionospheric refraction that has amplitudes of about 1 to 10 ppm. This results in a systematic scale error in the relative positions. The L3 phase noise is about 3 times greater than the L1 phase noise, but it is generally used to solve for all but the shortest baselines (studies the LC or ionospheric free observable is used) and the integer ambiguities are resolved independently for each 1-second measurement; Most GPS software that use double-differences require several epochs of measurements to resolve the integer ambiguities. The data files use a proprietary format and can not be read by me or others; rather, Yehuda Bock at UCSD (and author of RTD) translates these files into a standard format that can be read by me.Recently, Tom Herring of MIT has modified the GAMIT software to process kinematically GPS data (www-gpsg.mit.edu/~simon/gtgk/tutorial/Lecture_13.pdf). At this time, the software, known as TRACK, does not process the observations in real-time. Consequently, the latency between the time of the observation and the time when a position estimate is available depends upon the frequency that the data are downloaded and the speed of actually processing the observations; there could be a delay of an hour or two before the a position estimates are available. Unlike RTD and 3DTracker, TRACK comes with GAMIT (which is distributed freely) and is currently operating in a test mode at the USGS office in Pasadena. The LC or ionosphere free observable is used in our TRACK solutions. JPL has a version of their GIPSY software called “Real-time GIPSY (RTG)” (gipsy.jpl.nasa.gov/orms/rtg), which, like TRACK, can process the pseudo-range data “off—line”. However, this software is not freely distributed. Instead, at least one company, NAVCOM, has teamed with JPL to integrate RTG with GPS receivers and telemetry that yields

  8. Geometry-specified troposphere decorrelation for subcentimeter real-time kinematic solutions over long baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bofeng; Feng, Yanming; Shen, Yunzhong; Wang, Charles

    2010-11-01

    Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS techniques have been extensively developed for applications including surveying, structural monitoring, and machine automation. Limitations of the existing RTK techniques that hinder their applications for geodynamics purposes are twofold: (1) the achievable RTK accuracy is on the level of a few centimeters and the uncertainty of vertical component is 1.5-2 times worse than those of horizontal components and (2) the RTK position uncertainty grows in proportional to the base-to-rover distances. The key limiting factor behind the problems is the significant effect of residual tropospheric errors on the positioning solutions, especially on the highly correlated height component. This paper develops the geometry-specified troposphere decorrelation strategy to achieve the subcentimeter kinematic positioning accuracy in all three components. The key is to set up a relative zenith tropospheric delay (RZTD) parameter to absorb the residual tropospheric effects and to solve the established model as an ill-posed problem using the regularization method. In order to compute a reasonable regularization parameter to obtain an optimal regularized solution, the covariance matrix of positional parameters estimated without the RZTD parameter, which is characterized by observation geometry, is used to replace the quadratic matrix of their "true" values. As a result, the regularization parameter is adaptively computed with variation of observation geometry. The experiment results show that new method can efficiently alleviate the model's ill condition and stabilize the solution from a single data epoch. Compared to the results from the conventional least squares method, the new method can improve the long-range RTK solution precision from several centimeters to the subcentimeter in all components. More significantly, the precision of the height component is even higher. Several geosciences applications that require subcentimeter real-time solutions can

  9. GPS receivers for georeferencing of spatial variability of soil attributes Receptores GPS para georreferenciamento da variabilidade espacial de atributos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Rosalen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the spatial variability of soil attributes is essential to support agricultural practices in a sustainable manner. The use of geostatistics to characterize spatial variability of these attributes, such as soil resistance to penetration (RP and gravimetric soil moisture (GM is now usual practice in precision agriculture. The result of geostatistical analysis is dependent on the sample density and other factors according to the georeferencing methodology used. Thus, this study aimed to compare two methods of georeferencing to characterize the spatial variability of RP and GM as well as the spatial correlation of these variables. Sampling grid of 60 points spaced 20 m was used. For RP measurements, an electronic penetrometer was used and to determine the GM, a Dutch auger (0.0-0.1 m depth was used. The samples were georeferenced using a GPS navigation receiver, Simple Point Positioning (SPP with navigation GPS receiver, and Semi-Kinematic Relative Positioning (SKRP with an L1 geodetic GPS receiver. The results indicated that the georeferencing conducted by PPS did not affect the characterization of spatial variability of RP or GM, neither the spatial structure relationship of these attributes.A caracterização da variabilidade espacial dos atributos do solo é indispensável para subsidiar práticas agrícolas de maneira sustentável. A utilização da geoestatística para caracterizar a variabilidade espacial desses atributos, como a resistência mecânica do solo à penetração (RP e a umidade gravimétrica do solo (UG, é, hoje, prática usual na agricultura de precisão. O resultado da análise geoestatística é dependente da densidade amostral e de outros fatores, como o método de georreferencimento utilizado. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar dois métodos de georreferenciamento para a caracterização da variabilidade espacial da RP e da UG, bem como a correlação espacial dessas vari

  10. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  11. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  12. GPS-based tracking system for TOPEX orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system concept is discussed that is based on the utilization of the constellation of Navstar satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS). The concept involves simultaneous and continuous metric tracking of the signals from all visible Navstar satellites by approximately six globally distributed ground terminals and by the TOPEX spacecraft at 1300-km altitude. Error studies indicate that this system could be capable of obtaining decimeter position accuracies and, most importantly, around 5 cm in the radial component which is key to exploiting the full accuracy potential of the altimetric measurements for ocean topography. Topics covered include: background of the GPS, the precision mode for utilization of the system, past JPL research for using the GPS in precision applications, the present tracking system concept for high accuracy satellite positioning, and results from a proof-of-concept demonstration.

  13. Expressions of manipulator kinematic equations via symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1993-09-01

    While it is simple in principle to determine the position and orientation of the manipulator hand, its computational process has been regarded as extremely laborious since trigonometric functions must be calculated many times in operations of revolute or rotation. Due to development of a general class of kinematic algorithm based on iterative methods, however, we have come to a satisfactory settlement of this problem. In the present article, we consider to construct symbolic kinematic equations in an automatic fashion making use of the algorithm. To this end, recursive expressions are applied to a symbolic computation system REDUCE. As a concrete result, a complete kinematic model for a six-jointed arm having all kinematic attributes is provided. Together with work space analysis, the computer-aided generation of kinematic equations in symbolic form will serve to liberate us from their cumbersome derivations. (author)

  14. Kinematic models of extensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshong, R.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses kinematic models that can relate faults of different types and different positions within a single dynamic system and thereby offer the potential to explain the disparate seismic activity characteristic of extensional terrains. The major styles are full grabens, half grabens, domino blocks, and glide-block systems. Half grabens, the most likely models for Basin and Range structure, are formed above a master fault of decreasing dip with depth and a hangingwall that deforms as it passes over the curved fault. Second-order normal faults, typically domino style, accommodate the required hangingwall deformation. According to the author low-angle detachment faults are consistent with the evidence of seismicity only on high-angle faults if the hangingwall of the detachment is broken by multiple half-graben systems

  15. Teaching Resources and Instructor Professional Development for Integrating Laser Scanning, Structure from Motion, and GPS Surveying into Undergraduate Field Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Douglas, B. J.; Crosby, B. T.; Crosby, C. J.; Lauer, I. H.; Shervais, K.

    2017-12-01

    Field experiences have long been considered an integral part of geoscience learning. However, as data acquisition technologies evolve, undergraduate field courses need to keep pace so students gain exposure to new technologies relevant to the modern workforce. Maintaining expertise on new technologies is also challenging to established field education programs. Professional development and vetted curriculum present an opportunity to advance student exposure to new geoscience data acquisition technology. The GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI) Field Collection, funded by NSF's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education program, addresses these needs in geodesy field education. Geodesy is the science of accurately measuring Earth's size, shape, orientation, mass distribution and the variations of these with time. Modern field geodesy methods include terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), kinematic and static GPS/GNSS surveying (global positioning system/global navigation satellite system), and structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. The GETSI Field Collection is a collaborative project between UNAVCO, Indiana University, and Idaho State University. The project is provides curriculum modules and instructor training (in the form of short courses) to facilitate the inclusion of SfM, TLS, and GPS surveying into geoscience courses with field components. The first module - Analyzing High Resolution Topography with TLS and SfM - is available via SERC; (serc.carleton.edu/getsi/teaching_materials/high-rez-topo) the second module - "High Precision Positioning with Static and Kinematic GPS/GNSS" - will be published in 2018. The module development and assessment follows the standards of the InTeGrate Project (an NSF STEP Center)previously tested on geodesy content in the GETSI classroom collection (serc.carleton.edu/getsi). This model emphasizes use of best practices in STEM education, including situating learning in the context of societal importance. Analysis of student work

  16. Soil Moisture Retrieval Based on GPS Signal Strength Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM is a highly relevant variable for agriculture, the emergence of floods and a key variable in the global energy and water cycle. In the last years, several satellite missions have been launched especially to derive large-scale products of the SM dynamics on the Earth. However, in situ validation data are often scarce. We developed a new method to retrieve SM of bare soil from measurements of low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System sensors that receive the freely available GPS L1-band signals. The experimental setup of three GPS sensors was installed at a bare soil field at the German Weather Service (DWD in Munich for almost 1.5 years. Two GPS antennas were installed within the soil column at a depth of 10 cm and one above the soil. SM was successfully retrieved based on GPS signal strength losses through the integral soil volume. The results show high agreement with measured and modelled SM validation data. Due to its non-destructive, cheap and low power setup, GPS sensor networks could also be used for potential applications in remote areas, aiming to serve as satellite validation data and to support the fields of agriculture, water supply, flood forecasting and climate change.

  17. Relationships between GPS-signal propagation errors and EISCAT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available When travelling through the ionosphere the signals of space-based radio navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS are subject to modifications in amplitude, phase and polarization. In particular, phase changes due to refraction lead to propagation errors of up to 50 m for single-frequency GPS users. If both the L1 and the L2 frequencies transmitted by the GPS satellites are measured, first-order range error contributions of the ionosphere can be determined and removed by difference methods. The ionospheric contribution is proportional to the total electron content (TEC along the ray path between satellite and receiver. Using about ten European GPS receiving stations of the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS, the TEC over Europe is estimated within the geographic ranges -20°≤ λ ≤40°E and 32.5°≤ Φ ≤70°N in longitude and latitude, respectively. The derived TEC maps over Europe contribute to the study of horizontal coupling and transport proces- ses during significant ionospheric events. Due to their comprehensive information about the high-latitude ionosphere, EISCAT observations may help to study the influence of ionospheric phenomena upon propagation errors in GPS navigation systems. Since there are still some accuracy limiting problems to be solved in TEC determination using GPS, data comparison of TEC with vertical electron density profiles derived from EISCAT observations is valuable to enhance the accuracy of propagation-error estimations. This is evident both for absolute TEC calibration as well as for the conversion of ray-path-related observations to vertical TEC. The combination of EISCAT data and GPS-derived TEC data enables a better understanding of large-scale ionospheric processes.

  18. Software Defined GPS Receiver for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Robison, David E.; Koelewyn, Cynthia Lee

    2011-01-01

    JPL is providing a software defined radio (SDR) that will fly on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the CoNNeCT project under NASA's SCaN program. The SDR consists of several modules including a Baseband Processor Module (BPM) and a GPS Module (GPSM). The BPM executes applications (waveforms) consisting of software components for the embedded SPARC processor and logic for two Virtex II Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that operate on data received from the GPSM. GPS waveforms on the SDR are enabled by an L-Band antenna, low noise amplifier (LNA), and the GPSM that performs quadrature downconversion at L1, L2, and L5. The GPS waveform for the JPL SDR will acquire and track L1 C/A, L2C, and L5 GPS signals from a CoNNeCT platform on ISS, providing the best GPS-based positioning of ISS achieved to date, the first use of multiple frequency GPS on ISS, and potentially the first L5 signal tracking from space. The system will also enable various radiometric investigations on ISS such as local multipath or ISS dynamic behavior characterization. In following the software-defined model, this work will create a highly portable GPS software and firmware package that can be adapted to another platform with the necessary processor and FPGA capability. This paper also describes ISS applications for the JPL CoNNeCT SDR GPS waveform, possibilities for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) tracking development, and the applicability of the waveform components to other space navigation applications.

  19. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bikonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The complementary features of GPS and INS are the main reasons why integrated GPS/INS systems are becoming increasingly popular. GPS/INS systems offer a high data rate, high accuracy position and orientation that can work in all environments, particularly those where satellite availability is restricted. In the paper integration algorithm of GPS and INS systems data for pedestrians in urban area is presented. For data integration an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is proposed. Complementary characteristics of GPS and INS with EKF can overcome the problem of huge INS drifts, GPS outages, dense multipath effect and other individual problems associated with these sensors.

  20. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute, the Geological Survey of Finland, Posiva Ltd and municipalities in the district of Satakunta launched the GeoSatakunta research program in 2002 to carry out interdisciplinary studies on regional bedrock stress field and to apply the results e.g. in land use planning in the Satakunta area. The area was chosen for many reasons. Its geological diversity, extensive multi-disciplinary data coverage, and various interests of participants made the area suitable for the project. The purpose of the GPS observations is to get detailed information on recent crustal deformations in the area. The Finnish Geodetic Institute maintains e.g. national GPS network, FinnRef, and since 1995 a local research network in the Olkiluoto area. The Satakunta network differs from these, and this is the first time to obtain such detailed information of a regional network in Finland. The Satakunta GPS network consists of 13 concrete pillars for episodic GPS campaigns and the Olkiluoto permanent GPS station in the FinnRef network. The distances between the concrete pillars are 10-15 km, and the sites were chosen in a co-operation with the Geological Survey of Finland taking into account the geological structures in the area. The City of Pori made the final reconnaissance in the field and constructed eight pillars in 2003. The original network was expanded in 2005-2006 in Eurajoki and Rauma, and at the City of Rauma joined the co-operation. The five new pillars join the previous Olkiluoto network into the Satakunta network. There have been three annual GPS campaigns in 2003-2008. Time series of the Satakunta network are shorter than in the Olkiluoto network, and also the distances are longer. Therefore, the same accuracy than in Olkiluoto has not yet achieved. However, mm-sized movements can be excluded. Estimated velocities were small (0.2 mm/a) and mostly statistically insignificant because of relatively short time series. In this publication we describe the

  1. An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang

    2016-02-24

    A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS)  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

  2. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  3. RFID-Based Vehicle Positioning and Its Applications in Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Ni, Daiheng; Li, Keqiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control. PMID:24599188

  4. RFID-Based Vehicle Positioning and Its Applications in Connected Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control.

  5. RFID-based vehicle positioning and its applications in connected vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Ni, Daiheng; Li, Keqiang

    2014-03-04

    This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control.

  6. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  7. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  8. An improvement of the GPS buoy system for detecting tsunami at far offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Koshimura, S.; Matsushita, Y.

    2012-12-01

    than 20km. This limits the lead time for letting coastal residents to evacuate from the coast only about 10 minutes after the detection of tsunami at a GPS buoy. This requires us to improve the system to put the buoy much farther from the coast. In order to solve this problem, we have introduced a new algorithm of precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) method and point precise variance detection (PVD) method for estimating the precise location of the buoy. As these method does not require land base station, it may allow us to deploy a buoy much farther than 100km offshore observation. Also, an open source program package (RTKLIB) is introduced for kinematic analysis for a long baseline. A new experiment using this system has started about 40km south off Cape Muroto in April 2012. One of buoys called as "Kuroshio Bokujo", which is used as a fish bed by Kochi Prefecture, is used for this purpose. The positioning results are exhibited in real time on the internet.

  9. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground

  10. Evaluating the Correctness of Airborne Laser Scanning Data Heights Using Vehicle-Based RTK and VRS GPS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vermeer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a system in which a GPS receiver mounted on the roof of a car is used to provide reference information to evaluate the elevation accuracy and georeferencing of airborne laser scanning (ALS point clouds. The concept was evaluated in the Klaukkala test area where a number of roads were traversed to collect real-time kinematic data. Two test cases were evaluated, including one case using the real-time kinematic (RTK method with a dedicated GPS base station at a known benchmark in the area and another case using the GNSSnet virtual reference station service (VRS. The utility of both GPS methods was confirmed. When all test data were included, the mean difference between ALS data and GPS-based observations was −2.4 cm for both RTK and VRS GPS cases. The corresponding dispersions were ±4.5 cm and ±5.9 cm, respectively. In addition, our examination did not reveal the presence of any significant rotation between ALS and GPS data.

  11. GPs' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Setting Primary care GPs in the UK. Participants 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley’s database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Outcome measures GPs’ attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP Results 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). Conclusions While GPs’ attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs’ use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. PMID:28624759

  12. Analyzing Robotic Kinematics Via Computed Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Computing system assists in evaluation of kinematics of conceptual robot. Displays positions and motions of robotic manipulator within work cell. Also displays interactions between robotic manipulator and other objects. Results of simulation displayed on graphical computer workstation. System includes both off-the-shelf software originally developed for automotive industry and specially developed software. Simulation system also used to design human-equivalent hand, to model optical train in infrared system, and to develop graphical interface for teleoperator simulation system.

  13. Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-12-18

    The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.

  14. GPs' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Primary care GPs in the UK. 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley's database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. GPs' attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP RESULTS: 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). While GPs' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs' use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. GPS-based household interview survey for the Cincinnati, Ohio Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Methods for Conducting a Large-Scale GPS-Only Survey of Households: Past Household Travel Surveys (HTS) in the United States have only piloted small subsamples of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) completes compared with 1-2 day self-reported travel i...

  16. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiwon; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; De Lorenzo, David S.; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Lee, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR) with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities. PMID:22164116

  17. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

  18. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  19. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  20. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  1. Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.

  2. A New Real-Time Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method under High Ionospheric Activity for a Triple-Frequency GPS/BDS Receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanke; Jin, Xueyuan; Wu, Mingkui; Hu, Jie; Wu, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Cycle slip detection and repair is a prerequisite for high-precision global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based positioning. With the modernization and development of GNSS systems, more satellites are available to transmit triple-frequency signals, which allows the introduction of additional linear combinations and provides new opportunities for cycle slip detection and repair. In this paper, we present a new real-time cycle slip detection and repair method under high ionospheric activity for undifferenced Global Positioning System (GPS)/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency observations collected with a single receiver. First, three optimal linearly independent geometry-free pseudorange minus phase combinations are selected to correctly and uniquely determine the cycle slips on the original triple-frequency carrier phase observations. Then, a second-order time-difference algorithm is employed for the pseudorange minus phase combinations to mitigate the impact of between-epoch ionospheric residuals on cycle slip detection, which is especially beneficial under high ionospheric activity. The performance of the approach is verified with static GPS/BDS triple-frequency observations that are collected with a 30 s sampling interval under active ionospheric conditions, and observations are manually inserted with simulated cycle slips. The results show that the method can correctly detect and repair cycle slips at a resolution as small as 1 cycle. Moreover, kinematic data collected from car-driven and airborne experiments are also processed to verify the performance of the method. The experimental results also demonstrate that the method is effective in processing kinematic data.

  3. Low-degree gravity change from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingjung; Hwang, Cheinway; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Chao, B. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates estimation of time-varying gravity harmonic coefficients from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions. The kinematic orbits of COSMIC and GRACE are determined to the cm-level accuracy. The NASA Goddard's GEODYN II software is used to model the orbit dynamics of COSMIC and GRACE, including the effect of a static gravity field. The surface forces are estimated per one orbital period. Residual orbits generated from kinematic and reference orbits serve as observables to determine the harmonic coefficients in the weighted-constraint least-squares. The monthly COSMIC and GRACE GPS data from September 2006 to December 2007 (16 months) are processed to estimate harmonic coefficients to degree 5. The geoid variations from the GPS and CSR RL04 (GRACE) solutions show consistent patterns over space and time, especially in regions of active hydrological changes. The monthly GPS-derived second zonal coefficient closely resembles the SLR-derived and CSR RL04 values, and third and fourth zonal coefficients resemble the CSR RL04 values.

  4. Kinematic control of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, F; Ivanenko, Y P; Zago, M

    2002-10-01

    The planar law of inter-segmental co-ordination we described may emerge from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle contraction intervenes at variable times to re-excite the intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. The hypothesis that a law of coordinative control results from a minimal active tuning of the passive inertial and viscoelastic coupling among limb segments is congruent with the idea that movement has evolved according to minimum energy criteria (1, 8). It is known that multi-segment motion of mammals locomotion is controlled by a network of coupled oscillators (CPGs, see 18, 33, 37). Flexible combination of unit oscillators gives rise to different forms of locomotion. Inter-oscillator coupling can be modified by changing the synaptic strength (or polarity) of the relative spinal connections. As a result, unit oscillators can be coupled in phase, out of phase, or with a variable phase, giving rise to different behaviors, such as speed increments or reversal of gait direction (from forward to backward). Supra-spinal centers may drive or modulate functional sets of coordinating interneurons to generate different walking modes (or gaits). Although it is often assumed that CPGs control patterns of muscle activity, an equally plausible hypothesis is that they control patterns of limb segment motion instead (22). According to this kinematic view, each unit oscillator would directly control a limb segment, alternately generating forward and backward oscillations of the segment. Inter-segmental coordination would be achieved by coupling unit oscillators with a variable phase. Inter-segmental kinematic phase plays the role of global control variable previously postulated for the network of central oscillators. In fact, inter-segmental phase shifts systematically with increasing speed both in man (4) and cat (38). Because this phase-shift is correlated with the net mechanical power

  5. Kinematic adjustments to seismic recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.

  6. Geração de Isolinhas, com dados obtidos por levantamento GPS/L1L2, mediante a técnica de Redes Neurais Artificiais = Generation of Isolines using GPS/L1L2 data and Artificial Neural Network technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristine Barros de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar uma alternativa para o processo deinterpolação empregado em Modelagem Digital do Terreno. Utilizando-se dados de levantamentos GPS coletados por meio de posicionamento relativo cinemático realizou-se um processo de interpolação por meio de Redes Neurais Artificiais (RNA. Os resultados foram comparados com os dados obtidos usando-se o algoritmo de interpolação Inverso doQuadrado de uma Distância (IQD para avaliar o comportamento das grades geradas por meio de análises qualitativas (isolinhas e MDT e quantitativas (resíduos. Conclui-se que o método testado é viável se comparado com o algoritmo IQD e, portanto, o uso de RNA apresenta-se adequado para a interpolação de dados GPS provenientes do processamento de fase das portadoras L1 e L2.The objective of this work is to show an alternative for theinterpolation process used in Digital Terrain Modeling. GPS surveying data of a kinematic relative positioning were interpolated by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN algorithm. The performance of the generated gridding was compared to the Inverse Square Distance interpolation algorithm data by means of qualitative (isolines and DTM and quantitative (residuals analyses. In conclusion, the tested method is viable if compared to the algorithm Inverse of the Square of a Distance. Therefore, the use of ANN is suitable for the interpolation of GPS data obtained from the L1 and L2 carriers phase processing.

  7. Climatology of GPS signal loss observed by Swarm satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By using 3-year global positioning system (GPS measurements from December 2013 to November 2016, we provide in this study a detailed survey on the climatology of the GPS signal loss of Swarm onboard receivers. Our results show that the GPS signal losses prefer to occur at both low latitudes between ±5 and ±20° magnetic latitude (MLAT and high latitudes above 60° MLAT in both hemispheres. These events at all latitudes are observed mainly during equinoxes and December solstice months, while totally absent during June solstice months. At low latitudes the GPS signal losses are caused by the equatorial plasma irregularities shortly after sunset, and at high latitude they are also highly related to the large density gradients associated with ionospheric irregularities. Additionally, the high-latitude events are more often observed in the Southern Hemisphere, occurring mainly at the cusp region and along nightside auroral latitudes. The signal losses mainly happen for those GPS rays with elevation angles less than 20°, and more commonly occur when the line of sight between GPS and Swarm satellites is aligned with the shell structure of plasma irregularities. Our results also confirm that the capability of the Swarm receiver has been improved after the bandwidth of the phase-locked loop (PLL widened, but the updates cannot radically avoid the interruption in tracking GPS satellites caused by the ionospheric plasma irregularities. Additionally, after the PLL bandwidth increased larger than 0.5 Hz, some unexpected signal losses are observed even at middle latitudes, which are not related to the ionospheric plasma irregularities. Our results suggest that rather than 1.0 Hz, a PLL bandwidth of 0.5 Hz is a more suitable value for the Swarm receiver.

  8. Climatology of GPS signal loss observed by Swarm satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Stolle, Claudia; Park, Jaeheung

    2018-04-01

    By using 3-year global positioning system (GPS) measurements from December 2013 to November 2016, we provide in this study a detailed survey on the climatology of the GPS signal loss of Swarm onboard receivers. Our results show that the GPS signal losses prefer to occur at both low latitudes between ±5 and ±20° magnetic latitude (MLAT) and high latitudes above 60° MLAT in both hemispheres. These events at all latitudes are observed mainly during equinoxes and December solstice months, while totally absent during June solstice months. At low latitudes the GPS signal losses are caused by the equatorial plasma irregularities shortly after sunset, and at high latitude they are also highly related to the large density gradients associated with ionospheric irregularities. Additionally, the high-latitude events are more often observed in the Southern Hemisphere, occurring mainly at the cusp region and along nightside auroral latitudes. The signal losses mainly happen for those GPS rays with elevation angles less than 20°, and more commonly occur when the line of sight between GPS and Swarm satellites is aligned with the shell structure of plasma irregularities. Our results also confirm that the capability of the Swarm receiver has been improved after the bandwidth of the phase-locked loop (PLL) widened, but the updates cannot radically avoid the interruption in tracking GPS satellites caused by the ionospheric plasma irregularities. Additionally, after the PLL bandwidth increased larger than 0.5 Hz, some unexpected signal losses are observed even at middle latitudes, which are not related to the ionospheric plasma irregularities. Our results suggest that rather than 1.0 Hz, a PLL bandwidth of 0.5 Hz is a more suitable value for the Swarm receiver.

  9. The Practical Design of In-vehicle Telematics Device with GPS and MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dramićanin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of vehicle tracking devices relies not only on Global Positioning System (GPS but also uses low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometers. This combination supports new services such as driving style characterization and Automatic Crash Notification (ACN. Our focus will be on practical considerations of such a telematics unit. The paper will consider the boundaries of allowed errors and minimal requirements for sensors and mounting requirements. Sensor range for crash detection and impact angle estimation was tested on field trials with two units containing accelerometers range of 18g and 2g. The kinematic orientation of vehicle is evaluated in a series of field trials with a resulting standard deviation of estimation of 1.67°. The second run of experiments considers the dynamic range and sampling rate of sensors during collision. A sensor range of 8g (typical for present-day telematics devices can be used to detect crash without accurate knowledge of impact angle.

  10. Cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion observations for real-time deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-06-01

    An approach of cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion (SM) records for real-time deformation monitoring was presented, which was validated by the experimental data. In this approach, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were processed with the real-time kinematic positioning technology to retrieve the GNSS displacement, and the SM data were calibrated to acquire the raw acceleration; a Kalman filter was then applied to combine the GNSS displacement and the SM acceleration to obtain the integrated displacement, velocity and acceleration. The validation results show that the advantages of each sensor are completely complementary. For the SM, the baseline shifts are estimated and corrected, and the high-precision velocity and displacement are recovered. While the noise of GNSS can be reduced by using the SM-derived high-resolution acceleration, thus the high-precision and broad-band deformation information can be obtained in real time. The proposed method indicates a promising potential and capability in deformation monitoring of the high-building, dam, bridge and landslide.

  11. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    OpenAIRE

    Win Minn Thet; MyoMaung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Uni...

  12. GPS: Shaping Student Success One Conversation at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Mikhael; Collette, Lanita

    2010-01-01

    Increasing instructor-student interactions and improving support personnel interventions with students positively affects their academic performance, retention, and graduation rates. This article discusses the Grade Performance Status (GPS) which is Northern Arizona University's new online, academic early alert tool for increasing instructor…

  13. Improved Solar-Radiation-Pressure Models for GPS Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Kuang, Da

    2006-01-01

    A report describes a series of computational models conceived as an improvement over prior models for determining effects of solar-radiation pressure on orbits of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. These models are based on fitting coefficients of Fourier functions of Sun-spacecraft- Earth angles to observed spacecraft orbital motions.

  14. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a {+-} 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a {+-} 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM

  15. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a ± 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a ± 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM. It is

  16. Implementasi Sistem Pelacakan Kendaraan Bermotor Menggunakan Gps Dan Gprs Dengan Integrasi Googlemap

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid Dul Muchlisin; Jazi Eko Istiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract— Vehicle tracking system using GPS and GPRS integration googlemap provide information that is maximized with the technology of GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver which can indicate the position of the vehicle with the map and the ability of the appointment of direction and position coordinates (x, y or latitude, longitude) textually and visual at any location. Vehicle tracking system is built using equipment GIS (Geographic Information System) and dedicated to smartphones which...

  17. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  18. GPR and GPS data integration: examples of application in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gandolfi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and Global Positioning System (GPS techniques were employed in snow accumulation studies during the Italian leg of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE. The acquired data were useful both for glaciological and climatological studies. This paper presents some results obtained by GPR and GPS data integration employed to determine accumulation/ablation processes along the profile of the traverse that show how the snow-sublayer thickness can vary quickly in just a few kilometres. Some examples of data integration employed in detection and characterisation of buried crevasses are also presented.

  19. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  20. 78 FR 22554 - Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... accuracy and integrity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) derived positions for surface transportation..., contact LT Luke Byrd, Coast Guard, NDGPS Program Manager, telephone 202-372-1547 or email Robert.l.byrd... The NDGPS augments GPS with an additional differential correction signal. Differential GPS (DGPS...

  1. GPS-Based Highway Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring Using GPS: Characterization of Travel Speeds on any Roadway Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Kornhauser, Alain L.

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a characterization of travel speed on any roadway segment based on probe vehicle position data. Most of the characterization is based position data obtained from GPS receivers because of their high precision and their increasing availability. Comparison is also made to Qualcomm’s Automatic Satellite Position Reporting (QASPR) system because of its long history (10+ years) of extensive use by the long-haul trucking industry. Described is the use of these data in conjunction with d...

  2. Contents of GPS Data Files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carver, Matthew Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-09

    There are no very detailed descriptions of most of these instruments in the literature – we will attempt to fix that problem in the future. The BDD instruments are described in [1]. One of the dosimeter instruments on CXD boxes is described in [2]. These documents (or web links to them) and a few others are in this directory tree. The cross calibration of the CXD electron data with RBSP is described in [3]. Each row in the data file contains the data from one time bin from a CXD or BDD instrument along with a variety of parameters derived from the data. Time steps are commandable but 4 minutes is a typical setting. These instruments are on many (but not all) GPS satellites which are currently in operation. The data come from either BDD instruments on GPS Block IIR satellites (SVN41 and 48), or else CXD-IIR instruments on GPS Block IIR and IIR-M satellites (SVN53-61) or CXD-IIF instruments on GPS block IIF satellites (SVN62-73). The CXD-IIR instruments on block IIR and IIR(M) satellites use the same design.

  3. Continuous professional development for GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, N K; Steenstrup, A P; Pedersen, L B

    2014-01-01

    out to identify GPs' current use of CPD and to explore the motives behind their choices. METHODS: A mixed-methods study with a combined qualitative and quantitative approach was used. In 2012, two focus group interviews were conducted, followed up the same year by an online questionnaire sent to 1079...

  4. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulida, Putra, E-mail: putra.maulida@gmail.com [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A. [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geodesy Research Group, geodesy and geomatic Engineering, ITB (Indonesia); Susilo [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  5. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  6. Signal existence verification (SEV) for GPS low received power signal detection using the time-frequency approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Sun, Chih-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The detection of low received power of global positioning system (GPS) signals in the signal acquisition process is an important issue for GPS applications. Improving the miss-detection problem of low received power signal is crucial, especially for urban or indoor environments. This paper proposes a signal existence verification (SEV) process to detect and subsequently verify low received power GPS signals. The SEV process is based on the time-frequency representation of GPS signal, and it can capture the characteristic of GPS signal in the time-frequency plane to enhance the GPS signal acquisition performance. Several simulations and experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed method for low received power signal detection. The contribution of this work is that the SEV process is an additional scheme to assist the GPS signal acquisition process in low received power signal detection, without changing the original signal acquisition or tracking algorithms.

  7. A New Algorithm for ABS/GPS Integration Based on Fuzzy-Logic in Vehicle Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amin Zadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available GPS based vehicle navigation systems have difficulties in tracking vehicles in urban canyons due to poor satellite availability. ABS (Antilock Brake System Navigation System consists of self-contained optical encoders mounted on vehicle wheels that can continuously provide accurate short-term positioning information. In this paper, a new concept regarding GPS/ABS integration, based on Fuzzy Logic is presented. The proposed algorithm is used to identify GPS position accuracy based on environment and vehicle dynamic knowledge. The GPS is used as reference during the time it is in a good condition and replaced by ABS positioning system when GPS information is unreliable. We compare our proposed algorithm with other common algorithm in real environment. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the stability and reliability of ABS/GPS navigation system.

  8. Global GPS Ionospheric Modelling Using Spherical Harmonic Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a global ionosphere model based on measurements from a worldwide network of global positioning system (GPS. The total number of the international GPS reference stations for development of ionospheric model is about 100 and the spherical harmonic expansion approach as a mathematical method was used. In order to produce the ionospheric total electron content (TEC based on grid form, we defined spatial resolution of 2.0 degree and 5.0 degree in latitude and longitude, respectively. Two-dimensional TEC maps were constructed within the interval of one hour, and have a high temporal resolution compared to global ionosphere maps which are produced by several analysis centers. As a result, we could detect the sudden increase of TEC by processing GPS observables on 29 October, 2003 when the massive solar flare took place.

  9. Mw 8.5 BENGKULU EARTHQUAKES FROM CONTINUOUS GPS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. W. Aris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mw 8.5 Bengkulu earthquake of 30 September 2007 and the Mw8.6 28 March 2005 are considered amongst large earthquake ever recorded in Southeast Asia. The impact into tectonic deformation was recorded by a network of Global Positioning System (GPS Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS within southern of Sumatra and west-coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The GPS data from the GPS CORS network has been deployed to investigate the characteristic of postseismic deformation due to the earthquakes. Analytical logarithmic and exponential function was applied to investigate the deformation decay period of postseismic deformation. This investigation provides a preliminary insight into postseismic cycle along the Sumatra subduction zone in particular and on the dynamics Peninsular Malaysia in general.

  10. Reduction Vehicle Speed Using GPS Android Smart Phone Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sami Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the new generation of smart phone such as Samsung galaxy, Sony, Motorola, HTC is used to build smart applications that made the human life more comfortable and safe. The Android open source operating system with java programming language can be used to develop such applications. In this paper a new software application has been developed using Samsung, galaxy note smart phone to control the speed of vehicle using GPS and Android programming for such smart phone. By collecting the speed and location information from Global Position System (GPS receiver and using the global map application programming interface to determine the location nearby university, school and hospital in Baghdad city. The application will be check the speed of vehicle in zone of school, hospital and university using GPS information. If the speed over the limit the application produce sound alarm to reduce the speed to set up limit.

  11. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, F; Paulucci, L

    2016-01-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as the data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments, promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the 4–30 cm range. As a proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems. (paper)

  12. Directed Neutron Beams From Inverse Kinematic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Guardala, N. A.; Glass, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Kinematic focusing of an emitted fairly mono-energetic neutron beam by the use of inverse-kinematic reactions, i.e. where the projectile mass is greater than the target atom's mass, can provide for the utilization of a significant fraction of the fast neutron yield and also provide for a safer radiation environment. We examine the merit of various neutron production reactions and consider the practicalities of producing the primary beam using the suitable accelerator technologies. Preliminary progress at the NSWC-Carderock Positive Ion Accelerator Facility is described. Possible important applications for this type of neutron-based system can be both advanced medical imaging techniques and active "stand-off" interrogation of contraband items.

  13. Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  14. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    time in PPP static and kinematic solutions compared to GPS-only PPP solutions for various observational session durations. However, this is mostly observed when the visibility of Galileo and BeiDou satellites is substantially long within an observational session. In GPS-only cases dealing with data from high elevation cut-off angles, the number of GPS satellites decreases dramatically, leading to a position accuracy and convergence time deviating from satisfactory geodetic thresholds. By contrast, respective multi-GNSS PPP solutions not only show improvement, but also lead to geodetic level accuracies even in 30° elevation cut-off. Finally, the GPS ambiguity resolution in PPP processing is investigated using the GPS satellite wide-lane fractional cycle biases, which are included in the clock products by CNES. It is shown that their addition shortens the convergence time and increases the position accuracy of PPP solutions, especially in kinematic mode. Analogous improvement is obtained in respective multi-GNSS solutions, even though the GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou ambiguities remain float, since information about them is not provided in the clock products available to date.

  15. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  16. Kinematics of the CSE in VY CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Kyung

    2009-07-01

    We report on astrometric results of H2O and SiO masers in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) carried out with VERA for 2 years. Absolute positions and proper motions of 3 different frequencies of masers were measured with phase-referencing analyses. Using the positions and the 3-dimensional velocities of the masers, we considered the 3-dimensional structures and kinematics of the circumstellar envelopes around VY CMa. The H2O masers show bipolar outflow along the line of sight, and the SiO masers have both expanding and contracting motions with less than 5 km/s.

  17. Impact of GPS antenna phase center and code residual variation maps on orbit and baseline determination of GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van den IJssel, J.

    2017-06-01

    Precision Orbit Determination (POD) is a prerequisite for the success of many Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite missions. With high-quality, dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, typically precisions of the order of a few cm are possible for single-satellite POD, and of a few mm for relative POD of formation flying spacecraft with baselines up to hundreds of km. To achieve the best precision, the use of Phase Center Variation (PCV) maps is indispensable. For LEO GPS receivers, often a-priori PCV maps are obtained by a pre-launch ground campaign, which is not able to represent the real space-borne environment of satellites. Therefore, in-flight calibration of the GPS antenna is more widely conducted. This paper shows that a further improvement is possible by including the so-called Code Residual Variation (CRV) maps in absolute/undifferenced and relative/Double-differenced (DD) POD schemes. Orbit solutions are produced for the GRACE satellite formation for a four months test period (August-November, 2014), demonstrating enhanced orbit precision after first using the in-flight PCV maps and a further improvement after including the CRV maps. The application of antenna maps leads to a better consistency with independent Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and K-band Ranging (KBR) low-low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (ll-SST) observations. The inclusion of the CRV maps results also in a much better consistency between reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit solutions for especially the cross-track direction. The improvements are largest for GRACE-B, where a cross-talk between the GPS main antenna and the occultation antenna yields higher systematic observation residuals. For high-precision relative POD which necessitates DD carrier-phase ambiguity fixing, in principle frequency-dependent PCV maps would be required. To this aim, use is made of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that is capable of optimizing relative spacecraft dynamics and iteratively fixing

  18. Overground-Propulsion Kinematics and Acceleration in Elite Wheelchair Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, David S; Pinder, Ross A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Robertson, William S P

    2018-02-01

    Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport-classification scores. Based on their sporting classification scores, which reflect combined trunk, arm, and hand function, 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analyzed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups before completing five 5-m sprints from a stationary position. Inertial measurement units and video analysis were used to monitor key kinematic variables. Significant differences in kinematic variables were evident across the classification groups, particularly for the first stroke-contact angle (1-way ANOVA F 2,122  = 51.5, P propulsion approaches exist across classification groups, with this information potentially informing individual wheelchair setups and training programs.

  19. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  20. The preliminary of software development for the kinematics analysis of 5 DOF Nuclear Malaysia robot arm v2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary software development for the kinematics analysis of 5 DOF rescue robot. The kinematics analysis is the study of relationship between the individual joints of the robot manipulator, the position and orientation of the end-effector. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) model is used to model the robot links and joints. Both forward and inverse kinematic are presented. The simulation software has been developed by using MATLAB to solve the robot arms kinematic behavior. (author)

  1. Ionospheric error analysis in gps measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pugliano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the ionosphere on GPS positioning applications are presented in this paper. Specifically, the study, based upon a differential approach, was conducted utilizing GPS measurements acquired by various receivers located at increasing inter-distances. The experimental research was developed upon the basis of two groups of baselines: the first group is comprised of "short" baselines (less than 10 km; the second group is characterized by greater distances (up to 90 km. The obtained results were compared either upon the basis of the geometric characteristics, for six different baseline lengths, using 24 hours of data, or upon temporal variations, by examining two periods of varying intensity in ionospheric activity respectively coinciding with the maximum of the 23 solar cycle and in conditions of low ionospheric activity. The analysis revealed variations in terms of inter-distance as well as different performances primarily owing to temporal modifications in the state of the ionosphere.

  2. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  3. A Soft Parallel Kinematic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward L; Case, Jennifer C; Kramer-Bottiglio, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we describe a novel holonomic soft robotic structure based on a parallel kinematic mechanism. The design is based on the Stewart platform, which uses six sensors and actuators to achieve full six-degree-of-freedom motion. Our design is much less complex than a traditional platform, since it replaces the 12 spherical and universal joints found in a traditional Stewart platform with a single highly deformable elastomer body and flexible actuators. This reduces the total number of parts in the system and simplifies the assembly process. Actuation is achieved through coiled-shape memory alloy actuators. State observation and feedback is accomplished through the use of capacitive elastomer strain gauges. The main structural element is an elastomer joint that provides antagonistic force. We report the response of the actuators and sensors individually, then report the response of the complete assembly. We show that the completed robotic system is able to achieve full position control, and we discuss the limitations associated with using responsive material actuators. We believe that control demonstrated on a single body in this work could be extended to chains of such bodies to create complex soft robots.

  4. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  5. Estimating uncertainty in subsurface glider position using transmissions from fixed acoustic tomography sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uffelen, Lora J; Nosal, Eva-Marie; Howe, Bruce M; Carter, Glenn S; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Cross, Patrick S

    2013-10-01

    Four acoustic Seagliders were deployed in the Philippine Sea November 2010 to April 2011 in the vicinity of an acoustic tomography array. The gliders recorded over 2000 broadband transmissions at ranges up to 700 km from moored acoustic sources as they transited between mooring sites. The precision of glider positioning at the time of acoustic reception is important to resolve the fundamental ambiguity between position and sound speed. The Seagliders utilized GPS at the surface and a kinematic model below for positioning. The gliders were typically underwater for about 6.4 h, diving to depths of 1000 m and traveling on average 3.6 km during a dive. Measured acoustic arrival peaks were unambiguously associated with predicted ray arrivals. Statistics of travel-time offsets between received arrivals and acoustic predictions were used to estimate range uncertainty. Range (travel time) uncertainty between the source and the glider position from the kinematic model is estimated to be 639 m (426 ms) rms. Least-squares solutions for glider position estimated from acoustically derived ranges from 5 sources differed by 914 m rms from modeled positions, with estimated uncertainty of 106 m rms in horizontal position. Error analysis included 70 ms rms of uncertainty due to oceanic sound-speed variability.

  6. Daily GPS-Derived Estimates Of Axis Of Rotation Of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Freedman, Adam

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study in which data gathered by worldwide network of 21 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers during 3-week experiment in January and February 1991 used to estimate location of axis of rotation of Earth.

  7. GPS based pilot survey of freight movements in the Midwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This report explains the methodology and results surrounding a recently completed study of a major grocery trucking firms travel patterns. The research group used Global Positioning System (GPS) logging devices to trace the temporal and spatial mo...

  8. A Technical Report To The Secretary Of Transportation On A National Approach To Augmented Gps Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A NATIONAL APPROACH TO AUGMENTED GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) SERVICES. THE INSTITUTE FOR TELECOMMUNICATION SCIENCES LED A STUDY TEAM THAT INCLUDED THE U.S. ARMY TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING ...

  9. MDOT implementation plan for GPS technology in planning, design, and construction delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  10. Directional Networking in GPS Denied Environments - Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    RF-based measurements to synchronize time and measure node range.  Satellite Doppler: Using Doppler measurements from multiple satellites along...with satellite catalog data to determine time and position.  LTE : Use existing LTE base-stations for time and position.  Differential GPS: A...Opportunistic Signals: Opportunistically take advantage of existing RF signals (i.e., FM radio, DTV, LTE , etc.) transmitted from known locations

  11. The Mean Sea Surface DTU10mss - Comparison With Gps And Tide Gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Bondo, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and the Global Position System (GPS) are conveniently given in the same reference frame and can therefore be used to construct a vertical reference surface for offshore navigation. Here a new Mean Sea Surface DTU10MSS is presented with a vertical accuracy better than 10 cm...... in most areas of the world confirmed by extensive comparison with GPS leveled tide gauges around Britain and Norway. It is proposed that this model is used as a global vertical reference. This paper briefly outlines the update of the previous DTU model to DTU10MSS and presents comparisons on GPS positions...

  12. Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group

  13. A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuerui; Jin, Shuanggen; Xia, Junming

    2017-06-05

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have been widely used in navigation, positioning and timing. Nowadays, the multipath errors may be re-utilized for the remote sensing of geophysical parameters (soil moisture, vegetation and snow depth), i.e., GPS-Multipath Reflectometry (GPS-MR). However, bistatic scattering properties and the relation between GPS observables and geophysical parameters are not clear, e.g., vegetation. In this paper, a new element on bistatic scattering properties of vegetation is incorporated into the traditional GPS-MR model. This new element is the first-order radiative transfer equation model. The new forward GPS multipath simulator is able to explicitly link the vegetation parameters with GPS multipath observables (signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), code pseudorange and carrier phase observables). The trunk layer and its corresponding scattering mechanisms are ignored since GPS-MR is not suitable for high forest monitoring due to the coherence of direct and reflected signals. Based on this new model, the developed simulator can present how the GPS signals (L1 and L2 carrier frequencies, C/A, P(Y) and L2C modulations) are transmitted (scattered and absorbed) through vegetation medium and received by GPS receivers. Simulation results show that the wheat will decrease the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables (SNR, phase and code), if we increase the vegetation moisture contents or the scatters sizes (stem or leaf). Although the Specular-Ground component dominates the total specular scattering, vegetation covered ground soil moisture has almost no effects on the final multipath signatures. Our simulated results are consistent with previous results for environmental parameter detections by GPS-MR.

  14. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowska, Marta M; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more...... accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. SUMMARY: Global Positioning Systems can be linked with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context....

  15. Future potential country doctor: the perspectives of German GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik; Joos, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, especially in rural areas. There are several reasons for this shortage. Over the last decade, fewer medical students in Germany have decided to work in patient care, even fewer in general practice and fewer still in general practice in rural areas. The aim of this study was to explore the 'pros and cons' of GPs' work in rural areas and to identify from GPs' perspective possible measures for counteracting future GP shortages. Within a qualitative approach, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The results were categorized into three main inductively-derived categories: personal, professional and regional/structural level. A higher level of self-confidence and a higher 'feel-good' factor due to GPs originating from rural areas were positive aspects at the personal level. Regarding the professional level, a low level of competition and varied work made a GP's profession attractive in rural areas. Negative aspects were mostly apparent at the regional/structural level, such a low earnings and few leisure facilities. Measures to counter the lack of GPs in rural areas were explored on all three levels: on the personal level, more optimism and resulting satisfaction on the part of doctors in rural areas could be improved by enhancing the benefits of being a doctor in a rural area. Regarding the professional level, more group practices are required to make working as a GP in a rural area more attractive. At a regional/structural level, young physicians who originate from rural areas should be recruited to work in rural areas. Financial incentives are regarded as not sufficient to attract enough young physicians to open practices in rural areas. Future action will be required at the personal, professional and regional/structural levels. The origin of medical students (urban or rural) should be considered a relevant

  16. GPS surveying method applied to terminal area navigation flight experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M; Shingu, H; Satsushima, K; Tsuji, T; Ishikawa, K; Miyazawa, Y; Uchida, T [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    With an objective of evaluating accuracy of new landing and navigation systems such as microwave landing guidance system and global positioning satellite (GPS) system, flight experiments are being carried out using experimental aircraft. This aircraft mounts a GPS and evaluates its accuracy by comparing the standard orbits spotted by a Kalman filter from the laser tracing data on the aircraft with the navigation results. The GPS outputs position and speed information from an earth-centered-earth-fixed system called the World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84). However, in order to compare the navigation results with output from a reference orbit sensor or other navigation sensor, it is necessary to structure a high-precision reference coordinates system based on the WGS84. A method that applies the GPS phase interference measurement for this problem was proposed, and used actually in analyzing a flight experiment data. As referred to a case of the method having been applied to evaluating an independent navigation accuracy, the method was verified sufficiently effective and reliable not only in navigation method analysis, but also in the aspect of navigational operations. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Kalman filter implementation for small satellites using constraint GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesam, Elmahy M.; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Zhengliang; Liao, Wenhe

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increased need for autonomy, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) has been designed to autonomously estimate the orbit using GPS data. A propagation step models the satellite dynamics as a two body with J2 (second zonal effect) perturbations being suitable for orbits in altitudes higher than 600 km. An onboard GPS receiver provides continuous measurement inputs. The continuity of measurements decreases the errors of the orbit determination algorithm. Power restrictions are imposed on small satellites in general and nanosatellites in particular. In cubesats, the GPS is forced to be shut down most of the mission’s life time. GPS is turned on when experiments like atmospheric ones are carried out and meter level accuracy for positioning is required. This accuracy can’t be obtained by other autonomous sensors like magnetometer and sun sensor as they provide kilometer level accuracy. Through simulation using Matlab and satellite tool kit (STK) the position accuracy is analyzed after imposing constrained conditions suitable for small satellites and a very tight one suitable for nanosatellite missions.

  18. Spread of ice mass loss into northwest Greenland observed by GRACE and GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Bevis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from three long-term sites on bedrock adjacent to the ice sheet. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over scales of a few hundred km. The GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites....... The GRACE results can be used to predict crustal uplift, which can be compared with the GPS data. In addition to showing that the northwest ice sheet margin is now losing mass, the uplift results from both the GPS measurements and the GRACE predictions show rapid acceleration in southeast Greenland in late...... 2003, followed by a moderate deceleration in 2006. Because that latter deceleration is weak, southeast Greenland still appears to be losing ice mass at a much higher rate than it was prior to fall 2003. In a more general sense, the analysis described here demonstrates that GPS uplift measurements can...

  19. Operational aspects of CASA UNO '88-The first large scale international GPS geodetic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth E.; Dixon, T. H.; Meehan, Thomas K.; Melbourne, William G.; Scheid, John A.; Kellogg, J. N.; Stowell, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    For three weeks, from January 18 to February 5, 1988, scientists and engineers from 13 countries and 30 international agencies and institutions cooperated in the most extensive GPS (Global Positioning System) field campaign, and the largest geodynamics experiment, in the world to date. This collaborative eperiment concentrated GPS receivers in Central and South America. The predicted rates of motions are on the order of 5-10 cm/yr. Global coverage of GPS observations spanned 220 deg of longitude and 125 deg of latitude using a total of 43 GPS receivers. The experiment was the first civilian effort at implementing an extended international GPS satellite tracking network. Covariance analyses incorporating the extended tracking network predicted significant improvement in precise orbit determination, allowing accurate long-baseline geodesy in the science areas.

  20. Radio-tracking large wilderness mammals: integration of GPS and Argos technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS units with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n = 19) and GPS units where the data were stored on board (n = 10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos units obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (P bears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  1. On the issues of probability distribution of GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In common practice the observables related to Global Positioning System (GPS) are assumed to follow a Gauss-Laplace normal distribution. Actually, full knowledge of the observables' distribution is not required for parameter estimation by means of the least-squares algorithm based on the functional relation between observations and unknown parameters as well as the associated variance-covariance matrix. However, the probability distribution of GPS observations plays a key role in procedures for quality control (e.g. outlier and cycle slips detection, ambiguity resolution) and in reliability-related assessments of the estimation results. Under non-ideal observation conditions with respect to the factors impacting GPS data quality, for example multipath effects and atmospheric delays, the validity of the normal distribution postulate of GPS observations is in doubt. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the distribution properties of GPS carrier phase observations using double difference residuals. For this purpose 1-Hz observation data from the permanent SAPOS

  2. Perancangan Dan Realisasi Sistem Transmisi Data GPS Menggunakan Teknologi SMS (Short Messaging Service) Sebagai Aplikasi Sistem Personal Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    DECY NATALIANA

    2013-01-01

    Abstrak Berprinsip pada pengembangan teknologi dan aplikasi dari sistem penjejakan posisi (tracking), maka dibuatlah sistem personal tracking dengan mentransmisikan data GPS (Global Positioning System) dengan menggunakan teknologi SMS (Short Messaging Service) pada jaringan GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sebagai media transmisinya.  Dengan sistem GPS akan diperoleh data garis lintang, serta garis bujur dari GPS receiver.  Data tersebut akan diteruskan oleh mikrokontroler untuk ...

  3. A Comparison of Moment Rates for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Competitive Kinematic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Ozeren, M. S.; Shen-Tu, B.; Galgana, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relatively continuous, complex, and long-lived episodes of tectonic deformation gradually shaped the lithosphere of the eastern Mediterranean region into its present state. This large geodynamically interconnected and seismically active region absorbs, accumulates and transmits strains arising from stresses associated with: (1) steady northward convergence of the Arabian and African plates; (2) differences in lithospheric gravitational potential energy; and (3) basal tractions exerted by subduction along the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Over the last twenty years, numerous kinematic models have been built using a variety of assumptions to take advantage of the extensive and dense GPS observations made across the entire region resulting in a far better characterization of the neotectonic deformation field than ever previously achieved. In this study, three separate horizontal strain rate field solutions obtained from three, region-wide, GPS only based kinematic models (i.e., a regional block model, a regional continuum model, and global continuum model) are utilized to estimate the distribution and uncertainty of geodetic moment rates within the eastern Mediterranean region. The geodetic moment rates from each model are also compared with seismic moment release rates gleaned from historic earthquake data. Moreover, kinematic styles of deformation derived from each of the modeled horizontal strain rate fields are examined for their degree of correlation with earthquake rupture styles defined by proximal centroid moment tensor solutions. This study suggests that significant differences in geodetically obtained moment rates from competitive kinematic models may introduce unforeseen bias into regularly updated, geodetically constrained, regional seismic hazard assessments.

  4. Kinematic cross-correlation induces sensory integration across separate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Nienke B; Ernst, Marc O; Heuer, Herbert

    2017-12-01

    In a basic cursor-control task, the perceived positions of the hand and the cursor are biased towards each other. We recently found that this phenomenon conforms to the reliability-based weighting mechanism of optimal multisensory integration. This indicates that optimal integration is not restricted to sensory signals originating from a single source, as is the prevailing view, but that it also applies to separate objects that are connected by a kinematic relation (i.e. hand and cursor). In the current study, we examined which aspects of the kinematic relation are crucial for eliciting the sensory integration: (i) the cross-correlation between kinematic variables of the hand and cursor trajectories, and/or (ii) an internal model of the hand-cursor kinematic transformation. Participants made out-and-back movements from the centre of a semicircular workspace to its boundary, after which they judged the position where either their hand or the cursor hit the boundary. We analysed the position biases and found that the integration was strong in a condition with high kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was mapped to a straight cursor trajectory), that it was significantly reduced for reduced kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was transformed into a curved cursor trajectory) and that it was not affected by the inability to acquire an internal model of the kinematic transformation (i.e. by the trial-to-trial variability of the cursor curvature). These findings support the idea that correlations play a crucial role in multisensory integration irrespective of the number of sensory sources involved. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  6. Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.

    2017-12-01

    Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.

  7. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2014-08-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  8. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  9. Seasonal Hydrological Loading in Southern Tibet Detected by Joint Analysis of GPS and GRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rong; Wang, Qi; Freymueller, Jeffrey T; Poutanen, Markku; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Caihong; Yang, Shaomin; He, Ping

    2015-12-04

    In southern Tibet, ongoing vertical and horizontal motions due to the collision between India and Eurasia are monitored by large numbers of global positioning system (GPS) continuous and campaign sites installed in the past decade. Displacements measured by GPS usually include tectonic deformation as well as non-tectonic, time-dependent signals. To estimate the regional long-term tectonic deformation using GPS more precisely, seasonal elastic deformation signals associated with surface loading must be removed from the observations. In this study, we focus on seasonal variation in vertical and horizontal motions of southern Tibet by performing a joint analysis of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and GPS data, not only using continuous sites but also GPS campaign-mode sites. We found that the GPS-observed and GRACE-modeled seasonal oscillations are in good agreements, and a seasonal displacement model demonstrates that the main reason for seasonal variations in southern Tibet is from the summer monsoon and its precipitation. The biggest loading appears from July to August in the summer season. Vertical deformations observed by GPS and modeled by GRACE are two to three times larger than horizontal oscillations, and the north components demonstrate larger amplitudes than the east components. We corrected the GPS position time series using the GRACE-modeled seasonal variations, which gives significant reductions in the misfit and weighted root-mean-squares (WRMS). Misfit (χ2 divided by degree of freedom) reductions for campaign sites range between 20% and 56% for the vertical component, and are much smaller for the horizontal components. Moreover, time series of continuous GPS (cGPS) sites near the 2015 Nepal earthquakes must be corrected using appropriate models of seasonal loading for analyzing postseismic deformation to avoid biasing estimates of the postseismic relaxation.

  10. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males ( P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years ( P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope ( r = 0.65, P mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  11. Review of current GPS methodologies for producing accurate time series and their error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxing; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel; Yu, Kegen; Hua, Xianghong; Jiang, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an important tool to observe and model geodynamic processes such as plate tectonics and post-glacial rebound. In the last three decades, GPS has seen tremendous advances in the precision of the measurements, which allow researchers to study geophysical signals through a careful analysis of daily time series of GPS receiver coordinates. However, the GPS observations contain errors and the time series can be described as the sum of a real signal and noise. The signal itself can again be divided into station displacements due to geophysical causes and to disturbing factors. Examples of the latter are errors in the realization and stability of the reference frame and corrections due to ionospheric and tropospheric delays and GPS satellite orbit errors. There is an increasing demand on detecting millimeter to sub-millimeter level ground displacement signals in order to further understand regional scale geodetic phenomena hence requiring further improvements in the sensitivity of the GPS solutions. This paper provides a review spanning over 25 years of advances in processing strategies, error mitigation methods and noise modeling for the processing and analysis of GPS daily position time series. The processing of the observations is described step-by-step and mainly with three different strategies in order to explain the weaknesses and strengths of the existing methodologies. In particular, we focus on the choice of the stochastic model in the GPS time series, which directly affects the estimation of the functional model including, for example, tectonic rates, seasonal signals and co-seismic offsets. Moreover, the geodetic community continues to develop computational methods to fully automatize all phases from analysis of GPS time series. This idea is greatly motivated by the large number of GPS receivers installed around the world for diverse applications ranging from surveying small deformations of civil engineering structures (e

  12. Application and Limitations of GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) Data for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Detection over the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, M.; Wu, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent changes in the Arctic environment, it is important to monitor the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) properties over the Arctic Ocean, especially to explore the variability in ABL clouds (such as sensitivity and feedback to sea ice loss). For example, radiosonde and satellite observations of the Arctic ABL height (and low-cloud cover) have recently suggested a positive response to sea ice loss during October that may not occur during the melt season (June-September). Owing to its high vertical and spatiotemporal resolution, an independent ABL height detection algorithm using GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) refractivity in the Arctic is explored. Similar GPS-RO algorithms developed previously typically define the level of the most negative moisture gradient as the ABL height. This definition is favorable for subtropical oceans where a stratocumulus-topped ABL is often capped by a layer of sharp moisture lapse rate (coincident with the temperature inversion). The Arctic Ocean is also characterized by stratocumulus cloud cover, however, the specific humidity does not frequently decrease in the ABL capping inversion. The use of GPS-RO refractivity for ABL height retrieval therefore becomes more complex. During winter months (December-February), when the total precipitable water in the troposphere is a minimum, a fairly straightforward algorithm for ABL height retrieval is developed. The applicability and limitations of this method for other seasons (Spring, Summer, Fall) is determined. The seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in the GPS-derived ABL height over the Arctic Ocean, as well as its relation to the underlying surface (ice vs. water), is investigated. The GPS-RO profiles are also explored for the evidence of low-level moisture transport in the cold Arctic environment.

  13. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  14. GPS observations of coseismic deformation following the May 20 and 29, 2012, Emilia seismic events (northern Italy: data, analysis and preliminary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Serpelloni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May-July 2012, a seismic sequence struck a broad area of the Po Plain Region in northern Italy. The sequence included two Ml >5.5 mainshocks. The first one (Ml 5.9 occurred near the city of Finale Emilia (ca. 30 km west of Ferrara on May 20 at 02:03:53 (UTC, and the second (Ml 5.8 occurred on May 29 at 7:00:03 (UTC, about 12 km southwest of the May 20 mainshock (Figure 1, near the city of Mirandola. The seismic sequence involved an area that extended in an E-W direction for more than 50 km, and included seven Ml ≥5.0 events and more than 2,300 Ml >1.5 events (http://iside.rm.ingv.it. The focal mechanisms of the main events [Pondrelli et al. 2012, Scognamiglio et al. 2012, this volume] consistently showed compressional kinematics with E-W oriented reverse nodal planes. This sector of the Po Plain is known as a region characterized by slow deformation rates due to the northwards motion of the northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, which is buried beneath the sedimentary cover of the Po Plain [Picotti and Pazzaglia 2008, Toscani et al. 2009]. Early global positioning system (GPS measurements [Serpelloni et al. 2006] and the most recent updates [Devoti et al. 2011, Bennett et al. 2012] recognized that less than 2 mm/yr of SW-NE shortening are accommodated across this sector of the Po Plain, in agreement with other present-day stress indicators [Montone et al. 2012] and known active faults [Basili et al. 2008]. In the present study, we describe the GPS data used to study the coseismic deformation related to the May 20 and 29 mainshocks, and provide preliminary models of the two seismic sources, as inverted from consensus GPS coseismic deformation fields. […

  15. Accuracy of Single Frequency GPS Observations Processing In Near Real-time With Use of Code Predicted Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, P. A.

    In this year, the system of active geodetic GPS permanent stations is going to be estab- lished in Poland. This system should provide GPS observations for a wide spectrum of users, especially it will be a great opportunity for surveyors. Many of surveyors still use cheaper, single frequency receivers. This paper focuses on processing of single frequency GPS observations only. During processing of such observations the iono- sphere plays an important role, so we concentrated on the influence of the ionosphere on the positional coordinates. Twenty consecutive days of GPS data from 2001 year were processed to analyze the accuracy of a derived three-dimensional relative vec- tor position between GPS stations. Observations from two Polish EPN/IGS stations: BOGO and JOZE were used. In addition to, a new test station - IGIK was created. In this paper, the results of single frequency GPS observations processing in near real- time are presented. Baselines of 15, 27 and 42 kilometers and sessions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours long were processed. While processing we used CODE (Centre for Orbit De- termination in Europe, Bern, Switzerland) predicted products: orbits and ionosphere info. These products are available in real-time and enable near real-time processing. Software Bernese v. 4.2 for Linux and BPE (Bernese Processing Engine) mode were used. These results are shown with a reference to dual frequency weekly solution (the best solution). Obtained GPS positional time and GPS baseline length dependency accuracy is presented for single frequency GPS observations.

  16. Are undesirable contact kinematics minimized after kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty? An intersurgeon analysis of consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Hodapp, Esther E; Vernace, Joseph V; Hull, Maury L; Meade, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    Tibiofemoral contact kinematics or knee implant motions have a direct influence on patient function and implant longevity and should be evaluated for any new alignment technique such as kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Edge loading of the tibial liner and external rotation (reverse of normal) and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component are undesirable contact kinematics that should be minimized. Accordingly, this study determined whether the overall prevalence of undesirable contact kinematics during standing, mid kneeling near 90 degrees and full kneeling with kinematically aligned TKA are minimal and not different between groups of consecutive patients treated by different surgeons. Three surgeons were asked to perform cemented, kinematically aligned TKA with patient-specific guides in a consecutive series of patients with their preferred cruciate-retaining (CR) implant. In vivo tibiofemoral contact positions were obtained using a 3- to 2-dimensional image registration technique in 69 subjects (Vanguard CR-TKA N = 22, and Triathlon CR-TKA N = 47). Anterior or posterior edge loading of the tibial liner was not observed. The overall prevalence of external rotation of the tibial component on the femoral component of 6 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). The overall prevalence of adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component of 4 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). Kinematically aligned TKA minimized the undesirable contact kinematics of edge loading of the tibial liner, and external rotation and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component during standing and kneeling, which suggests an optimistic prognosis for durable long-term function. III.

  17. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  18. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  19. Implementasi Sistem Pelacakan Kendaraan Bermotor Menggunakan Gps Dan Gprs Dengan Integrasi Googlemap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Dul Muchlisin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Vehicle tracking system using GPS and GPRS integration googlemap provide information that is maximized with the technology of GPS (Global Positioning System receiver which can indicate the position of the vehicle with the map and the ability of the appointment of direction and position coordinates (x, y or latitude, longitude textually and visual at any location. Vehicle tracking system is built using equipment GIS (Geographic Information System and dedicated to smartphones which support Global Positioning System (GPS, as well as portable computers, using General Packet Radio Service (GPRS as a connection to the internet. The hardware used is a smartphone that supports GPS with supporting tools used are GoogleMaps, Notepad + +, NetBeans IDE 6.5.1, Mysql, Java (J2ME, PHP, JavaScript. The results of this system in the form of tracking system capable of monitoring the movement of vehicles on an ongoing position by utilizing GPS and GPRS as the sender of the wireless data and Internet connections.   Keywords— GIS, GPS, GPRS, googlemaps, J2ME,

  20. Design and testing of a GPS/GSM collar prototype to combat cattle rustling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Tangorra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rustling is an age-old practice that was widespread in Italy until the first half of the 20th century. Today, incidents of cattle rustling are again being reported. However, the problem is not only found in Italy. It is also becoming a plague for ranchers in the US and is still rampant in East Africa. In Italy, the cattle rustling phenomena have usually been limited through the direct control of the herdsmen. Global positioning system (GPS and geographic information system (GIS combined technologies are increasingly applied for tracking and monitoring livestock with greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, so far, no case studies of the use of GPS technology to combat cattle rustling have been reported in the literature. The aim of this research was to develop a GPS/GSM (global system for mobile communication collar, using commercial hardware and implementing a specific software [ARVAshepherd 1.0; ARVAtec Srl, Rescaldina (MI, Italy] to track animals’ movements outside their grazing area and to signal when animals are straying outside virtual perimeters. A phase I study was conducted from January to June 2011 to build the GPS/GSM collar and to assess its performances in terms of GPS accuracy and precision, while a phase II study was conducted in July 2011 to test the GPS collar under real-life operating conditions. The static GPS positioning error achieved a circular error probable (50% and horizontal 95% accuracy of 1.462 m and 4.501 m, respectively. This is comparable with values obtained by other authors in static tests of a commercial GPS collar for grazing studies. In field tests, the system was able to identify the incorrect position of the cattle and the warning messages were sent promptly to the farmer, continuing until the animals had been repositioned inside the fence, thus highlighting the potential of the GPS/GSM collar as an anti-theft system.

  1. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  2. GPS User Devices Parameter Control Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klūga, A; Kuļikovs, M; Beļinska, V; Zeļenkovs, A

    2007-01-01

    In our day’s wide assortment of GPS user devices is manufacture. How to verify that parameters of the real device corresponds to parameters that manufacture shows. How to verify that parameters have not been changed during the operation time. The last one is very important for aviation GPS systems, which must be verified before the flight, but the values of parameter in time of repair works. This work analyses GPS user devices parameters control methods.

  3. On the kinematics of visual binary and multiple stars of the FK4 cataloque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Kinematic features of single, binary and multiple stars are considered. To compare kinematics of such stars with the kinematics of single stars the data on positions and proper motions of those stars which are given in the basic catalogue FK4. Single as well as visual binary and multiple stars united because of their limited content in FK4 have been subdivided by spectra and classes of luminosity into groups with account for known kinematic peculiarities of various spectral groups. Kinematic features for the studied spectral groups are given. By the stars of the FK4 catalogue for various spectral classes the difference of kinematic features of single, visual binary and multiple stars is obtained. However the values of these differences need to be specified due to small number of stars included in five of six groups considered

  4. Exploring the Origin of Kinematically Irregular Galaxies with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David Vincent; Bundy, Kevin; Westfall, Kyle; Bershady, Matthew; Cheung, Edmond; Soler, Juan; Brinchmann, Jarle; Abraham, Roberto; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Masters, Karen; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Chen, Yanmei; Jin, Yifei; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Law, David

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from normal rotation in galaxies may have a number of potential drivers, including tidal interactions, gas inflows/outflows, spiral structure, bar/oval distortions, or other internally generated instabilities. Thanks to new massive IFU surveys like MaNGA, we can now characterize the gas and stellar kinematics of thousands of galaxies in the local universe, enabling statistical analyses on the frequency of disturbed kinematics, their origin, and their impact on their host galaxies. We present a census of kinematics in MaNGA using a modified version of the Radon transform to map radial variations in kinematic position angles (PA). We discuss the frequency of kinematically irregular disks, and describe commonly observed patterns in radial PA profiles. In order to constrain the drivers of these kinematic signatures, we analyze how they correlate with galaxy mass, environment, star formation history, and gas-phase metallicity.

  5. Design and implementation of the GPS subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangelo, Sara C.; Bennett, Matthew W.; Meinzer, Daniel C.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Arlas, Jessica A.; Cutler, James W.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer (RAX) CubeSat. The GPS subsystem provides accurate temporal and spatial information necessary to satisfy the science objectives of the RAX mission. There are many challenges in the successful design and implementation of a GPS subsystem for a CubeSat-based mission, including power, size, mass, and financial constraints. This paper presents an approach for selecting and testing the individual and integrated GPS subsystem components, including the receiver, antenna, low noise amplifier, and supporting circuitry. The procedures to numerically evaluate the GPS link budget and test the subsystem components at various stages of system integration are described. Performance results for simulated tests in the terrestrial and orbital environments are provided, including start-up times, carrier-to-noise ratios, and orbital position accuracy. Preliminary on-orbit GPS results from the RAX-1 and RAX-2 spacecraft are presented to validate the design process and pre-flight simulations. Overall, this paper provides a systematic approach to aid future satellite designers in implementing and verifying GPS subsystems for resource-constrained small satellites.

  6. Android App Based Vehicle Tracking Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System GPS is used in numerous applications in todays world. A real time vehicle tracking system using the GPS technology is proposed in this paper. The project Android App based Vehicle Tracking Using GSM AND GPRS mainly focuses in tracking the location of the vehicle on which the device has been installed. It will then send the data in the form of latitude and longitude coordinates through SMS on the users mobile where the coordinates will be plotted in the Android app automatically. Initially the GPS installed in the device takes input from the satellite and stores it in the microcontrollers buffer. In order to track the vehicle the mobile user has to call on the SIM number that is registered in the GSM module of the device. Once the call is received the device authenticates the calling number. If authenticated the location of the vehicle is sent to the registered mobile number in the form of SMS. After sending the message the GSM is deactivated and the GPS is activated again. The coordinates of the location received in the SMS can be viewed on the android app. The hardware part described in the paper comprises of GPRS GSM module LCD to view the coordinates ATMega Microcontroller MAX 232 Arduino RS232 and relay.

  7. Evaluation of Mobile Phone Interference With Aircraft GPS Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Scott; Oria, A. J.; Guckian, Paul; Nguyen, Truong X.

    2004-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes tests that were conducted to measure cell phone spurious emissions in the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio frequency band that could affect the navigation system of an aircraft. The cell phone in question had, as reported to the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), caused interference to several GPS receivers on-board a small single engine aircraft despite being compliant with data filed at the time with the FCC by the manufacturer. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and industry tests show that while there is an emission in the 1575 MHz GPS band due to a specific combination of amplifier output impedance and load impedance that induces instability in the power amplifier, these spurious emissions (i.e., not the intentional transmit signal) are similar to those measured on non-intentionally transmitting devices such as, for example, laptop computers. Additional testing on a wide sample of different commercial cell phones did not result in any emission in the 1575 MHz GPS Band above the noise floor of the measurement receiver.

  8. GPS/MEMS IMU/Microprocessor Board for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  9. Utilization of GPS Tropospheric Delays for Climate Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, Wayan

    2017-01-01

    The tropospheric delay is one of the main error sources in Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and its impact plays a crucial role in near real-time weather forecasting. Accessibility and accurate estimation of this parameter are essential for weather and climate research. Advances in GPS application has allowed the measurements of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) in all weather conditions and on a global scale with fine temporal and spatial resolution. In addition to the rapid advancement of GPS technology and informatics and the development of research in the field of Earth and Planetary Sciences, the GPS data has been available free of charge. Now only required sophisticated processing techniques but user friendly. On the other hand, the ZTD parameter obtained from the models or measurements needs to be converted into precipitable water vapor (PWV) to make it more useful as a component of weather forecasting and analysis atmospheric hazards such as tropical storms, flash floods, landslide, pollution, and earthquake as well as for climate change studies. This paper addresses the determination of ZTD as a signal error or delay source during the propagation from the satellite to a receiver on the ground and is a key driving force behind the atmospheric events. Some results in terms of ZTD and PWV will be highlighted in this paper. (paper)

  10. Communication plan of GPS monitoring system based on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangpeng; Liu, Zhenan; Bao, Yuanlu

    2005-11-01

    In GPS monitoring system, wireless communications network is necessary to keep base station in contact with mobile stations. Public communications network and personal communications network can't work well all the time. In this article, an economical communications network that can be competent for communication of GPS monitoring system is introduced. Personal communications network is used in this GPS monitoring system. In order to enlarge the coverage area and to expand the capacity of the personal communications network, the concept of cellular radio system is introduced. Because only the non-adjacent cells can use the same frequency channel, handoff of mobile station is extremely important when it goes in another cell. The mobile station of the system will know its own longitude and latitude by receiving data from GPS satellites all the time, so it can change its working frequency channel according to its position. Internet, instead of personal communication cable, is used to connect the base stations. So the communications network has the advantage of public communications network and personal one.

  11. The GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic co-location in space through the precision orbit determination of GPS satellites via satellite laser ranging will contribute significantly towards improving the accuracy and stability of the international terrestrial reference frame. NASA recently formed the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project to develop and deliver retroreflectors for integration on the next generation of GPS satellites. These retroreflectors will be an important contributor to achieving a global accuracy of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm/year stability in the international terrestrial reference frame. We report here the current status of the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project.

  12. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J. (Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than +-0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  13. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J.

    2010-06-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ±0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  14. Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.

  15. Development And Test of A Digitally Steered Antenna Array for The Navigator GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Heitor David; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Winternitz, Luke M. B.; Hassouneh, Munther A.; Price, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS)-based navigation has become common for low-Earth orbit spacecraft as the signal environment is similar to that on the Earth s surface. The situation changes abruptly, however, for spacecraft whose orbital altitudes exceed that of the GPS constellation. Visibility is dramatically reduced and signals that are present may be very weak and more susceptible to interference. GPS receivers effective at these altitudes require increased sensitivity, which often requires a high-gain antenna. Pointing such an antenna can pose a challenge. One efficient approach to mitigate these problems is the use of a digitally steered antenna array. Such an antenna can optimally allocate gain toward desired signal sources and away from interferers. This paper presents preliminary results in the development and test of a digitally steered antenna array for the Navigator GPS research program at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. In particular, this paper highlights the development of an array and front-end electronics, the development and test of a real-time software GPS receiver, and implementation of three beamforming methods for combining the signals from the array. Additionally, this paper discusses the development of a GPS signal simulator which produces digital samples of the GPS L1C/A signals as they would be received by an arbitrary antenna array configuration. The simulator models transmitter and receiver dynamics, near-far and multipath interference, and has been a critical component in both the development and test of the GPS receiver. The GPS receiver system was tested with real and simulated GPS signals. Preliminary results show that performance improvement was achieved in both the weak signal and interference environments, matching analytical predictions. This paper summarizes our initial findings and discusses the advantages and limitations of the antenna array and the various beamforming methods.

  16. High-precision coseismic displacement estimation with a single-frequency GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bofeng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Li, Xingxing

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) in the earthquake/tsunami early warning and rapid response applications, minimizing the blind zone and increasing the stability and accuracy of both the rapid source and rupture inversion, the density of existing GPS networks must be increased in the areas at risk. For economic reasons, low-cost single-frequency receivers would be preferable to make the sparse dual-frequency GPS networks denser. When using single-frequency GPS receivers, the main problem that must be solved is the ionospheric delay, which is a critical factor when determining accurate coseismic displacements. In this study, we introduce a modified Satellite-specific Epoch-differenced Ionospheric Delay (MSEID) model to compensate for the effect of ionospheric error on single-frequency GPS receivers. In the MSEID model, the time-differenced ionospheric delays observed from a regional dual-frequency GPS network to a common satellite are fitted to a plane rather than part of a sphere, and the parameters of this plane are determined by using the coordinates of the stations. When the parameters are known, time-differenced ionospheric delays for a single-frequency GPS receiver could be derived from the observations of those dual-frequency receivers. Using these ionospheric delay corrections, coseismic displacements of a single-frequency GPS receiver can be accurately calculated based on time-differenced carrier-phase measurements in real time. The performance of the proposed approach is validated using 5 Hz GPS data collected during the 2012 Nicoya Peninsula Earthquake (Mw 7.6, 2012 September 5) in Costa Rica. This shows that the proposed approach improves the accuracy of the displacement of a single-frequency GPS station, and coseismic displacements with an accuracy of a few centimetres are achieved over a 10-min interval.

  17. An open-source hardware GPS data logger for wildlife radio-telemetry studies: A case study using Eastern box turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Cain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry technology has been a boon to animal spatial ecology studies. Oftentimes, the main limitation to widespread application of this technology is the cost, which can dictate the number of individuals outfitted with GPS technology, thereby limiting sample sizes. Here, we discuss the development of a low-cost, customizable, open-source hardware GPS logger for use in animal movement studies. We also present results from field tests with Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina in northwestern Ohio. These GPS loggers have the potential to augment existing projects and facilitate studies that would be otherwise cost-prohibitive. Keywords: GPS, Data logger, Arduino, Eastern box turtle

  18. Performance Analysis of Constrained Loosely Coupled GPS/INS Integration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dovis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates approaches for loosely coupled GPS/INS integration. Error performance is calculated using a reference trajectory. A performance improvement can be obtained by exploiting additional map information (for example, a road boundary. A constrained solution has been developed and its performance compared with an unconstrained one. The case of GPS outages is also investigated showing how a Kalman filter that operates on the last received GPS position and velocity measurements provides a performance benefit. Results are obtained by means of simulation studies and real data.

  19. Determination of semi-diurnal ocean tide loading constituents using GPS in Alaska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Tscherning, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    During the past years, the accuracy of relative positioning using differential GPS (DGPS) has been improved significantly. The present accuracy of DGPS allows us to directly estimate the differential amplitudes and Greenwich phase lags of the main semi-diurnal ocean tide loading constituents (S-2......, K-2, M-2 and N-2). For this purpose a test is carried out using two GPS stations in Alaska. One station, Chi3, is located on an island in the Gulf of Alaska, while the second station, Fair, is located far away from the coastal areas. Processing hourly GPS solutions for the baseline between Fair...

  20. Individuals' preferences for GPs Choice analysis from the establishment of a list patient system in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lurås, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain more knowledge concerning individuals’ preferences for alternative GPs within a municipality. We have data on the population’s first, second and third choice of GPs. The data stem from the entry form the inhabitant filled in as a result of the implementation of a list patient system in general practice in Norway. To assess the potential demand for GPs3 or individuals’ request for a position on a certain GP’s list, we formulate and estimate a structural dem...