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Sample records for kidney imaging strategy

  1. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  2. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  3. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  4. Oncologic imaging: kidney and ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.; Balfe, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Malignant cancers of the kidney and ureter account for only 2 to 3% of all neoplasms in man. However, early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This article seeks to amalgamate a large body of information related to the pathology of primary renal tumors and metastatic disease with current imaging strategies to assist the clinician and enhance his understanding of the wide variety of modern imaging techniques available. Current tumor staging classifications are presented and the various imaging strategies are keyed to detection, definition and treatment options for tumors of the renal parenchyma and ureter. The strengths and limitations of all available imaging modalities are reviewed. An optimal approach to the imaging workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology and most importantly, cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step by step approach that will be both flexible and utilitarian for the clinician faced with daily oncologic management choices

  5. MR imaging of the kidneys: new diagnostic strategies; MR-Bildgebung der Nieren. Neue Ansaetze in der Diagnostik

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    Schoenberg, S.O.; Knopp, M.V.; Bock, M.; Floemer, F.; Essig, M.; Hawighorst, H.; Kaick, G. van [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik; Kallinowski, F. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik; Just, A. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). 1. Physiologisches Inst.; Laub, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmensbereich Medizinische Technik; Prince, M.R [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-05-01

    Aim: New diagnostic strategies for evaluation of the kidney by fast MR imaging of renal morphology, multiphase 3D gadolinium MR angiography, MR urography and MR flow measurements. A signal MR examination is designed to grade renovascular disease and assess the hemodynamic and functional significance, detect and characterize renal lesions and evaluate the urinary tract. Results: The combined analysis of morphologic and functional data allows reliable assessment of renal artery stenosis, benign and malignant renal masses and diseases of the renal collecting system and ureters, as well as congenital abnormalities in good agreement to the results of conventional imaging modalities. The improved tissue contrast and additional functional information compensates for the disadvantage of a lower spatial resolution. Conclusion: Combined morphologic and functional MR examination represents a reliable, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative imaging modality for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of renal disease. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Darstellung neuer diagnostischer Moeglichkeiten im Bereich der Niere mittels schneller Magnetresonanz (MR)-Bildgebung. Methodik: Vorgestellt wird ein kombiniertes morphologisches und funktionelles Untersuchungskonzept bestehend aus schneller morphologischer Bildgebung, multiphasischer 3D-Gadolinium-MR-Angiographie, MR-Urographie und MR-Flussmessung. In einer einzigen MR-Untersuchung sollen vaskulaere Erkrankungen erfasst, eingestuft und auf ihre haemodynamische und funktionelle Signifikanz ueberprueft werden, renale Laesionen detektiert und differenziert sowie die Harnabflusswege beurteilt werden. Ergebnisse: Durch Integration der gewonnenen morphologischen und funktionellen Daten lassen sich Nierenarterienstenosen, benigne und maligne renale Tumoren, Harnabflussstoerungen und kongenitale Fehlbildungen mit aehnlicher Genauigkeit wie in den konventionellen radiologischen Verfahren erfassen. Der Nachteil der geringeren raeumlichen

  6. Radiological imaging of the kidney

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    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  7. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  8. Therapeutic Strategies for Hereditary Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Abhinav; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad

    2016-08-01

    The study of hereditary forms of kidney cancer has vastly increased our understanding of metabolic and genetic pathways involved in the development of both inherited and sporadic kidney cancers. The recognition that diverse molecular events drive different forms of kidney cancers has led to the preclinical and clinical development of specific pathway-directed strategies tailored to treat distinct subgroups of kidney cancer. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several different types of hereditary renal cancers, review their clinical characteristics, and summarize the treatment strategies for the management of these cancers.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Suguru; Lee, Chol-Joo; Hamashima, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive means for evaluating pathological changes of kidney transplants. Thirty kidney transplants were examined by MRI study, comparing with 12 donor kidneys as control. Imaging of well functioning grafts using inversion recovery (IR) method displayed a clear figure of corticomedullary differentiation (CMD). Kidneys under acute rejection, chronic rejection, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity displayed poor CMD. CMD of Kidneys under ATN was poor on IR imaging, but clear on T 1 weightened imaging. T 1 values of kidney grafts were obtained as the mean value of T 1 relaxation time of three areas including upper pole, lower pole, and the middle of the cortex. T 1 value of the grafts under chronic rejection was similar to that of well functioning grafts. The value increased in case of acute rejection, ATN, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity and decreased as the graft function was getting better. Imaging and the estimation of T 1 value of kidney transplants of MRI were effective for evaluating graft function but of no use for differentiation of causes of graft deterioration. (author)

  10. MR imaging of adult glomerulocystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, K.; Nakata, H.; Hashimoto, O.; Kaizu, K.; University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu

    1991-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with hypertension and severe renal dysfunction was diagnosed as having adult glomerulocystic kidney disease. MR imaging of the kidney showed a diffuse reduction of the intensity of the renal cortex with a loss of normal cortico-medullary differentiation of T1-weighted images. Numerous small cortical cysts were also demonstrated. These MR findings complemented the results of the biopsy and were useful for making a definitive diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  12. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

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    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2000-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-01-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease

  14. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  15. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; Sackey, K.; McDonald, P.

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging of kidneys following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.R.; Dickey, K.W.; Nelson, R.C.; Ambrose, S.S.; Walton, K.N.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    MR images were obtained the day after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) therapy in 34 patients; the untreated kidneys served as controls. Five patients underwent ESWL of both kidneys before MR imaging. The kidneys were imaged with a spin-echo technique. Multisection coronal, sagittal, and axial images were obtained with T1-weighted pulse sequences. MR imaging studies of 39 kidneys after ESWL showed no abnormality in ten (25%) cases. The other kidneys (75%) had one or more of several findings. Small subcapsular or perinephric fluid collections were noted in ten (25%) patients. Generalized loss of corticomedullary junction (CMJ) was noted in eight (21%) cases and focal loss in 16 (24%). The more pronounced alterations in the CMJ correlated with increased numbers of shock waves received by the kidney

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennerholm, S.; Backman, U.; Bohman, S.O.; Hemmingsson, A.; Nyman, R.; Uppsala Univ. Hospital; Huddinge Hospital

    1990-01-01

    In this study, long-term renal transplants were investigated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the results were correlated to histopathology and graft function. Seventeen patients were investigated with MR one to 10 years after transplantation and with simultaneous ultrasonographically guided cortical needle biopsy and function tests. Histopathology included semiquantitative grading of degree of fibrosis and quantitation of ratios of tubular structures to interstitial tissue. The correlation between the histopathological assessment of interstitial fibrosis and graft function was good. Poor differentiation between the renal cortex and the renal medulla at MR imaging was correlated to high degree of interstitial fibrosis in the kidney transplants as well as to reduced graft function. MR examination may thus be of value in the evaluation of long-term renal transplants with chronic functional changes. (orig./MG)

  18. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  19. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.-P.; Schrader, C.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Guenther, P.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.; Edelhaeuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  20. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of lymphoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiakowska, U.; Smorczewska, M.; Huczynska-Szubert, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to discuss both the clinical and radiological signs and the diagnostic principles of lymphomatous infiltrations of the kidney. Materials and methods. The studied group consisted of 20 patients (9 women, 11 men) aged 18-79 years. The follows-up varied from 2 to 156 months. All patients underwent CT and ultrasound investigations, while only 1 patient had an MRI examination. In 7 cases surgical treatment was performed, while the remaining 13 patients received chemotherapy. One patient died, 12 are in remission and seven are under observation and considered cured. Results. The radiological signs of kidney lymphoma may be divided into groups: a) kidney enlargement, obliteration of the cortex-core differentiation and obliteration of the outline; b) heterogenous kidney structure with undefined hypodense fociand lack of enhancement after the administration of contrasting material; c) presence of a well-defined tumor within the renal pelvis and external infiltration of the kidney, d) infiltration of the kidney originating from the retroperitoneal space encompassing the organ from the outside. Conclusions. The radiological signs of lymphoma differ in the kidney and exhibit a characteristic set of features. Radiology results combined with clinical symptoms may suggest lymphoma in the kidney and thus advocate the necessity of pathological evaluation prior to surgical treatment. (authors)

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

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    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin [Ruijin Hospital Shanghai, Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm 2 ). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  4. Family strategies for achieving medication adherence in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa; Perrazo, Lauren; Goebel, Jens; Pai, Ahna L H

    2011-01-01

    Although nonadherence is well documented and strategies for adherence have been shown to be critical to overcoming barriers and improving overall adherence rates, it is unknown how family strategy use is related to adherence in the pediatric renal transplant population. The aims of this study were to assess (a) the strategies used by adolescents with kidney transplants and their caregivers to adhere to the posttransplant oral medication regimen and (b) the relationship of these strategies to objective adherence rates. Semistructured interviews to assess self-management were administered to 17 adolescents (14-18 years) and 17 caregivers. Adherence to oral immunosuppressant medication, measured via electronic monitors, was determined also for a subset of 13 dyads. Common strategies endorsed by families included the following: making it part of the routine (88.2%), verbal reminders by caregiver (82.4%), caregiver verifying medication was taken (76.5%), placing medication in a convenient location (76.5%), and using a pillbox (70.6%). A greater number of family-endorsed strategies were correlated with higher levels of adherence. Of those strategies spontaneously endorsed, only caregiver reminders to take medication and caregiver verification that medications were taken were related significantly to higher adherence rates. The findings highlight the importance of identification and use of specific strategies to improve adherence rates of pediatric renal transplant recipients and emphasize the need for continued caregiver involvement in the promotion of adherence to the treatment regimen.

  5. Kidney deformation and intraprocedural registration: a study of elements of image-guided kidney surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamar, Hernan O; Ong, Rowena E; Glisson, Courtenay L; Viprakasit, Davis P; Miga, Michael I; Herrell, Stanley Duke; Galloway, Robert L

    2011-03-01

    Central to any image-guided surgical procedure is the alignment of image and physical coordinate spaces, or registration. We explored the task of registration in the kidney through in vivo and ex vivo porcine animal models and a human study of minimally invasive kidney surgery. A set of (n = 6) ex vivo porcine kidney models was utilized to study the effect of perfusion and loss of turgor caused by incision. Computed tomography (CT) and laser range scanner localizations of the porcine kidneys were performed before and after renal vessel clamping and after capsular incision. The da Vinci robotic surgery system was used for kidney surface acquisition and registration during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The surgeon acquired the physical surface data points with a tracked robotic instrument. These data points were aligned to preoperative CT for surface-based registrations. In addition, two biomechanical elastic computer models (isotropic and anisotropic) were constructed to simulate deformations in one of the kidneys to assess predictive capabilities. The mean displacement at the surface fiducials (glass beads) in six porcine kidneys was 4.4 ± 2.1 mm (range 3.4-6.7 mm), with a maximum displacement range of 6.1 to 11.2 mm. Surface-based registrations using the da Vinci robotic instrument in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy yielded mean and standard deviation closest point distances of 1.4 and 1.1 mm. With respect to computer model predictive capability, the target registration error was on average 6.7 mm without using the model and 3.2 mm with using the model. The maximum target error reduced from 11.4 to 6.2 mm. The anisotropic biomechanical model yielded better performance but was not statistically better. An initial point-based alignment followed by an iterative closest point registration is a feasible method of registering preoperative image (CT) space to intraoperative physical (robot) space. Although rigid registration provides

  6. Imaging and Screening of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Leon, Alberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms. This article reviews CT and MR imaging in RCC and the role of screening in selected high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the kidney at 3 T. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Heilmann, Melanie; Schad, Lothar R.; Nissen, Johanna C.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging provides diagnostic information in strokes, hemorrhages, and cerebral tumors and has proven to be a valuable tool in imaging venous vessels in the cerebrum. The SWI principle is based on the weighting of T 2 * weighted magnitude images with a phase mask, therewith improving image contrast of veins or neighbouring structures of different susceptibility, in general. T 2 * weighted MRI is already used for assessment of kidney function. In this paper, the feasibility of SWI on kidneys was investigated. Translation of SWI from the brain to the kidneys comes along with two main challenges: (i) organ motion due to breathing and (ii) a higher oxygenation level of renal veins compared to the brain. To handle these problems, the acquisition time has been cut down to allow for breath-hold examinations, and different post-processing methods including a new phase mask were investigated to visualize renal veins. Results showed that by a new post-processing strategy SWI contrast was enhanced on average by a factor of 1.33 compared to the standard phase mask. In summary, initial experiences of SWI on the kidneys demonstrated the feasibility. However, further technical developments have to be performed to make this technology applicable in clinical abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  8. CT and MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands: CT of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, E.

    1987-01-01

    Because of its high diagnostic yield, safety, and cost-effectiveness, CT has become a major imaging technique for evaluating the kidney. CT is highly accurate for determining the nature and extent of renal masses, and this has become the main indication for renal CT. However, CT is also valuable in assessing patients with renal cystic disease, trauma, inflammatory disease, infarction, hemorrhage and hydronephrosis of unknown cause. This presentation reviews the normal CT anatomy of the kidneys and the usefulness of CT in the diagnosis of all these conditions. Examination techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and tailoring the examination to the nature of the clinical problem. CT findings in various renal disorders are compared with those of other imaging techniques, particularly US and angiography, and the place of CT in the diagnostic approach to these disorders is considered

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p30 ml/min./1.73 m(2) (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR.

  10. Nonpharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Susantitaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI has been one of the leading causes for hospital-acquired AKI and is associated with independent risk for adverse clinical outcomes including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the studies that focus on nonpharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI, including routine identification of at-risk patients, use of appropriate hydration regimens, withdrawal of nephrotoxic drugs, selection of low-osmolar contrast media or isoosmolar contrast media, and using the minimum volume of contrast media as possible. There is no need to schedule dialysis in relation to injection of contrast media or injection of contrast agent in relation to dialysis program. Hemodialysis cannot protect the poorly functioning kidney against CI-AKI.

  11. CT and MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands: MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal anatomy of the kidney is clearly demonstrated with MR imaging. The renal cortex can be differentiated from the renal medulla; renal vessels can also be identified. MR imaging can differentiate cystic from solid lesions. The signal intensity of a renal cell carcinoma varies and overlaps with the signal intensities of renal neoplasms of other etiologies. MR imaging is superior to CT in distinguishing vascular from nonvascular structures. It can distinguish collateral vessels from lymph nodes and can disclose tumoral thrombi. MR imaging can also aid in the differentiation of acute rejection from acute tubular necrosis in renal transplant recipients. Both normal and abnormal adrenal glands can be seen on MR imaging. A normal adrenal gland has a signal intensity higher than or equal to that of muscle but lower than that of fat. T1-weighted images offer excellent antomic resolution; T2-weighted images provide additional information about internal characteristics of adrenal neoplasms. Preliminary data indicate that MR imaging is useful in distinguishing nonfunctioning adenomas from adrenal metastases. The role of MR imaging of the kidney and adrenal gland is discussed

  12. Multidisciplinary strategies in the management of early chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Hernández-Herrera, Aurora; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide epidemic especially in developing countries, with clear deficiencies in identification and treatment. Better care of CKD requires more than only economic resources, utilization of health research in policy-making and health systems changes that produce better outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach may facilitate and improve management of patients from early CKD in the primary health-care setting. This approach is a strategy for improving comprehensive care, initiating and maintaining healthy behaviors, promoting teamwork, eliminating barriers to achieve goals and improving the processes of care. A multidisciplinary intervention may include educational processes guided by health professional, use of self-help groups and the development of a CKD management plan. The complex and fragmented care management of patients with CKD, associated with poor outcome, enhances the importance of implementing a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this disease from the early stages. Multidisciplinary strategies should focus on the needs of patients (to increase their empowerment) and should be adapted to the resources and health systems prevailing in each country; its systematic implementation can help to improve patient care and slow the progression of CKD. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiparametric Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging in Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Perlman, Alan; Kalache, Safa; Berman, Nathaniel; Seshan, Surya; Salvatore, Steven; Smith, Lindsey; Wehrli, Natasha; Waldron, Levi; Kodali, Hanish; Chevalier, James

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the value of multiparametric quantitative ultrasound imaging in assessing chronic kidney disease (CKD) using kidney biopsy pathologic findings as reference standards. We prospectively measured multiparametric quantitative ultrasound markers with grayscale, spectral Doppler, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in 25 patients with CKD before kidney biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers. Based on all pathologic (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, arteriosclerosis, and edema) scores, the patients with CKD were classified into mild (no grade 3 and quantitative ultrasound parameters included kidney length, cortical thickness, pixel intensity, parenchymal shear wave velocity, intrarenal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index. We tested the difference in quantitative ultrasound parameters among mild CKD, moderate to severe CKD, and healthy controls using analysis of variance, analyzed correlations of quantitative ultrasound parameters with pathologic scores and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Pearson correlation coefficients, and examined the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound parameters in determining moderate CKD and an estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. There were significant differences in cortical thickness, pixel intensity, PSV, and EDV among the 3 groups (all P quantitative ultrasound parameters, the top areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for PSV and EDV were 0.88 and 0.97, respectively, for determining pathologic moderate to severe CKD, and 0.76 and 0.86 for estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Moderate to good correlations were found for PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity with pathologic scores and estimated GFR. The PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity are valuable in determining moderate to severe CKD. The value of shear wave velocity in

  14. Comparing the difference of measured GFR of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baojun; Zhao Deshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and analyze the difference of measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging. Methods: There were 10 patients collected retrospectively, with ectopic kidneys in pelvic cavity confirmed by ultrasound, CT, renal dynamic imaging and other imaging modalities. All images of ectopic kidneys in renal dynamic imaging were processed by anterior and posterior methods respectively. The ectopic kidney was only processed in anterior imaging, ectopic kidney and contralateral normal kidney were processed in posterior imaging. Total GFR equalled the sum of GFR of normal kidney in posterior imaging and GFR of ectopic kidney in anterior imaging, was compared with total GFR of two kidneys in posterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. All correlation analysis were completed between GFRs from three methods and all patients were followed up. Statistically paired t-test and bivariate correlation analysis test were used. Results: The mean GFR of ectopic kidney in anterior imaging equal to (27.48±12.24) ml/(min · 1.73 m 2 ). It was more than GFR [(10.71 ±4.74) ml/ (min · 1.73 m 2 )] in posterior imaging above 46% (t=5.481, P<0.01). There was no significant difference (t=-2.238, P>0.05), but better correlation (r=0.704, P<0.05) between total GFR in anterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. There was significant difference (t=4.629, P<0.01)and worse correlation (r=0.576, P>0.05) between total GFR in posterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. Conclusion: Comparing with GFR in posterior imaging, GFR in anterior imaging can more truly reflect function condition of ectopic pelvic kidney in renal dynamic imaging. (authors)

  15. Functional imaging of the kidneys with fast MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Priatna, Agus

    1999-01-01

    Availability of faster and stronger gradient systems have given rise to a multitude of fast MRI data acquisition strategies which have tremendously increased the scope of MRI applications. These have led to the realization of long desired comprehensive approaches to evaluate anatomy and function using a single modality. In this work, we describe some of our own experiences with functional evaluation of the kidneys using MRI. Examples that suggest the feasibility of comprehensive approaches for evaluation of renal disease are also provided. We also introduce BOLD renal MRI, a method that may allow basic understanding of human renal physiology and pathophysiology in a way that has not been previously possible

  16. Strategies to increase the donor pool and access to kidney transplantation: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, U.; Oberbauer, R.; Pascual, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this position article, DESCARTES (Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States) board members describe the current strategies aimed at expanding living and deceased donor kidney pools. The article focuses on the recent progress in desensitization and kidney...

  17. Recent important strategies in the management of chronic kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, an active and monitored exercise programme should be undertaken whenever possible. All of these .... isoprenoids would reduce formation and growth of kidney cysts. In addition, statins ..... Swimming. Decrease in oxidative stress and.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p<0.0001). The mean variability of measurements performed in the cortex was significantly lower than that in the medulla (6.2% vs. 11.5%, respectively; p<0.005). The mean SNR was higher in the measurements using b600 than b1000, it was higher in ADC maps than in the eADC maps, and it was higher in the cortex than in the medulla. ADC and eADC measured at b1000 in the cortex were higher in the group of the patients with eGFR ≤30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 as compared to patients with eGFR >30 ml/min./1.73 m 2 (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR

  19. Dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with a kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gemma; Cantarell-Aixendri, M Carmen; Parramon-Puig, Gemma; Serón-Micas, Daniel

    2014-01-01

     Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluate the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism.  Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed. The evaluation instruments were the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The data were analysed with central tendency measures, correlation analyses and means were compared using Student’s t-test.   66 patients with a kidney transplant participated in the study. The coping styles that characterised patients with a recent kidney transplantation were Social withdrawal and Problem avoidance. Correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies were significant in a positive direction in Problem-solving (p<.05) and Cognitive restructuring (p<.01), and inversely with Self-criticism (p<.05). Differences in dispositional optimism created significant differences in the Self-Criticism dimension (t=2.58; p<.01).  Dispositional optimism scores provide differences in coping responses after kidney transplantation. Moreover, coping strategies may influence the patient’s perception of emotional wellbeing after kidney transplantation.

  20. Automatic detection of kidney in 3D pediatric ultrasound images using deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Pooneh R.; Mansoor, Awais; Biggs, Elijah; Jago, James; Linguraru, Marius George

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is the routine and safe diagnostic modality for detecting pediatric urology problems, such as hydronephrosis in the kidney. Hydronephrosis is the swelling of one or both kidneys because of the build-up of urine. Early detection of hydronephrosis can lead to a substantial improvement in kidney health outcomes. Generally, US imaging is a challenging modality for the evaluation of pediatric kidneys with different shape, size, and texture characteristics. The aim of this study is to present an automatic detection method to help kidney analysis in pediatric 3DUS images. The method localizes the kidney based on its minimum volume oriented bounding box) using deep neural networks. Separate deep neural networks are trained to estimate the kidney position, orientation, and scale, making the method computationally efficient by avoiding full parameter training. The performance of the method was evaluated using a dataset of 45 kidneys (18 normal and 27 diseased kidneys diagnosed with hydronephrosis) through the leave-one-out cross validation method. Quantitative results show the proposed detection method could extract the kidney position, orientation, and scale ratio with root mean square values of 1.3 +/- 0.9 mm, 6.34 +/- 4.32 degrees, and 1.73 +/- 0.04, respectively. This method could be helpful in automating kidney segmentation for routine clinical evaluation.

  1. Functional imaging of the kidneys with fast MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.V.; Priatna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Availability of faster and stronger gradient systems have given rise to a multitude of fast MRI data acquisition strategies which have tremendously increased the scope of MRI applications. These have led to the realization of long desired comprehensive approaches to evaluate anatomy and function using a single modality. In this work, we describe some of our own experiences with functional evaluation of the kidneys using MRI. Examples that suggest the feasibility of comprehensive approaches for evaluation of renal disease are also provided. We also introduce BOLD renal MRI, a method that may allow basic understanding of human renal physiology and pathophysiology in a way that has not been previously possible. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Functional imaging of the kidneys with fast MRI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, P.V.; Priatna, A. [AN-234, MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Availability of faster and stronger gradient systems have given rise to a multitude of fast MRI data acquisition strategies which have tremendously increased the scope of MRI applications. These have led to the realization of long desired comprehensive approaches to evaluate anatomy and function using a single modality. In this work, we describe some of our own experiences with functional evaluation of the kidneys using MRI. Examples that suggest the feasibility of comprehensive approaches for evaluation of renal disease are also provided. We also introduce BOLD renal MRI, a method that may allow basic understanding of human renal physiology and pathophysiology in a way that has not been previously possible. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Recent important strategies in the management of chronic kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following are discussed: the possible use of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes-related CKD; recent inexpensive important developments in the treatment of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease; prevention of acidosis and the early dietary reduction of red meat consumption; and the therapeutic lowering ...

  4. Kidney paired exchange and desensitization: Strategies to transplant the difficult to match kidney patients with living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas A; Lee, Jacqueline I; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-01-01

    With organs in short supply, only a limited number of kidney transplants can be performed a year. Live donor donation accounts for 1/3rd of all kidney transplants performed in the United States. Unfortunately, not every donor recipient pair is feasible because of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and ABO incompatibility. To overcome these barriers to transplant, strategies such as kidney paired donation (KPD) and desensitization have been developed. KPD is the exchange of donors between at least two incompatible donor-recipient pairs such that they are now compatible. Desensitization is the removal of circulating donor specific antibodies to prevent graft rejection. Regardless of the treatment strategy, highly sensitized patients whose calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) is ≥95% remain difficult to transplant with match rates as low as 15% in KPD pools. Desensitization has proved to be difficult in those with high antibody titers. A novel approach is the combination of both KPD and desensitization to facilitate compatible and successful transplantation. A highly sensitized patient can be paired with a better immunological match in the KPD pool and subsequently desensitized to a lesser degree. This article reviews the current progress in KPD and desensitization and their use as a combined therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  6. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  7. Multiparametric Functional MRI: Non-Invasive Imaging of Inflammation and Edema Formation after Kidney Transplantation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation (ktx in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used.Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping to assess graft inflammation and edema formation. To characterize graft pathology, we used PAS-staining, counted CD3-positive T-lymphocytes, analyzed leukocytes by means flow cytometry.DWI revealed progressive restriction of diffusion of water molecules in allogenic kidney grafts. This was paralleled by enhanced infiltration of the kidney by inflammatory cells. Changes in tissue diffusion were not seen following isogenic ktx. T2-times in renal cortex were increased after both isogenic and allogenic transplantation, consistent with tissue edema due to ischemic injury following prolonged cold ischemia time of 60 minutes. Lack of T2 increase in the inner stripe of the inner medulla in allogenic kidney grafts matched loss of tubular autofluorescence and may result from rejection-driven reductions in tubular water content due to tubular dysfunction and renal functional impairment.Functional MRI is a valuable non-invasive technique for monitoring inflammation, tissue edema and tubular function. It permits on to differentiate between acute rejection and ischemic renal injury in a mouse model of ktx.

  8. Coping Strategies Adopted by Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease in Preparation for Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kohlsdorf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimThis paper aimed to analyze the coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, as well as associations between coping and socio-demographic data.MethodA total of 76 patients took part in this descriptive, exploratory study. While waiting for the first medical consultation regarding kidney transplantation, participants answered the Brazilian version of the Ways of Coping Scale.ResultsThe main coping strategies adopted corresponded first to religiosity, then problem focused coping and seeking for social support. There were statistically significant associations between coping categories and gender, marital status, monthly income, children’s ages, and time in dialysis.ConclusionThis study highlights the main coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, and it also reveals associations between some socio-demographic data and coping. These results may promote further psychosocial interventions, which may help to improve preparation to kidney transplants, promoting better adaptation and treatment adherence as well as fewer psychological burdens.

  9. PACS strategy for imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Victoria; Zdanowicz, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) have been available in imaging centers for many years, but they often were less functional, were not well integrated into patient information systems, and lacked the network backbone to implement a system. As modalities are replaced and technology improves, the ability and time for an imaging center to acquire, integrate, and utilize PACS has arrived. However, each imaging center must determine why it should invest in PACS. A business plan is the fundamental need. Each imaging center must understand its target market, growth rate, and staffing plans. Additional considerations lie in current and future modality availability, the need for offsite delivery of images and reports, and the potential need for remote transmission of images. These issues must be identified and prioritized. A multidisciplinary team is essential. The most successful PACS implementation begins with complete involvement from all levels. The team should be comprised of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. The team must jointly decide on the project's objectives. These objectives fall under 4 categories: clinical, service, financial, and performance. PACS must be considered a tool to help accomplish each objective. The imaging center must determine its top priorities, then translate them into a technology "wish list." The center can then list those pieces of technology that are most important and prioritize them. There are even more considerations for connecting multiple imaging centers. The team must create a comprehensive request for proposal (RFP) and determine the vendors that will receive the document. Once the RFP responses have been received and the vendor has been selected, an effective training plan must be executed. Training plans should be competency-based, ensuring comfort and competency among all staff. Upon

  10. Photoacoustic imaging for assessing ischemic kidney damage in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) occur after blood returns to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients, which causes an inflammatory response leading to heterogeneous scarring of the nearby tissue and vasculature. This is associated with long-term decreases blood flow, and necrosis. Although most commonly associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRIs are also a side effect of organ transplants, when the organ is reperfused in the recipient's body after being transported from the donor to the transplant hospital. Currently, the optimal method of monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and poorly monitor the spatial heterogeneity of the damage. To non-invasively identify changes in kidneys, the left renal artery in mice (n=3) was clamped for 45 minutes to create an IRI event. Both kidneys of each animal were monitored using photoacoustics (PA) with the VevoLAZR system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) three, four and eight weeks after surgery. IRI-treated kidneys show increased picosirius red staining, indicative of collagen (0.601 vs 0.042, p < 0.0001), decreased size as assessed by cross-sectional area (7.8 mm2 vs 35.9 mm2 , p < 0.0001), and decreased oxygen saturation (sO2; 62% vs 77%, p = 0.02). Analysis of the photoacoustic data shows that a two-point metric, the 715:930 nm ratio of the whole kidney (1.05 vs 0.57, p = 0.049) and the optical spectral slope (OSS) (0.8 * 10-3 vs 3.0 * 10-3, p = 0.013) are both able to differentiate between IRI-treated and healthy kidneys. These data suggest that photoacoustics can be used as a non-invasive method to observe in vivo changes in the kidney due to IRI.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys: A comparative study with anatomical sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.; Posel, P.; Muenchen Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of human kidneys (n=24) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared with the corresponding cross-sections that had been prepared later from the same kidneys. The tomographs reveal detailed informations of renal fine structure. In particular, parenchyma and sinus can be easily differentiated from vasculature. It is possible to visualize vessel arborisation, including the arcuate vessels of the renal cortex. The clinical significance of renal MR tomographs is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Strategies of the Brazilian chronic kidney disease prevention campaign (2003-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Bastos, Marcus G; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, as in the rest of the world, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing. In order to alert the population, health professionals and authorities to this risk, in 2003, the Brazilian Society of Nephrology launched a CKD prevention campaign called 'Previna-se'. In addition, since its onset, Brazil has participated in the World Kidney Day efforts and has developed several prevention strategies. Here, we summarize the main strategies adopted in this campaign (population screening, events and meetings, distribution of educational materials, routine report of estimated glomerular filtration rate) and our initial results, sharing practical experience that could be useful in other developing countries. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis; MR imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.S. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Coll. of Medicine (Korea, Republic of))

    1992-11-01

    MR imaging of the kidney was performed in 6 patients with acute renal failure (ARF) secondary to rhabdomyolysis caused by snake bite (n = 4), crush injury (n = 1), and carbon monoxide poisoning (n = 1). A test for urine myoglobin was positive in all 6 patients and MR imaging was done 6 to 18 days after the causative event of the rhabdomyolysis. MR images in all 6 patients showed globular swelling of the kidneys, preserved corticomedullary contrast on T1-weighted images, and obliteration of corticomedullary contrast on T2-weighted images. Unlike other medical renal diseases in which corticomedullary contrast is lost on T1-weighted images, preservation of the corticomedullary contrast on T1-weighted MR images with globular renal swelling was a constant finding in patients with ARF secondary to rhabdomyolysis. (orig.).

  14. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  15. 67Cu-labelled antibody fragments for RIT: strategies to prevent kidney accumulation of 67Cu-labelled metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, R.A.D.; Zimmermann, K.; Waibel, R.; Ruch, C.; Pasquale, C. de; Novak-Hofer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two different approaches to reduce accumulation of radiocopper labelled metabolites in the kidney were pursued. The first strategy consisted of pharmacological blockade of reuptake of metabolites by predosing with basic amino acids. The second approach is chemical modification of the DOTA chelator in an attempt to increase clearance of metabolites from the kidneys. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref

  16. Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland Melson, G.

    1984-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) findings in renal infections is important to radiologists for a variety of reasons. Although in most instances urinary tract infections are successfully treated without the performance of radiologic studies, an increasing number of patients having fever, sepsis, flank pain, or hematuria-which may be manifestations of renal infection-are being referred for ultrasound or CT as their first imaging test. Radiologists must therefore be familiar with the imaging features of renal infections and consider this possibility in a variety of clinical settings. Both ultrasound and CT have had a major impact on the evaluation and treatment of patients with known renal infections at most medical centers. Appropriate utilization of these techniques is now vital to optimal patient management. Recent observations with these modalities have also added to our understanding of the pathophysiology and interrelationships of this rather complex group of conditions. This chapter reviews the ultrasound and CT features of renal infections, emphasizing correlation with clinical features, renal anatomy, and pathophysiology. This chapter also compares the relative efficacy of ultrasound and CT in diagnosing renal infections and suggests an algorithm for optimal imaging evaluation

  17. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. I. The kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.

  18. Pre-clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pt. I. The kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Zimmer, Fabian; Schad, Lothar R.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. In Europe alone, at least 8% of the population currently has some degree of CKD. CKD is associated with serious comorbidity, reduced life expectancy, and high economic costs; hence, the early detection and adequate treatment of kidney disease is important. Pre-clinical research can not only give insights into the mechanisms of the various kidney diseases but it also allows for investigating the outcome of new drugs developed to treat kidney disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive access to tissue and organ function in animal models. Advantages over classical animal research approaches are numerous: the same animal might be repeatedly imaged to investigate a progress or a treatment of disease over time. This has also a direct impact on animal welfare and the refinement of classical animal experiments as the number of animals in the studies might be reduced. In this paper, we review current state of the art in functional magnetic resonance imaging with a focus on pre-clinical kidney imaging.

  19. Renal water molecular diffusion characteristics in healthy native kidneys: assessment with diffusion tensor MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and magnetic resonance (MR imaging in healthy native kidneys. METHODS: Seventy-three patients without chronic kidney disease underwent DTI-MRI with spin echo-echo planar (SE-EPI sequences accompanied by an array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET. Cortical and medullary mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, AD and RD, fractional anisotropy (FA and primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3 were analysed in both kidneys and in different genders. RESULTS: Cortical MD, λ2, λ3, and RD values were higher than corresponding medullary values. The cortical FA value was lower than the medullary FA value. Medullary λ1 and RD values in the left kidney were lower than in the right kidney. Medullary λ2, and λ3 values in women were higher than those in men. Medullary FA values in women were lower than those in men. Medullary FA (r = 0.351, P = 0.002 and λ1 (r = 0.277, P = 0.018 positively correlated with eGFR. Medullary FA (r = -0.25, P = 0.033 negatively correlated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Renal water molecular diffusion differences exist in human kidneys and genders. Age and eGFR correlate with medullary FA and primary eigenvalue.

  20. Functional evaluation of the kidney by diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Taro; Hasegawa, Norio; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffuse renal disease by diffusion-weighted echo planar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (EPI). Ten volunteers, seven patients with chronic renal failure and eighteen recipients of renal transplants were examined with diffusion-weighted EPI. We compared renal function (serum creatinine level) with provided ADC value. The average ADC values were 2.63 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the whole kidney, 2.67 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the cortex and 2.61 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the medulla in normal kidneys. ADC values in the whole kidney, the cortex and the medulla in chronic renal failure were significantly lower than those for normal kidneys. In renal transplantation kidneys, the ADC values in the cortex were significantly lower than those for normal kidney. There was a linear correlation between ADC value and serum creatinine level. Our results show that diffusion-weighted MR imaging may be useful to identify renal dysfunction. (author)

  1. A shape-optimized framework for kidney segmentation in ultrasound images using NLTV denoising and DRLSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-assisted surgical navigation aims to provide surgeons with anatomical target localization and critical structure observation, where medical image processing methods such as segmentation, registration and visualization play a critical role. Percutaneous renal intervention plays an important role in several minimally-invasive surgeries of kidney, such as Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL and Radio-Frequency Ablation (RFA of kidney tumors, which refers to a surgical procedure where access to a target inside the kidney by a needle puncture of the skin. Thus, kidney segmentation is a key step in developing any ultrasound-based computer-aided diagnosis systems for percutaneous renal intervention. Methods In this paper, we proposed a novel framework for kidney segmentation of ultrasound (US images combined with nonlocal total variation (NLTV image denoising, distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE and shape prior. Firstly, a denoised US image was obtained by NLTV image denoising. Secondly, DRLSE was applied in the kidney segmentation to get binary image. In this case, black and white region represented the kidney and the background respectively. The last stage is that the shape prior was applied to get a shape with the smooth boundary from the kidney shape space, which was used to optimize the segmentation result of the second step. The alignment model was used occasionally to enlarge the shape space in order to increase segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on both synthetic images and US data are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results We applied our segmentation framework on synthetic and real US images to demonstrate the better segmentation results of our method. From the qualitative results, the experiment results show that the segmentation results are much closer to the manual segmentations. The sensitivity (SN, specificity (SP and positive predictive value

  2. Texture Feature Analysis for Different Resolution Level of Kidney Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuddin, Wan Nur Hafsha Wan; Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan

    2017-08-01

    Image feature extraction is a technique to identify the characteristic of the image. The objective of this work is to discover the texture features that best describe a tissue characteristic of a healthy kidney from ultrasound (US) image. Three ultrasound machines that have different specifications are used in order to get a different quality (different resolution) of the image. Initially, the acquired images are pre-processed to de-noise the speckle to ensure the image preserve the pixels in a region of interest (ROI) for further extraction. Gaussian Low- pass Filter is chosen as the filtering method in this work. 150 of enhanced images then are segmented by creating a foreground and background of image where the mask is created to eliminate some unwanted intensity values. Statistical based texture features method is used namely Intensity Histogram (IH), Gray-Level Co-Occurance Matrix (GLCM) and Gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM).This method is depends on the spatial distribution of intensity values or gray levels in the kidney region. By using One-Way ANOVA in SPSS, the result indicated that three features (Contrast, Difference Variance and Inverse Difference Moment Normalized) from GLCM are not statistically significant; this concludes that these three features describe a healthy kidney characteristics regardless of the ultrasound image quality.

  3. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  4. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  5. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys by Gd-DTPA enhanced turbo FLASH MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Rumi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Tsuji, Akinori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of dynamic turbo FLASH MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of complications after renal transplantation in 17 patients (10 from living relatives and 7 from cadavers). Coronal turbo FLASH dynamic images were obtained every 5 sec for 5 min after an intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on spin echo coronal T 1 -weighted images and MR renogram patterns of the renal cortex and medulla were obtained for quantitative analysis of the Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic turbo-FLASH images. The signal intensity ratio of the medulla to cortex after Gd-DTPA enhancement was compared among four groups: normal (n=9), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) or cyclosporine A (CyA) tubulopathy (n=6), acute rejection (AR) in the living related donor kidney (n=4), and AR in the cadaveric kidney (n=5). Although loss of CMD was seen in severe renal dysfunction in the transplanted kidneys, there was considerable overlap among the four groups. On dynamic study, there was significant differences in the signal intensity ratio of the medulla to cortex between normally functioning kidneys or ATN/CyA tubulopathy and AR (p<0.01). In patients with severe renal dysfunction, the arterial cortical peak was indistinct. In conclusion, MR renograms obtained from dynamic turbo FLASH MR imaging played a significant role in evaluating dysfunction of the renal transplant. (author)

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Erkan; Kirbas, Ismail; Teksam, Mehmet; Karadeli, Elif; Gullu, Hakan; Ozer, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate perfusion and diffusion of kidneys in renal artery stenosis (RAS) and any correlation between stenosis and ADC values and whether this imaging modality may be a noninvasive complementary assessment technique to MR angiography before interventional procedures. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis were evaluated with renal MR angiography to exclude stenosis and were then included in the study. Transverse DW multisection echo-planar MR imaging was performed. In the transverse ADC map, rectangular regions of interest were placed in the cortex on 3 parts (upper, middle, and lower poles) in each kidney. ADCs of the kidneys were calculated separately for the low, average, and high b-values to enable differentiation of the relative influence of the perfusion fraction and true diffusion. The ADC values of 39 kidneys (13 with renal artery stenosis and 26 normal renal arteries) were compared, and the relationship between stenosis degree and ADC values was calculated. Results: RAS was detected in 11 of 20 (55%) patients with MRA. Thirteen of 39 kidneys demonstrated RAS, and 26 were normal. The ADC low (1.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.1 ± 0.2; P = .020), ADC average (1.7 ± 0.2 versus 1.9 ± 0.1; P = .006), and ADC high (1.8 ± 0.2 versus 2.0 ± 0.1; P = .012) values were significantly lower in patients with kidneys with arterial stenosis than that in patients with kidneys with normal arteries. Statistical analysis revealed that stenosis degree correlated strongly with ADC low (r = -.819; P = .001), ADC average (r = -.754; P = .003), and ADC high (r = -.788; P = .001). The ADC low , ADC average , and ADC high values were significantly lower in patients with kidneys with arterial stenosis than that in patients with kidneys with normal arteries. Conclusion: We think that DW MR imaging of kidneys with RAS can help determine the functional status of a renal artery stenosis

  7. Preoperative imaging in 78 living kidney donors using CE-MRA and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, U.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Kroencke, T.J.; Kluener, C.; Giessing, M.; Schoenberger, B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)

  8. Diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmucci, Stefano; Cappello, Giuseppina; Attinà, Giancarlo; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Siverino, Rita Olivia Anna; Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Sinagra, Nunziata; Milone, Pietro; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between renal indexes and functional MRI in a population of kidney transplant recipients who underwent MR with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the transplanted graft. Study population included 40 patients with single kidney transplant. The patients were divided into 3 groups, on the basis of creatinine clearance (CrCl) values calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula: group A, including patients with normal renal function (CrCl ≥ 60 mL/min); group B, which refers to patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl > 30 but <60 mL/min); and, finally, group C, which means severe renal deterioration (CrCl ≤ 30 mL/min). All patients were investigated with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, acquiring DWI and DTI sequences. A Mann–Whitney U test was adopted to compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for prediction of normal renal function (group A) and renal failure (group C). Pearson correlation was performed between renal clearance and functional imaging parameter (ADC and FA), obtained for cortical and medullar regions. Mann–Whitney U test revealed a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) between patients with low CrCl (group C) and normal CrCl (group A) considering both medullar ADC and FA and cortical ADC. Regarding contiguous groups, the difference between group B and C was highly significant (p < 0.01) for medullar ADC and significant (p < 0.05) for cortical ADC and medullar FA. No difference between these groups was found considering cortical FA. Analyzing groups A and B, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05) for medullar both ADC and FA, while no difference was found for cortical ADC and FA. Strongest Pearson correlation was found between CrCl and medullar ADC (r = 0.65). For predicting normal renal function or severe renal impairment, highest

  9. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging to detect early changes in diabetic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Biran; Peng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinwen; Du, Guoxin

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in kidney intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters in early-stage diabetic patients versus healthy controls. Nineteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) diabetic kidney changes was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Three radiologists independently measured the parameters derived from IVIM-DWI in the two groups by free-hand placing regions of interest, and the interclass coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed by SPSS.16.0 software. The f values of the kidneys were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. The D value of the kidneys was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. No significant differences in the D* values of the kidneys were observed between diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. The D values of the right kidneys were significantly higher than those of the left kidneys in both groups. The results of the receiver operating characteristic analysis were as follows: left kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 27.49%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.68 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s); and right kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 28.24%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.81 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s). The diagnostic performance of the D* value was very low (AUC  0.05). The ICCs of the f value and D value were between 0.637 and 0.827. The ICC of the D* value was less than 0.3. The results of our study suggest that changes in kidneys detected by IVIM-DWI may serve as indicators of early diabetic kidney disease.

  10. Current strategy for the imaging of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Edeline, V.; Michon, J.; Zucker, J.M.; Couanet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Advances in the management of neuroblastoma lead radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists to optimize their procedures in order to propose a rational use of their techniques, adjusted to the various clinical presentations and to therapeutic management. The aim of this paper is to assess the imaging procedures for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma in children according to current therapeutic European protocols. An imaging strategy at diagnosis is first proposed: optimal assessment of local extension of the primary tumour is made with MRI, or spiral-CT when MRI is not available, for all locations except for abdominal tumours for which CT remains the best imaging modality. Metastatic extension is assessed with mlBG scan and liver sonography. Indications for bone metastasis evaluation with either radiological or radionuclide techniques are detailed. Imaging follow-up during treatment for metastatic or unresectable tumours is described. A check-list of radiological main points to be evaluated before surgery is proposed for localized neuroblastoma. The imaging strategy for the diagnosis of 'occult' neuroblastoma is considered. Finally, we explain the management of neuroblastoma detected during the prenatal or neonatal period. (authors)

  11. Imaging techniques in the management of chronic kidney disease: current developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    The measurement of both renal function and structure is critical in clinical nephrology to detect, stage, and monitor chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current imaging modalities especially ultrasound (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide adequate information on structural changes but little on functional impairment in CKD. Although not yet considered first-line procedures for evaluating patients with renal disease, new US and MR imaging techniques may permit the assessment of renal function in the near future. Combined with established imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced US, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, blood oxygen level dependency MRI, or diffusion-weighted imaging may provide rapid, accurate, simultaneous, and noninvasive imaging of the structure of kidneys, macrovascular and microvascular renal perfusion, oxygenation, and glomerular filtration rate. Recent developments in molecular imaging indicate that pathophysiological pathways of renal diseases such as apoptosis, coagulation, fibrosis, and ischemia will be visualized at the tissue level. These major advances in imaging and developments in hardware and software could enable comprehensive imaging of renal structure and function in four dimensions (three dimensions plus time), and imaging is expected to play an increasing role in the management of CKD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management.

  13. Patient selection and preparation strategies for the use of contrast material in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    administration of iodinated contrast media can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury and Gadolinium can induce nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). It is important to identify these high-risk patients by means of se-creatinine/e glomerular filtration rate. The indication for contrast examination should......The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and peripheral arterial disease is increasing. Thus, it is increasingly problematic to image these patients as the number of patients needing a vascular examination is increasing accordingly. In high-risk patients with impaired kidney function, intravascular...

  14. Novel treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease: insights from the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Painer, Johanna; Kuro-O, Makoto; Lanaspa, Miguel; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas; Shiels, Paul G; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress. Biomimetic studies suggest that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) offers protection in extreme environmental conditions and promotes longevity in the animal kingdom. Similarly, during months of fasting, immobilization and anuria, hibernating bears are protected from muscle wasting, azotaemia, thrombotic complications, organ damage and osteoporosis - features that are often associated with CKD. Improved understanding of the susceptibility and protective mechanisms of these animals and others could provide insights into novel strategies to prevent and treat several human diseases, such as CKD and ageing-associated complications. An integrated collaboration between nephrologists and experts from other fields, such as veterinarians, zoologists, biologists, anthropologists and ecologists, could introduce a novel approach for improving human health and help nephrologists to find novel treatment strategies for CKD.

  15. Body-image, quality of life and psychological distress: a comparison between kidney transplant patients and a matching healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Levy, Sigal; Sidi, Yael; Aharoni, Shiri

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]. The major findings were the following: (i) kidney transplant recipients reported lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of PsD when compared to their healthy peers; (ii) no difference in body-image dissatisfaction was found between the two studied groups; (iii) significant correlations between body-image dissatisfaction quality of life and PsD were found only in the kidney transplant recipients. The kidney transplantation condition has a moderating effect in the association between body-image dissatisfaction PsD but not in the association between body-image dissatisfaction and quality of life; (iv) kidney transplant recipients experienced higher levels of body identification than did their healthy peers. Taken together, these findings highlight the unique condition of kidney transplant recipients, as well as the function that body-image plays within the self.

  16. Imaging of transplanted kidney. Imagerie du rein transplante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenon, O.; Attlan, E.; Correas, J.M.; Chabriais, J.; Souissi, M.; Hanna, S.; Legendre, C.; Kreis, H.; Moreau, J.F. (Hopital Necker, 75 - Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of transplantation entails multiple complications, whose frequency and severity depend on the conditions of sampling and the quality of conservation, the grafting technique, the immunosuppressant treatment and the quality of surveillance. The latter has been significantly improved by the progress of imaging, which has allowed improving the prognosis of renal transplantation. Imaging is used for the diagnosis, surveillance and, in some cases, the treatment of these complications. Among the modern imaging techniques, color Doppler is a non-aggressive technique which currently ranks first for the screening of pedicular and peripheral vascular complications. The role of MRI is still ill-defined. While the initial results demonstrated its poor specificity, the use of paramagnetic contrast media provides a remarkable diagnostic effectiveness in case of peripheral necrosis. The lack of diagnostic specificity of imaging for medical complications most often confines its use to the follow-up of evolution. Thus renal biopsy remains the key examination for the diagnosis of immunological, ischemic or toxic complications. Ultrasound plays an essential part in the screening of urological complications, for which the diagnosis and assessment are based on plain radiological examinations. The indications of CT, which are defined according to ultrasound findings, are limited to the study of postoperative fluid collections and infectious complications. Arteriography remains essential for some selected indications, such as the study of the vascular pedicle. Intraoperative radiology plays an important part in the diagnosis and treatment of urological complications, the treatment of arterial stenoses and the drainage of some postoperative fluid collections. 34 figs.

  17. Data Analysis Strategies in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Chintan; Barry, Joseph D; Hosny, Ahmed; Quackenbush, John; Aerts, Hugo Jwl

    2018-03-26

    Radiographic imaging continues to be one of the most effective and clinically useful tools within oncology. Sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) has allowed for detailed quantification of radiographic characteristics of tissues using predefined engineered algorithms or deep learning methods. Precedents in radiology as well as a wealth of research studies hint at the clinical relevance of these characteristics. However, there are critical challenges associated with the analysis of medical imaging data. While some of these challenges are specific to the imaging field, many others like reproducibility and batch effects are generic and have already been addressed in other quantitative fields such as genomics. Here, we identify these pitfalls and provide recommendations for analysis strategies of medical imaging data including data normalization, development of robust models, and rigorous statistical analyses. Adhering to these recommendations will not only improve analysis quality, but will also enhance precision medicine by allowing better integration of imaging data with other biomedical data sources. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. An unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Rodríguez1, Rubén Hernández21Digital Signal Processing Group, Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics, Havana, Cuba; 2Interdisciplinary Professional Unit of Engineering and Advanced Technology, IPN, MexicoAbstract: Many segmentation techniques have been published, and some of them have been widely used in different application problems. Most of these segmentation techniques have been motivated by specific application purposes. Unsupervised methods, which do not assume any prior scene knowledge can be learned to help the segmentation process, and are obviously more challenging than the supervised ones. In this paper, we present an unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation using an algorithm based on recursively applying mean shift filtering, where entropy is used as a stopping criterion. This strategy is proven with many real images, and a comparison is carried out with manual segmentation. With the proposed strategy, errors less than 20% for false positives and 0% for false negatives are obtained.Keywords: segmentation, mean shift, unsupervised segmentation, entropy

  19. Comparison of human and automatic segmentations of kidneys from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Manjori; Stough, Joshua; Chi, Y.-Y.; Muller, Keith; Tracton, Gregg; Pizer, Stephen M.; Chaney, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A controlled observer study was conducted to compare a method for automatic image segmentation with conventional user-guided segmentation of right and left kidneys from planning computerized tomographic (CT) images. Methods and materials: Deformable shape models called m-reps were used to automatically segment right and left kidneys from 12 target CT images, and the results were compared with careful manual segmentations performed by two human experts. M-rep models were trained based on manual segmentations from a collection of images that did not include the targets. Segmentation using m-reps began with interactive initialization to position the kidney model over the target kidney in the image data. Fully automatic segmentation proceeded through two stages at successively smaller spatial scales. At the first stage, a global similarity transformation of the kidney model was computed to position the model closer to the target kidney. The similarity transformation was followed by large-scale deformations based on principal geodesic analysis (PGA). During the second stage, the medial atoms comprising the m-rep model were deformed one by one. This procedure was iterated until no changes were observed. The transformations and deformations at both stages were driven by optimizing an objective function with two terms. One term penalized the currently deformed m-rep by an amount proportional to its deviation from the mean m-rep derived from PGA of the training segmentations. The second term computed a model-to-image match term based on the goodness of match of the trained intensity template for the currently deformed m-rep with the corresponding intensity data in the target image. Human and m-rep segmentations were compared using quantitative metrics provided in a toolset called Valmet. Metrics reported in this article include (1) percent volume overlap; (2) mean surface distance between two segmentations; and (3) maximum surface separation (Hausdorff distance

  20. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  1. An efficient and comprehensive strategy for genetic diagnostics of polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eisenberger

    Full Text Available Renal cysts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most frequent life-threatening genetic disease and mainly caused by mutations in PKD1. The presence of six PKD1 pseudogenes and tremendous allelic heterogeneity make molecular genetic testing challenging requiring laborious locus-specific amplification. Increasing evidence suggests a major role for PKD1 in early and severe cases of ADPKD and some patients with a recessive form. Furthermore it is becoming obvious that clinical manifestations can be mimicked by mutations in a number of other genes with the necessity for broader genetic testing. We established and validated a sequence capture based NGS testing approach for all genes known for cystic and polycystic kidney disease including PKD1. Thereby, we demonstrate that the applied standard mapping algorithm specifically aligns reads to the PKD1 locus and overcomes the complication of unspecific capture of pseudogenes. Employing careful and experienced assessment of NGS data, the method is shown to be very specific and equally sensitive as established methods. An additional advantage over conventional Sanger sequencing is the detection of copy number variations (CNVs. Sophisticated bioinformatic read simulation increased the high analytical depth of the validation study and further demonstrated the strength of the approach. We further raise some awareness of limitations and pitfalls of common NGS workflows when applied in complex regions like PKD1 demonstrating that quality of NGS needs more than high coverage of the target region. By this, we propose a time- and cost-efficient diagnostic strategy for comprehensive molecular genetic testing of polycystic kidney disease which is highly automatable and will be of particular value when therapeutic options for PKD emerge and genetic testing is needed for larger numbers of patients.

  2. An efficient and comprehensive strategy for genetic diagnostics of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Decker, Christian; Hiersche, Milan; Hamann, Ruben C; Decker, Eva; Neuber, Steffen; Frank, Valeska; Bolz, Hanno J; Fehrenbach, Henry; Pape, Lars; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Mache, Christoph; Latta, Kay; Bergmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Renal cysts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent life-threatening genetic disease and mainly caused by mutations in PKD1. The presence of six PKD1 pseudogenes and tremendous allelic heterogeneity make molecular genetic testing challenging requiring laborious locus-specific amplification. Increasing evidence suggests a major role for PKD1 in early and severe cases of ADPKD and some patients with a recessive form. Furthermore it is becoming obvious that clinical manifestations can be mimicked by mutations in a number of other genes with the necessity for broader genetic testing. We established and validated a sequence capture based NGS testing approach for all genes known for cystic and polycystic kidney disease including PKD1. Thereby, we demonstrate that the applied standard mapping algorithm specifically aligns reads to the PKD1 locus and overcomes the complication of unspecific capture of pseudogenes. Employing careful and experienced assessment of NGS data, the method is shown to be very specific and equally sensitive as established methods. An additional advantage over conventional Sanger sequencing is the detection of copy number variations (CNVs). Sophisticated bioinformatic read simulation increased the high analytical depth of the validation study and further demonstrated the strength of the approach. We further raise some awareness of limitations and pitfalls of common NGS workflows when applied in complex regions like PKD1 demonstrating that quality of NGS needs more than high coverage of the target region. By this, we propose a time- and cost-efficient diagnostic strategy for comprehensive molecular genetic testing of polycystic kidney disease which is highly automatable and will be of particular value when therapeutic options for PKD emerge and genetic testing is needed for larger numbers of patients.

  3. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  4. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre; Avni, Fred E.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  5. Phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of the kidney. Differences between ethanol fixation and formalin fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroko; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet

    2012-01-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique using an X-ray interferometer that provides approximately 1000 times higher sensitivity than the conventional X-ray imaging method for low-atomic number elements based on the difference in the mass attenuation coefficient has recently been developed. In the present study, we compared rat kidneys fixed in 100% ethanol and in 10% formalin to evaluate the effects of ethanol in enhancing image contrast in phase-contrast imaging because ethanol causes significant dehydration of tissues and enhances density differences between tissue components. The experiments were conducted at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, and the X-ray energy was set at 35 keV. Fine anatomical structures in the kidney such as the glomeruli, tubules, and vessels were observed. Particularly clear renal images were obtained with ethanol fixation. The pixel value ratio between the cortex and medulla was about 43% in ethanol-fixed kidneys and 21% in formalin-fixed kidneys. In other words, the contrast in ethanol-fixed kidneys was about two times higher than that in formalin-fixed kidneys. Histological examination showed significantly condensed features in the cortex. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol fixation technique may be useful for enhancing the image contrast of renal structures in the phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique. (author)

  6. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidneys in haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Jochen; Wenzel, Ulrich; Galler, Stephanie; Schoennagel, Bjoern P.; Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Groth, Michael; Adam, Gerhard; Busch, Jasmin D.; Tozakidou, Magdalini; Petersen, Kay U.; Joekel, Michaela; Habermann, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the kidneys of patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Doppler ultrasound (US) compared with healthy controls. Fifteen patients (mean age 33.3 years; three male; 12 female) with diarrhoea-positive HUS and 15 healthy volunteers were prospectively evaluated with DWI and Doppler US. A total apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC TOT ), and ADCs predominantly reflecting microperfusion (ADC LOW ) and diffusion (ADC HIGH ) were calculated. Doppler US evaluated renal vascularity and flow. When compared with controls, kidneys affected by HUS showed reduced cortical ADC values (ADC TOT 1.79±0.22 vs. 2.04±0.1x10 -3 mm 2 /s, P 0.001), resulting in either low corticomedullary differences (11/15 patients) or an inverted corticomedullary pattern (4/15 patients). Reduction of cortical ADC values was associated with a decrease of cortical vascularity on Doppler US (ADC TOT , P<0.001; ADC LOW , P 0.047). Kidneys with complete absence of the cortical vasculature on Doppler US (four patients) also demonstrated limited diffusion (ADC HIGH , P 0.002). Low glomerular filtration rate, requirement for haemodialysis during hospitalization, and longer duration of haemodialysis were associated with decreased cortical diffusivity (ADC TOT: P 0.04, 0.007, and <0.001, respectively). DWI shows qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in kidneys affected by HUS, thereby extending the non-invasive assessment of renal parenchymal damage. (orig.)

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys; Funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie der Nieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzman, R.S.; Wittsack, H.J. [Universitaetsklinik Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, M. [Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Interest in functional renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has significantly increased in recent years. This review article provides an overview of the most important functional imaging techniques and their potential clinical applications for assessment of native and transplanted kidneys, with special emphasis on the clarification of renal tumors. (orig.) [German] Die funktionelle MRT der Nieren hat in den letzten Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel werden die wichtigsten funktionellen Untersuchungstechniken vorgestellt und deren potenzielle klinische Bedeutung zur Evaluation von Nieren und Transplantatnieren hervorgehoben, wobei ein besonderes Augenmerk auf die Abklaerung von Nierentumoren gelegt wird. (orig.)

  8. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  10. Automatic total kidney volume measurement on follow-up magnetic resonance images to facilitate monitoring of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Edwards, Marie E; Warner, Joshua D; Irazabal, Maria V; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-02-01

    Renal imaging examinations provide high-resolution information about the anatomic structure of the kidneys and are used to measure total kidney volume (TKV) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. TKV has become the gold-standard image biomarker for ADPKD progression at early stages of the disease and is used in clinical trials to characterize treatment efficacy. Automated methods to segment the kidneys and measure TKV are desirable because of the long time requirement for manual approaches such as stereology or planimetry tracings. However, ADPKD kidney segmentation is complicated by a number of factors, including irregular kidney shapes and variable tissue signal at the kidney borders. We describe an image processing approach that overcomes these problems by using a baseline segmentation initialization to provide automatic segmentation of follow-up scans obtained years apart. We validated our approach using 20 patients with complete baseline and follow-up T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Both manual tracing and stereology were used to calculate TKV, with two observers performing manual tracings and one observer performing repeat tracings. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare the different approaches. Our automated approach measured TKV at a level of accuracy (mean difference ± standard error = 0.99 ± 0.79%) on par with both intraobserver (0.77 ± 0.46%) and interobserver variability (1.34 ± 0.70%) of manual tracings. All approaches had excellent agreement and compared favorably with ground-truth manual tracing with interobserver, stereological and automated approaches having 95% confidence intervals ∼ ± 100 mL. Our method enables fast, cost-effective and reproducible quantification of ADPKD progression that will facilitate and lower the costs of clinical trials in ADPKD and other disorders requiring accurate, longitudinal kidney quantification. In addition, it will hasten the routine use of

  11. The value of MR perfusion weighted imaging in normal and abnormal kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hao; Ding Hongyu; Duan Ruiping; Sun Yongping; Xing Yiyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and the clinical application of MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the normal kidneys and the renal diseases. Methods: Thirty-one subjects including 9 cases without urinary diseases, 14 cases with renal carcinoma, 6 cases with renal cyst and 2 cases with renal tuberculosis who had been examined with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and PWI were analyzed retrospectively. All the data were processed by a workstation to obtain time-signal intensity curves, color perfusion maps and relative perfusion value. The relative renal blood volume (RBV), relative renal blood flow (RBF), mean transition time (MTY) and the time to peak (TTP) in the normal renal cortex and medulla and the renal lesions were calculated. Comparisons between the right and the left normal kidneys, and between the cortex and the medulla of the normal kidneys were performed using t test, and comparisons between the normal and the abnormal kidneys were performed using q test. Results: Relative RBV and relative RBF of the cortex were 1.33±0.08 and 1.44±0.09 respectively, and for medulla were 0.58± 0.05 and 0.78±0.13 respectively (t=9.2241 and 5.0336, P 0.05). The values of relative RBF of the renal carcinoma (1.35±0.34) were significantly higher than that of the normal tissues (1.02±0.06) (q=3.0882, P< 0.01). Conclusion: PWI is able to demonstrate the hemodynamic change of the normal renal tissues and the renal lesions, and it maybe an ideal method for showing the functional changes of the kidney and for differentiating the renal diseases. (authors)

  12. New sampling strategy using a Bayesian approach to assess iohexol clearance in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz-de Bretagne, I; Le Guellec, C; Halimi, J M; Gatault, P; Barbet, C; Alnajjar, A; Büchler, M; Lebranchu, Y; Andres, Christian Robert; Vourcʼh, P; Blasco, H

    2012-06-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement is a major issue in kidney transplant recipients for clinicians. GFR can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of iohexol, a nonradiolabeled compound. For practical and convenient application for patients and caregivers, it is important that a minimal number of samples are drawn. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Bayesian model with fewer samples for reliable prediction of GFR in kidney transplant recipients. Iohexol plasma concentration-time curves from 95 patients were divided into an index (n = 63) and a validation set (n = 32). Samples (n = 4-6 per patient) were obtained during the elimination phase, that is, between 120 and 270 minutes. Individual reference values of iohexol clearance (CL(iohexol)) were calculated from k (elimination slope) and V (volume of distribution from intercept). Individual CL(iohexol) values were then introduced into the Bröchner-Mortensen equation to obtain the GFR (reference value). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed from the index set and validated using standard methods. For the validation set, we tested various combinations of 1, 2, or 3 sampling time to estimate CL(iohexol). According to the different combinations tested, a maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation of CL(iohexol) was obtained from population parameters. Individual estimates of GFR were compared with individual reference values through analysis of bias and precision. A capability analysis allowed us to determine the best sampling strategy for Bayesian estimation. A 1-compartment model best described our data. Covariate analysis showed that uremia, serum creatinine, and age were significantly associated with k(e), and weight with V. The strategy, including samples drawn at 120 and 270 minutes, allowed accurate prediction of GFR (mean bias: -3.71%, mean imprecision: 7.77%). With this strategy, about 20% of individual predictions were outside the bounds of acceptance set at ± 10

  13. [Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease and strategies to counteract chronic diseases in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Valeria; D'Elia, Roberto; Galeone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is placed in the more general context of prevention of major chronic Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs): cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic lung diseases and tumors that are the main problem for public health worldwide. Any health policy strategy aimed to the prevention of NCDs has to provide knowledge of health and socioeconomic status of the population, to reduce the level of exposure to risk factors and to adapt health services to the request for assistance. To this purpose, population monitoring systems have been implemented in the last years. The NCDs share some risk factors that are related, in large part, to unhealthy individual behaviours: smoking, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. NCDs prevention has to be understood as the set of all actions, sanitary and not, aiming to prevent or delay the onset of diseases or their complications. Preventive measures should, therefore, involve not only the health sector but also all the actors that can help to prevent that disease. As for the Prevention of CKD, the Ministry of Health has established a working table, which handled the Drafting of the "Position paper for the CKD", approved in the State-Regions Conference on august 8th 2014. The document draws a national strategy to combat this disease through primary prevention, early diagnosis and the establishment of diagnostic - therapeutic pathways (DTP).

  14. Computer-assisted imaging algorithms facilitate histomorphometric quantification of kidney damage in rodent renal failure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Klapczynski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical 5/6 nephrectomy and adenine-induced kidney failure in rats are frequently used models of progressive renal failure. In both models, rats develop significant morphological changes in the kidneys and quantification of these changes can be used to measure the efficacy of prophylactic or therapeutic approaches. In this study, the Aperio Genie Pattern Recognition technology, along with the Positive Pixel Count, Nuclear and Rare Event algorithms were used to quantify histological changes in both rat renal failure models. Methods: Analysis was performed on digitized slides of whole kidney sagittal sections stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or immunohistochemistry with an anti-nestin antibody to identify glomeruli, regenerating tubular epithelium, and tubulointerstitial myofibroblasts. An anti-polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN antibody was also used to investigate neutrophil tissue infiltration. Results: Image analysis allowed for rapid and accurate quantification of relevant histopathologic changes such as increased cellularity and expansion of glomeruli, renal tubular dilatation, and degeneration, tissue inflammation, and mineral aggregation. The algorithms provided reliable and consistent results in both control and experimental groups and presented a quantifiable degree of damage associated with each model. Conclusion: These algorithms represent useful tools for the uniform and reproducible characterization of common histomorphologic features of renal injury in rats.

  15. Image quality dependence on thickness of sliced rat kidney taken by a simplest DEI construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Yuquan Rd. No 19, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: lig@ihep.ac.cn; Chen Zhihua [China-Japan Friendship Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Yinghua Rd., Beijing 100029 (China); Wu Ziyu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Yuquan Rd. No 19, Beijing 100039 (China); Ando, M. [Photon Factory, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Pan Lin [China-Japan Friendship Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Yinghua Rd., Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Yuquan Rd. No 19, Beijing 100039 (China); Jiang, X.M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Yuquan Rd. No 19, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2005-08-11

    The excised rat kidney slices were investigated using a simplified diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) configuration with only two crystals: the first one working as monochromator and the second one working as analyzer in the Bragg geometry that was developed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Many fine anatomic structures of the sliced rat kidneys with thickness of 2mm and 120{mu}m can be distinguished clearly in the DEI images that were obtained at the shoulder of a rocking curve. The authors would like to emphasize that the thick and thin slices DEI provides very different images; in the thick sample only the structure with the big density gradient or that near the surface where X-ray comes out can be distinguished, while in the thin ones some fine structures, which can not be distinguished at the thick sample under the same condition, can be seen very clearly. The reason related with the counteraction of {delta}(x,y,z) gradient in the integral process along the X-ray path inside the thick sample is discussed.

  16. Chronic kidney disease: Pathological and functional evaluation with intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Zhou, Jianjun; Zeng, Mengsu; Ding, Yuqin; Qu, Lijie; Chen, Caizhong; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yaqiong; Fu, Caixia

    2018-05-01

    Because chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide problem, accurate pathological and functional evaluation is required for planning treatment and follow-up. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) can assess both capillary perfusion and tissue diffusion and may be helpful in evaluating renal function and pathology. To evaluate functional and pathological alterations in CKD by applying IVIM-DWI. Prospective study. In all, 72 CKD patients who required renal biopsy and 20 healthy volunteers. 1.5T. All subjects underwent IVIM-DWI of the kidneys, and image analysis was performed by two radiologists. The mean values of true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were acquired from renal parenchyma. Correlation between IVIM-DWI parameters and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage, were assessed. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired sample t-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The paired sample t-test revealed that IVIM-DWI parameters were significantly lower in medulla than cortex for both patients and controls (P Imaging 2018;47:1251-1259. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Image quality dependence on thickness of sliced rat kidney taken by a simplest DEI construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Chen Zhihua; Wu Ziyu; Ando, M.; Pan Lin; Wang, J.Y.; Jiang, X.M.

    2005-01-01

    The excised rat kidney slices were investigated using a simplified diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) configuration with only two crystals: the first one working as monochromator and the second one working as analyzer in the Bragg geometry that was developed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Many fine anatomic structures of the sliced rat kidneys with thickness of 2mm and 120μm can be distinguished clearly in the DEI images that were obtained at the shoulder of a rocking curve. The authors would like to emphasize that the thick and thin slices DEI provides very different images; in the thick sample only the structure with the big density gradient or that near the surface where X-ray comes out can be distinguished, while in the thin ones some fine structures, which can not be distinguished at the thick sample under the same condition, can be seen very clearly. The reason related with the counteraction of δ(x,y,z) gradient in the integral process along the X-ray path inside the thick sample is discussed

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidneys in haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Wenzel, Ulrich [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, III. Department of Internal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Galler, Stephanie; Schoennagel, Bjoern P.; Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Groth, Michael; Adam, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D.; Tozakidou, Magdalini [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay U. [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Section for Addiction Research and Therapy, Tuebingen (Germany); Joekel, Michaela [Siemens AG Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R. [Katholisches Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the kidneys of patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and Doppler ultrasound (US) compared with healthy controls. Fifteen patients (mean age 33.3 years; three male; 12 female) with diarrhoea-positive HUS and 15 healthy volunteers were prospectively evaluated with DWI and Doppler US. A total apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC{sub TOT}), and ADCs predominantly reflecting microperfusion (ADC{sub LOW}) and diffusion (ADC{sub HIGH}) were calculated. Doppler US evaluated renal vascularity and flow. When compared with controls, kidneys affected by HUS showed reduced cortical ADC values (ADC{sub TOT} 1.79±0.22 vs. 2.04±0.1x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, P 0.001), resulting in either low corticomedullary differences (11/15 patients) or an inverted corticomedullary pattern (4/15 patients). Reduction of cortical ADC values was associated with a decrease of cortical vascularity on Doppler US (ADC{sub TOT}, P<0.001; ADC{sub LOW}, P 0.047). Kidneys with complete absence of the cortical vasculature on Doppler US (four patients) also demonstrated limited diffusion (ADC{sub HIGH}, P 0.002). Low glomerular filtration rate, requirement for haemodialysis during hospitalization, and longer duration of haemodialysis were associated with decreased cortical diffusivity (ADC{sub TOT:} P 0.04, 0.007, and <0.001, respectively). DWI shows qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in kidneys affected by HUS, thereby extending the non-invasive assessment of renal parenchymal damage. (orig.)

  19. High-Resolution Imaging of Selenium in Kidneys: A Localized Selenium Pool Associated with Glutathione Peroxidase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Kehr, Sebastian; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Carlson, Bradley A.; Seravalli, Javier; Jin, Richard; Handy, Diane E.; Park, Thomas J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Results: Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. Innovation: We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. Conclusion: XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 185–192. PMID:21854231

  20. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  1. Analysed cap mesenchyme track data from live imaging of mouse kidney development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Lefevre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides detailed information on manually tracked cap mesenchyme cells from timelapse imaging of multiple ex vivo embryonic mouse kidneys. Cells were imaged for up to 18 h at 15 or 20 min intervals, and multiple cell divisions were tracked. Positional data is supplemented with a range of information including the relative location of the closest ureteric tip and a correction for drift due to bulk movement and tip growth. A subset of tracks were annotated to indicate the presence of processes attached to the ureteric epithelium. The calculations used for drift correction are described, as are the main methods used in the analysis of this data for the purpose of describing cap cell motility. The outcomes of this analysis are discussed in “Cap mesenchyme cell swarming during kidney development is influenced by attraction, repulsion, and adhesion to the ureteric tip” (A.N. Combes, J.G. Lefevre, S. Wilson, N.A. Hamilton, M.H. Little, 2016 [1].

  2. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts

  3. The Tonya Harding Controversy: An Analysis of Image Restoration Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Hanczor, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Tonya Harding's defense of her image in "Eye to Eye with Connie Chung," applying the theory of image restoration discourse. Finds that the principal strategies employed in her behalf were bolstering, denial, and attacking her accuser, but that these strategies were not developed very effectively in this instance. (SR)

  4. [Augmented reality for image guided therapy (ARIGT) of kidney tumor during nephron sparing surgery (NSS): animal model and clinical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Tomasz; Rzepecki, Maciej; Juszczak, Kajetan; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Bielecki, Jakub; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Ruta, Andrzej; Czekierda, Łukasz; Moczulskis, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The main problem in nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is to preserve renal tumors oncological purity during the removal of the tumor with a margin of macroscopically unchanged kidney tissue while keeping the largest possible amount of normal parenchyma of the operated kidney. The development of imaging techniques, in particular IGT (Image Guided Therapy) allows precise imaging of the surgical field and, therefore, is essential in improving the effectiveness of NSS (increase of nephron sparing with the optimal radicality). The aim of this study was to develop a method of the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the kidney tumor and its lodge in the operated kidney using 3D laser scanner during NSS procedure. Additionally, the animal model of visualization was developed. The porcine kidney model was used to test the set built up with HD cameras and linear laser scanner connected to a laptop with graphic software (David Laser Scanner, Germany) showing the surface of the kidney and the lodge after removal the chunk of renal parenchyma. Additionally, the visualization and reconstruction was performed on animal porcine model. Moreover, 5 patients (3 women, 2 men) aged from 37 to 68 years (mean 56), diagnosed with kidney tumors in CT scans with a diameter of 3.7-6.9 cm (mean 4.9) were operated in our Department this year, scanning the surface during the treatment with the kidney tumor and kidney tumor after it is removed with a margin of renal tissue. In one case, the lodge of removed tumor was scanned. Dimensions in 3D reconstruction images of laser scans in the study of animal model and the images obtained intraoperatively were compared with the dimensions evaluated during preoperative CT scans, intraoperative measurements. Three-dimensional imaging laser scanner operating field loge resected tumor and the tumor on the kidney of animal models and during NSS treatments for patients with kidney tumors is possible in real time with an accuracy of -2 mm do +9 mm (+/- 3 mm). The

  5. Imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a contiguous gene syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Susan J.; Andronikou, Savvas; Kilborn, Tracy; Kaplan, Bernard S.; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling. To describe the clinical and imaging findings of tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease in seven pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed renal and brain imaging of children and young adults with genetically proven or high clinical suspicion for TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We included seven pediatric patients from two referral institutions. Ages ranged from birth to 21 years over the course of imaging. The mean follow-up period was 9 years 8 months (4 years 6 months to 20 years 6 months). No child progressed to end-stage renal disease during this period. Three patients were initially imaged for stigmata of TSC, three for abdominal distension and one for elevated serum creatinine concentration. All patients developed enlarged, polycystic kidneys. The latest available imaging studies demonstrated that in 12 of the 14 kidneys 50% or more of the parenchyma was ultimately replaced by >15 cysts, resulting in significant cortical thinning. The largest cysts in each kidney ranged from 2.4 cm to 9.3 cm. Echogenic lesions were present in 13 of the 14 kidneys, in keeping with

  6. Imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a contiguous gene syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Susan J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Radiology Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kilborn, Tracy [University of Cape Town, Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Kaplan, Bernard S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Nephrology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Genes for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) type 2 and autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) type 1 are both encoded over a short segment of chromosome 16. When deletions involve both genes, an entity known as the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, variable phenotypes of TSC and ADPKD are exhibited. This syndrome has not been reviewed in the radiology literature. Unlike renal cysts in TSC, cystic disease in TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome results in hypertension and renal failure. A radiologist might demonstrate polycystic kidney disease before the patient develops other stigmata of TSC. Conversely, in patients with known TSC, enlarged and polycystic kidneys should signal the possibility of the TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome and not simply TSC. Distinguishing these diagnoses has implications in prognosis, treatment and genetic counseling. To describe the clinical and imaging findings of tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease in seven pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed renal and brain imaging of children and young adults with genetically proven or high clinical suspicion for TSC2/ADPKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. We included seven pediatric patients from two referral institutions. Ages ranged from birth to 21 years over the course of imaging. The mean follow-up period was 9 years 8 months (4 years 6 months to 20 years 6 months). No child progressed to end-stage renal disease during this period. Three patients were initially imaged for stigmata of TSC, three for abdominal distension and one for elevated serum creatinine concentration. All patients developed enlarged, polycystic kidneys. The latest available imaging studies demonstrated that in 12 of the 14 kidneys 50% or more of the parenchyma was ultimately replaced by >15 cysts, resulting in significant cortical thinning. The largest cysts in each kidney ranged from 2.4 cm to 9.3 cm. Echogenic lesions were present in 13 of the 14 kidneys, in keeping with

  7. Innovative Perspective: Gadolinium-Free Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Long-Term Follow-Up after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick J. M. van Eijs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been investigated as a non- or minimally invasive tool to probe kidney allograft function. Despite this long-standing interest, MRI still plays a subordinate role in daily practice of transplantation nephrology. With the introduction of new functional MRI techniques, administration of exogenous gadolinium-based contrast agents has often become unnecessary and true non-invasive assessment of allograft function has become possible. This raises the question why application of MRI in the follow-up of kidney transplantation remains restricted, despite promising results. Current literature on kidney allograft MRI is mainly focused on assessment of (sub acute kidney injury after transplantation. The aim of this review is to survey whether MRI can provide valuable diagnostic information beyond 1 year after kidney transplantation from a mechanistic point of view. The driving force behind chronic allograft nephropathy is believed to be chronic hypoxia. Based on this, techniques that visualize kidney perfusion and oxygenation, scarring, and parenchymal inflammation deserve special interest. We propose that functional MRI mechanistically provides tools for diagnostic work-up in long-term follow-up of kidney allografts.

  8. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys: initial results in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauger, Olivier; Grenier, Nicolas [Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle, ERT CNRS/Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux (France); Deminere, Colette [Service d' Anatomo-pathologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Lasseur, Catherine; Delmas, Yahsou; Merville, Pierre; Combe, Christian [Departement de Nephrologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection and characterization of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO). Among 21 patients initially enrolled, 12 scheduled for renal biopsy for acute or rapidly progressive renal failure (n = 7) or renal graft rejection (n = 5) completed the study. Three magnetic resonance (MR) sessions were performed with a 1.5-T system, before, immediately after and 72 h after i.v. injection of USPIO at doses of 1.7-2.6 mg of iron/kg. Signal intensity change was evaluated visually and calculated based on a region of interest (ROI) positioned on the kidney compartments. Histological examination showed cortical macrophage infiltration in four patients (>5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}), two in native kidneys (proliferative extracapillary glomerulonephritis) and two in transplants (acute rejection). These patients showed a 33 {+-} 18% mean cortical signal loss on T2*-weighted images. In the remaining eight patients, with <5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}, there was no cortical signal loss. However, in three of these, presenting with ischemic acute tubular necrosis, a strong (42 {+-} 18%) signal drop was found in the medulla exclusively. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging can demonstrate infiltration of the kidneys by macrophages both in native and transplanted kidneys and may help to differentiate between kidney diseases. (orig.)

  9. The effect of carbon dioxide on the twinkling artifact in ultrasound imaging of kidney stones: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julianna C.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Thiel, Jeffrey; Starr, Frank; Liu, Ziyue; Bailey, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone demineralization, dehydration, and stasis put astronauts at an increased risk of forming kidney stones in space. The color-Doppler ultrasound “twinkling artifact”, which highlights kidney stones with color, can make stones readily detectable with ultrasound; however our previous results suggest twinkling is caused by microbubbles on the stone surface which could be affected by the elevated levels of carbon dioxide found on space vehicles. Four pigs were implanted with kidney stones and imaged with ultrasound while the anesthetic carrier gas oscillated between oxygen and air containing 0.8% carbon dioxide. Upon exposing pigs to 0.8% carbon dioxide, twinkling was significantly reduced after 9–25 minutes and recovered when the carrier gas returned to oxygen. These trends repeated when pigs were again exposed to 0.8% carbon dioxide followed by oxygen. The reduction of twinkling from exposure to elevated carbon dioxide may make kidney stone detection with twinkling difficult in current space vehicles. PMID:28190622

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) determination in normal and pathological fetal kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumoitre, K; Colavolpe, N; Shojai, R; Sarran, A; D' Ercole, C; Panuel, M

    2007-01-01

    To assess the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal kidney and to estimate age-dependent changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal and pathological fetal kidneys. DW-MRI was performed on a 1.5-T machine at 23-38 gestational weeks in 51 pregnant women in whom the fetal kidneys were normal and in 10 whose fetuses had renal pathology (three with suspected nephropathy, three with renal tract dilatation, one with unilateral renal venous thrombosis, and three with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS)). The ADC was measured in an approximately 1-cm2 region of interest within the renal parenchyma. ADC values in normal renal parenchyma ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 10(-3) mm2 s-1. There was no significant age-dependent change in the ADC of normal kidneys. In cases of nephropathy, the ADC value was not always pathological but an ADC map could show abnormal findings. In cases of dilatation, the ADC value was difficult to determine when the dilatation was huge. In cases of TTTS, the ADC of the donor twin was higher than that of the recipient twin and the difference seemed to be related to the severity of the syndrome. Evaluation of the ADC for fetal kidneys is feasible. Fetal measurement of the ADC value and ADC maps may be useful tools with which to explore the fetal kidney when used in conjunction with current methods. DW-MR images, ADC value and ADC map seem to be useful in cases of suspected nephropathy (hyperechoic kidneys), dilated kidney and vascular pathology (renal venous thrombosis, TTTS). Copyright (c) 2006 ISUOG.

  11. T2' imaging of native kidneys and renal allografts. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, C.; Blondin, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Miese, F.R.; Rybacki, K.; Walther, C.; Holstein, A.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of T2' mapping in native kidneys and renal allografts. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the local ethics committee, 24 renal allograft recipients and 10 control subjects (healthy volunteers) were included in this study. Multi-echo T2 and T2 * imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Allograft recipients were assigned to two groups: group (a), 8 patients with good (glomerular filtration rate of more than 40 ml/min) allograft function and no evidence of transplant rejection, transplant renal artery stenosis or ureteral obstruction; group (b), 16 patients with deterioration of renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 40 ml/min or less). Two different imaging protocols were tested. Results: The mean T2' relaxation parameters were 108.33 msec ± 13.34, 100.00 msec ± 18.89 and 124.57 msec ± 6.51 for groups (a), (b) and for control subjects, respectively. The reduction of T2' values in patient group (b) was not statistically significant. However, significant correlations could be demonstrated between T2' values and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of renal allograft function. The reproducibility was tested and the coefficients of variation of T2' values in the cortex of transplanted kidneys were 11.1 % within subjects and 11.3 % between subjects. Conclusion: Our results indicate that T2' imaging is a promising non-enhanced technique, which seems to reveal information on transplant function. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of T2' mapping for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  12. pH imaging of mouse kidneys in vivo using a frequency-dependent paraCEST agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkou; Zhang, Shanrong; Soesbe, Todd C.; Yu, Jing; Vinogradov, Elena; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study explored the feasibility of using a pH responsive paraCEST agent to image the pH gradient in kidneys of healthy mice. Methods CEST signals were acquired on an Agilent 9.4 T small animal MRI system using a steady-state gradient echo pulse sequence after a bolus injection of agent. The magnetic field inhomogeneity across each kidney was corrected using the WASSR method and pH maps were calculated by measuring the frequency of water exchange signal arising from the agent. Results Dynamic CEST studies demonstrated that the agent was readily detectable in kidneys only between 4 to 12 min post-injection. The CEST images showed a higher signal intensity in the pelvis and calyx regions and lower signal intensity in the medulla and cortex regions. The pH maps reflected tissue pH values spanning from 6.0 to 7.5 in kidneys of healthy mice. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pH maps of the kidney can be imaged in vivo by measuring the pH-dependent chemical shift of a single water exchange CEST peak without prior knowledge of the agent concentration in vivo. The results demonstrate the potential of using a simple frequency-dependent paraCEST agent for mapping tissue pH in vivo. PMID:26173637

  13. Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with CT urography versus renal dynamic imaging Gates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shan [Hebei North University, Department of Graduate, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province (China); Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang [Qiqihar Chinese Medicine Hospital, Department of Radiology, Qigihar City, Heilongjiang Province (China); Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong [The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2018-03-15

    To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)

  14. Determination of single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with CT urography versus renal dynamic imaging Gates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Shan; Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang; Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong

    2018-01-01

    To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)

  15. Strategies for Biologic Image-Guided Dose Escalation: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovik, Aste; Malinen, Eirik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in how to incorporate functional and molecular information obtained by noninvasive, three-dimensional tumor imaging into radiotherapy. The key issues are to identify radioresistant regions that can be targeted for dose escalation, and to develop radiation dose prescription and delivery strategies providing optimal treatment for the individual patient. In the present work, we review the proposed strategies for biologic image-guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Biologic imaging modalities and the derived images are discussed, as are methods for target volume delineation. Different dose escalation strategies and techniques for treatment delivery and treatment plan evaluation are also addressed. Furthermore, we consider the need for response monitoring during treatment. We conclude with a summary of the current status of biologic image-based dose escalation and of areas where further work is needed for this strategy to become incorporated into clinical practice

  16. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  17. 3D segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekes, G.; Fidrich, M.; Nyul, L.G.; Mate, E.; Kuba, A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinicians often need to segment the abdominal organs for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation of these organs is very time-consuming, therefore automated methods are desired. We developed a semi-automatic segmentation method to outline liver, spleen and kidneys. It works on CT images without contrast intake that are acquired with a routine clinical protocol. From an initial surface around a user defined seed point, the segmentation of the organ is obtained by an active surface algorithm. Pre- and post-processing steps are used to adapt the general method for specific organs. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of our method is about 90%, which can be further improved with little manual editing, and that the precision is slightly higher than that of manual contouring. Our method is accurate, precise and fast enough to use in the clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Chronic kidney disease: pathological and functional assessment with diffusion tensor imaging at 3T MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiling; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei; Xu, Ying; Wang, Rong; Zhen, Junhui

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate pathological and functional changes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T. There were fifty-one patients with CKD who required biopsy and 19 healthy volunteers who were examined using DTI at 3 T. The mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained from the renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). Correlations between imaging results and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage (glomerular lesion and tubulointerstitial injury), were evaluated. The renal cortical FA was significantly lower than the medullary in both normal and affected kidneys (p < 0.001). The parenchymal FA was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls, regardless of whether eGFR was reduced. There were positive correlations between eGFR and FA (cortex, r = 0.689, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = 0.696, p = 0.000), and between eGFR and ADC (cortex, r = 0.310, p = 0.017; and medulla, r = 0.356, p = 0.010). Negative correlations were found between FA and the glomerular lesion (cortex, r = -0.499, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.530, p = 0.000), and between FA and tubulointerstitial injury (cortex, r = -0.631, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.724, p = 0.000). DTI is valuable for noninvasive assessment of renal function and pathology in patients with CKD. A decrease in FA could identify the glomerular lesions, tubulointerstitial injuries, and eGFR. (orig.)

  19. Chronic kidney disease: pathological and functional assessment with diffusion tensor imaging at 3T MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiling; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Xu, Ying; Wang, Rong [Shandong University, Department of Nephrology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhen, Junhui [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-10-11

    Our objective was to evaluate pathological and functional changes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T. There were fifty-one patients with CKD who required biopsy and 19 healthy volunteers who were examined using DTI at 3 T. The mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained from the renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). Correlations between imaging results and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage (glomerular lesion and tubulointerstitial injury), were evaluated. The renal cortical FA was significantly lower than the medullary in both normal and affected kidneys (p < 0.001). The parenchymal FA was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls, regardless of whether eGFR was reduced. There were positive correlations between eGFR and FA (cortex, r = 0.689, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = 0.696, p = 0.000), and between eGFR and ADC (cortex, r = 0.310, p = 0.017; and medulla, r = 0.356, p = 0.010). Negative correlations were found between FA and the glomerular lesion (cortex, r = -0.499, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.530, p = 0.000), and between FA and tubulointerstitial injury (cortex, r = -0.631, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.724, p = 0.000). DTI is valuable for noninvasive assessment of renal function and pathology in patients with CKD. A decrease in FA could identify the glomerular lesions, tubulointerstitial injuries, and eGFR. (orig.)

  20. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  1. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  2. In-vivo and ex-vivo assessment of the accuracy of the computer-aided volumetry of porcine kidney in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Harris, G.; Holalkere, N.; Sahani, D.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of kidney volume by computed tomography (CT), called renal volumetry, is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related diseases. Computer-aided volumetry (CAV) of kidney relies on an efficient and accurate segmentation method of the kidney. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of our CAV of kidney scheme using dynamic-threshold (DT) level set method, based on in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards. Eight Yorkshire breed anesthetized pigs were scanned on a 64-slice multi-detector CT scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens) after an injection of iodinated (300 mgl/ml) contrast agent through an IV cannula. The kidneys of the pigs were then surgically resected and scanned on CT in the same manner. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo CT images were subjected to our volumetry scheme. The resulting volumes of the kidneys were compared with the in-vivo and ex-vivo reference standards: the former was established by manual contouring of the kidneys on the CT images by an experienced radiologist, and the latter was established as the water displacement volume of the resected kidney. Our CAV of kidney scheme demonstrated accurate in-vivo and ex-vivo measurement of kidney volume, despite a large difference between the two reference standards. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Turbo Spin Echo and Echo Planar Imaging for intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion tensor imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Neubauer, Henning; Veldhoen, Simon; Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-10-01

    Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) is most commonly applied to acquire diffusion-weighted MR-images. EPI is able to capture an entire image in very short time, but is prone to distortions and artifacts. In diffusion-weighted EPI of the kidney severe distortions may occur due to intestinal gas. Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) is robust against distortions and artifacts, but needs more time to acquire an entire image compared to EPI. Therefore, TSE is more sensitive to motion during the readout. In this study we compare diffusion-weighted TSE and EPI of the human kidney with regard to intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Images were acquired with b-values between 0 and 750 s/mm{sup 2} with TSE and EPI. Distortions were observed with the EPI readout in all volunteers, while the TSE images were virtually distortion-free. Fractional anisotropy of the diffusion tensor was significantly lower for TSE than for EPI. All other parameters of DTI and IVIM were comparable for TSE and EPI. Especially the main diffusion directions yielded by TSE and EPI were similar. The results demonstrate that TSE is a worthwhile distortion-free alternative to EPI for diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla.

  4. Automated kidney morphology measurements from ultrasound images using texture and edge analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Hariharan; Annangi, Pavan; Washburn, Michael; Lanning, Justin

    2016-04-01

    In a typical ultrasound scan, a sonographer measures Kidney morphology to assess renal abnormalities. Kidney morphology can also help to discriminate between chronic and acute kidney failure. The caliper placements and volume measurements are often time consuming and an automated solution will help to improve accuracy, repeatability and throughput. In this work, we developed an automated Kidney morphology measurement solution from long axis Ultrasound scans. Automated kidney segmentation is challenging due to wide variability in kidney shape, size, weak contrast of the kidney boundaries and presence of strong edges like diaphragm, fat layers. To address the challenges and be able to accurately localize and detect kidney regions, we present a two-step algorithm that makes use of edge and texture information in combination with anatomical cues. First, we use an edge analysis technique to localize kidney region by matching the edge map with predefined templates. To accurately estimate the kidney morphology, we use textural information in a machine learning algorithm framework using Haar features and Gradient boosting classifier. We have tested the algorithm on 45 unseen cases and the performance against ground truth is measured by computing Dice overlap, % error in major and minor axis of kidney. The algorithm shows successful performance on 80% cases.

  5. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasukawa, Keiji; Inuo, Mieko; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy

  6. Implementation of Enterprise Imaging Strategy at a Chinese Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Liu, Yao; Yuan, Yifang; Li, Jia; Wei, Lan; Wang, Yuelong; Fei, Xiaolu

    2018-01-04

    Medical images have become increasingly important in clinical practice and medical research, and the need to manage images at the hospital level has become urgent in China. To unify patient identification in examinations from different medical specialties, increase convenient access to medical images under authentication, and make medical images suitable for further artificial intelligence investigations, we implemented an enterprise imaging strategy by adopting an image integration platform as the main tool at Xuanwu Hospital. Workflow re-engineering and business system transformation was also performed to ensure the quality and content of the imaging data. More than 54 million medical images and approximately 1 million medical reports were integrated, and uniform patient identification, images, and report integration were made available to the medical staff and were accessible via a mobile application, which were achieved by implementing the enterprise imaging strategy. However, to integrate all medical images of different specialties at a hospital and ensure that the images and reports are qualified for data mining, some further policy and management measures are still needed.

  7. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  8. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  9. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  10. In vivo sodium ({sup 23}Na) imaging of the human kidneys at 7 T: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Juras, Vladimir; Trattnig, Siegfried; Zbyn, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Deligianni, Xeni; Bieri, Oliver [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of in vivo {sup 23}Na imaging of the corticomedullary {sup 23}Na gradient and to measure {sup 23}Na transverse relaxation times (T2*) in human kidneys. In this prospective, IRB-approved study, eight healthy volunteers (4 female, 4 male; mean age 29.4 ± 3.6 years) were examined on a 7-T whole-body MR system using a {sup 23}Na-only spine-array coil. For morphological {sup 23}Na-MRI, a 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequence with a variable echo time scheme (vTE) was used. T2* times were calculated using a multiecho 3D vTE-GRE approach. {sup 23}Na signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were given on a pixel-by-pixel basis for a 20-mm section from the cortex in the direction of the medulla. T2* maps were calculated by fitting the {sup 23}Na signal decay monoexponentially on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using least squares fit. Mean corticomedullary {sup 23}Na-SNR increased from the cortex (32.2 ± 5.6) towards the medulla (85.7 ± 16.0). The SNR increase ranged interindividually from 57.2 % to 66.3 %. Mean {sup 23}Na-T2* relaxation times differed statistically significantly (P < 0.001) between the cortex (17.9 ± 0.8 ms) and medulla (20.6 ± 1.0 ms). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo {sup 23}Na MRI of the corticomedullary {sup 23}Na gradient and to measure the {sup 23}Na T2* relaxation times of human kidneys at 7 T. (orig.)

  11. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack...... of confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...

  12. The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on kidney and adjacent tissue detected by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiko, Yasushi; Hirose, Tomonobu; Yoshida, Masahiko; Saito, Isao

    1995-01-01

    Etracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using YACHIYODA SZ1 was performed on 12 patients with renal stones and the effect on the kidney and adjacent tissue was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) before and after treatment. Some changes were seen in 6 of the 12 (50%) patients; perirenal fluid collection in 2 of the 12 (16.7%) patients, subcapsular hematoma in 2 of the 12 (16.7%) patients, renal enlargement in 5 of the 12 (31.3%) patients, increased signal intensity in perirenal tissue in 6 of the 12 (50%) patients, and loss of the corticomedullary junction in 2 out of 9 patients (22%). These findings indicated fewer changes in the kidney after ESWL using YACHIYODA SZ1 than in the other reports. MRI is also concluded to be effective to detect the changes of the kidney after ESWL. (author)

  13. The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on kidney and adjacent tissue detected by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiko, Yasushi; Hirose, Tomonobu; Yoshida, Masahiko; Saito, Isao [Tokyo Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Etracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using YACHIYODA SZ1 was performed on 12 patients with renal stones and the effect on the kidney and adjacent tissue was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) before and after treatment. Some changes were seen in 6 of the 12 (50%) patients; perirenal fluid collection in 2 of the 12 (16.7%) patients, subcapsular hematoma in 2 of the 12 (16.7%) patients, renal enlargement in 5 of the 12 (31.3%) patients, increased signal intensity in perirenal tissue in 6 of the 12 (50%) patients, and loss of the corticomedullary junction in 2 out of 9 patients (22%). These findings indicated fewer changes in the kidney after ESWL using YACHIYODA SZ1 than in the other reports. MRI is also concluded to be effective to detect the changes of the kidney after ESWL. (author).

  14. MR imaging of kidneys: functional evaluation using F-15 perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan-Smith, J. Damien; Jones, Richard A.; Little, Stephen; Perez-Bayfield, Marcos R.; Broecker, Bruce; Smith, Edwin A.; Scherz, Hal C.; Kirsch, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Children with hydronephrosis are typically investigated by a combination of diuretic renal scintigraphy, ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrography. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard to assess obstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced MR urography in the investigation of children with hydronephrosis to define urinary tract anatomy, to calculate differential renal function and to assess urinary tract obstruction. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 40 children with unilateral hydronephrosis. There were 14 girls and 26 boys with an age range of 1 month to 14 years (mean 1.4 years). The information from traditional imaging modalities was compared to the information obtained from the single MR study. The anatomic imaging with MR urography was superior to other modalities. The split renal function was estimated with MR urography by calculating the volume of enhancing renal parenchyma and was comparable to renal scintigraphy (r=0.98). By using surgery versus non-surgery as the decision point, with MR urography the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 86%, negative predictive value 100%, and diagnostic efficiency 90%. For renal scintigraphy the sensitivity was 96%, the specificity 56%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 90%, and diagnostic efficiency 79%. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR urography provides superior anatomic and functional information when compared with ultrasound and diuretic renal scintigraphy. The information is gathered in a single study that does not use ionizing radiation. It is likely that MR urography will replace renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of hydronephrosis in children. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of kidneys: functional evaluation using F-15 perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J. Damien; Jones, Richard A.; Little, Stephen [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, 1001 Johnson Ferry Road, GA 30342, Atlanta (United States); Perez-Bayfield, Marcos R.; Broecker, Bruce; Smith, Edwin A.; Scherz, Hal C.; Kirsch, Andrew J. [Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, GA 30342, Atlanta (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Children with hydronephrosis are typically investigated by a combination of diuretic renal scintigraphy, ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrography. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard to assess obstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced MR urography in the investigation of children with hydronephrosis to define urinary tract anatomy, to calculate differential renal function and to assess urinary tract obstruction. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 40 children with unilateral hydronephrosis. There were 14 girls and 26 boys with an age range of 1 month to 14 years (mean 1.4 years). The information from traditional imaging modalities was compared to the information obtained from the single MR study. The anatomic imaging with MR urography was superior to other modalities. The split renal function was estimated with MR urography by calculating the volume of enhancing renal parenchyma and was comparable to renal scintigraphy (r=0.98). By using surgery versus non-surgery as the decision point, with MR urography the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 86%, negative predictive value 100%, and diagnostic efficiency 90%. For renal scintigraphy the sensitivity was 96%, the specificity 56%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 90%, and diagnostic efficiency 79%. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR urography provides superior anatomic and functional information when compared with ultrasound and diuretic renal scintigraphy. The information is gathered in a single study that does not use ionizing radiation. It is likely that MR urography will replace renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of hydronephrosis in children. (orig.)

  16. Image-Based Models Using Crowdsourcing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Spanò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage require an extensive documentation, both in properly historic-artistic terms and regarding the physical characteristics of position, shape, color, and geometry. With the use of digital photogrammetry that make acquisition of overlapping images for 3D photo modeling and with the development of dense and accurate 3D point models, it is possible to obtain high-resolution orthoprojections of surfaces.Recent years have seen a growing interest in crowdsourcing that holds in the field of the protection and dissemination of cultural heritage, in parallel there is an increasing awareness for contributing the generation of digital models with the immense wealth of images available on the web which are useful for documentation heritage.In this way, the availability and ease the automation of SfM (Structure from Motion algorithm enables the generation of digital models of the built heritage, which can be inserted positively in crowdsourcing processes. In fact, non-expert users can handle the technology in the process of acquisition, which today is one of the fundamental points to involve the wider public to the cultural heritage protection. To present the image based models and their derivatives that can be made from a great digital resource; the current approach is useful for the little-known heritage or not easily accessible buildings as an emblematic case study that was selected. It is the Vank Cathedral in Isfahan in Iran: the availability of accurate point clouds and reliable orthophotos are very convenient since the building of the Safavid epoch (cent. XVII-XVIII completely frescoed with the internal surfaces, which the architecture and especially the architectural decoration reach their peak.The experimental part of the paper explores also some aspects of usability of the digital output from the image based modeling methods. The availability of orthophotos allows and facilitates the iconographic

  17. Novel three-dimensional imaging volumetry in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: comparison with 2D volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongsuk; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Young Rae; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Park, Hayne Cho; Ahn, Curie

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) volumetry is an important marker for evaluating the progression of disease. Three-dimensional (3D) volumetry is generally more timesaving than 2D volumetry, but its reliability and accuracy are uncertain. Small and large phantoms simulating polycystic kidneys and 20 patients with ADPKD underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry. We evaluated the total kidney volume (TKV) and total cyst volume (TCV) using a novel 3D volumetry program (XelisTM) and compared 3D volumetry data with the conventional 2D method (the reference volume values). After upload and threshold setting, the other organs surrounding the kidney were removed by picking and sculpting. The novel method involves drawing of the kidney or cyst and automatic measurement of kidney volume and cyst volume in 3D images. The 3D volume estimation of the small and large phantoms differed from the actual values by 6.9% and -8.2%, respectively, for TKV and by 2.1% and 1.4% for TCV. In ADPKD patients, the intra-reader reliability of 3D volumetry was 30 ± 180 mL (1.3 ± 10.3%) and 25 ± 113 mL (1.2 ± 9.4%), respectively, for TKV and TCV. Correlation between 3D volumetry and 2D volumetry of TKV and TCV resulted in a high correlation coefficient and a regression slope approaching 1.00 (r = 0.97 - 0.98). The mean of the volume percentage differences for 3D vs. 2D for TKV : TCV were -6.0 ± 8.9% : 2.0 ± 11.8% in large ADPKD and -16.1 ± 10.4% : 13.2 ± 21.9% in small ADPKD. Our study showed that 3D volumetry has reliability and accuracy compared with 2D volumetry in ADPKD. 3D volumetry is more accurate for TCV and large ADPKD.

  18. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Yvette; Ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I; Bos, Willem Jan W; van der Boog, Paul J M; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to identify perceived barriers and support strategies for reducing sodium intake among both patients with chronic kidney disease and health-care professionals. A purposive sample of 25 patients and 23 health-care professionals from 4 Dutch medical centers attended 8 focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed thematically and afterwards organized according to the phases of behavior change of self-regulation theory. Multiple themes emerged across different phases of behavior change, including the patients' lack of practical knowledge and intrinsic motivation, the maladaptive illness perceptions and refusal skills, the lack of social support and feedback regarding disease progression and sodium intake, and the availability of low-sodium foods. The results indicate the need for the implementation of support strategies that target specific needs of patients across the whole process of changing and maintaining a low-sodium diet. Special attention should be paid to supporting patients to set sodium-related goals, strengthening intrinsic motivation, providing comprehensive and practical information (e.g., about hidden salt in products), increasing social support, stimulating the self-monitoring of sodium intake and disease progression, and building a supportive patient-professional relationship that encompasses shared decision making and coaching. Moreover, global programs should be implemented to reduce sodium levels in processed foods, introduce sodium-related product labels, and increase consumer awareness.

  19. Kidney Transplantation: The Challenge of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Its Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Alelign

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. When the immune system of the recipient recognizes the transplanted kidney as a foreign object, graft rejection occurs. As part of the host immune defense mechanism, human leukocyte antigen (HLA is a major challenge for graft rejection in transplantation therapy. The impact of HLA mismatches between the donor and the potential recipient prolongs the time for renal transplantation therapy, tethered to dialysis, latter reduces graft survival, and increases mortality. The formation of pretransplant alloantibodies against HLA class I and II molecules can be sensitized through exposures to blood transfusions, prior transplants, and pregnancy. These preformed HLA antibodies are associated with rejection in kidney transplantation. On the other hand, the development of de novo antibodies may increase the risk for acute and chronic rejections. Allograft rejection results from a complex interplay involving both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Thus, further insights into the mechanisms of tissue rejection and the risk of HLA sensitization is crucial in developing new therapies that may blunt the immune system against transplanted organs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight facts about HLA and its sensitization, various mechanisms of allograft rejection, the current immunosuppressive approaches, and the directions for future therapy.

  20. Kidney Transplantation: The Challenge of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Its Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Momina M.; Bobosha, Kidist; Tadesse, Yewondwossen; Howe, Rawleigh; Petros, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Kidney transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. When the immune system of the recipient recognizes the transplanted kidney as a foreign object, graft rejection occurs. As part of the host immune defense mechanism, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a major challenge for graft rejection in transplantation therapy. The impact of HLA mismatches between the donor and the potential recipient prolongs the time for renal transplantation therapy, tethered to dialysis, latter reduces graft survival, and increases mortality. The formation of pretransplant alloantibodies against HLA class I and II molecules can be sensitized through exposures to blood transfusions, prior transplants, and pregnancy. These preformed HLA antibodies are associated with rejection in kidney transplantation. On the other hand, the development of de novo antibodies may increase the risk for acute and chronic rejections. Allograft rejection results from a complex interplay involving both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Thus, further insights into the mechanisms of tissue rejection and the risk of HLA sensitization is crucial in developing new therapies that may blunt the immune system against transplanted organs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight facts about HLA and its sensitization, various mechanisms of allograft rejection, the current immunosuppressive approaches, and the directions for future therapy. PMID:29693023

  1. Myoglobinuria with acute renal failure and hot kidneys seen on bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, K.J.; Sty, J.R.; Johnson, F.; Tisdale, P.

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of myoglobinuria secondary to prolonged seizures. The child showed ''hot kidneys'' with bone scintigraphy. The disease entity and etiologies of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis are discussed

  2. Comparison of glomerular filtration rates derived from dynamic renal imaging and dual sample clearance in kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yangjun; Li Linfa; Zhang Jun; Du Xiaoying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is one of the valuable indictors of allograft status after kidney transplantation. The feasibility of an easy measurement of GFR by dynamic renal imaging (dGFR) was assessed in comparison to a classical dual plasma sample method (tGFR) in the current study for evaluating the function of grafting kidney. Methods: In 73 patients of kidney transplantation, both dynamic renal imaging and dual sample GFR measurement were undertaken after 99 Tc m -DTPA injection. The correlation between dGFR and tGFR, both being standardized according to surface area, was analyzed and the linear regression equation was obtained. Results: The mean dGFR was slightly lower than that of tGFR (t=-2.010, P<0.05). The dGFR correlated significantly with tGFR (r=0.759, P< 0.01). The linear regression equation was tGFR=0.6455 x dGFR + 25.514. Conclusion: The dGFR correlated well with tGFR and they were accurate in evaluating the filtration function of transplanted kidney. (authors)

  3. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  4. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beto JA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Judith A Beto, Katherine A Schury, Vinod K Bansal Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola University Healthcare System, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD requires extensive changes to food and lifestyle. Poor adherence to diet, medications, and treatments has been estimated to vary between 20% and 70%, which in turn can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity. Delivering effective nutritional advice in patients with CKD coordinates multiple diet components including calories, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and fluid. Dietary intake studies have shown difficulty in adhering to the scope and complexity of the CKD diet parameters. No single educational or clinical strategy has been shown to be consistently effective across CKD populations. Highest adherence has been observed when both diet and education efforts are individualized to each patient and adapted over time to changing lifestyle and CKD variables. This narrative review and commentary summarizes nutrition education literature and published strategies for providing nutritional advice in CKD. A cohort of practical and effective strategies for increasing dietary adherence to nutritional advice are provided that include communicating with "talking control" principles, integrating patient-owned technology, acknowledging the typical food pattern may be snacking rather than formal meals, focusing on a single goal rather than multiple goals, creating active learning and coping strategies (frozen sandwiches, visual hands-on activities, planting herb gardens, and involving the total patient food environment. Keywords: talking control, technology-enhanced learning, hemodialysis, nutrition education, education strategies

  5. IgG4-related kidney disease: MRI findings with emphasis on the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Jin Hee, E-mail: kimjhrad@amc.seoul.kr; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To investigate the imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate the usefulness of DWI in lesion detection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 31 patients with IgG4-KD who underwent MRI covering both kidneys. Two radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR images to determine the distribution pattern (location, laterality, and multiplicity) and the visually assessed signal intensity (hypointense, isointense or hyperintense) of the renal lesions compared to the normal renal parenchyma on each sequence. Per-patient sensitivity for detecting IgG4-KD and the number of detectable lesions were compared in T2-weighted images, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Results: IgG4-KD typically manifested as bilateral (83.9%), multiple (93.5%), and renal parenchymal (87.1%) nodules appearing isointense (93.5%) on T1-weighted images, hypointense (77.4%) on T2-weighted images, hyperintense (100%) on DWI (b = 1000), and hypointense (83.3%) in the arterial phase and with a progressive enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced images. The sensitivity of DWI for detecting IgG4-KD was significantly higher than that of T2-weighted images (100% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.034). The median number of detectable lesions was significantly greater in DWI (n = 9) than in T2-weighted images (n = 2) and dynamic contrast-enhanced images (n = 5) (P ≤ 0.008). Conclusions: The characteristic MRI findings of IgG4-KD were bilateral, multiple, renal parenchymal nodules with T2 hypointensity, diffusion restriction, and a progressive enhancement pattern. As DWI was useful in the detection of IgG4-KD, adding DWI to conventional MRI for patients suspected of having IgG4-KD may enhance the diagnosis.

  6. IgG4-related kidney disease: MRI findings with emphasis on the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate the usefulness of DWI in lesion detection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 31 patients with IgG4-KD who underwent MRI covering both kidneys. Two radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR images to determine the distribution pattern (location, laterality, and multiplicity) and the visually assessed signal intensity (hypointense, isointense or hyperintense) of the renal lesions compared to the normal renal parenchyma on each sequence. Per-patient sensitivity for detecting IgG4-KD and the number of detectable lesions were compared in T2-weighted images, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Results: IgG4-KD typically manifested as bilateral (83.9%), multiple (93.5%), and renal parenchymal (87.1%) nodules appearing isointense (93.5%) on T1-weighted images, hypointense (77.4%) on T2-weighted images, hyperintense (100%) on DWI (b = 1000), and hypointense (83.3%) in the arterial phase and with a progressive enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced images. The sensitivity of DWI for detecting IgG4-KD was significantly higher than that of T2-weighted images (100% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.034). The median number of detectable lesions was significantly greater in DWI (n = 9) than in T2-weighted images (n = 2) and dynamic contrast-enhanced images (n = 5) (P ≤ 0.008). Conclusions: The characteristic MRI findings of IgG4-KD were bilateral, multiple, renal parenchymal nodules with T2 hypointensity, diffusion restriction, and a progressive enhancement pattern. As DWI was useful in the detection of IgG4-KD, adding DWI to conventional MRI for patients suspected of having IgG4-KD may enhance the diagnosis

  7. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  8. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  9. Metabolic imaging of human kidney triglyceride content: reproducibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Hammer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of triglyceride content and to compare spectral quality and reproducibility without and with respiratory motion compensation in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board of our institution approved the study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. After technical optimization, a total of 20 healthy volunteers underwent renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the renal cortex both without and with respiratory motion compensation and volume tracking. After the first session the subjects were repositioned and the protocol was repeated to assess reproducibility. Spectral quality (linewidth of the water signal and triglyceride content were quantified. Bland-Altman analyses and a test by Pitman were performed. RESULTS: Linewidth changed from 11.5±0.4 Hz to 10.7±0.4 Hz (all data pooled, p<0.05, without and with respiratory motion compensation respectively. Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session without respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.58±0.12% and 0.51±0.14% (P = NS. Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session with respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.44±0.10% and 0.43±0.10% (P = NS between sessions and P = NS compared to measurements with respiratory motion compensation. Bland-Altman analyses showed narrower limits of agreement and a significant difference in the correlated variances (correlation of -0.59, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Metabolic imaging of the human kidney using renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a feasible tool to assess cortical triglyceride content in humans in vivo and the use of respiratory motion compensation significantly improves spectral quality and reproducibility. Therefore, respiratory motion compensation seems a necessity for metabolic imaging of renal triglyceride content in vivo.

  10. Dual kidney transplantation as a strategy to use expanded criteria donors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Nuria; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Pérez-Sáez, María José; Crespo, Marta; Cruzado, Josep M; Pascual, Julio

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this review was to assess whether dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is better than single KT (SKT) for optimizing the use of expanded criteria donor kidneys. We did a systematic literature search and meta-analyses when possible, pooling data for calculating relative risks (RR) of major outcomes. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. One-year serum creatinine was better after DKT vs. SKT (mean difference -0.27 [-0.37, -0.17], P DKT (RR 0.88 [0.76, 1.02], P = 0.09). Mortality at 1 and 3 years was similar after dual or SKT, but mortality at five years was lower after DKT (RR 0.71 [0.53, 0.94], P = 0.02). One-year graft loss was similar between dual (n = 4158) and SKT (n = 51 800) (RR 0.97 [0.87, 1.09], P = 0.62). Three- and five-year graft loss was not considered because of high heterogeneity between studies. In conclusion, short-term graft function and long-term patient survival are better in recipients receiving DKT vs. SKT. However, these differences are based on few retrospective reports with a relatively low number of cases. Good quality randomized controlled trials are needed to assess whether the investment of two kidneys in one recipient is justified in face of the current organ shortage. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  11. High-Resolution Imaging of Selenium in Kidneys: A Localized Selenium Pool Associated with Glutathione Peroxidase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Kehr, Sebastian; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Carlson, Bradley A.; Seravalli, Javier; Jin, Richard; Handy, Diane E.; Park, Thomas J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Results: Liver showed a uniform selenium distributio...

  12. What marketing strategy for destinations with a negative image?

    OpenAIRE

    Seraphin, Hugues; Gowreesunkar, Vanessa; Hugues Seraphin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This concluding article filters out meaningful marketing strategies that aim at re-positioning and re-establishing struggling tourism destinations with negative image. Drawing from a collection of case studies around the world, the article provides evidences from post-colonial, post-conflict and post-disaster destinations to finally anchor the overall conclusion of the theme issue.\\ud \\ud Design\\ud The article summarizes key issues faced by destinations plagued with a negative imag...

  13. Quantitative sodium MR imaging of native versus transplanted kidneys using a dual-tuned proton/sodium (1H/23Na) coil: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Chan Hong; Furlan, Alessandro; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Bae, Kyongtae Ty; Zhao, Tiejun; Shapiro, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To compare sodium ( 23 Na) characteristics between native and transplanted kidneys using dual-tuned proton ( 1 H)/sodium MRI. Six healthy volunteers and six renal transplant patients (3 normal function, 3 acute allograft rejection) were included. Proton/sodium MRI was obtained at 3 T using a dual-tuned coil. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), sodium concentration ([ 23 Na]) and cortico-medullary sodium gradient (CMSG) were measured. Reproducibility of [ 23 Na] measurement was also tested. SNR, [ 23 Na] and CMSG of the native and transplanted kidneys were compared. Proton and sodium images of kidneys were successfully acquired. SNR and [ 23 Na] measurements of the native kidneys were reproducible at two different sessions. [ 23 Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys was significantly lower than those of the native kidneys: 153.5 ± 11.9 vs. 192.9 ± 9.6 mM (P = 0.002) and 8.9 ± 1.5 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9 mM/mm (P = 0.041), respectively. [ 23 Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys with normal function vs. acute rejection were not statistically different. Sodium quantification of kidneys was reliably performed using proton/sodium MRI. [ 23 Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys were lower than those of the native kidneys, but without a statistically significant difference between patients with or without renal allograft rejection. (orig.)

  14. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  15. Renal volume assessed by magnetic resonance imaging volumetry correlates with renal function in living kidney donors pre- and postdonation: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Daniel; Helck, Andreas; Rominger, Axel; Crispin, Alexander; Meiser, Bruno; Werner, Jens; Fischereder, Michael; Stangl, Manfred; Habicht, Antje

    2018-07-01

    Renal function of potential living kidney donors is routinely assessed with scintigraphy. Kidney anatomy is evaluated by imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We evaluated if a MRI-based renal volumetry is a good predictor of kidney function pre- and postdonation. We retrospectively analyzed the renal volume (RV) in a MRI of 100 living kidney donors. RV was correlated with the tubular excretion rate (TER) of MAG3-scintigraphy, a measured creatinine clearance (CrCl), and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by Cockcroft-Gault (CG), CKD-EPI, and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula pre- and postdonation during a follow-up of 3 years. RV correlated significantly with the TER (total: r = 0.6735, P volumetry might be an alternative technique for the evaluation of split renal function and prediction of renal function postdonation in living kidney donors. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma of the rabbit kidney on Tl weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, J.M.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.V.; Googe, R.E.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Scott, K.N.; Mancuso, A.A.; Hackett, R.L.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    Experimental renal carcinoma was induced by percutaneous injection of VX-2 carcinoma cells into the left kidney in New Zealand white rabbits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.15 T before and after intravenous injection of 0.3 mmol gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) per kg body weight. Gd-DTPA enhanced the tumors by increasing the signal intensity on T1 weighted images. The enhancement was evident immediately after Gd-DTPA injection, increasing during the observation time of 30 minutes. Histologically the areas of enhancement corresponded well to the viable tumor tissue. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Yan, Fuhua, E-mail: zemylife@163.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ{sup 2} = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up.

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Minming; Yan, Fuhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ 2 = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up

  19. Biexponential analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging: comparison of three different calculation methods in transplanted kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Philipp; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Pentang, Gael; Buchbender, Christian; Miese, Falk; Schek, Julia; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Lanzman, Rotem S

    2013-12-01

    Biexponential analysis has been used increasingly to obtain contributions of both diffusion and microperfusion to the signal decay in diffusion-weighted imaging DWI of different parts of the body. To compare biexponential diffusion parameters of transplanted kidneys obtained with three different calculation methods. DWI was acquired in 15 renal allograft recipients (eight men, seven women; mean age, 52.4 ± 14.3 years) using a paracoronal EPI sequence with 16 b-values (b = 0-750 s/mm(2)) and six averages at 1.5T. No respiratory gating was used. Three different calculation methods were used for the calculation of biexponential diffusion parameters: Fp, ADCP, and ADCD were calculated without fixing any parameter a priori (calculation method 1); ADCP was fixed to 12.0 µm(2)/ms, whereas Fp and ADCD were calculated using the biexponential model (calculation method 2); multistep approach with monoexponential fitting of the high b-value portion (b ≥ 250 s/mm(2)) for determination of ADCD and assessment of the low b intercept for determination of Fp (calculation method 3). For quantitative analysis, ROI measurements were performed on the according parameter maps. Mean ADCD values of the renal cortex using calculation method 1 were significantly lower than using calculation methods 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between calculation methods 1 and 2 (r = 0.69 (P < 0.005) and calculation methods 1 and 3 (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) as well as calculation methods 2 and 3 (r = 0.98; P < 0.001). Mean Fp values of the renal cortex were higher with calculation method 1 than with calculation methods 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). For Fp, only the correlation between calculation methods 2 and 3 was significant (r = 0.98; P < 0.001). Biexponential diffusion parameters differ significantly depending on the calculation methods used for their calculation.

  20. Joint eigenvector estimation from mutually anisotropic tensors improves susceptibility tensor imaging of the brain, kidney, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a susceptibility-based MRI technique for probing microstructure and fiber architecture of magnetically anisotropic tissues-such as central nervous system white matter, renal tubules, and myocardial fibers-in three dimensions using susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools. STI can probe tissue microstructure, but is limited by reconstruction artifacts because of absent phase information outside the tissue and noise. STI accuracy may be improved by estimating a joint eigenvector from mutually anisotropic susceptibility and relaxation tensors. Gradient-recalled echo image data were simulated using a numerical phantom and acquired from the ex vivo mouse brain, kidney, and heart. Susceptibility tensor data were reconstructed using STI, regularized STI, and the proposed algorithm of mutually anisotropic and joint eigenvector STI (MAJESTI). Fiber map and tractography results from each technique were compared with diffusion tensor data. MAJESTI reduced the estimated susceptibility tensor orientation error by 30% in the phantom, 36% in brain white matter, 40% in the inner medulla of the kidney, and 45% in myocardium. This improved the continuity and consistency of susceptibility-based fiber tractography in each tissue. MAJESTI estimation of the susceptibility tensors yields lower orientation errors for susceptibility-based fiber mapping and tractography in the intact brain, kidney, and heart. Magn Reson Med 77:2331-2346, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Efficient strategies to find diagnostic test accuracy studies in kidney journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Thomas E; Ladhani, Maleeka; Mitchell, Ruth; Craig, Jonathan C; Webster, Angela C

    2015-08-01

    Nephrologists looking for quick answers to diagnostic clinical questions in MEDLINE can use a range of published search strategies or Clinical Query limits to improve the precision of their searches. We aimed to evaluate existing search strategies for finding diagnostic test accuracy studies in nephrology journals. We assessed the accuracy of 14 search strategies for retrieving diagnostic test accuracy studies from three nephrology journals indexed in MEDLINE. Two investigators hand searched the same journals to create a reference set of diagnostic test accuracy studies to compare search strategy results against. We identified 103 diagnostic test accuracy studies, accounting for 2.1% of all studies published. The most specific search strategy was the Narrow Clinical Queries limit (sensitivity: 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.29; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99). Using the Narrow Clinical Queries limit, a searcher would need to screen three (95% CI 2-6) articles to find one diagnostic study. The most sensitive search strategy was van der Weijden 1999 Extended (sensitivity: 0.95; 95% CI 0.89-0.98; specificity 0.55, 95% CI 0.53-0.56) but required a searcher to screen 24 (95% CI 23-26) articles to find one diagnostic study. Bachmann 2002 was the best balanced search strategy, which was sensitive (0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), but also specific (0.74, 95% CI 0.73-0.75), with a number needed to screen of 15 (95% CI 14-17). Diagnostic studies are infrequently published in nephrology journals. The addition of a strategy for diagnostic studies to a subject search strategy in MEDLINE may reduce the records needed to screen while preserving adequate search sensitivity for routine clinical use. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  3. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  4. Computational assessment of visual search strategies in volumetric medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Aizenman, Avigael; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Markey, Mia K

    2016-01-01

    When searching through volumetric images [e.g., computed tomography (CT)], radiologists appear to use two different search strategies: "drilling" (restrict eye movements to a small region of the image while quickly scrolling through slices), or "scanning" (search over large areas at a given depth before moving on to the next slice). To computationally identify the type of image information that is used in these two strategies, 23 naïve observers were instructed with either "drilling" or "scanning" when searching for target T's in 20 volumes of faux lung CTs. We computed saliency maps using both classical two-dimensional (2-D) saliency, and a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic saliency that captures the characteristics of scrolling through slices. Comparing observers' gaze distributions with the saliency maps showed that search strategy alters the type of saliency that attracts fixations. Drillers' fixations aligned better with dynamic saliency and scanners with 2-D saliency. The computed saliency was greater for detected targets than for missed targets. Similar results were observed in data from 19 radiologists who searched five stacks of clinical chest CTs for lung nodules. Dynamic saliency may be superior to the 2-D saliency for detecting targets embedded in volumetric images, and thus "drilling" may be more efficient than "scanning."

  5. The kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Lutzker, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has unfortunately remained true that radionuclide renal imaging studies have not been so widely accepted as other types of scintigraphy, despite improvements in radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques. Perhaps this is because of the variety of established radiologic techniques available for the study of the kidneys and the addition of new modalities such as CT scanning and ultrasound. Clinicians may have become confused by the multiplicity of options, which has obscured the distinction between renal scintigraphy and all other methods of imaging the kidney, i.e., that renal scintigraphy provides functional information in an easily quantifiable form. It is interesting that pediatric practitioners have more easily recognized the functional importance of this modality than have the practitioners of adult medicine, who more often prefer anatomic modalities, either traditional or new

  6. [Vascular complications following kidney transplant: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Floccari, Fulvio; Lentini, Paolo; Vittoria, Salvatore; Di Pietro, Fabio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Fiorini, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The progressive decline in the incidence of graft rejection has made urological, surgical, parenchymal and vascular complications of kidney transplant more frequent. The latter, although accounting for only 5-10% of all post-transplant complications, are a frequent cause of graft loss. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of parenchymal and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of vascular complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is very important in case of stenosis of the transplanted renal artery, pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas, and thrombosis with complete or partial artery or vein occlusion. Doppler and color determinations present high diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of vascular complications of the transplanted kidney, planted kidney.

  7. Reduced iodinated contrast media for abdominal imaging by dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for patients with kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Saito, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced computed tomography using iodinated contrast media is useful for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. However, contrast-induced nephropathy remains problematic for kidney diseases patients. Although current guidelines recommended the use of a minimal dose of contrast media necessary to obtain adequate images for diagnosis, obtaining adequate images with sufficient contrast enhancement is difficult with conventional computed tomography using reduced contrast media. Dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography enables the simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-energy data and the reconstruction of virtual monochromatic images ranging from 40 to 200 keV, retrospectively. Low-energy virtual monochromatic images can enhance the contrast of images, thereby facilitating reduced contrast media. In case 1, abdominal computed tomography angiography at 50 keV using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media revealed the artery that was the source of diverticular bleeding in the ascending colon. In case 2, ischemia of the transverse colon was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and iodine-selective imaging using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media. In case 3, advanced esophagogastric junctional cancer was staged and preoperative abdominal computed tomography angiography could be obtained with 30% of the conventional dose of contrast media. However, the texture of virtual monochromatic images may be a limitation at low energy. Keywords: Virtual monochromatic images, Contrast-induced nephropathy

  8. Strategies for the optimal timing to start renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies. These have been limited due to confounding by indication, considerable heterogeneity in case mix and illness severity, and variably applied definitions for both AKI and for how "timing" was anchored relative to starting RRT. It is unclear whether a preemptive or earlier strategy of RRT initiation aimed largely at avoiding complications related to AKI or a more conservative strategy where RRT is started in response to developing complications leads to better patient-centered outcomes and health services use. This question has been the focus of 2 recently completed randomized trials. In this review, we provide an appraisal of available evidence, discuss existing knowledge gaps, and provide perspective on future research that will better inform the optimal timing of RRT initiation in AKI. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jon, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions including targeting, imaging, therapy, and etc have been intensively studied aiming to overcome limitations associated with conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used asmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constrast agents in clinic and their features could be easily tailored by including targeting moieties, fluorescence dyes, or therapeutic agents. This review summarizes targeting strategies for construction of multifunctional nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles-based theranostic systems, and the various surface engineering strategies of nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:22272217

  10. CT and MR imaging features of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidneys. A multi-institutional review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Ambrosetti, D. [Pasteur Hospital, Department of Pathology, Nice (France); Rocher, L. [Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Derchi, L.E. [University of Genoa, IRCCS AOU Ospedale, San Martino IST, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Renard, B.; Puech, P. [Claude Huriez Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Claudon, M. [Brabois Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Rouviere, O. [E. Herriot Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Ferlicot, S. [Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Roy, C. [Civil Hospital, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); Yacoub, M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Bernhard, J.C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Urologic Surgery, Bordeaux (France)

    2017-03-15

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of the kidney is a recently identified renal malignancy. Diagnosis of this rare subtype of renal tumour can be challenging for pathologists, and as such, any additional data would be helpful to improve diagnostic reliability. As imaging features of this new and rare sub-type have not yet been clearly described, the purpose of this study was to describe the main radiologic features on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of CT/MRI features, diagnosis of MTSCC could be suggested in many cases. A combination of slow enhancement with plateau on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT/MRI, intermediate to high T2 signal intensity contrasting with low apparent diffusion coefficient values on MRI appeared evocative of this diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR imaging for the preoperative evaluation of potential living kidney donors. Correlation with intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlemann, J.; Blondin, D.; Reichelt, D.; Heinen, W.; Scherer, A.; Lanzman, R.S.; Grotemeyer, D.; Zgoura, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the blood pool contrast agent gadofosveset for MR angiography (MRA) of the renal vasculature in living kidney donors (LKD). Materials and Methods: Of the 28 consecutive potential LKDs (13 men, 15 women; mean age 55.14 years ± 11.97) initially included in this prospective study, 20 patients underwent surgery and were considered for further evaluation. 7 acquisitions of a 3D T1-weighted FLASH sequence were performed following administration of gadofosveset for the assessment of the vascular anatomy and collecting system at predefined time points at 1.5 T. All MR exams were prospectively analyzed by 2 radiologists in consensus mode prior to surgery. In addition, ROI-based relative SNR measurements were performed in the vena cava inferior and abdominal aorta. Results: MR image acquisition was completed in all 20 potential living donors. In 8 donors an additional CT scan was available for further comparison with the collateral anatomy, resulting in a total of 28 analyzed kidneys. MRA disclosed 36 renal arteries, since 8 accessory arteries were found in 8 subjects. One accessory artery and one case of fibromuscular dysplasia were missed by MRA. The venous anatomy and the collecting system were assessed correctly with MRI. In addition, MRI diagnosed two renal cell carcinomas. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value of gadofosveset-enhanced MRI on a per kidney basis were 92.9 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: Gadofosveset enables accurate evaluation of potential LKDs. (orig.)

  12. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR imaging for the preoperative evaluation of potential living kidney donors. Correlation with intraoperative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlemann, J.; Blondin, D.; Reichelt, D.; Heinen, W.; Scherer, A.; Lanzman, R.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Grotemeyer, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie und Nierentransplantation; Zgoura, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Nephrologie

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the blood pool contrast agent gadofosveset for MR angiography (MRA) of the renal vasculature in living kidney donors (LKD). Materials and Methods: Of the 28 consecutive potential LKDs (13 men, 15 women; mean age 55.14 years {+-} 11.97) initially included in this prospective study, 20 patients underwent surgery and were considered for further evaluation. 7 acquisitions of a 3D T1-weighted FLASH sequence were performed following administration of gadofosveset for the assessment of the vascular anatomy and collecting system at predefined time points at 1.5 T. All MR exams were prospectively analyzed by 2 radiologists in consensus mode prior to surgery. In addition, ROI-based relative SNR measurements were performed in the vena cava inferior and abdominal aorta. Results: MR image acquisition was completed in all 20 potential living donors. In 8 donors an additional CT scan was available for further comparison with the collateral anatomy, resulting in a total of 28 analyzed kidneys. MRA disclosed 36 renal arteries, since 8 accessory arteries were found in 8 subjects. One accessory artery and one case of fibromuscular dysplasia were missed by MRA. The venous anatomy and the collecting system were assessed correctly with MRI. In addition, MRI diagnosed two renal cell carcinomas. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value of gadofosveset-enhanced MRI on a per kidney basis were 92.9 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: Gadofosveset enables accurate evaluation of potential LKDs. (orig.)

  13. Fast glomerular quantification of whole ex vivo mouse kidneys using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 9.4 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Kraemer, Philipp; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Geraci, Stefania; Gretz, Norbert [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Medical Research Centre; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Bertram, John F. [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Development and Stem Cells Program and Dept. of Anatomy and Developmental Biology

    2016-05-01

    A method to measure total glomerular number (N{sub glom}) in whole mouse kidneys using MRI is presented. The method relies on efficient acquisition times. A 9.4 T preclinical MRI system with a surface cryogenic coil and a 3D gradient echo sequence were used to image nine whole ex vivo BALB/c mouse kidneys labelled with cationized-ferritin (CF). A novel method to segment the glomeruli was developed. The quantification of glomeruli was achieved by identifying and fitting the probability distribution of glomeruli thus reducing variations due to noise. For validation, N{sub glom} of the same kidneys were also obtained using the gold standard: design-based stereology. Excellent agreement was found between the MRI and stereological measurements of N{sub glom}, with values differing by less than 4%: (mean ± SD) MRI = 15 606 ± 1 178; stereology = 16 273 ± 1 523. Using a robust segmentation method and a reliable quantification method, it was possible to acquire N{sub glom} with a scanning time of 33 minutes and 20 seconds. This was more than 8 times faster than previously presented MRI-based methods. Thus, an efficient approach to measure N{sub glom} ex vivo in health and disease is provided.

  14. User-driven sampling strategies in image exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Neal; Porter, Reid

    2013-12-01

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-driven sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. User-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. In preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.

  15. [Parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Clementi, Silvia; Clementi, Anna; Di Pietro, Fabio; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Aucella, Filippo; Prencipe, Michele; Fiorini, Fulvio; Sicurezza, Elvia

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared to patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, part of the transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is low both in case of acute complications such as acute tubular necrosis, drug toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  16. MR imaging: a 'One Stop Shop' Modality for Preoperative Evaluation of Potential Living Kidney-Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hussain (Shahid); M.C.J.M. Kock (Marc); P.M.T. Pattynama (Peter); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAt many institutions, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography is the technique of choice for assessment of the renal arteries and renal parenchyma in potential living kidney donors. The renal arteries and renal veins have a varied anatomy and may consist of one or more

  17. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  18. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  19. Kidney Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Total protein (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kidney Tests updates ... hour volume Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  20. Immunoglobulin G4 -related kidney disease: A comprehensive pictorial review of the imaging spectrum, Mimickers, and clinicopathological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ni Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment

  1. Long-term prognosis of chronic kidney disease in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with invasive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán Torres, Ildefonso; Salvador Mercader, Inmaculada; Cabadés Rumbeu, Claudia; Díez Gil, José Luis; Ferrando Cervelló, José; Monteagudo Viana, Marta; Fernández Galera, Rubén; Mora Llabata, Vicente

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). However, the information available on this specific population, is scarce. We evaluate the impact of CKD on long-term prognosis in patients with NSTEACS managed with invasive strategy. We conduct a prospective registry of patients with NSTEACS and coronary angiography. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate < 60ml/min/1,73m 2 . The composite primary end-point was cardiac death and non fatal cardiovascular readmission. We estimated the cumulative probability and hazard rate (HR) of combined primary end-point at 3-years according to the presence or absence of CKD. We included 248 p with mean age of 66.9 years, 25% women. CKD was present at baseline in 67 patients (27%). Patients with CKD were older (74.9 vs. 63.9 years; P<.0001) with more prevalence of hypertension (89.6 vs. 66.3%; P<.0001), diabetes (53.7 vs. 35.9%; P=.011), history of heart failure (13.4 vs. 3.9%; P=.006) and anemia (47.8 vs. 16%; P<.0001). No differences in the extent of coronary artery disease. CKD was associated with higher cumulative probability (49.3 vs. 28.2%; log-rank P=.001) and HR of the primary combined end-point (HR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.12-3.27; P=.012). CKD was an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3-years (HR: 1.66; CI95%: 1.05-2.61; P=.03). In NSTEACS patients treated with invasive strategie CKD is associated independently with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3years. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of kidney diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Özkan

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Renal DTI is a promising diagnostic tool in the assessment of microstructural renal changes and correlates with the eGFR. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the arrangement of the tracks which emanate from the renal medulla. Furthermore, diffusion of the water molecules could be carried out. This study demonstrates the usage of DTI in renal pediatric kidneys. Validations in larger cohort groups with histopathological biopsies are needed.

  3. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to

  4. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : a Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to

  5. Elemental imaging of kidneys of adult rats exposed to uranium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: shino_ht@nirs.go.jp; Terada, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nakata, A.; Sahoo, S.K.; Yoshida, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ueno, S. [School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Inoue, M. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Iso, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Konishi, T.; Imaseki, H. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Y. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Concern about the toxicity of depleted uranium for military use has increased recently. Renal toxicity is the hallmark effect of uranium exposure. However, the dynamics and distribution of uranium in the kidney are not well understood. Here, we determined the precise distribution of uranium and essential elements in the rat kidney using microbeam scanning particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). Uranium accumulation in the rat kidney reached a maximum at 1 day after the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 2 mg U/kg of uranium acetate and then gradually decreased. At 3 h after administration, uranium was distributed mainly in the proximal tubules of the inner zone of the cortex and in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, and absorbed by the proximal tubule epithelium. Iron was localized more in the inside of the outer medulla than uranium, while phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and zinc were equally distributed in the cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla. At 3 days after administration, the number of apoptotic cells increased and cells were lost from the proximal tubules. Uranium was detectable mainly in the outer stripe of the outer medulla at 15 days, suggesting that the renal distribution of uranium is site-selective and causes site-specific renal lesions.

  6. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  7. Comparison of renal dynamic imaging and modified MDRD equation in determining the stage of chronic kidney disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Peng; Liu Xiaomei; Huang Jianmin; Zhang Fang; Pan Liping; Wu Weijie; Gao Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of 99 Tc m -diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renal dynamic imaging and modified modification of diet in renal disease trail (MDRD) equation in determining the stage of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in clinical practice. Methods: A total of 169 patients were enrolled whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined simultaneously by 3 methods: dual plasma sample clearance method, renal dynamic imaging and modified MDRD equation. The dual plasma sample clearance method was employed as the reference method. The accuracy of the other methods in determining the stage of CKD patients was compared and the comparison was repeated based on the different stages. Results: The accuracy of renal dynamic imaging and modified MDRD equation was 56.80% and 68.64%, respectively (P=0.019<0.05). And only in the stage of uremia, the difference of the above-mentioned two method reached statistical significance (P=0.012<0.05), while in other stages they showed similar performance (P=0.180, 0.424, 0.629 and 0.754, all P>0.05). Conclusion: Modified MDRD equation showed better performance than renal dynamic imaging or as good as the second one in determining the stage of CKD patients and the former one should be the first choice in clinical practice because of its simplicity and economy. (authors)

  8. Liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney involvement by human fascioliasis: imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatdoost Azita

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fasciola hepatica primarily involves the liver, however in some exceptional situations other organs have been reported to be involved. The ectopic involvement is either a result of Parasite migration or perhaps eosinophilic reaction. Case presentation Here we report a known case of multiple myeloma who was under treatment with prednisolone and melphalan. He was infected by Fasciola hepatica, which involved many organs and the lesions were mistaken with metastatic ones. Discussion Presented here is a very unusual case of the disease, likely the first case involving the pancreas, spleen, and kidney, as well as the liver.

  9. Functional evaluation of transplanted kidneys in normal function and acute rejection using BOLD MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wenbo; Xu Jingjing; Wang Qindong; Xu Ying; Zhang Minming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a large number of subjects using BOLD MRI to provide more information about oxygen metabolism in the normal function of transplanted kidneys and to distinguish acute graft rejection from normal function kidneys. This study included 122 subjects (20 volunteers, 72 patients with normal functioning transplants, and 21 patients with acute rejection), and 9 patients had normal function grafts received examination while grafts dysfunction occurred within 6 months during the follow-up. The R2* (1/s) values in the cortex and medulla as well as the R2* ratio of the medulla to cortex (R2* ratio of M/C) were recorded. The R2* values of the medulla were higher than those of the cortex in the normal function group and the volunteers which have a steep R2* ratio of M/C. All the R2* values in the acute rejection group were lower than those in the normal function grafts group (P 1.1) is an important reason for keeping clinical normal function.

  10. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik

    2018-05-30

    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  12. Preoperative imaging in 78 living kidney donors using CE-MRA and DSA; Donor-Evaluation vor Lebendnierenspende: Vergleich von CE-MRA und DSA an 78 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, U.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Kroencke, T.J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Kluener, C. [Inst. fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Oldenburg (Germany); Giessing, M.; Schoenberger, B. [Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)

  13. Usefulness of multimodality imaging for detection of myocardial infarction in patients with advanced kidney failure: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veras, Mariana Ferreira; Azevedo, Jader Cunha de; Gamarski, Moisés; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco, E-mail: fvmari@gmail.com [Hospital Procardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, José Galvão [Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    The third universal definition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on the elevation of troponin in association with ischemic symptoms, electrocardiographic changes and imaging findings. In patients with chest pain, the diagnosis of AMI is performed by dosing serum markers of myocardial necrosis, particularly troponins, by means of changes in 12 - lead electrocardiogram (ECG) or by identifying changes in the contractile dynamics of the left ventricle to the transthoracic echocardiogram. In some cases, confounding factors may hamper the diagnosis, such as: (a) presence of previous changes in the baseline ECG, especially LBBB; (b) elevations of myocardial necrosis markers (MNM) resulting from situations other than AMI and; (c) old changes in contractility detected by transthoracic ECG. Serum cardiac troponin (Tn) is the most specific and most used MNM for the diagnosis of AMI. Nevertheless, in some situations troponin elevation may not be due to an AMI, as in cases of acute pulmonary embolism, acute pericarditis, severe heart failure, myocarditis, and sepsis and kidney failure. Patients with kidney failure have high probability of concurrent cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the cross-reacting proteins interfering with skeletal muscle, analytical imprecision and interactions with the dialysis membrane may cause elevation of troponin in 7% to 17% of patients with kidney failure. When in doubt about diagnosis of AMI, {sup 99m}Technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy ({sup 99m}Tc-PYP) stands out as a noninvasive method capable of identifying areas of myocardial necrosis, thus helping in the diagnosis of AMI. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled phosphonate agents undergo chemical absorption with calcium. A large influx of calcium occurs during the evolutionary process of AMI. The calcium flows into the intracellular space and myocardial concentration of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP follows such increase, with a maximum peak uptake about 48 to 72 hours after the acute event. The

  14. Impact of glycemic control on the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a comparison of two strategies using the RIFLE criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the kidney and the urinary tract in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Darge, K.; Rohrschneider, W.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging flow charts differ in pediatric and general radiology. The reasons are: Different illnesses, different consequences arising out of imaging results and different sequence of imaging methods. Ultrasound is always the first imaging method of the urinary tract in infancy and childhood starts with ultrasound with the exception of severe abdominal trauma which is investigated by computertomography. The decision 'normal or abnormal' is possible using ultrasound in the most pediatric cases. The diagnostic value and significance of ultrasound in infancy and childhood is far better than in general radiology because of the higher resolution of the high-frequency units taken. The result of the ultrasound examination should be the basis for the following imaging procedures. We will describe diagnostic flow charts starting with three important clinical symptoms: Prenatal pathology, urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection. (orig.) [de

  16. Reducing image interpretation errors – Do communication strategies undermine this?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, B.; Hardy, M.; Lewis, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the interpretation of diagnostic images in the emergency department are a persistent problem internationally. To address this issue, a number of risk reduction strategies have been suggested but only radiographer abnormality detection schemes (RADS) have been widely implemented in the UK. This study considers the variation in RADS operation and communication in light of technological advances and changes in service operation. Methods: A postal survey of all NHS hospitals operating either an Emergency Department or Minor Injury Unit and a diagnostic imaging (radiology) department (n = 510) was undertaken between July and August 2011. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information on emergency service provision and details of RADS. Results: 325 questionnaires were returned (n = 325/510; 63.7%). The majority of sites (n = 288/325; 88.6%) operated a RADS with the majority (n = 227/288; 78.8%) employing a visual ‘flagging’ system as the only method of communication although symbols used were inconsistent and contradictory across sites. 61 sites communicated radiographer findings through a written proforma (paper or electronic) but this was run in conjunction with a flagging system at 50 sites. The majority of sites did not have guidance on the scope or operation of the ‘flagging’ or written communication system in use. Conclusions: RADS is an established clinical intervention to reduce errors in diagnostic image interpretation within the emergency setting. The lack of standardisation in communication processes and practices alongside the rapid adoption of technology has increased the potential for error and miscommunication

  17. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99m Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  18. Novel treatment strategies for feline chronic kidney disease: A critical look at the potential of mesenchymal stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, J M; Dow, S W

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is an innovative field of scientific investigation with tremendous potential for clinical application that holds promise for the treatment of a variety of diseases in veterinary medicine. Based on the known desirable properties of mesenchymal stem cells, the therapy has potential for treatment of both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease in cats. This review details terminology commonly used in this field of study, sources of mesenchymal stem cells and their proposed mechanism of action particularly as it relates to renal repair. Studies performed in rodent models of chronic kidney disease and feline clinical trial results are also summarized with the aim of providing an overview of the current status of this treatment modality and its potential for the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  20. Element distribution imaging in rat kidney using a 2 D rapid scan EDXRF device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R. G. [Universidad de la Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Francisco Salazar 1145, Temuco 4811230, Araucania (Chile); Lozano, E. [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Unidad de Fisica Medica, Av. Profesor Zanartu 1010, Santiago (Chile); Bongiovanni, G., E-mail: figueror@ufro.cl [IDEPA-CONICET, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    Visualization of elemental distributions of biological tissue is gaining importance in many disciplines of biological, forensic and medical research. Furthermore, the maps of elements have wide application in archaeology for the understanding of the pigments, modes of preservation and environmental context. Since major advances in relation to collimators and detectors have yielded micro scale images, the chemical mapping via synchrotron scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-{mu}X RF) is widely used as microanalytical techniques. However, the acquisition time is a limitation of current SR-{mu}X RF imaging protocols, doing tedious micro analysis of samples of more than 1 cm and very difficult to study of larger samples such as animal organ, whole organisms, work or art, etc. Recently we have developed a robotic system to image the chemistry of large specimens rapidly ar concentration levels of parts per million. Multiple images of distribution of elements can be obtained on surfaces of 100 x 100 mm and a spatial resolution of up to 0.2 mm{sup 2} per pixel, with a spectral capture time up to 1 ms per point. This system has proven to be highly efficient for the X RF mapping of elements in large biological samples, achieving comparable s results to those obtained by SR-{mu}X RF. Thus, images of As and Cu accumulation in renal cortex of arsenic-exposed rats were obtained by both methodologies. However, the new imaging system enables the X RF scanning in few minutes, whereas SR-{mu}X RF required several hours. These and other advantages as well as the potential applications of this system, will be discussed. (Author)

  1. Undersampling strategies for compressed sensing accelerated MR spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Hu, Houchun Harry; Bikkamane Jayadev, Nutandev; Chang, John C.; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.

    2017-03-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) can accelerate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), facilitating its widespread clinical integration. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different undersampling strategy on CS-MRSI reconstruction quality. Phantom data were acquired on a Philips 3 T Ingenia scanner. Four types of undersampling masks, corresponding to each strategy, namely, low resolution, variable density, iterative design, and a priori were simulated in Matlab and retrospectively applied to the test 1X MRSI data to generate undersampled datasets corresponding to the 2X - 5X, and 7X accelerations for each type of mask. Reconstruction parameters were kept the same in each case(all masks and accelerations) to ensure that any resulting differences can be attributed to the type of mask being employed. The reconstructed datasets from each mask were statistically compared with the reference 1X, and assessed using metrics like the root mean square error and metabolite ratios. Simulation results indicate that both the a priori and variable density undersampling masks maintain high fidelity with the 1X up to five-fold acceleration. The low resolution mask based reconstructions showed statistically significant differences from the 1X with the reconstruction failing at 3X, while the iterative design reconstructions maintained fidelity with the 1X till 4X acceleration. In summary, a pilot study was conducted to identify an optimal sampling mask in CS-MRSI. Simulation results demonstrate that the a priori and variable density masks can provide statistically similar results to the fully sampled reference. Future work would involve implementing these two masks prospectively on a clinical scanner.

  2. Case Report of Kidney Paired Donation (KPD) with Desensitization: the Strategy and Experience of 3-Way KPD in Samsung Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongkyu; Kang, Eun Suk; Yu, Shinae; Chun, Kyoungsuk; Huh, Wooseong; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Cho, Chan Woo; Lee, Nuri; Lee, Kyo Won; Park, Hyojun; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sung Joo

    2018-01-29

    As the need for the organ donation increases, strategies to increase kidney transplantation (KT) through expanded living donation have become essential. These include kidney paired donation (KPD) programs and desensitization in incompatible transplantations. KPD enables kidney transplant candidates with incompatible living donors to join a registry with other incompatible pairs in order to find potentially compatible living donor. Positive cross match and ABO incompatible transplantation has been successfully accomplished in selective cases with several pre-conditionings. Patients who are both difficult-to-match due to broad sensitization and hard-to-desensitize because of donor conditions can often be successfully transplanted through a combination of KPD and desensitization. According to the existing data, KPD can increase the number of KTs from living donors with excellent clinical results. This is also a cost-effective treatment as compared with dialysis and desensitization protocols. We carried out 3-way KPD transplantation with one highly sensitized, positive cross match pair and with two ABO incompatible pairs. Herein we report our first successful 3-way KPD transplantation in a single center. To maximize donor-recipient matching and minimize immunologic risk, KPD programs should use proper algorithms with desensitization to identify optimal donor with simultaneous two-, three- or more complex multi-way exchanges. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  3. Evaluation of Persistent Lymphatic Fluid Leakage Using a Strategy of Placing a Drain After Kidney Transplantation: A Statistical Analysis to Assess Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Saito, M; Narita, S; Numakura, K; Tsuruta, H; Maeno, A; Tsuchiya, N; Satoh, S; Habuchi, T

    2017-10-01

    Using a strategy of placing a surgical drain after kidney transplantation, the duration of a lymphatic fluid leakage and prevalence of a symptomatic lymphocele were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors for persistent lymphatic fluid leakage or asymptomatic lymphocele were evaluated using multivariate analysis to estimate the origin of the lymphatic fluid leakage. Patients with persistent lymphatic fluid leakage and symptomatic lymphocele were defined as those with lymphatic fluid drainage >50 mL for more than 15 days and those who required a percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele, respectively. Persistent lymphatic fluid leakage and symptomatic lymphocele were observed in 40 (16.4%) and 10 (4.1%) of a total of 244 patients, respectively. The maximum durations of lymphatic fluid drainage from the initial drain tube and the second drainage of the symptomatic lymphocele were 48 and 28 days, respectively. Anastomosis of the graft artery to the external iliac artery was an independent risk factor to predict persistent lymphatic fluid leakage or symptomatic lymphocele after kidney transplantation (odds = 2.597, P = .008). The findings of the study suggest that the lymphatic fluid originates from the recipient's iliac lymph trunk rather than from the graft kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A strategy for field shape evaluation in digital portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.; Quist, M.; Weistra, J.; Vossepoel, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Digital portal imagers allow accurate measurement of the field shape in radiotherapy. A strategy is introduced to determine origin and magnitude of discrepancies between the prescribed and measured field outline. After measurement of the actual detector position relative to the beam a conversion is made from pixels in the image matrix to mm in the plane of the isocenter, without using information from the imaged field. Using a distance transform a quick check is performed: the outline is accepted if all outline points deviate less then a predefined minimum (usually 5 mm). Subsequent evaluation starts if somewhere in the outline this minimum is exceeded. The collimator defined parts in the field outline are discriminated from the shielding blocks using an enclosing rectangle of the portal outline. This rectangle is found by minimization of the area as a function of rotation. If more than one solution is available, minimization of the entropy of the field outline projections determines which rectangle corresponds best to the field outline. A check for the validity of the determined collimator parts is performed with a separate linear fit through these parts. An outline part is accepted as a collimator outline part if it is longer than a predefined length. Using this procedure the position for each of the collimator jaws can be individually measured and compared with its prescription, thus allowing discrimination between symmetric and asymmetric collimator set-ups. Using the distance transform again, for each of the detected (secondary) shielding blocks the largest discrepancy or the area giving underdosage or overdosage can be computed to evaluate their shape and position. Parameter(s) and criteria that should be used to evaluate the field set-up are specified in clinical protocols. For standard shielding blocks usually only a maximum tolerated difference is specified, whereas for mantle fields also maximum allowed over- and underdose areas are specified. The

  5. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Beto, Judith A.; Schury,Katherine; Bansal,Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Judith A Beto, Katherine A Schury, Vinod K Bansal Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola University Healthcare System, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires extensive changes to food and lifestyle. Poor adherence to diet, medications, and treatments has been estimated to vary between 20% and 70%, which in turn can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity. Delivering effective nutritional advice in patients with CKD coor...

  6. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  7. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro [Kurashiki Daiichi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 {+-} 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 {+-} 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  8. Magnetisation transfer MR imaging of the kidney: evaluation at 3.0 T in association with renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi; Hayashida, Minoru; Izumitani, Shogo; Fujimine, Tomoko; Onishi, Takeo; Genba, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetisation transfer (MT) MRI of the kidney at 3.0 T to assess renal function. Forty-four patients who underwent abdominal MRI on a 3.0-T system including gradient-echo (GRE) sequences with and without MT pulse were included. In each patient, MT ratio (MTR) of the renal cortex and medulla was measured by using regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the MTR map image. Regression analysis showed good correlation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and MTR of the renal cortex (r = -0.645, P < 0.0001). Among 44 patients, 22 were categorised as the normal renal function group and 22 were classified as the decreased eGFR group. The mean MTR of the renal cortex in patients with decreased eGFR (mean MTR, 30.7 ± 3.2 %) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that in patients with normal renal function (mean MTR, 25.3 ± 2.2 %), although the mean MTRs of the renal medulla in the two groups were not significantly different. There was good correlation between eGFR and MTR of the renal cortex derived from MT MRI at 3.0 T. This technique may have the potential to evaluate the degree of renal function non-invasively in patients with renal impairment. (orig.)

  9. Images and Meaning-Making in a World of Resemblance: The Bavarian-Saxon Kidney Stone Affair of 1580

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article de-constructs and re-constructs the dynamic of a sixteenth-century political dispute between the Catholic Bavarian Duke Wilhelm V and the Protestant Saxon Elector August I. By focusing on the visual imagery which ignited the dispute, the paper explores sixteenth-century ‘ways of seeing’ and the epistemic role realistic images played in the production of knowledge about the natural world. While the peculiar dynamic of the affair is based on a specific understanding of the evidential role of images, the paper also argues that the wider socio-cultural context, in particular certain strategies of truth-telling, provide further clues as to the dynamic and closure of the affair. PMID:26290618

  10. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  11. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  12. Examination of self-navigating MR-sequences for perfusion imaging of the kidneys; Untersuchung von selbstnavigierenden MR-Sequenzen fuer die Perfusionsbildgebung der Nieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzmann, Florian; Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2010-07-01

    Due to the worldwide increasing number of cases of chronic kidney diseases renal imaging - as a non-invasive technique in magnetic resonance imaging - has become a very important tool for an early diagnosis of probable insufficiencies and malfunction. Especially, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides a technique to derive physiological parameters like renal blood flow or glomerular filtration rate. Similar to the entire field of abdominal imaging, the major problems are motion artifacts that primarily arise from the patient's respiration. The self-navigating BLADE-sequence with a post processing motion correction is an approach that does not require breath holding and is therefore also easily applicable to patients who are not able to undergo multiple breath hold examinations. In this work, a T1-weighted BLADE-sequence was optimized to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to perfusion imaging. The number of phase-encoding lines of one BLADE has a direct impact on the reduction of motion artifacts. In comparison to standard DCE-MRI sequences, the developed BLADE-sequence with optimized number of phase encoding lines could significantly reduce motion artifacts. A quantitative analysis revealed that up to a 50% displacement of the kidneys could be corrected. Therefore, it was demonstrated that dynamic motion corrected measurements without the need of a breath hold-technique are feasible. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary comparison of grating-based and in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation for mouse kidney at TOMCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Liu, P; Xu, L X; Irvine, S; Pinzer, B; Stampanoni, M

    2013-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be advantageous in revealing detailed structures inside biological specimens without contrast agents. Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) and in-line phase contrast (ILPC) X-ray imaging are the two modalities frequently used at the beamline of TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In this paper, we preliminarily compared the abilities of two types of phase contrast imaging in distinguishing micro structures in mouse kidneys. The 3D reconstructions showed that the microstructures in kidney, such as micro vessels and renal tubules, were displayed clearly with both imaging modalities. The two techniques may be viewed as complementary. For larger features with very small density variations DPC is the desirable method. In cases where dose and time limits may prohibit the multiple steps required for DPC, and when the focus is on finer features, the ILPC method may be considered as a more viable alternative. Moreover, high resolution ILPC images are comparable with histological results.

  14. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  15. Live Cell Imaging and 3D Analysis of Angiotensin Receptor Type 1a Trafficking in Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney Cells Using Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Parnika; McAllister, Ryan; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Sandberg, Kathryn; Mueller, Susette C

    2017-03-27

    Live-cell imaging is used to simultaneously capture time-lapse images of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR) and intracellular compartments in transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK) cells following stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II). HEK cells are transiently transfected with plasmid DNA containing AT1aR tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Lysosomes are identified with a red fluorescent dye. Live-cell images are captured on a laser scanning confocal microscope after Ang II stimulation and analyzed by software in three dimensions (3D, voxels) over time. Live-cell imaging enables investigations into receptor trafficking and avoids confounds associated with fixation, and in particular, the loss or artefactual displacement of EGFP-tagged membrane receptors. Thus, as individual cells are tracked through time, the subcellular localization of receptors can be imaged and measured. Images must be acquired sufficiently rapidly to capture rapid vesicle movement. Yet, at faster imaging speeds, the number of photons collected is reduced. Compromises must also be made in the selection of imaging parameters like voxel size in order to gain imaging speed. Significant applications of live-cell imaging are to study protein trafficking, migration, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and protein-protein interaction and dynamics, to name but a few.

  16. Basic strategies for valid cytometry using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, A.; Geerts, W. J.; Chieco, P.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The present review provides a starting point for setting up an image analysis system for quantitative densitometry and absorbance or fluorescence measurements in cell preparations, tissue sections or gels. Guidelines for instrumental settings that are essential for the valid application of image

  17. Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Kasper F; Hendel, Helle W; Langer, Seppo W

    2017-01-01

    this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG...

  18. Luminescence imaging strategies for drone-based PV array inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas; Mantel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to perform outdoor defect detection imaging that will be used in a fast, accurate and automatic drone-based survey system for PV power plants. The imaging development focuses on techniques that do not require electrical contact, permitting automatic drone inspections...

  19. Establishment of calculated panel reactive antibody and its potential benefits in improving the kidney allocation strategy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Wen Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Renal transplant candidates who are highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs tend to wait longer to find a matched donor and have poor outcomes. Most organ-sharing programs prioritize highly sensitized patients in the allocation scoring system. The HLA sensitization status is traditionally evaluated by the panel-reactive antibody (PRA assay. However, this assay is method dependent and does not consider the ethnic differences in HLA frequencies. A calculated PRA (cPRA, based on a population's HLA frequency and patients' unacceptable antigens (UAs, correctly estimates the percentage of donors suitable for candidates. The Taiwan Organ Registry and Sharing Center does not prioritize sensitized patients. We propose that the incorporation of the cPRA and UAs into the renal allocation program will improve the local kidney allocation policy. Methods: We established a cPRA calculator using 6146 Taiwanese HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ phenotypes. We performed simulated allocation based on the concept of acceptable mismatch for 76 candidates with cPRA values exceeding 80%. Results: We analyzed 138 waitlisted renal transplant candidates at our hospital, and we determined that the concordance rate of the cPRA and PRA for highly sensitized (%PRA > 80% candidates was 92.5%, which decreased to 20% for those with %PRA < 80%. We matched 76 highly sensitized patients based on acceptable mismatch with the HLA phenotypes of 93 cadaver donors. Forty-six patients (61% found at least one suitable donor. Conclusion: The application of the cPRA and acceptable mismatch can benefit highly sensitized patients and reduce positive lymphocyte cytotoxicity crossmatch. Keywords: Kidney transplantation, Human leukocyte antigen, CPRA

  20. Advances in targeting strategies for nanoparticles in cancer imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, Ji Young; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2014-11-21

    In the last decade, nanoparticles have offered great advances in diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery. In particular, nanoparticles have provided remarkable progress in cancer imaging and therapy based on materials science and biochemical engineering technology. Researchers constantly attempted to develop the nanoparticles which can deliver drugs more specifically to cancer cells, and these efforts brought the advances in the targeting strategy of nanoparticles. This minireview will discuss the progress in targeting strategies for nanoparticles focused on the recent innovative work for nanomedicine.

  1. Digital image correlation based on a fast convolution strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Qin; Xiong, Chunyang; Huang, Jianyong

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the efficiency of digital image correlation (DIC) methods has attracted increasing attention because of its increasing importance for many engineering applications. Based on the classical affine optical flow (AOF) algorithm and the well-established inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is essentially a natural extension of the AOF algorithm under a nonlinear iterative framework, this paper develops a set of fast convolution-based DIC algorithms for high-efficiency subpixel image registration. Using a well-developed fast convolution technique, the set of algorithms establishes a series of global data tables (GDTs) over the digital images, which allows the reduction of the computational complexity of DIC significantly. Using the pre-calculated GDTs, the subpixel registration calculations can be implemented efficiently in a look-up-table fashion. Both numerical simulation and experimental verification indicate that the set of algorithms significantly enhances the computational efficiency of DIC, especially in the case of a dense data sampling for the digital images. Because the GDTs need to be computed only once, the algorithms are also suitable for efficiently coping with image sequences that record the time-varying dynamics of specimen deformations.

  2. Blind CT image quality assessment via deep learning strategy: initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sui; He, Ji; Wang, Yongbo; Liao, Yuting; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Ma, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. CT images can be used to assist in the detection and diagnosis of lesions and to facilitate follow-up treatment. However, CT images are vulnerable to noise. Actually, there are two major source intrinsically causing the CT data noise, i.e., the X-ray photo statistics and the electronic noise background. Therefore, it is necessary to doing image quality assessment (IQA) in CT imaging before diagnosis and treatment. Most of existing CT images IQA methods are based on human observer study. However, these methods are impractical in clinical for their complex and time-consuming. In this paper, we presented a blind CT image quality assessment via deep learning strategy. A database of 1500 CT images is constructed, containing 300 high-quality images and 1200 corresponding noisy images. Specifically, the high-quality images were used to simulate the corresponding noisy images at four different doses. Then, the images are scored by the experienced radiologists by the following attributes: image noise, artifacts, edge and structure, overall image quality, and tumor size and boundary estimation with five-point scale. We trained a network for learning the non-liner map from CT images to subjective evaluation scores. Then, we load the pre-trained model to yield predicted score from the test image. To demonstrate the performance of the deep learning network in IQA, correlation coefficients: Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are utilized. And the experimental result demonstrate that the presented deep learning based IQA strategy can be used in the CT image quality assessment.

  3. Hoechst tagging: a modular strategy to design synthetic fluorescent probes for live-cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Takigawa, Kazumasa; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Keiko; Ishida, Manabu; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hamachi, Itaru; Tsukiji, Shinya

    2014-06-11

    We report a general strategy to create small-molecule fluorescent probes for the nucleus in living cells. Our strategy is based on the attachment of the DNA-binding Hoechst compound to a fluorophore of interest. Using this approach, simple fluorescein, BODIPY, and rhodamine dyes were readily converted to novel turn-on fluorescent nucleus-imaging probes.

  4. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients with Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Beyer (Sebastian E.); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); F. Schöberl (Florian); L. von Baumgarten; S.E. Petersen (Steffen); C. Kubisch (Christian); H. Janssen (Hendrik); B. Ertl-Wagner (Birgit); M.F. Reiser (Maximilian F.); W.H. Sommer (Wieland H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. Methods-A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed

  5. Direct aperture deformation: An interfraction image guidance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuanming; Castro-Pareja, Carlos; Shekhar, Raj; Yu, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    A new scheme, called direct aperture deformation (DAD), for online correction of interfraction geometric uncertainties under volumetric imaging guidance is presented. Using deformable image registration, the three-dimensional geometric transformation matrix can be derived that associates the planning image set and the images acquired on the day of treatment. Rather than replanning or moving the patient, we use the deformation matrix to morph the treatment apertures as a potential online correction method. A proof-of-principle study using an intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan for a prostate cancer patient was conducted. The method, procedure, and algorithm of DAD are described. The dose-volume histograms from the original plan, reoptimized plan, and rigid-body translation plan are compared with the ones from the DAD plan. The study showed the feasibility of the DAD as a general method for both target dislocation and deformation. As compared with using couch translation to move the patient, DAD is capable of correcting both target dislocation and deformations. As compared with reoptimization, online correction using the DAD scheme could be completed within a few minutes rather than tens of minutes and the speed gain would be at a very small cost of plan quality

  6. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  7. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  8. Crisis strategies in BP's Deepwater Horizon response : An image repair and situational crisis communication study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon crisis in 2010 was one the largest catastrophes in the history of the oil industry. BP was sued over the disaster, and lost several billion dollars. This study examines the crisis response strategies and/or image repair strategies, which can be found in BP's press releases following the Deepwater Horizon crisis. In particular, the study looks closer at what established crisis communication strategies could be discerned in the material, and how they are used discursive...

  9. Gene transfer strategies for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.E.; Buchsbaum, D.J.; Zinn, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of molecular biology techniques offers attractive options in nuclear medicine for improving cancer imaging and therapy with radiolabeled peptides. Two of these options include utilization of phage-panning to identify novel tumor specific peptides or single chain antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the number of antigen/receptor sites expressed on malignant cells. The group has focused on the latter approach for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy. The most widely used gene transfer vectors in clinical gene therapy trials include retrovirus, cationic lipids and adenovirus. It has been utilized adenovirus vectors for gene transfer because of their ability to accomplish efficient in vivo gene transfer. Adenovirus vectors encoding the genes for a variety of antigens/receptors (carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTr2) have all shown that their expression is increased on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo following adenovirus infection. Of particular interest has been the adenovirus encoding for SSTr2 (AdCMVSSTr2). Various radioisotopes have been attached to somatostatin analogues for imaging and therapy of SSTr2-positive tumors both clinically and in animal models. The use of these analogues in combination with AdCMVSSTr2 is a promising approach for improving the detection sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of these radiolabeled peptides against solid tumors. In addition, it has been proposed the use of SSTr2 as a marker for imaging the expression of another cancer therapeutic transgene (e.g. cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase) encoded within the same vector. This would allow for non-invasive monitoring of gene delivery to tumor sites

  10. Diagnostic imaging in oncology: New challenges and changing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellino, Ronald A.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine studies, both imaging and therapeutic, play important roles in screening, staging, monitoring of treatment, and in long term surveillance of oncologic patients. Frequently, information from these studies, as well as from ancillary data (such as the clinical examination and laboratory studies) overlap, and it is sometimes unclear which tests and examinations to perform. Current changes in the delivery and funding of health care are prompting all specialties to evaluate their patterns of care. Some of the important questions to be addressed in medical imaging include: Which studies are pertinent at initial staging, e.g., those that impact patient management, serve as important baselines for comparison with subsequent studies, etc? How sensitive and specific are these studies, e.g., when can they obviate the need for more invasive confirmatory exams? What are the critical questions in monitoring response to therapy, e.g., the significance of the 'post treatment residual mass' and ways to elucidate its etiology? Which tests should be performed in surveillance for disease relapse, and how frequently should they be done? Purpose/Objective: To develop a set of guidelines for developing rational approaches for utilizing diagnostic imaging studies

  11. Diagnostic imaging in oncology: New challenges and changing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellino, Ronald; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To develop a set of guidelines for developing rational approaches for utilizing diagnostic imaging studies. Diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine studies, both imaging and therapeutic, play important roles in screening, staging, monitoring of treatment, and in long term surveillance of oncologic patients. Frequently, information from these studies, as well as from ancillary data (such as the clinical examination and laboratory studies) overlap, and it is sometimes unclear which tests and examinations to perform. Current changes in the delivery and funding of health care are prompting all specialties to evaluate their patterns of care. Some of the important questions to be addressed in medical imaging include: Which studies are pertinent at initial staging, e.g., those that impact patient management, serve as important baselines for comparison with subsequent studies, etc? How sensitive and specific are these studies, e.g., when can they obviate the need for more invasive confirmatory exams? What are the critical questions in monitoring response to therapy, e.g., the significance of the 'post treatment residual mass' and ways to elucidate its etiology? Which tests should be performed in surveillance for disease relapse, and how frequently should they be done?

  12. Images of god in relation to coping strategies of palliative cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schilderman, Johannes; Vissers, Kris C; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Prins, Judith

    2010-10-01

    Religious coping is important for end-of-life treatment preferences, advance care planning, adjustment to stress, and quality of life. The currently available religious coping instruments draw on a religious and spiritual background that presupposes a very specific image of God, namely God as someone who personally interacts with people. However, according to empirical research, people may have various images of God that may or may not exist simultaneously. It is unknown whether one's belief in a specific image of God is related to the way one copes with a life-threatening disease. To examine the relation between adherence to a personal, a nonpersonal, and/or an unknowable image of God and coping strategies in a group of Dutch palliative cancer patients who were no longer receiving antitumor treatments. In total, 68 palliative care patients completed and returned the questionnaires on Images of God and the COPE-Easy. In the regression analysis, a nonpersonal image of God was a significant positive predictor for the coping strategies seeking advice and information (β=0.339, PGod was a significant positive predictor for the coping strategy turning to religion (β=0.608, PGod is a more relevant predictor for different coping strategies in Dutch palliative cancer patients than a personal or an unknowable image of God. Copyright © 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drugs and the kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasionally, strategies to prevent acute kidney insufficiency cause irreversible CKD, ... heart failure (acute or chronic), pulmonary ... wide range of pathological and physiological effects. ... and indomethacin have short half-lives, ... Tissue injury .... changed. Maintenance doses or the dosing interval may have to be adjusted.

  14. Assessment of neural networks training strategies for histomorphometric analysis of synchrotron radiation medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: ameneses@lmp.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, CP 68509, CEP 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Gomes Pinheiro, Christiano Jorge [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rancoita, Paola [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Mathematics Department, Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Schaul, Tom; Gambardella, Luca Maria [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Schirru, Roberto [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, CP 68509, CEP 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-21

    Micro-computed tomography ({mu}CT) obtained by synchrotron radiation (SR) enables magnified images with a high space resolution that might be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique for the quantitative analysis of medical images, in particular the histomorphometry (HMM) of bony mass. In the preprocessing of such images, conventional operations such as binarization and morphological filtering are used before calculating the stereological parameters related, for example, to the trabecular bone microarchitecture. However, there is no standardization of methods for HMM based on {mu}CT images, especially the ones obtained with SR X-ray. Notwithstanding the several uses of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in medical imaging, their application to the HMM of SR-{mu}CT medical images is still incipient, despite the potential of both techniques. The contribution of this paper is the assessment and comparison of well-known training algorithms as well as the proposal of training strategies (combinations of training algorithms, sub-image kernel and symmetry information) for feed-forward ANNs in the task of bone pixels recognition in SR-{mu}CT medical images. For a quantitative comparison, the results of a cross validation and a statistical analysis of the results for 36 training strategies are presented. The ANNs demonstrated both very low mean square errors in the validation, and good quality segmentation of the image of interest for application to HMM in SR-{mu}CT medical images.

  15. Assessment of neural networks training strategies for histomorphometric analysis of synchrotron radiation medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson; Gomes Pinheiro, Christiano Jorge; Rancoita, Paola; Schaul, Tom; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Schirru, Roberto; Barroso, Regina Cely; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2010-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) obtained by synchrotron radiation (SR) enables magnified images with a high space resolution that might be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique for the quantitative analysis of medical images, in particular the histomorphometry (HMM) of bony mass. In the preprocessing of such images, conventional operations such as binarization and morphological filtering are used before calculating the stereological parameters related, for example, to the trabecular bone microarchitecture. However, there is no standardization of methods for HMM based on μCT images, especially the ones obtained with SR X-ray. Notwithstanding the several uses of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in medical imaging, their application to the HMM of SR-μCT medical images is still incipient, despite the potential of both techniques. The contribution of this paper is the assessment and comparison of well-known training algorithms as well as the proposal of training strategies (combinations of training algorithms, sub-image kernel and symmetry information) for feed-forward ANNs in the task of bone pixels recognition in SR-μCT medical images. For a quantitative comparison, the results of a cross validation and a statistical analysis of the results for 36 training strategies are presented. The ANNs demonstrated both very low mean square errors in the validation, and good quality segmentation of the image of interest for application to HMM in SR-μCT medical images.

  16. Comparison of image quality in head CT studies with different dose-reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Rikke; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke

    The number of multi-detector CT examinations is increasing rapidly. They allow high quality reformatted images providing accurate and precise diagnosis at maximum speed. Brain examinations are the most commonly requested studies, and although they come at a lower effective dose than body CT, can...... account to a considerable radiation dose as many patients undergo repeated studies. Therefore, various dose-reduction strategies are applied such as automated tube current and voltage modulation and recently different iterative reconstruction algorithms. However, the trade-off of all dose......-reduction maneuvers is reduction of image quality due to image noise or artifacts. The aim of our study was therefore to find the best diagnostic images with lowest possible dose. We present results of dose- and image quality optimizing strategies of brain CT examinations at our institution. We compare sequential...

  17. Strategies to minimize sedation in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Camilo; Gee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The high soft-tissue contrast of MRI and the absence of ionizing radiation make it a valuable tool for assessment of body pathology in children. Infants and young children are often unable to cooperate with awake MRI so sedation or general anesthesia might be required. However, given recent data on the costs and potential risks of anesthesia in young children, there is a need to try to decrease or avoid sedation in this population when possible. Child life specialists in radiology frequently use behavioral techniques and audiovisual support devices, and they practice with children and families using mock scanners to improve child compliance with MRI. Optimization of the MR scanner environment is also important to create a child-friendly space. If the child can remain inside the MRI scanner, a variety of emerging techniques can reduce the effect of involuntary motion. Using sequences with short acquisition times such as single-shot fast spin echo and volumetric gradient echo can decrease artifacts and improve image quality. Breath-holding, respiratory triggering and signal averaging all reduce respiratory motion. Emerging techniques such as radial and multislice k-space acquisition, navigator motion correction, as well as parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction methods can further accelerate acquisition and decrease motion. Collaboration among radiologists, anesthesiologists, technologists, child life specialists and families is crucial for successful performance of MRI in young children. (orig.)

  18. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  19. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  20. Using Fuzzy SOM Strategy for Satellite Image Retrieval and Information Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Ping Huang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient satellite image retrieval and knowledge discovery model. The strategy comprises two major parts. First, a computational algorithm is used for off-line satellite image feature extraction, image data representation and image retrieval. Low level features are automatically extracted from the segmented regions of satellite images. A self-organization feature map is used to construct a two-layer satellite image concept hierarchy. The events are stored in one layer and the corresponding feature vectors are categorized in the other layer. Second, a user friendly interface is provided that retrieves images of interest and mines useful information based on the events in the concept hierarchy. The proposed system is evaluated with prominent features such as typhoons or high-pressure masses.

  1. The effects of image transfer strategy achieved through cobranding and brand extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Branko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the strategic importance of brand extension and cobranding. These two strategies we identify as the most important and the most popular brand image transfer strategies. They are widely adopted strategies for firms entering new markets, so they can take advantage of an existing brand's equity. In this article, we investigate whether cobranding with partner and brand extension has positive effects on customers' responses toward a new product. We also analyzed prerequisites for successful implementation of mentioned brand strategies. .

  2. Conclusion: imaging in strategy of endocrine diagnosis and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1995-01-01

    Images in medicine have to help the doctor in a diagnostic or therapeutic aim. The choice must be made in function of pathology or organ as known (it is not necessary to ask for a computed tomography where we know that only an echography can give the answer to the question we ask ), the criteria must stay the best performance for the cheapest price, but the quality of interpretation is a more important thing. It is important to avoid a lot of examinations which do not give better informations but are heavy to endure for the patients. In conclusion, the aim of this kind of proceedings is to assure to the patients who come confidently to us, the best service at the less constraints price without forgetting that a conclusion depends on a given methodological situation and reminding of beside machines we have not to forget the men

  3. Evaluation of Image-Guidance Strategies in the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Lee, Choonik; Langen, Katja M.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Manon, Rafael R.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare different image-guidance strategies in the alignment of prostate cancer patients. Using data from patients treated using daily image guidance, the remaining setup errors for several different strategies were retrospectively calculated. Methods and Materials: The alignment data from 74 patients treated with helical tomotherapy were analyzed, resulting in a data set of 2,252 fractions during which a megavoltage computed tomography image was used for image guidance with intraprostatic metallic fiducials. Given the daily positional adjustments, a variety of protocols, differing in imaging frequency and method, were retrospectively studied. The residual setup errors were determined for each protocol. Results: As expected, the systematic errors were effectively reduced with imaging. However, the random errors were unaffected. Even when image guidance was performed every other day with a running mean of the previous displacements, residual setup errors >5 mm occurred in 24% of all fractions. This frequency increased to about 40% if setup errors >3 mm were scored. Conclusion: Setup errors increased with decreasing frequency of image guidance. However, residual errors were still significant at the 5-mm level, even with imaging was performed every other day. This suggests that localizations must be performed daily in the set up of prostate cancer patients during a course of external beam radiotherapy

  4. Challenges and Strategies to Develop a Positive Image of the Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Sri Restanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has been used in the management of the library. There are several libraries have been integrated with the internet to provide services. But the library still image as an institution or an old building that contains the bookshelves and librarian profession under other professions. This article is presented to determine some of the challenges and strategies that can be done in fostering a positive image of the library. Based on the literature study and observation, it’s known, that the challenges are differences in educational background librarians, foster a positive image has not been planned, the development of information technology, the implementation of the code of ethics of librarians is not maximal. In the face of the challenges in creating a positive image, there are strategies that can be done that in terms of internal and external libraries. Thus, it can be concluded that, to foster a positive image of the library is needed strategies and synergies as well as the responsibility of all aspects of the library. Recommendation for librarians are important to develop personal branding. Furthermore, for the library after successfully building a positive image should be able to maintain and restore the image when a crisis.

  5. Challenges and Strategies to Develop a Positive Image of the Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Sri Restanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology has been used in the management of the library. There are several libraries have been integrated with the internet to provide services. But the library still image as an institution or an old building that contains the bookshelves and librarian profession under other professions. This article is presented to determine some of the challenges and strategies that can be done in fostering a positive image of the library. Based on the literature study and observation, its known, that the challenges are differences in educational background librarians, foster a positive image has not been planned, the development of information technology, the implementation of the code of ethics of librarians is not maximal. In the face of the challenges in creating a positive image, there are strategies that can be done that in terms of internal and external libraries. Thus, it can be concluded that, to foster a positive image of the library is needed strategies and synergies as well as the responsibility of all aspects of the library. Recommendation for librarians are important to develop personal branding. Furthermore, for the library after successfully building a positive image should be able to maintain and restore the image when a crisis.

  6. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Semi-automated Segmentation Tool and a Modified Ellipsoid Formula for Volumetric Analysis of the Kidney in Non-contrast T2-Weighted MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, Hannes; Janka, Rolf; Prümmer, Marcus; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hammon, Rebecca; Theis, Ragnar; Sandmair, Martin; Amann, Kerstin; Bäuerle, Tobias; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Volumetric analysis of the kidney parenchyma provides additional information for the detection and monitoring of various renal diseases. Therefore the purposes of the study were to develop and evaluate a semi-automated segmentation tool and a modified ellipsoid formula for volumetric analysis of the kidney in non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR)-images. Three readers performed semi-automated segmentation of the total kidney volume (TKV) in axial, non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted MR-images of 24 healthy volunteers (48 kidneys) twice. A semi-automated threshold-based segmentation tool was developed to segment the kidney parenchyma. Furthermore, the three readers measured renal dimensions (length, width, depth) and applied different formulas to calculate the TKV. Manual segmentation served as a reference volume. Volumes of the different methods were compared and time required was recorded. There was no significant difference between the semi-automatically and manually segmented TKV (p = 0.31). The difference in mean volumes was 0.3 ml (95% confidence interval (CI), -10.1 to 10.7 ml). Semi-automated segmentation was significantly faster than manual segmentation, with a mean difference = 188 s (220 vs. 408 s); p T2-weighted MR data delivers accurate and reproducible results and was significantly faster than manual segmentation. Applying a modified ellipsoid formula quickly provides an accurate kidney volume.

  8. TU-A-201-00: Image Guidance Technologies and Management Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Recent years have seen a widespread proliferation of available in-room image guidance systems for radiation therapy target localization with many centers having multiple in-room options. In this session, available imaging systems for in-room IGRT will be reviewed highlighting the main differences in workflow efficiency, targeting accuracy and image quality as it relates to target visualization. Decision-making strategies for integrating these tools into clinical image guidance protocols that are tailored to specific disease sites like H&N, lung, pelvis, and spine SBRT will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Major system characteristics of a wide range of available in-room imaging systems for IGRT. Advantages / disadvantages of different systems for site-specific IGRT considerations. Concepts of targeting accuracy and time efficiency in designing clinical imaging protocols.

  9. Novel strategies of Raman imaging for brain tumor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Imiela; Bartosz, Polis; Lech, Polis; Halina, Abramczyk

    2017-10-17

    Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls. We compare a high grade medulloblastoma, low grade astrocytoma and non-tumor samples from human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Based on the properties of the Raman vibrational features and Raman images we provide a real-time feedback method that is label-free to monitor tumor metabolism that reveals reprogramming of biosynthesis of lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA. Our results indicate marked metabolic differences between low and high grade brain tumors. We discuss molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes, particularly lipid alterations in malignant medulloblastoma and low grade gliomas that may shed light on the mechanisms driving tumor recurrence thereby revealing new approaches for the treatment of malignant glioma. We have found that the high-grade tumors of central nervous system (medulloblastoma) exhibit enhanced level of β-sheet conformation and down-regulated level of α-helix conformation when comparing against normal tissue. We have found that almost all tumors studied in the paper have increased Raman signals of nucleic acids. This increase can be interpreted as increased DNA/RNA turnover in brain tumors. We have shown that the ratio of Raman intensities I 2930 /I 2845 at 2930 and 2845 cm -1 is a good source of information on the ratio of lipid and protein contents. We have found that the ratio reflects the different lipid and protein contents of cancerous brain tissue compared to the non-tumor tissue. We found that

  10. Strategies of moving image comprehension of students in primary and secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szíjártó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on a survey method of enquiry. We were looking for answers to the following questions: What strategies of moving image comprehension do participants use? Are there differences in social status in the level of comprehension of moving images? Are there differences between students whose education consists of the ‘moving image culture and media literacy’ module, and those whose does not? What typical levels of media literacy can be located amongst students? What tasks of development can we identify? According to the literature and our research findings, students’ strategies of moving image comprehension are formed by three components: the socio-cultural environment, the school, and those online social networks, which students frequently access – in classical terms this refers to the influence of peer groups. We have come up with logical connections at the intersection of the three areas, which posed as a vantage point in the development of our survey.

  11. ESTRATEGIAS DE AFRONTAMIENTO EN PACIENTES CON INSUFICIENCIA RENAL EN FASE DIALÍTICA - COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY FAILURE IN THE DIALITIC STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS JULIO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify coping strategies undertaken by patients with kidney failure on current dialysis. The approach chosen for this research was quantitative, since the empirical analytical paradigm, with a rate of descriptive design. The sample comprised 10 patients aged between 20 and 60 years, on current hemodialysis in Clinica de la Costa Renal Unit, Patients were intentionally selected besides their voluntary participation. Standardized questionnaire was used in Colombia to the stress of coping Sandin & Chorot. According to the results, the coping style they use, is focused on the problem with its three dimensions: focus on the problem, with a score of 80% of the population, also in the positive reappraisal with 80% of the population studied, and seeking support with 60% of the population, indicating that this group of patients take an active role, are still concrete steps, what they do to appropriately respond to changes and demands, and treatment imposed by the disease. It is then the religion as a coping style with a 60% higher in the standings. Religion belongs to the dimension of avoidance and escape, indicates that this sample perceived as a significant interference of their health condition on their physical function and consequently feel less vital, turns to their religious beliefs as a way of relief that the situation will improve.

  12. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategy of adolescent girls and its relationship with their eating disorders. Methods: This is study is a cross-sectional study in which 573 female adolescent of Karaj participated. Two-Stage Random Sampling was used in this study. In this study, to assess people who are at risk of eating disorder, the nutritional approach assessment questionnaire of EAT-26 was used, while Strategy Inventory Body Image Coping- BICSI questionnaire was used to determine the type of coping strategy. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 16.6 (±26/1 (19- 14 years. In this study, 23.7% of participants had an eating disorder. Mental image of an individual of his body had significant correlation with eating disorder (P= 0.000. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the type of coping strategy adopted by adolescent girls and eating disorder score of them (P= 0.007. The relationship between coping strategy and body image and having or not having the eating disorder was determined by Chi-square test at the borderline level (P= 0.054. Conclusion: In this study, results showed that there is relationship between coping strategy of adolescent girls and the eating disorder score of adolescent girls. The highest score was assigned to getting involved with body image, followed by avoidance and rational acceptance. Since the use of inappropriate coping strategies is associated with negative results such as eating disorders and depression, it is expected

  13. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  14. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  15. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but food is a major focus of family life and social events. Learn how to balance your food intake so you can eat the foods ... Getting Adequate Dialysis Healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ...

  16. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  17. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  18. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mothers used certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy What are the signs of kidney dysplasia? Many ... the use of certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant women should talk with their health care ...

  19. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  20. Diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-07-30

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg.

  1. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hatta, Tsuguru; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Moroi, Masao; Nakagawa, Susumu; Kasai, Tokuo; Kusuoka, Hideo; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Momose, Mitsuru; Takehana, Kazuya; Nanasato, Mamoru; Yoda, Shunichi; Nishina, Hidetaka; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2014-01-01

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) 2 without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  2. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Hatta, Tsuguru [Hatta Medical Office of Internal Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Shigeyuki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Moroi, Masao [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Susumu [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kasai, Tokuo [Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Takeishi, Yasuchika [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Hematology, Fukushima (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takehana, Kazuya [Kansai Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Nanasato, Mamoru [Cardiovascular Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Yoda, Shunichi [Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina, Hidetaka [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Suruga-dai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73{sup 2} without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  3. Development and application of efficient strategies for parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, F.

    2006-07-01

    Virtually all existing MRI applications require both a high spatial and high temporal resolution for optimum detection and classification of the state of disease. The main strategy to meet the increasing demands of advanced diagnostic imaging applications has been the steady improvement of gradient systems, which provide increased gradient strengths and faster switching times. Rapid imaging techniques and the advances in gradient performance have significantly reduced acquisition times from about an hour to several minutes or seconds. In order to further increase imaging speed, much higher gradient strengths and much faster switching times are required which are technically challenging to provide. In addition to significant hardware costs, peripheral neuro-stimulations and the surpassing of admissable acoustic noise levels may occur. Today's whole body gradient systems already operate just below the allowed safety levels. For these reasons, alternative strategies are needed to bypass these limitations. The greatest progress in further increasing imaging speed has been the development of multi-coil arrays and the advent of partially parallel acquisition (PPA) techniques in the late 1990's. Within the last years, parallel imaging methods have become commercially available,and are therefore ready for broad clinical use. The basic feature of parallel imaging is a scan time reduction, applicable to nearly any available MRI method, while maintaining the contrast behavior without requiring higher gradient system performance. PPA operates by allowing an array of receiver surface coils, positioned around the object under investigation, to partially replace time-consuming spatial encoding which normally is performed by switching magnetic field gradients. Using this strategy, spatial resolution can be improved given a specific imaging time, or scan times can be reduced at a given spatial resolution. Furthermore, in some cases, PPA can even be used to reduce image

  4. Development and application of efficient strategies for parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all existing MRI applications require both a high spatial and high temporal resolution for optimum detection and classification of the state of disease. The main strategy to meet the increasing demands of advanced diagnostic imaging applications has been the steady improvement of gradient systems, which provide increased gradient strengths and faster switching times. Rapid imaging techniques and the advances in gradient performance have significantly reduced acquisition times from about an hour to several minutes or seconds. In order to further increase imaging speed, much higher gradient strengths and much faster switching times are required which are technically challenging to provide. In addition to significant hardware costs, peripheral neuro-stimulations and the surpassing of admissable acoustic noise levels may occur. Today's whole body gradient systems already operate just below the allowed safety levels. For these reasons, alternative strategies are needed to bypass these limitations. The greatest progress in further increasing imaging speed has been the development of multi-coil arrays and the advent of partially parallel acquisition (PPA) techniques in the late 1990's. Within the last years, parallel imaging methods have become commercially available,and are therefore ready for broad clinical use. The basic feature of parallel imaging is a scan time reduction, applicable to nearly any available MRI method, while maintaining the contrast behavior without requiring higher gradient system performance. PPA operates by allowing an array of receiver surface coils, positioned around the object under investigation, to partially replace time-consuming spatial encoding which normally is performed by switching magnetic field gradients. Using this strategy, spatial resolution can be improved given a specific imaging time, or scan times can be reduced at a given spatial resolution. Furthermore, in some cases, PPA can even be used to reduce image artifacts

  5. Associations of Early Kidney Disease With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Function in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Barry I; Sink, Kaycee M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hughes, Timothy M; Williamson, Jeff D; Whitlow, Christopher T; Palmer, Nicholette D; Miller, Michael E; Lovato, Laura C; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Launer, Lenore J; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cohen, Robert M; Sullivan, Mark D; Bryan, R Nick; Wagner, Benjamin C; Bowden, Donald W; Maldjian, Joseph A; Divers, Jasmin

    2017-11-01

    Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies. eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c concentration, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were used to test for associations between kidney phenotypes and the brain in each study; a meta-analysis was performed. Mean participant age was 60.1±7.9 (SD) years; diabetes duration, 12.1±7.7 years; hemoglobin A 1c concentration, 8.3%±1.7%; eGFR, 88.7±21.6mL/min/1.73m 2 ; and UACR, 119.2±336.4mg/g. In the fully adjusted meta-analysis, higher GMV associated with lower UACR (Passociation with higher eGFR. Higher white matter lesion volume was associated with higher UACR (Passociated with either kidney parameter. Higher UACR was associated with lower Digit Symbol Coding performance (Passociation with higher Stroop interference; eGFR was not associated with cognitive tests. Cross-sectional; single UACR measurement. In African Americans with T2DM, mildly high UACR and mildly low e

  6. Living renal donors: optimizing the imaging strategy--decision- and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); M.C.J.M. Kock (Marc); W. Weimar (Willem); K. Visser (Karen); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine the most cost-effective strategy for preoperative imaging performed in potential living renal donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a decision-analytic model, the societal cost-effectiveness of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), gadolinium-enhanced

  7. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Divine, Mathew R.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  8. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients With Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sebastian E; Hunink, Myriam G; Schöberl, Florian; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Petersen, Steffen E; Dichgans, Martin; Janssen, Hendrik; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian F; Sommer, Wieland H

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging, nonenhanced CT, or duplex ultrasound with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis being administered after positive findings. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective based on US recommendations. Input parameters were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained from United States costing sources and published literature. Outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits, with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY. The strategy with the highest net monetary benefit was considered the most cost-effective. Extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the effect of varying parameter values. In the reference case analysis, CTA dominated all other imaging strategies. CTA yielded 0.02 QALYs more than magnetic resonance imaging and 0.04 QALYs more than duplex ultrasound followed by CTA. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY, CTA yielded the highest net monetary benefits. The probability that CTA is cost-effective was 96% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that duplex ultrasound was cost-effective only for a prior probability of ≤0.02 and that these results were only minimally influenced by duplex ultrasound sensitivity and specificity. Nonenhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging never became the most cost-effective strategy. Our results suggest that CTA in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion is cost-effective. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Overweight, Thinness, Body Self-Image and Eating Strategies of 2,121 Italian Teenagers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guarino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the prevalence rate of overweight and thinness in a population of teens living in two different areas of Italy and explores the body self-image perception and unhealthy eating behaviours and strategies to lose weight. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2,121 teenage students (1,084 males; 1,037 females. Results showed that teen females and males build and perceive their body images in very different ways. Most of the overall sample perceived their weight as normal, while a relevant 31.6% defined themselves as overweight and another 4.4% as heavily overweight. Analysis based on BMI (calculated through self-referred weight and height showed that only 9.2% of our sample could be considered overweight and 1,7% obese. Most of female teen students (485 out of 1,037 were trying to lose weight, demonstrating that strategies to lose weight were undertaken also by girls perceiving themsleves as normal in relation to body weight; 46.8% girls were using strategies to lose weight compared with 21.9% boys. These strategies included very problematic behaviours like self-induced vomiting (3.3% F vs. 1.7% M and dieting pills (2.8% F vs. 1.5% M undertaken along with more usual thinning strategies like dieting and exercising. Girls were more prone than boys to exercise as a way to lose weight (41% vs. 31.7%. This study showed that there is a deep gap between actual weight and perceived body-image and weight. This study is one of the first of this kind in Italy and calls for primary prevention and health education programs aimed at improving teen body-image as a strategy to reduce the eating disorder epidemics spreading among young people.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuppen, J. van; Olthof, D.C.; Wilde, J.C.H.; Beenen, L.F.M.; Rijn, R.R. van; Goslings, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an important but often unrecognized cause of death in children. Imaging plays a vital role in the early detection of abdominal trauma. The exact role of imaging in the management of BAT in children is still under research. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy, where the decision to observe or to perform an intervention depends on the vital parameters of the patient, in combination with the presence or absence of free fluid at Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and the findings on CT (performed selectively), for pediatric patients presenting to the ED with a blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Consecutive patients aged ≤16 years admitted between January 2008 and December 2012 to a Dutch level 1 trauma centre were included in this retrospective study. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV) and the negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of the imaging strategy were calculated. Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients; 66 (54%) patients were discharged home after primary survey, 51 (41%) patients were admitted and observed, 3 (2%) patients underwent transarterial embolization and 2 (2%) patients underwent surgery. Treatment failed in 1 patient, initially selected for observation. The sensitivity of the imaging strategy was 0.833 (0.446–0.990). The NPV and LR− were 0.991 (0.963–1.000) and 0.167 (0.028–0.997), respectively. Conclusion: The step-up imaging strategy that is applied in our academic level 1 trauma centre has a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value. No clinically relevant injuries were missed without doing unnecessary harm, e.g. radiation or an intervention

  11. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Suat; Batur, Abdussamet; Keskin, Zeynep; Koc, Abdulkadir; Firat Ozcan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  12. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Suat; Batur, Abdussamet; Keskin, Zeynep; Koc, Abdulkadir; Firat Ozcan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys. PMID:25780543

  13. Radiotherapy of abdomen with precise renal assessment with SPECT/CT imaging (RAPRASI): design and methodology of a prospective trial to improve the understanding of kidney radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Gaitan, Juanita; O’Mara, Brenton; Chu, Julie; Faggian, Jessica; Williams, Luke; Hofman, Michael S; Spry, Nigel A; Ebert, Martin A; Robins, Peter; Boucek, Jan; Leong, Trevor; Willis, David; Bydder, Sean; Podias, Peter; Waters, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    The kidneys are a principal dose-limiting organ in radiotherapy for upper abdominal cancers. The current understanding of kidney radiation dose response is rudimentary. More precise dose-volume response models that allow direct correlation of delivered radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function may improve radiotherapy treatment planning for upper-abdominal tumours. Our current understanding of kidney dose response and tolerance is limited and this is hindering efforts to introduce advanced radiotherapy techniques for upper-abdominal cancers, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to utilise radiotherapy and combined anatomical/functional imaging data to allow direct correlation of radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function. The data can then be used to develop a more precise dose-volume response model which has the potential to optimise and individualise upper abdominal radiotherapy plans. The Radiotherapy of Abdomen with Precise Renal Assessment with SPECT/CT Imaging (RAPRASI) is an observational clinical research study with participating sites at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (SCGH) in Perth, Australia and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (PMCC) in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients are those with upper gastrointestinal cancer, without metastatic disease, undergoing conformal radiotherapy that will involve incidental radiation to one or both kidneys. For each patient, total kidney function is being assessed before commencement of radiotherapy treatment and then at 4, 12, 26, 52 and 78 weeks after the first radiotherapy fraction, using two procedures: a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measurement using the 51 Cr-ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance; and a regional kidney perfusion measurement assessing renal uptake of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), imaged with a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography / Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) system. The CT component

  14. Dual kidney transplantation with organs from extended criteria cadaveric donors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Arcy, Frank T

    2009-10-01

    The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched.

  15. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  16. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  17. Learning strategies in the planning and evaluation phase of image production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, W.; Aspelin, P.; Lundberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and analyses radiographers' learning strategies in practice. These strategies are particularly important in the light of the great changes in radiology departments and the role of radiographers during the past two decades. With increased responsibility for quality assurance and diagnostic work, radiographers need to develop specific skills over time, which requires learning strategies in practice. The aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the learning strategies of novice and experienced radiographers in the planning and evaluation phase of image production. This study found that novice radiographers; use memorization combined with logical reasoning, apply focused observation, selective reading and information-seeking, communicate through: active and attentive listening, asking questions, receiving feedback, discussing problems and speak out loud. Experienced radiographers; use memorization in combination with logical reasoning and predicting, observe discriminating, read selectively, validate information and perform information-seeking. They communicate through: listening analyzing and demanding way, answering questions and providing feed-back and discussing problems. This study concludes that the difference between the learning strategies of novice and experienced radiographers is in the way they apply the strategies rather than the strategies themselves

  18. [Chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, R; Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F

    2016-11-01

    To report epidemiology and characteristics of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and renal transplant candidates, and to evaluate access to waiting list and results of renal transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: "chronic kidney disease, epidemiology, kidney transplantation, cost, survival, graft, brain death, cardiac arrest, access, allocation". French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and recommendations were selected. In addition, French national transplant and health agencies (http://www.agence-biomedecine.fr and http://www.has-sante.fr) databases were screened using identical keywords. A total of 3234 articles, 6 official reports and 3 newspaper articles were identified; after careful selection 99 publications were eligible for our review. The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to worsen organ shortage. Renal transplantation remains the best treatment option for ESRD, providing recipients with an increased survival and quality of life, at lower costs than other renal replacement therapies. The never-ending lengthening of the waiting list raises issues regarding treatment strategies and candidates' selection, and underlines the limits of organ sharing without additional source of kidneys available for transplantation. Allocation policies aim to reduce medical or geographical disparities regarding enrollment on a waiting list or access to an allotransplant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Image-Based Method for Determining Better Walking Strategies for Hexapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent walking strategy is vital for multi-legged robots possessing no a priori information of an environment when traversing across discontinuous terrain. Six-legged robots outperform other multi-legged robots in static and dynamic stability. However, hexapods require careful planning to traverse across discontinuous terrain. A hexapod walking strategy can be accomplished using a vision-based navigation system to identify the surrounding environment. This paper presents an image-based technique to achieve better walking strategies for a hexapod walking on a special terrain containing irregular, restricted regions. The properties of the restricted regions were acquired beforehand by using reliable surveillance means. Moreover, simplified forward gaits, better rotational gaits, and adaptive gait selection strategies for walking on discontinuous terrain were proposed. The hexapod can effectively switch the gait sequences and types according to the environment involved. The boundary of standing zones can be successfully labelled by applying the greyscale erosion comprising a structuring element similar in shape and size to the foot tip of the hexapod. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image-based technique significantly improved the walking strategies of hexapods traversing on discontinuous terrain.

  20. Weight management strategies for those with chronic kidney disease - a consensus report from the Asia Pacific Society of Nephrology and Australia and New Zealand Society of Nephrology 2016 renal dietitians meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kelly; Beer, Jo; Dumont, Ruth; Hewitt, Katie; Manley, Karen; Meade, Anthony; Salamon, Karen; Campbell, Katrina

    2017-07-25

    Develop a consensus report to guide dietetic management of overweight or obese individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Six statements relating weight management in CKD guided a comprehensive review of the literature. A summary of the evidence was then presented at the renal nutrition meeting of the 2016 Asia Pacific Society of Nephrology and Australia and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Majority agreement was defined as group agreement on a statement of between 50-74%, and consensus was considered ≥ 75% agreement. The recommendations were developed via a mini Delphi process. Two statements achieved group consensus: the current guidelines used by dietitians to estimate energy requirements for overweight and obese people with CKD are not relevant and weight loss medications may be unsafe or ineffective in isolation for those with CKD. One statement achieved group agreement: Meal replacement formulas are safe and efficacious in those with CKD. No agreement was achieved on the statements of whether there is strong evidence of benefit for weight loss prior to kidney transplantation; whether traditional weight loss strategies can be used in those with CKD and if bariatric surgery in those with end stage kidney disease is feasible and effective. There is a limited evidence base to guide the dietetic management of overweight and obese individuals with CKD. Medical or surgical strategies to facilitate weight loss are not recommended in isolation and require a multidisciplinary approach with the involvement of a skilled renal dietitian. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of MR Imaging-guided Strategies for Detection of Prostate Cancer in Biopsy-Naive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Shivani; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Ponsky, Lee E; Lu, Ziang; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination followed by MR imaging-guided biopsy strategies in the detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naive men presenting with clinical suspicion of cancer for the first time. Materials and Methods A decision-analysis model was created for biopsy-naive men who had been recommended for prostate biopsy on the basis of abnormal digital rectal examination results or elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (age groups: 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and 61-70 years). The following three major strategies were evaluated: (a) standard transrectal ultrasonography (US)-guided biopsy; (b) diagnostic MR imaging followed by MR imaging-targeted biopsy, with no biopsy performed if MR imaging findings were negative; and (c) diagnostic MR imaging followed by MR imaging-targeted biopsy, with a standard biopsy performed when MR imaging findings were negative. The following three MR imaging-guided biopsy strategies were further evaluated in each MR imaging category: (a) biopsy with cognitive guidance, (b) biopsy with MR imaging/US fusion guidance, and (c) in-gantry MR imaging-guided biopsy. Model parameters were derived from the literature. The primary outcome measure was net health benefit (NHB), which was measured as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained or lost by investing resources in a new strategy compared with a standard strategy at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50 000 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Results Noncontrast MR imaging followed by cognitively guided MR biopsy (no standard biopsy if MR imaging findings were negative) was the most cost-effective approach, yielding an additional NHB of 0.198 QALY compared with the standard biopsy approach. Noncontrast MR imaging followed by in-gantry MR imaging-guided biopsy (no standard biopsy if MR imaging findings were negative) led to the

  2. Global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy for image caption generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Si-ya; Shi, Xin-bao; Chen, Yao-wen

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel framework, named as global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy (GLAN-RS), is presented for image captioning task. Rather than only adopting unitary visual information in the classical models, GLAN-RS explores the attention mechanism to capture local convolutional salient image maps. Furthermore, we adopt reranking strategy to adjust the priority of the candidate captions and select the best one. The proposed model is verified using the Microsoft Common Objects in Context (MSCOCO) benchmark dataset across seven standard evaluation metrics. Experimental results show that GLAN-RS significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches, such as multimodal recurrent neural network (MRNN) and Google NIC, which gets an improvement of 20% in terms of BLEU4 score and 13 points in terms of CIDER score.

  3. Evaluation of Renal Blood Flow in Chronic Kidney Disease Using Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Ping; Tan, Huan; Thacker, Jon M; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Kohn, Orly; Sprague, Stuart M; Prasad, Pottumarthi V

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be associated with reduced renal blood flow. However, data to-date in humans is limited. In this study, non-invasive arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI data was acquired in 33 patients with diabetes and stage-3 CKD, and 30 healthy controls. A significantly lower renal blood flow both in cortex (108.4±36.4 vs . 207.3±41.8; pblood flow were correlated with eGFR, and cortical blood flow was found to be confounded by age and BMI. However, in a subset of subjects that were matched for age and BMI (n=6), the differences between CKD and control subjects remained significant both in cortex (107.4±42.8 vs . 187.51±20.44; p=0.002) and medulla (15.43±8.43 vs . 39.18±11.13; p=0.002). A threshold value to separate healthy and CKD was estimated to be Cor_BF=142.9 and Med_BF=24.1. These results support the use of ASL in the evaluation of renal blood flow in patients with moderate level of CKD. Whether these measurements can identify subjects at risk of progressive CKD requires further longitudinal follow-up.

  4. Kidney transplantation and hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful kidney transplantation eliminates endocrine and metabolic disorders that predispose to the development of hyperparathyroidism, the complication typical for the chronic kidney disease; but the process of recovery from mineral and bone disorders is slowed down. The highest incidence of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is recorded in the first postoperative year. The risk factors for its development or persistence include the high blood levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and/or alkaline phosphatase, a prolonged dialysis therapy, severe hyperparathyroidism in the preoperative period, vitamin D deficiency, a suboptimal transplanted kidney function, and also the recipient's previous history of subtotal or incomplete parathyroidectomy. The characteristic clinical and laboratory signs of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism are bone lesions, kidney graft abnormalities, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. The diagnostic algorithm includes monitoring the markers of mineral and bone metabolism, determining the bone mineral density, and imaging of thyroid glands. Correction of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is performed surgically or pharmacologically. The article specifies the indications to, the extent and timing of parathyroidectomy, discusses the use of native vitamin D formulations, its analogues, and calcimimetics.

  5. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorph, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.)

  7. Radiology of trauma to kidney and lower urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorph, S [Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are trauma to kidney, imaging of kidney trauma, management of renal trauma, delayed complications, trauma to the lower urinary tract, trauma to urinary bladder, radiologic diagnosis, ethiology of blunt bladder injury, urethal injury (6 refs.).

  8. Multi-reception strategy with improved SNR for multichannel MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.

  9. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-12-01

    Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and

  10. A chaos-based digital image encryption scheme with an improved diffusion strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chong; Chen, Jun-jie; Zou, Hao; Meng, Wei-hong; Zhan, Yong-feng; Yu, Ya-wen

    2012-01-30

    Chaos-based image cipher has been widely investigated over the last decade or so to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission over public networks. In this paper, an improved diffusion strategy is proposed to promote the efficiency of the most widely investigated permutation-diffusion type image cipher. By using the novel bidirectional diffusion strategy, the spreading process is significantly accelerated and hence the same level of security can be achieved with fewer overall encryption rounds. Moreover, to further enhance the security of the cryptosystem, a plain-text related chaotic orbit turbulence mechanism is introduced in diffusion procedure by perturbing the control parameter of the employed chaotic system according to the cipher-pixel. Extensive cryptanalysis has been performed on the proposed scheme using differential analysis, key space analysis, various statistical analyses and key sensitivity analysis. Results of our analyses indicate that the new scheme has a satisfactory security level with a low computational complexity, which renders it a good candidate for real-time secure image transmission applications.

  11. Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Tiziana; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is a serious condition with an important impact on morbidity and mortality. Onset can be insidious and it is frequently unrecognized in the early phase when the therapeutic opportunities are theoretically more effective. The present review focuses on the most recent epidemiology studies and the progress in pediatric AKI (pAKI) research. Standardization of definition (presented in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) and novel biomarkers have been developed to help clinicians recognize kidney injury in a timely manner, both in adult and pediatric populations. Strengths and weaknesses of these diagnostic tools are discussed and the clinical scoring system (Renal Angina Index), which aims to provide a rational context for biomarker utilization, is also presented. Even if effective treatments are not currently available for established AKI, specific preventive approaches and some promising pharmacological treatments will be detailed. Renal replacement therapy is currently considered the most effective way to manage fluid balance when severe AKI occurs. Key Messages: Great efforts in pAKI research have today led to new strategies for early AKI detection and prevention strategies. Further studies have to be conducted in the next future in order to definitely improve the outcomes of pediatric patients experiencing this deadly syndrome. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Multidetector computed tomography has replaced conventional intravenous excretory urography in imaging of the kidneys: A scoping review of multidetector computed tomography findings in renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizakhona B.A. Mthalane

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a worldwide infectious disease burden, especially in non-developed countries, with increased morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Extrapulmonary TB is rare and renal TB is one of the commonest manifestations. The end result of renal TB is end-stage renal disease; however, this can be avoided if the diagnosis is made early. The diagnosis of renal TB is challenging because of the non-specific presentation and low sensitivity of clinical tests. Although the sequel of TB infection in the kidney causes varying manifestations depending on the stage of the disease, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is capable of demonstrating early findings. We performed a 20-year scoping review of MDCT findings in renal TB to promote awareness. Aim: To identify specific MDCT imaging characteristics of renal TB, promote early diagnosis and increase awareness of the typical imaging features. Methods and material: We searched published and unpublished literature from 1997 to 2017 using a combination of search terms on electronic databases. We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 150 articles were identified, of which 145 were found through electronic search engines and 5 were obtained from grey literature. Seventy-nine articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria were reviewed. These included original research, case reports, literature review, organisational reports and grey literature. Conclusion: Multidetector computed tomography can reproduce images comparable with intravenous excretory urography; together with advantages of being able to better assess the renal parenchyma and surrounding spaces, it is important in suggesting the diagnosis of renal TB and clinicians should consider including MDCT when investigating patients with recurrent urinary tract infection not responding to usual antimicrobial therapy.

  13. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  14. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A.; Conti, F.; Chianelli, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Signore, A.

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-α, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with 99m Tc or 111 In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for therapy decision-making and

  15. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yu; Wu Qiuwen

    2010-01-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  16. Kidney transplantation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Nori, Uday; Pesavento, Todd

    2009-08-01

    Recent outcome data, ongoing organ shortage and proposed changes in allocation policies are driving the need to review current practices and possible future course of kidney transplantation in the elderly patients. A proposed new kidney allocation system based on matching donor and recipient characteristics to enable 'age-matched' kidney allocation is currently being discussed in the USA. While this system benefits younger recipients, implications for elderly recipients receiving older grafts remain a matter of debate. Despite improved outcomes, there remain significant challenges to kidney transplantation in the elderly, including organ shortage, poor transplant rate, evolving allocation policies, high wait-list mortality and nonstandardized immunosuppression. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the strategies to meet these challenges and to study the impact of proposed new allocation system.

  17. A new method using multiphoton imaging and morphometric analysis for differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma kidney tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from oncocytoma on hematoxylin and eosin images may be difficult and require time-consuming ancillary procedures. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), an optical imaging modality, was used to rapidly generate sub-cellular histological resolution images from formalin-fixed unstained tissue sections from chRCC and oncocytoma.Tissues were excited using 780nm wavelength and emission signals (including second harmonic generation and autofluorescence) were collected in different channels between 390 nm and 650 nm. Granular structure in the cell cytoplasm was observed in both chRCC and oncocytoma. Quantitative morphometric analysis was conducted to distinguish chRCC and oncocytoma. To perform the analysis, cytoplasm and granules in tumor cells were segmented from the images. Their area and fluorescence intensity were found in different channels. Multiple features were measured to quantify the morphological and fluorescence properties. Linear support vector machine (SVM) was used for classification. Re-substitution validation, cross validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were implemented to evaluate the efficacy of the SVM classifier. A wrapper feature algorithm was used to select the optimal features which provided the best predictive performance in separating the two tissue types (classes). Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of the classification. Over 80% accuracy was achieved as the predictive performance. This method, if validated on a larger and more diverse sample set, may serve as an automated rapid diagnostic tool to differentiate between chRCC and oncocytoma. An advantage of such automated methods are that they are free from investigator bias and variability.

  18. Blockade of T-lymphocyte KCa3.1 and Kv1.3 channels as novel immunosuppression strategy to prevent kidney allograft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, I; Wulff, H; Eichler, I

    2009-01-01

    . Kidney sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff or hematoxylin-eosin and histochemically for markers of macrophages (CD68), T-lymphocytes (CD43), or cytotoxic T-cells (CD8). Our results showed that treatment with TRAM-34 and ShK reduced total interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration (-42...

  19. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  20. Moving Image Comprehension Strategies of Students in Primary and Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szíjártó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wir haben untersucht, wie Studierende Bewegtbilder verstehen. Der Beitrag fasst dazu die Ergebnisse mehrerer Teilstudien zusammen. In diesen Studien haben wir Daten zur Konstruktion von Bedeutung während des Konsums von Filmen, Fernsehprogrammen und Onlinevideos erhoben. Dabei haben wir nach Antworten auf folgende Fragen gesucht: Welche Strategien zum Verstehen von Bewegtbildern werden im Sinneder Analyse von Bewegtbildinhalten verwendet? Gibt es Unterschiede zwischen Studierenden, die Filmwissenschaft studieren, und anderen Studierenden? Welche Medienkompetenzlevel können bei Kindern identifiziert werden? Welche Entwicklungsaufgaben können identifiziert werden? Für die Verstehensstrategien der Studierenden kann festgehalten werden, dass einige Aspekte von Bewegtbildinhalten (Genre, Plot, Trailer, Titel besonders relevant für die Rezeption und die Interpretation sind. Die formale Ausbildung hat eine nur sekundäre Funktion für die Entwicklung der Verstehenskompetenzen. Zwar ist bei bestimmten Aspekten die Rolle der Vermittlung der Bewegtbildkultur und der Medienwissenschaft erkennbar, so z.B. im Kontext von manchen Interpretationsgemeinschaften. Dennoch kann die Schulung nicht mit andere Sozialisationsfaktoren konkurrieren. Damit wird die Rolle der Medienerziehung erfassbar: Diese kann zu Ergebnissen führen, wenn in der Vermittlung der Bewegtbildkultur und in medienwissenschaftlichen Kursen an das Vorwissen der Studierenden angeschlossen wird. Dieses Ergebnis ist auch für die Planung von Medienerziehung in fächerübergreifenden Curricula relevant. Die Ergebnisse der Studien können in die Entwicklung von Kompetenzen zur Wissenskonstruktion integriert werden. Wir hoffen, dass die Studien einen Beitrag zum Verständnis der Konzeptualisierung von Bewegtbildern durch Studierende leisten und dieses Wissen genutzt werden kann, um die Ausbildung in formalen Settings zu verbessern. We looked at moving image comprehension strategies of primary

  1. Development of multimodal imaging strategies for the pharmacology of anticancer agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulle, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical imaging in oncology is booming. It allows, using representative animal models of human cancers, to understand the mechanisms of development of pathologies and to assess the therapeutic efficiency of a new treatment. The main objective of this work was to develop two ortho-topic models of cancer (pancreas and colon) and to assess on them the reference treatments as well as a new therapeutic strategy by non-thermal plasma so called Plasma Gun. The two cancer models developed showed good representation in relation to human cancers, with the appearance of distant metastases and hypoxia. 5-fluorouracil for the HCT116-luc ortho-topic model of colorectal carcinoma and gemcitabine for the MIA PaCa2-luc pancreatic adenocarcinoma model, have induced discrete effects at low dose which can be detected thanks imaging modalities. After validation of our experimental steps, a new therapeutic strategy, Plasma Gun was evaluated and showed significant effects on tumor growth inhibition. The second objective was to carry out tools for the induction and the characterization of bone metastases and for high resolution imaging of the vasculature. On the one hand, bone metastases obtained by injection of PC3M-luc cells intracardially, was evaluated and quantified with different imaging modalities (bioluminescence, scintigraphy and Computed Tomography). And the other hand, the achievement of a high resolution imaging of vascularization, was possible by the casting method that restores the 3D structure of the vascular architecture following injection of a resin in the circulation. Developments makes during this thesis are new tools for preclinical evaluation of novel anticancer therapies. (author) [fr

  2. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Salber, Dagmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  3. Determination of spatial distribution of melamine-cyanuric acid crystals in rat kidney tissue by histology and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Wook; Yun, Jun-Won; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Joon-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Kyung-Mi; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Chung, Jin-Ho; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2010-01-01

    After the outbreak of acute renal failure associated with melamine-contaminated pet food, many attempts have been made to uncover the mechanism underlying the renal toxicity caused by melamine and melamine-related compounds. Using rat models, we investigated the renal crystal formation following the ingestion of a melamine-cyanuric acid mixture (M+CA, 1:1) to gain insight into the M+CA-induced renal toxicity. M+CA did not induce toxicity in precision-cut kidney slices, suggesting that M+CA does not have a direct nephrotoxicity. On the contrary, oral administration of M+CA for 3 days induced nephrotoxicity as determined by increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, reduced creatinine clearance, and enlarged kidneys in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg M+CA (melamine, 25 mg/kg, and cyanuric acid, 25 mg/kg; 2 of 10 animals) and 100 mg/kg M+CA (9 of 9 animals). While urine crystals were found in all animals treated with M+CA (25-100 mg/kg), histological examination revealed that renal crystals could be observed only in the kidneys of animals showing signs of nephrotoxicity. Remarkably, at 50 mg/kg M+CA, crystals were observed mainly in the medulla region of the kidney, while at 100 mg/kg, crystals were disseminated throughout the cortex and medulla regions. To further investigate the crystal formation by M+CA, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (MALDI-Q-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry detecting melamine distribution through monitoring the product ion (m/z 85, M + H) from melamine (m/z 127, M + H) was developed to directly obtain the image of melamine distribution in the kidney. The distribution image of melamine in kidney tissue confirmed that dense points of melamine were located only in the medulla region at 50 mg/kg M+CA, while at 100 mg/kg, they were disseminated widely from the cortex to medulla. These results demonstrated that M+CA ingestion could lead to crystal formation in kidney tubules along the osmotic gradient and

  4. Urinary Tract Effects After Multifocal Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation of the Kidney: Acute and Chronic Monitoring by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Intravenous Urography and Urinary Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Johann Jakob, E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Pech, Maciej [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Porsch, Markus; Janitzky, Andreas [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Fischbach, Frank [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Buhtz, Peter; Vogler, Klaus [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Huehne, Sarah [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany); Borucki, Katrin [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Clinical Chemistry (Germany); Strang, Christof [University of Magdeburg, Department of Anaesthesiology (Germany); Mahnkopf, Dirk [Institute of Medical Technology and Research (Germany); Ricke, Jens [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Liehr, Uwe-Bernd [University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a novel potential ablation modality for renal masses. The aim of this study was the first evaluation of NTIRE's effects on the renal urine-collecting system using intravenous urography (IVU) and urinary cytology in addition to histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Eight percutaneous NTIRE ablations of the renal parenchyma, including the calyxes or pelvis, were performed in three male swine. MRI, IVU, histology, and urinary cytology follow-ups were performed within the first 28 days after treatment. Results: MRI and histological analysis demonstrated a localized necrosis 7 days and a localized scarification of the renal parenchyma with complete destruction 28 days after NTIRE. The urine-collecting system was preserved and showed urothelial regeneration. IVU and MRI showed an unaltered normal morphology of the renal calyxes, pelvis, and ureter. A new urinary cytology phenomenon featured a temporary degeneration by individual vacuolization of detached transitional epithelium cells within the first 3 days after NTIRE. Conclusions: This first urographical, urine-cytological, and MRI evaluation after porcine kidney NTIRE shows multifocal parenchyma destruction while protecting the involved urine-collecting system with regenerated urothelial tissue. NTIRE could be used as a targeted ablation method of centrally located renal masses.

  5. Imaging strategies using focusing functions with applications to a North Sea field

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Filho, C. A.; Meles, G. A.; Curtis, A.; Ravasi, M.; Kritski, A.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic methods are used in a wide variety of contexts to investigate subsurface Earth structures, and to explore and monitor resources and waste-storage reservoirs in the upper ˜100 km of the Earth's subsurface. Reverse-time migration (RTM) is one widely used seismic method which constructs high-frequency images of subsurface structures. Unfortunately, RTM has certain disadvantages shared with other conventional single-scattering-based methods, such as not being able to correctly migrate multiply scattered arrivals. In principle, the recently developed Marchenko methods can be used to migrate all orders of multiples correctly. In practice however, using Marchenko methods are costlier to compute than RTM—for a single imaging location, the cost of performing the Marchenko method is several times that of standard RTM, and performing RTM itself requires dedicated use of some of the largest computers in the world for individual data sets. A different imaging strategy is therefore required. We propose a new set of imaging methods which use so-called focusing functions to obtain images with few artifacts from multiply scattered waves, while greatly reducing the number of points across the image at which the Marchenko method need be applied. Focusing functions are outputs of the Marchenko scheme: they are solutions of wave equations that focus in time and space at particular surface or subsurface locations. However, they are mathematical rather than physical entities, being defined only in reference media that equal to the true Earth above their focusing depths but are homogeneous below. Here, we use these focusing functions as virtual source/receiver surface seismic surveys, the upgoing focusing function being the virtual received wavefield that is created when the downgoing focusing function acts as a spatially distributed source. These source/receiver wavefields are used in three imaging schemes: one allows specific individual reflectors to be selected and imaged

  6. Prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging in asymptomatic patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease on initiation of haemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Babazono, Tetsuya [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Takatomo [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently develop cardiac events within several years of the initiation of haemodialysis. The present study assesses the prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with diabetic CKD requiring haemodialysis. Fifty-five asymptomatic patients with diabetic stage V CKD and no history of heart disease scheduled to start haemodialysis were enrolled in this study (56{+-}11 years old; 49 with type 2 diabetes mellitus). All patients underwent {sup 201}Tl stress ECG-gated MPI 1 month before or after the initiation of haemodialysis to assess myocardial involvement. We evaluated SPECT images using 17-segment defect scores graded on a 5-point scale, summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference scores (SDS). The patients were followed up for at least 2 years (42{+-}15 months) to determine coronary intervention (CI) and heart failure (HF) as soft events and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all causes of deaths as hard events. The frequencies of myocardial ischaemia, resting perfusion defects, low ejection fraction and left ventricular (LV) dilatation were 24,20,29 and 49%, respectively. Ten events (18%) developed during the follow-up period including four CI, one HF, one AMI and four sudden deaths. Multivariate Cox analysis selected SDS (p=0.0011) and haemoglobin A{sub 1c} (HbA{sub 1c}) (p=0.0076) as independent prognostic indicators for all events. Myocardial ischaemia, in addition to glycaemic control, is a strong prognostic marker for asymptomatic patients with diabetic CKD who are scheduled to start haemodialysis. Stress MPI is highly recommended for the management and therapeutic stratification of such patients. (orig.)

  7. An evaluation of an enquiry based learning strategy for the science of imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Naylor@shu.ac.uk [Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Diagnostic radiography is a science based health course. Due to the variation in science background of the students at entry level the imaging science modules can be problematic. Enquiry based learning (EBL) was introduced as teaching strategy in an imaging science module in order to promote learner autonomy and enhance the student experience. The module was evaluated using a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The impact of working as a team was a strong theme emerging from the evaluation of the project, with the majority of students viewing teamwork as beneficial to their learning. It was identified that they gained support from the team, and this assisted their learning. The enhancement of transferable skills and the promotion of learner autonomy were achieved. Areas for further investigation are the utilisation of peer assessment and a science event for the summative assessment.

  8. An evaluation of an enquiry based learning strategy for the science of imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic radiography is a science based health course. Due to the variation in science background of the students at entry level the imaging science modules can be problematic. Enquiry based learning (EBL) was introduced as teaching strategy in an imaging science module in order to promote learner autonomy and enhance the student experience. The module was evaluated using a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The impact of working as a team was a strong theme emerging from the evaluation of the project, with the majority of students viewing teamwork as beneficial to their learning. It was identified that they gained support from the team, and this assisted their learning. The enhancement of transferable skills and the promotion of learner autonomy were achieved. Areas for further investigation are the utilisation of peer assessment and a science event for the summative assessment.

  9. A New Chaos-Based Color Image Encryption Scheme with an Efficient Substitution Keystream Generation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a new chaos-based color image cipher with an efficient substitution keystream generation strategy. The hyperchaotic Lü system and logistic map are employed to generate the permutation and substitution keystream sequences for image data scrambling and mixing. In the permutation stage, the positions of colored subpixels in the input image are scrambled using a pixel-swapping mechanism, which avoids two main problems encountered when using the discretized version of area-preserving chaotic maps. In the substitution stage, we introduce an efficient keystream generation method that can extract three keystream elements from the current state of the iterative logistic map. Compared with conventional method, the total number of iterations is reduced by 3 times. To ensure the robustness of the proposed scheme against chosen-plaintext attack, the current state of the logistic map is perturbed during each iteration and the disturbance value is determined by plain-pixel values. The mechanism of associating the keystream sequence with plain-image also helps accelerate the diffusion process and increase the degree of randomness of the keystream sequence. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has a satisfactory level of security and outperforms the conventional schemes in terms of computational efficiency.

  10. Strategy study of quantification harmonization of SUV in PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, PET/CT images are often analyzed qualitatively by visual comparison of tumor lesions and normal tissues uptake; and semi-quantitatively by means of a parameter called SUV (Standardized Uptake Value). To ensure that longitudinal studies acquired on different scanners are interchangeable, and information of quantification is comparable, it is necessary to establish a strategy to harmonize the quantification of SUV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategy to harmonize the quantification of PET/CT images, performed with different scanner models and manufacturers. For this purpose, a survey of the technical characteristics of equipment and acquisition protocols of clinical images of different services of PET/CT in the state of Rio Grande do Sul was conducted. For each scanner, the accuracy of SUV quantification, and the Recovery Coefficient (RC) curves were determined, using the reconstruction parameters clinically relevant and available. From these data, harmonized performance specifications among the evaluated scanners were identified, as well as the algorithm that produces, for each one, the most accurate quantification. Finally, the most appropriate reconstruction parameters to harmonize the SUV quantification in each scanner, either regionally or internationally were identified. It was found that the RC values of the analyzed scanners proved to be overestimated by up to 38%, particularly for objects larger than 17mm. These results demonstrate the need for further optimization, through the reconstruction parameters modification, and even the change of the reconstruction algorithm used in each scanner. It was observed that there is a decoupling between the best image for PET/CT qualitative analysis and the best image for quantification studies. Thus, the choice of reconstruction method should be tied to the purpose of the PET/CT study in question, since the same reconstruction algorithm is not adequate, in one scanner, for qualitative

  11. Using grey intensity adjustment strategy to enhance the measurement accuracy of digital image correlation considering the effect of intensity saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang-Jian; Wang, Quan-Bao; Duan, Deng-Ping; Chen, Ji-An

    2018-05-01

    Intensity saturation can cause decorrelation phenomenon and decrease the measurement accuracy in digital image correlation (DIC). In the paper, the grey intensity adjustment strategy is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of DIC considering the effect of intensity saturation. First, the grey intensity adjustment strategy is described in detail, which can recover the truncated grey intensities of the saturated pixels and reduce the decorrelation phenomenon. The simulated speckle patterns are then employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, which indicates that the displacement accuracy can be improved by about 40% by the proposed strategy. Finally, the true experimental image is used to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy, which indicates that the displacement accuracy can be increased by about 10% by the proposed strategy.

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  13. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  14. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI removing any kidney stones Curing an Existing Urinary Tract Infection To treat a UTI , the health care provider ... UTIs and kidney stones. Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care providers may prescribe ...

  15. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death rates limited life expectancy. Some patients were lucky enough to get a kidney transplant, which greatly ... epidemic rates. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure nearly ...

  17. Interstitial fibrosis scored on whole-slide digital imaging of kidney biopsies is a predictor of outcome in proteinuric glomerulopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Laura H; Martini, Sebastian; Barisoni, Laura; Canetta, Pietro A; Troost, Jonathan P; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Lemley, Kevin V; Chien, Hui-Ping; Zee, Jarcy; Smith, Abigail; Appel, Gerald B; Trachtman, Howard; Hewitt, Stephen M; Kretzler, Matthias; Bagnasco, Serena M

    2018-02-01

    Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37). Cortical IF, TA and II were quantified (%) on digitized whole-slide biopsy images, by five pathologists with high inter-reader agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient >0.8). Tubulointerstitial messenger RNA expression was measured in a subset of patients. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess association of IF with the composite of 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and separately as well, and with complete remission (CR) of proteinuria. IF was highly correlated with TA (P  0.4, false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01), including upstream regulators such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-B1), and signaling pathways for antigen presentation and hepatic fibrosis. The degree of IF is associated with risk of eGFR decline across different types of proteinuric glomerulopathy, correlates with inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression, and may have predictive value in assessing risk of progression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-01-01

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  19. Usefulness of radionuclide scintiphotography to evaluate preserved kidney viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koshi; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    GAMMA imaging of the renal cortical microcirculation is a safe and non-invasive method for assessment of kidney viability before transplantation. We used trifluoperazine (TFP), urokinase and verapamil from 24 to 120 hour kidney preservation in dogs. For these preserved kidneys, we used radionuuclide scintiphotography to evaluate kidney viability. After preservation, these kidneys were perfused with technitium -99m labeled microspheres, and imaging of the renal vasculature was obtained by scintigraphy. The distribution of the microspheres was assessed visually and by computer analysis. Modified Collins' solution perfused kidneys show very poor cortical uptake with marked increase in uptake in the hilar region after preservation. In contrast, cortical flow remained relatively well preserved in kidneys perfused and preserved by use of modified Collins' solotion with TFP, urokinase and urokinase + verapamil. There was a direct correlation between these results and the capacity of kidneys treated in the same fashion to sustain life after retransplantation into the original host. (author)

  20. A strategy for multimodal deformable image registration to integrate PET/MR into radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela; Welz, Stefan; Siegel, Christine; Zips, Daniel; Schwenzer, Nina; Holger Schmidt, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background: Combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly promising for biologically individualized radiotherapy (RT). Hence, the purpose of this work was to develop an accurate and robust registration strategy to integrate combined PET/MR data into RT treatment planning. Material and methods: Eight patient datasets consisting of an FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) and a subsequently acquired PET/MR of the head and neck (HN) region were available. Registration strategies were developed based on CT and MR data only, whereas the PET components were fused with the resulting deformation field. Following a rigid registration, deformable registration was performed with a transform parametrized by B-splines. Three different optimization metrics were investigated: global mutual information (GMI), GMI combined with a bending energy penalty (BEP) for regularization (GMI + BEP) and localized mutual information with BEP (LMI + BEP). Different quantitative registration quality measures were developed, including volumetric overlap and mean distance measures for structures segmented on CT and MR as well as anatomical landmark distances. Moreover, the local registration quality in the tumor region was assessed by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the two PET datasets. Results: LMI + BEP yielded the most robust and accurate registration results. For GMI, GMI + BEP and LMI + BEP, mean landmark distances (standard deviations) were 23.9 mm (15.5 mm), 4.8 mm (4.0 mm) and 3.0 mm (1.0 mm), and mean NCC values (standard deviations) were 0.29 (0.29), 0.84 (0.14) and 0.88 (0.06), respectively. Conclusion: Accurate and robust multimodal deformable image registration of CT and MR in the HN region can be performed using a B-spline parametrized transform and LMI + BEP as optimization metric. With this strategy, biologically individualized RT based on combined PET/MRI in terms of dose painting is possible

  1. Direct Viewing of Dyslexics' Compensatory Strategies in Speech in Noise Using Auditory Classification Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnet, Léo; Meunier, Fanny; Trollé, Gwendoline; Hoen, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of dyslexic children exhibit a phonological deficit, particularly noticeable in phonemic identification or discrimination tasks. The gap in performance between dyslexic and normotypical listeners appears to decrease into adulthood, suggesting that some individuals with dyslexia develop compensatory strategies. Some dyslexic adults however remain impaired in more challenging listening situations such as in the presence of background noise. This paper addresses the question of the compensatory strategies employed, using the recently developed Auditory Classification Image (ACI) methodology. The results of 18 dyslexics taking part in a phoneme categorization task in noise were compared with those of 18 normotypical age-matched controls. By fitting a penalized Generalized Linear Model on the data of each participant, we obtained his/her ACI, a map of the time-frequency regions he/she relied on to perform the task. Even though dyslexics performed significantly less well than controls, we were unable to detect a robust difference between the mean ACIs of the two groups. This is partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in listening strategies among a subgroup of 7 low-performing dyslexics, as confirmed by a complementary analysis. When excluding these participants to restrict our comparison to the 11 dyslexics performing as well as their average-reading peers, we found a significant difference in the F3 onset of the first syllable, and a tendency of difference on the F4 onset, suggesting that these listeners can compensate for their deficit by relying upon additional allophonic cues.

  2. Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0141 TITLE: Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hans-Joerg Hammers...SUBTITLE Enhancing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor therapy in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 15-1-0141 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...immune checkpoint inhibition in kidney cancer . The work is designed to test different strategies to induce or enhance the abscopal in a kidney cancer

  3. Extracting Buildings from True Color Stereo Aerial Images Using a Decision Making Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The automatic extraction of buildings from true color stereo aerial imagery in a dense built-up area is the main focus of this paper. Our approach strategy aimed at reducing the complexity of the image content by means of a three-step procedure combining reliable geospatial image analysis techniques. Even if it is a rudimentary first step towards a more general approach, the method presented proved useful in urban sprawl studies for rapid map production in flat area by retrieving indispensable information on buildings from scanned historic aerial photography. After the preliminary creation of a photogrammetric model to manage Digital Surface Model and orthophotos, five intermediate mask-layers data (Elevation, Slope, Vegetation, Shadow, Canny, Shadow, Edges were processed through the combined use of remote sensing image processing and GIS software environments. Lastly, a rectangular building block model without roof structures (Level of Detail, LoD1 was automatically generated. System performance was evaluated with objective criteria, showing good results in a complex urban area featuring various types of building objects.

  4. A Symmetric Chaos-Based Image Cipher with an Improved Bit-Level Permutation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Very recently, several chaos-based image ciphers using a bit-level permutation have been suggested and shown promising results. Due to the diffusion effect introduced in the permutation stage, the workload of the time-consuming diffusion stage is reduced, and hence the performance of the cryptosystem is improved. In this paper, a symmetric chaos-based image cipher with a 3D cat map-based spatial bit-level permutation strategy is proposed. Compared with those recently proposed bit-level permutation methods, the diffusion effect of the new method is superior as the bits are shuffled among different bit-planes rather than within the same bit-plane. Moreover, the diffusion key stream extracted from hyperchaotic system is related to both the secret key and the plain image, which enhances the security against known/chosen plaintext attack. Extensive security analysis has been performed on the proposed scheme, including the most important ones like key space analysis, key sensitivity analysis, plaintext sensitivity analysis and various statistical analyses, which has demonstrated the satisfactory security of the proposed scheme

  5. Proton magnetic resonance with parahydrogen induced polarization. Imaging strategies and continuous generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechent, Jan Falk Frederik

    2012-12-17

    A major challenge in imaging is the detection of small amounts of molecules of interest. In the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) their signals are typically concealed by the large background signal of e.g. the tissue of the body. This problem can be tackled by hyperpolarization which increases the NMR signals up to several orders of magnitude. However, this strategy is limited for {sup 1}H, the most widely used nucleus in NMR and MRI, because the enormous number of protons in the body screen the small amount of hyperpolarized ones. Here, I describe a method giving rise to high {sup 1}H MRI contrast for hyperpolarized molecules against a large background signal. The contrast is based on the J-coupling induced rephasing of the NMR signal of molecules hyperpolarized via parahydrogen induce polarization (PHIP) and it can easily be implemented in common pulse sequences. Hyperpolarization methods typically require expensive technical equipment (e.g. lasers or microwaves) and most techniques work only in batch mode, thus the limited lifetime of the hyperpolarization is limiting its applications. Therefore, the second part of my thesis deals with the simple and efficient generation of an hyperpolarization. These two achievements open up alternative opportunities to use the standard MRI nucleus {sup 1}H for e.g. metabolic imaging in the future.

  6. An innovative pre-targeting strategy for tumor cell specific imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yong; Peng, Meng-Yun; Rong, Lei; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Si; Cheng, Si-Xue; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-09-21

    A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the "biotin-avidin" interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging and therapeutic agents for tumor treatments.

  7. Proton magnetic resonance with parahydrogen induced polarization. Imaging strategies and continuous generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechent, Jan Falk Frederik

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in imaging is the detection of small amounts of molecules of interest. In the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) their signals are typically concealed by the large background signal of e.g. the tissue of the body. This problem can be tackled by hyperpolarization which increases the NMR signals up to several orders of magnitude. However, this strategy is limited for 1 H, the most widely used nucleus in NMR and MRI, because the enormous number of protons in the body screen the small amount of hyperpolarized ones. Here, I describe a method giving rise to high 1 H MRI contrast for hyperpolarized molecules against a large background signal. The contrast is based on the J-coupling induced rephasing of the NMR signal of molecules hyperpolarized via parahydrogen induce polarization (PHIP) and it can easily be implemented in common pulse sequences. Hyperpolarization methods typically require expensive technical equipment (e.g. lasers or microwaves) and most techniques work only in batch mode, thus the limited lifetime of the hyperpolarization is limiting its applications. Therefore, the second part of my thesis deals with the simple and efficient generation of an hyperpolarization. These two achievements open up alternative opportunities to use the standard MRI nucleus 1 H for e.g. metabolic imaging in the future.

  8. TU-EF-210-00: Therapeutic Strategies and Image Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  9. TU-EF-210-00: Therapeutic Strategies and Image Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  10. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, P.; Pes, P.L.; Wijkstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several imaging techniques can be used for visualization of the kidneys dependent on the indication. Ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are most commonly used. US is a safe, relatively inexpensive, noninvasive, and widely available imaging method. It

  12. MRI-based measurements of respiratory motion variability and assessment of imaging strategies for radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackall, J M; Ahmad, S; Miquel, M E; McClelland, J R; Landau, D B; Hawkes, D J

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory organ motion has a significant impact on the planning and delivery of radiotherapy (RT) treatment for lung cancer. Currently widespread techniques, such as 4D-computed tomography (4DCT), cannot be used to measure variability of this motion from one cycle to the next. In this paper, we describe the use of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility of respiratory motion and also to estimate the level of errors that may be introduced into treatment delivery by using various breath-hold imaging strategies during lung RT planning. A reference model of respiratory motion is formed to enable comparison of different breathing cycles at any arbitrary position in the respiratory cycle. This is constructed by using free-breathing images from the inhale phase of a single breathing cycle, then co-registering the images, and thereby tracking landmarks. This reference model is then compared to alternative models constructed from images acquired during the exhale phase of the same cycle and the inhale phase of a subsequent cycle, to assess intra- and inter-cycle variability ('hysteresis' and 'reproducibility') of organ motion. The reference model is also compared to a series of models formed from breath-hold data at exhale and inhale. Evaluation of these models is carried out on data from ten healthy volunteers and five lung cancer patients. Free-breathing models show good levels of intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility across the tidal breathing range. Mean intra-cycle errors in the position of organ surface landmarks of 1.5(1.4)-3.5(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-5.2(5.2) mm for patients. Equivalent measures of inter-cycle variability across this range are 1.7(1.0)-3.9(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-3.3(2.2) mm for patients. As expected, models based on breath-hold sequences do not represent normal tidal motion as well as those based on free-breathing data, with mean errors of 4

  13. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  14. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  15. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  16. Kidney Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider uses a computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging to guide the needle into the ... weeks before resuming strenuous activities, such as heavy lifting or participating in contact sports. A health care ...

  17. Long-Time Plasma Membrane Imaging Based on a Two-Step Synergistic Cell Surface Modification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao-Ran; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Zhan; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-03-16

    Long-time stable plasma membrane imaging is difficult due to the fast cellular internalization of fluorescent dyes and the quick detachment of the dyes from the membrane. In this study, we developed a two-step synergistic cell surface modification and labeling strategy to realize long-time plasma membrane imaging. Initially, a multisite plasma membrane anchoring reagent, glycol chitosan-10% PEG2000 cholesterol-10% biotin (abbreviated as "GC-Chol-Biotin"), was incubated with cells to modify the plasma membranes with biotin groups with the assistance of the membrane anchoring ability of cholesterol moieties. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated avidin was then introduced to achieve the fluorescence-labeled plasma membranes based on the supramolecular recognition between biotin and avidin. This strategy achieved stable plasma membrane imaging for up to 8 h without substantial internalization of the dyes, and avoided the quick fluorescence loss caused by the detachment of dyes from plasma membranes. We have also demonstrated that the imaging performance of our staining strategy far surpassed that of current commercial plasma membrane imaging reagents such as DiD and CellMask. Furthermore, the photodynamic damage of plasma membranes caused by a photosensitizer, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), was tracked in real time for 5 h during continuous laser irradiation. Plasma membrane behaviors including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and plasma membrane vesiculation could be dynamically recorded. Therefore, the imaging strategy developed in this work may provide a novel platform to investigate plasma membrane behaviors over a relatively long time period.

  18. Urogenital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Lemke, U.

    2008-01-01

    The book in direct diagnosis in radiology, urogenital imaging, includes information concerning definition, imaging signs and clinical aspects on the following topics: kidneys and adrenals, the urinary tract, the male genitals and the female genitals

  19. Soft power as part of China's strategy for national image cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Signe

    In recent years soft power has become a key issue at the highest political level in China, focusing especially on cultural soft power. This is reflected in important political documents, such as five year plans, plenum meeting summaries, as well as speeches by Hu Jintao and other politicians...... at the highest level. This interest in soft power is generally seen as part of an important foreign policy shift, and the huge amounts of money spent by the government on cultural diplomacy testify to the importance attached to it. Understanding what might be the goal of China’s soft power strategy is however...... difficult. The question can be analysed from various perspectives focusing on the use of power, the peaceful development discourse, or national image cultivation, and finding a straight forward answer is therefore difficult. If we go deeper and see the soft power discourse in the context of the worries...

  20. Effects of intra-operative fluoroscopic 3D-imaging on peri-operative imaging strategy in calcaneal fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerekamp, M S H; Backes, M; Schep, N W L; Ubbink, D T; Luitse, J S; Schepers, T; Goslings, J C

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that intra-operative fluoroscopic 3D-imaging (3D-imaging) in calcaneal fracture surgery is promising to prevent revision surgery and save costs. However, these studies limited their focus to corrections performed after 3D-imaging, thereby neglecting corrections after intra-operative fluoroscopic 2D-imaging (2D-imaging). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of additional 3D-imaging on intra-operative corrections, peri-operative imaging used, and patient-relevant outcomes compared to 2D-imaging alone. In this before-after study, data of adult patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a calcaneal fracture between 2000 and 2014 in our level-I Trauma center were collected. 3D-imaging (BV Pulsera with 3D-RX, Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) was available as of 2007 at the surgeons' discretion. Patient and fracture characteristics, peri-operative imaging, intra-operative corrections and patient-relevant outcomes were collected from the hospital databases. Patients in whom additional 3D-imaging was applied were compared to those undergoing 2D-imaging alone. A total of 231 patients were included of whom 107 (46%) were operated with the use of 3D-imaging. No significant differences were found in baseline characteristics. The median duration of surgery was significantly longer when using 3D-imaging (2:08 vs. 1:54 h; p = 0.002). Corrections after additional 3D-imaging were performed in 53% of the patients. However, significantly fewer corrections were made after 2D-imaging when 3D-imaging was available (Risk difference (RD) -15%; 95% Confidence interval (CI) -29 to -2). Peri-operative imaging, besides intra-operative 3D-imaging, and patient-relevant outcomes were similar between groups. Intra-operative 3D-imaging provides additional information resulting in additional corrections. Moreover, 3D-imaging probably changed the surgeons' attitude to rely more on 3D-imaging, hence a 15%-decrease of

  1. Successful Dual Kidney Transplantation After Hypothermic Oxygenated Perfusion of Discarded Human Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaioli, Matteo; De Pace, Vanessa; Comai, Giorgia; Busutti, Marco; Gaudio, Massimo Del; Amaduzzi, Annalisa; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Siniscalchi, Antonio; La Manna, Gaetano; D’Errico, Antonietta A.D.; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Nephroangiosclerosis Symptoms: Renal failure Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Resuscitation of grafts by hypothermic oxygenated perfusion Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: The recovery of discarded human kidneys has increased in recent years and impels to use of unconventional organ preservation strategies that improve graft function. We report the first case of human kidneys histologically discarded and transplanted after hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE). Case Report: Marginal kidneys from a 78-year-old woman with brain death were declined by Italian transplant centers due to biopsy score (right kidney: 6; left kidney: 7). We recovered and preserved both kidneys through HOPE and we revaluated their use for transplantation by means of perfusion parameters. The right kidney was perfused for 1 h 20 min and the left kidney for 2 h 30 min. During organ perfusion, the renal flow increased progressively. We observed an increase of 34% for the left kidney (median flow 52 ml/min) and 50% for the right kidney (median flow 24 ml/min). Both kidneys had low perfusate’s lactate levels. We used perfusion parameters as important determinants of the organ discard. Based on our previous organ perfusion experience, the increase of renal flow and the low level of lactate following 1 h of HOPE lead us to declare both kidneys as appropriate for dual kidney transplantation (DKT). No complications were reported during the transplant and in the post-transplant hospital stay. The recipient had immediate graft function and serum creatinine value of 0.95 mg/dL at 3 months post-transplant. Conclusions: HOPE provides added information in the organ selection process and may improve graft quality of marginal kidneys. PMID:28928357

  2. Three Research Strategies of Neuroscience and the Future of Legal Imaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jinkwon; Yoo, Soyoung

    2018-01-01

    Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach. Cognitive subtraction is outdated and problematic; consequently, the court deemed it to be an inadequate approach in terms of legal evidence in 2012. In contrast, the data-driven and brain manipulation approaches, which are state-of-the-art approaches, have overcome the limitations of cognitive subtraction. The data-driven approach brings data science into the field and is benefiting immensely from the development of research platforms that allow automatized collection, analysis, and sharing of data. This broadens the scale of imaging evidence. The brain-manipulation approach uses high-functioning tools that facilitate non-invasive and precise human brain manipulation. These two approaches are expected to have synergistic effects. Neuroscience has strived to improve the evidential reliability of NIE, with considerable success. With the support of cutting-edge technologies, and the progress of these approaches, the evidential status of NIE will be improved and NIE will become an increasingly important part of legal practice.

  3. Three Research Strategies of Neuroscience and the Future of Legal Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkwon Jun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach. Cognitive subtraction is outdated and problematic; consequently, the court deemed it to be an inadequate approach in terms of legal evidence in 2012. In contrast, the data-driven and brain manipulation approaches, which are state-of-the-art approaches, have overcome the limitations of cognitive subtraction. The data-driven approach brings data science into the field and is benefiting immensely from the development of research platforms that allow automatized collection, analysis, and sharing of data. This broadens the scale of imaging evidence. The brain-manipulation approach uses high-functioning tools that facilitate non-invasive and precise human brain manipulation. These two approaches are expected to have synergistic effects. Neuroscience has strived to improve the evidential reliability of NIE, with considerable success. With the support of cutting-edge technologies, and the progress of these approaches, the evidential status of NIE will be improved and NIE will become an increasingly important part of legal practice.

  4. A PET/CT-based strategy is a stronger predictor of survival than a standard imaging strategy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Max; Nielsen, Anne L; Pareek, Manan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether tumor staging by upfront (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) leads to improved discrimination of survival, when compared with traditionally used imaging strategies based on chest X-ray + head and neck magnetic resonance...... imaging (CXR/MRI) or chest computed tomography + head and neck MRI (CCT/MRI) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods: Blinded prospective cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified primary HNSCC were recruited at Odense University...

  5. An Integrated Processing Strategy for Mountain Glacier Motion Monitoring Based on SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Z.; Yan, S.; Liu, G.; LV, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain glacier dynamic variables are important parameters in studies of environment and climate change in High Mountain Asia. Due to the increasing events of abnormal glacier-related hazards, research of monitoring glacier movements has attracted more interest during these years. Glacier velocities are sensitive and changing fast under complex conditions of high mountain regions, which implies that analysis of glacier dynamic changes requires comprehensive and frequent observations with relatively high accuracy. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been successfully exploited to detect glacier motion in a number of previous studies, usually with pixel-tracking and interferometry methods. However, the traditional algorithms applied to mountain glacier regions are constrained by the complex terrain and diverse glacial motion types. Interferometry techniques are prone to fail in mountain glaciers because of their narrow size and the steep terrain, while pixel-tracking algorithm, which is more robust in high mountain areas, is subject to accuracy loss. In order to derive glacier velocities continually and efficiently, we propose a modified strategy to exploit SAR data information for mountain glaciers. In our approach, we integrate a set of algorithms for compensating non-glacial-motion-related signals which exist in the offset values retrieved by sub-pixel cross-correlation of SAR image pairs. We exploit modified elastic deformation model to remove the offsets associated with orbit and sensor attitude, and for the topographic residual offset we utilize a set of operations including DEM-assisted compensation algorithm and wavelet-based algorithm. At the last step of the flow, an integrated algorithm combining phase and intensity information of SAR images will be used to improve regional motion results failed in cross-correlation related processing. The proposed strategy is applied to the West Kunlun Mountain and Muztagh Ata region in western China using ALOS

  6. Revisiting double kidney transplantation: two kidneys provide better graft survival than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzado, J M; Fernandez, L; Riera, L; Bestard, O; Carrera, M; Torras, J; Gil Vernet, S; Melilli, E; Ngango, L; Grinyó, J M

    2011-01-01

    Double kidney transplantation is an accepted strategy to increase the donor pool. Regarding older donor kidneys, protocols for deciding to perform a dual or a single transplantation are mainly based on preimplantation biopsies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term graft and patient survivals of our "Dual Kidney Transplant program." Patients who lost one of their grafts peritransplantation were used as controls. A total of 203 patients underwent kidney transplantation from December 1996 to January 2008 in our "old for old" renal transplantation program. We excluded 21 patients because of a nonfunctioning kidney, hyperacute rejection, or patient death with a functioning graft within the first month. Seventy-nine among 182 kidney transplantation the "old for old" program were dual kidney transplantation (DKT). Fifteen of 79 patients lost one of their kidney grafts (the uninephrectomized (UNX) UNX group). At 1 year, renal function was lower and proteinuria greater among the UNX than the DKT group. Patient survival was similar in both groups. However, death-censored graft survival was lower in UNX than DKT patients. The 5-year graft survival rate was 70% in UNX versus 93% in DKT cohorts (P = .04). In conclusion, taking into account the kidney shortage, our results may question whether the excellent transplant outcomes with DKT counter balance the reduced donor pool obviating acceptable transplant outcomes for more patients with single kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The position occupied by radioisotopic kidney explorations in uronephrological pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, A.

    1976-01-01

    From the viewpoint of their clinical value the unquestioned indications of radioisotopic techniques can be summed up as follows: Isotopic nephrogram and derived techniques (estimation of the functional repercussions of renal arterial stenoses and observation of high obstructive pathology). Kidney images (these are still extremely valuable for charting the topography of functional kidney tissue in various diseases such as inflammation and infection, kidney stones, trauma, tumours). Mercury bichloride uptake by the kidney and quantitative measurement of the function of each kidney separately (demonstration of the unilateral nature of a kidney disease; in asymmetrical uropathology, preparation of a decision concerning the therapeutical, medical, conservation surgery or nephrectomy approach; observation of medical reflux treatment; estimation of the effect of surgery). Dynamic kidney studies using various molecules, filtered, secreted remaining in the vascular space. Kidney blood flux studies in the field of the physiopathological explanation of diseases. Total glomerular and hippuran clearance measurement techniques [fr

  8. Temporally resolved electrocardiogram-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging of the human kidney: correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and renal blood flow at different time points of the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Lanzman, Rotem S; Quentin, Michael; Kuhlemann, Julia; Klasen, Janina; Pentang, Gael; Riegger, Caroline; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of pulsatile blood flow on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and the fraction of pseudodiffusion (F(P)) in the human kidney. The kidneys of 6 healthy volunteers were examined by a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and phase-contrast flow measurements were performed. Flow imaging of renal arteries was carried out to quantify the dependence of renal blood flow on the cardiac cycle. ECG-triggered DWI was acquired in the coronal plane with 16 b values in the range of 0 s/mm(2) and 750 s/mm(2) at the time of minimum (MIN) (20 milliseconds after R wave) and maximum renal blood flow (MAX) (197 ± 24 milliseconds after R wave). The diffusion coefficients were calculated using the monoexponential approach as well as the biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion model and correlated to phase-contrast flow measurements. Flow imaging showed pulsatile renal blood flow depending on the cardiac cycle. The mean flow velocity at MIN was 45 cm/s as compared with 61 cm/s at MAX. F(p) at MIN (0.29) was significantly lower than at MAX (0.40) (P = 0.001). Similarly, ADC(mono), derived from the monoexponential model, also showed a significant difference (P renal blood flow and F(p) (r = 0.85) as well as ADC(mono) (r = 0.67) was statistically significant. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI enables for the determination of the diffusion coefficients at different time points of the cardiac cycle. ADC(mono) and FP vary significantly among acquisitions at minimum (diastole) and maximum (systole) renal blood flow. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI might therefore serve as a novel technique for the assessment of pulsatility in the human kidney.

  9. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  10. Perspectives of Older Kidney Transplant Recipients on Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Schell, Jane O; Tong, Allison

    2017-03-07

    Older kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to cognitive impairment, frailty, comorbidities, immunosuppression-related complications, and chronic graft failure, however, there has been limited focus on their concerns and expectations related to transplantation. This study aims to describe the perspectives of older kidney transplant recipients about their experience of kidney transplantation, self-management, and treatment goals to inform strategies and interventions that address their specific needs. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 kidney transplant recipients aged 65-80 years from five renal units in Australia. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. Six themes were identified: restoring vitality of youth (with subthemes of revived mindset for resilience, embracing enjoyment in life, drive for self-actualization); persisting through prolonged recovery (yielding to aging, accepting functional limitations, pushing the limit, enduring treatment responsibilities); imposing sicknesses (combatting devastating comorbidities, painful restrictions, emerging disillusionment, anxieties about accumulating side effects, consuming treatment burden); prioritizing graft survival (privileged with a miracle, negotiating risks for longevity, enacting a moral duty, preserving the last opportunity); confronting health deterioration (vulnerability and helplessness, narrowing focus to immediate concerns, uncertainty of survival); and value of existence (purpose through autonomy, refusing the burden of futile treatment, staying alive by all means). Older kidney transplant recipients felt able to enjoy life and strived to live at their newly re-established potential and capability, which motivated them to protect their graft. However, some felt constrained by slow recuperation and overwhelmed by unexpected comorbidities, medication-related side effects, and health decline. Our findings suggest the need to prepare and support older recipients for self

  11. Evaluation of the use of technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid for scintigraphic imaging of the kidneys in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Leah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Ramsay, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the use of scintigraphy involving technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) for the determination of kidney morphology and function in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). 10 healthy iguanas weighing >1.6 kg. Renal scintigraphy was performed by use of (99m)Tc-DTPA in 6 of the iguanas and by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA in all 10 iguanas. After the injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, scans were performed for each iguana at intervals during a 20-hour period. Renal biopsies were performed in all 10 iguanas after the final scintigraphic evaluation. In iguanas, the use of (99m)Tc-DTPA for renal scintigraphy was nondiagnostic because of serum protein binding and poor renal uptake of the isotope; mean +/- SD (99m)Tc-DTPA bound to serum proteins was 48.9 +/- 9.9%. Renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA produced distinct visualization of both kidneys. Renal uptake and soft tissue clearance of (99m)Tc-DMSA increased over the 20-hour imaging period; mean +/- SD renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was 11.31 +/- 3.06% at 20 hours. In each of the 10 iguanas, ultrasonographic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from both kidneys revealed no abnormalities. Results indicate that the kidneys of iguanas can be evaluated scintigraphically by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA; this technique may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of renal failure in iguanas.

  12. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, E. M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M. J. W.; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values.

  13. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithoven, Edwin M.; Meijer, E.; Borns, C.; Boertien, W. E.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, Marcel J W; van der Jagt, E.; Vart, P.; de Jong, P. E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  14. The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2004-01-01

    Imaging studies have provided evidence of how the human brain changes as an individual becomes addicted. Here, we integrate the findings from imaging studies to propose a model of drug addiction. The process of addiction is initiated in part by the fast and high increases in DA induced by drugs of abuse. We hypothesize that this supraphysiological effect of drugs trigger a series of adaptations in neuronal circuits involved in saliency/reward, motivation/drive, memory/conditioning, and control/disinhibition, resulting in an enhanced (and long lasting) saliency value for the drug and its associated cues at the expense of decreased sensitivity for salient events of everyday life (including natural reinforcers). Although acute drug intake increases DA neurotransmission, chronic drug consumption results in a marked decrease in DA activity, associated with, among others, dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved with salience attribution) and cingulate gyrus (region involved with inhibitory control). The ensuing increase in motivational drive for the drug, strengthened by conditioned responses and the decrease in inhibitory control favors emergence of compulsive drug taking. This view of how drugs of abuse affect the brain suggests strategies for intervention, which might include: (a) those that will decrease the reward value of the drug of choice; (b) interventions to increase the saliency value of non-drug reinforcers; (c) approaches to weaken conditioned drug behaviors; and (d) methods to strengthen frontal inhibitory and executive control. Though this model focuses mostly on findings from PET studies of the brain DA system it is evident that other neurotransmitters are involved and that a better understanding of their roles in addiction would expand the options for therapeutic targets.

  15. Analysis of Branding Strategy through Instagram with Storytelling in Creating Brand Image on Proud Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Martinus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article were to study the branding strategy of a new age media company through social media with storytelling, how it could be utilized in the building of brand image, and what were the special characteristics of storytelling in social media environment, especially Instagram. The study provided an overview of factors in the online content update from social media to elevate interaction and to maintain the relationship between the company and its audience. Also specifying the points on how the information looked desirable to the customer. The qualitative descriptive content analysis was conducted to investigate how a new age media company with Instagram as the platform, which products were intangible and used storytelling in the delivery utilizes and mixes both components. Data were obtained by conducting the in-depth interview with company’s representative, public relations practitioner, and a follower of the company’s Instagram account, which then analyzed through data reduction. The research suggests that storytelling combined with social media features potentially strengthens all dimensions of brand equity with the brand image as the focus, primarily due to its engaging content, its ability to enhance the formation of an emotional connection, and its capabilities in improving recall and recognition. Branding activities conducted by Proud through Instagram can be said to be effective, taking into account the six main factors in providing updates, namely vividness, interactivity, informational content, entertaining content, position and valence of comments. Storytelling plays a role in communicating the company's brand and value. In addition, storytelling is also a branding tool that becomes an element that uniquely unveils a company with a competitor.

  16. Diagnostic imaging strategy for MDCT- or MRI-detected breast lesions: use of targeted sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Satoko; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Mibu, Akemi; Karikomi, Masato; Sakata, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Leading-edge technology such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) often reveals mammographically and ultrasonographically occult lesions. MRI is a well-documented, effective tool to evaluate these lesions; however, the detection rate of targeted sonography varies for MRI detected lesions, and its significance is not well established in diagnostic strategy of MRI detected lesions. We assessed the utility of targeted sonography for multidetector-row CT (MDCT)- or MRI-detected lesions in practice. We retrospectively reviewed 695 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who were candidates for breast conserving surgery and underwent MDCT or MRI in our hospital between January 2004 and March 2011. Targeted sonography was performed in all MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions followed by imaging-guided biopsy. Patient background, histopathology features and the sizes of the lesions were compared among benign, malignant and follow-up groups. Of the 695 patients, 61 lesions in 56 patients were detected by MDCT or MRI. The MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions were identified by targeted sonography in 58 out of 61 lesions (95.1%). Patients with pathological diagnoses were significantly older and more likely to be postmenopausal than the follow-up patients. Pathological diagnosis proved to be benign in 20 cases and malignant in 25. The remaining 16 lesions have been followed up. Lesion size and shape were not significantly different among the benign, malignant and follow-up groups. Approximately 95% of MDCT- or MRI-detected lesions were identified by targeted sonography, and nearly half of these lesions were pathologically proven malignancies in this study. Targeted sonography is a useful modality for MDCT- or MRI-detected breast lesions

  17. Radionuclide method for blood volume determination in kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindev, P.; Nikolov, D.; Shejretova, E.; Garcheva-Tsacheva, M.

    1989-01-01

    The method is applied in nephrology for diagnosing changes in blood circulation of the kidneys. The blood volume of each kidney is determined separately by perfusion angioscintigraphy (PAS) with improved accuracy. The method consists in intravenous injection of 300-450 MBq 99m Tc for in-vivo labelling of the erythrocytes. About 30 images are registered every 2 sec, and through zones of interest perfusion histograms of kidneys are derived. Ten minutes later kidneys images (one full-face and two profiles) are registered. Correction coefficients for kidneys depth are derived and the activities registered according to full-face images and amplitudes of perfusion histograms are corrected. The activity of 1 ml blood is determined from blood sample of the patient. The blood volume of each kidney is expressed as a ratio of the activity corrected for background and depth and the activity of 1 ml blood of the sample. 1 claim

  18. Effects of Issue-Image Strategies, Attack and Support Appeals, Music, and Visual Content in Political Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Esther; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzed four characteristics of political commercials to determine their impact on television viewers' reactions: (1) issue versus image strategies; (2) attack versus support appeals; (3) presence and absence of music; and (4) visual content, either with families or in professional campaign settings. Memory measures and attitudes are…

  19. Fluid management in acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluids are closely linked through oliguria, which is a marker of the former and a trigger for administration of the latter. Recent progress in this field has challenged the physiological and clinical rational of using oliguria as a trigger for the administration...... of crystalloids and colloids on kidney function and the effect of various resuscitation and de-resuscitation strategies on the course and outcome of AKI....

  20. High-resolution imaging of the central nervous system: how novel imaging methods combined with navigation strategies will advance patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Hamza; Genis, Helen; Alarcon, Joseph; Vuong, Barry; Jivraj, Jamil; Yang, Victor X D; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Fehlings, Michael G; Cadotte, David W

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review captures a subset of recent advances in imaging of the central nervous system. First, we focus on improvements in the spatial and temporal profile afforded by optical coherence tomography, fluorescence-guided surgery, and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy. Next, we highlight advances in the generation and uses of imaging-based atlases and discuss how this will be applied to specific clinical situations. To conclude, we discuss how these and other imaging tools will be combined with neuronavigation techniques to guide surgeons in the operating room. Collectively, this work aims to highlight emerging biomedical imaging strategies that hold potential to be a valuable tool for both clinicians and researchers in the years to come. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  2. Kidney changes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Shindo, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Kawakami, Akira; Fujii, Koichi; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu; Umekawa, Toru; Kohri, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    MRI was performed before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to determine the effects of ESWL on the kidney and perinephric tissues. Of the 40 kidneys studied, 24 showed one or more changes on MRI: loss of the corticomedullary junction (n=15), subcapsular fluid (n=14), subcapsular hematoma (n=1), thickening of bridging septa (n=8), high intensity area in the muscle (n=8). These relatively subtle changes detected on MRI may not be apparent with other imaging techniques. (author)

  3. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has a kidney transplant have a baby? Yes. If you have a kidney transplant, you are likely to have regular menstrual periods and good general health. Therefore, getting pregnant and having a child is possible. But ...

  5. Real-time strategy video game experience and structural connectivity - A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Natalia; Shi, Feng; Magnuski, Mikolaj; Skorko, Maciek; Dobrowolski, Pawel; Kossowski, Bartosz; Marchewka, Artur; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2018-06-20

    Experienced video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognition when compared to non-players. However, very little is known about the relation between video game experience and structural brain plasticity. To address this issue, a direct comparison of the white matter brain structure in RTS (real time strategy) video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) was performed. We hypothesized that RTS experience can enhance connectivity within and between occipital and parietal regions, as these regions are likely to be involved in the spatial and visual abilities that are trained while playing RTS games. The possible influence of long-term RTS game play experience on brain structural connections was investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a region of interest (ROI) approach in order to describe the experience-related plasticity of white matter. Our results revealed significantly more total white matter connections between occipital and parietal areas and within occipital areas in RTS players compared to NVGPs. Additionally, the RTS group had an altered topological organization of their structural network, expressed in local efficiency within the occipito-parietal subnetwork. Furthermore, the positive association between network metrics and time spent playing RTS games suggests a close relationship between extensive, long-term RTS game play and neuroplastic changes. These results indicate that long-term and extensive RTS game experience induces alterations along axons that link structures of the occipito-parietal loop involved in spatial and visual processing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Integration and the performance of healthcare networks: do integration strategies enhance efficiency, profitability, and image?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T.H. Wan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the integration effects on efficiency and financial viability of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs in the United States. Theory: A contingency- strategic theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. Methods: The lists of the top 100 IHNs ranked in two years, 1998 and 1999, by the SMG Marketing Group were merged to create a database for the study. Multiple indicators were used to examine the relationship between IHNs' characteristics and their performance in efficiency and financial viability. A path analytical model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' images, represented by attaining ranking among the top 100 in two consecutive years, were analysed. Results and conclusion: No positive associations were found between integration and network performance in efficiency or profits. Longitudinal data are needed to investigate the effect of integration on healthcare networks' financial performance.

  7. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydronephrosis; Chronic hydronephrosis; Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  8. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  9. End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Surgery in Patients with Normal Preoperative Kidney Function: Balancing Surgical Strategy and Individual Disorders at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Volpe, Alessandro; Fiori, Cristian; Furlan, Maria; Dehò, Federico; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Porpiglia, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Simeone, Claudio; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Although nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has demonstrated benefit in terms of renal function preservation, it is unclear whether NSS might also decrease the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) relative to radical nephrectomy (RN). In the current paper, we aimed to report the rate and the predictors of ESRD after surgery, accounting for detailed individual baseline characteristics and comorbidities. A multi-institutional collaboration among five European tertiary care centers allowed study of 2027 patients with normal preoperative renal function and a clinically localized T1abN0M0 renal mass. Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of ESRD (defined as the onset of a postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney disease. Univariable ESRD rates at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were virtually equivalent for patients who underwent NSS (1.5% and 2.5%, respectively) versus RN (1.9% and 2.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.6). However, diabetes, smoking, uncontrolled hypertension, and other comorbidities were consistently more frequent in the NSS group relative to their RN counterparts. After adjusting for detailed baseline individual characteristics, NSS was shown to have an independent protective effect relative to RN (HR: 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p=0.02) at multivariable analyses. After accounting for individual baseline characteristics, such as age, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, or other comorbidities, partial nephrectomy independently protects against end-stage renal disease and the consequent need for dialysis relative to radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A strategy to measure electrophysiological changes with photoacoustic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepela, Rebecka J.; Sherlock, Benjamin E.; Tian, Lin; Marcu, Laura; Sack, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology capable of both functional and structural biological imaging. Absorption and scattering in tissue limit the penetration depth of conventional microscopy techniques to live cell imaging. This technology could permit photoacoustic imaging of electrophysiological dynamics in deep tissue, such as the brain. Further optimization of this technology could lead to concurrent imaging of neural activity and hemodynamic responses, a crucial step towards understanding neurovascular coupling in the brain.

  11. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  12. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et.al. Clinical manifestations of kidney disease among US adults with diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;316( ... of Washington, Associate Director, Kidney Research Institute ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center ...

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratala, Abhilash; Bhattacharya, Deepti; Kazory, Amir

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide, the number of pregnant women with various degrees of renal dysfunction is expected to increase. There is a bidirectional relation between CKD and pregnancy in which renal dysfunction negatively affects pregnancy outcomes, and the pregnancy can have a deleterious impact on various aspects of kidney disease. It has been shown that even mild renal dysfunction can increase considerably the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Moreover, data suggest that a history of recovery from acute kidney injury is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition to kidney dysfunction, maternal hypertension and proteinuria predispose women to negative outcomes and are important factors to consider in preconception counseling and the process of risk stratification. In this review, we provide an overview of the physiologic renal changes during pregnancy as well as available data regarding CKD and pregnancy outcomes. We also highlight the important management strategies in women with certain selected renal conditions that are seen commonly during the childbearing years. We call for future research on underexplored areas such as the concept of renal functional reserve to develop a potential clinical tool for prognostication and risk stratification of women at higher risk for complications during pregnancy.

  14. A giant hydronephrotic pelvic kidney mimicking an ovarian cyst in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... An ectopic kidney is a congenital abnormality in which a kidney is located ... tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary to make accurate diagnosis. ... history of fever, chills, vaginal bleeding or dysuria.

  15. Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: Analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Ghate, Sujata V.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The use of contrast agents in breast imaging has the capability of enhancing nodule detectability and providing physiological information. Accordingly, there has been a growing trend toward using iodine as a contrast medium in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Widespread use raises concerns about the best way to use iodine in DM and DBT, and thus a comparison is necessary to evaluate typical iodine-enhanced imaging methods. This study used a task-based observer model to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: unsubtracted mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Methods: Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d′, derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine signal difference, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 10 mm diameter lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d′ was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. Results: For all iodine concentrations and dose, temporal subtraction techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis yielded the highest d′, while dual energy techniques for both modalities demonstrated the next best performance. Unsubtracted imaging resulted in the lowest d′ values for both modalities, with unsubtracted mammography performing the worst out of all six paradigms. Conclusions: At any dose, temporal subtraction imaging provides the greatest detectability, with temporally subtracted DBT performing the highest. The authors attribute the successful performance to excellent cancellation of inplane structures and

  16. Kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the epidemiology, diagnostic workup and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with an emphasis on the Slovenian epidemiological data. RCC represents 2% of all cancers and is the third most common genitourinary tract tumour. It most frequently occurs among people of ages, between 50 and 60 years. Male patients are more prone to it than female. A number of environmental, occupational and genetic factors have been found to be associated with the development of RCC. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms and this is the reason why for half of them the disease is already metastatic when diagnosed. The most common sites of metastases are lungs (75%), followed by soft tissues (36%), bones (20%), liver (18%), skin (8%) and central nerve system (8%). In the evaluation of RCC multiple diagnostic procedures are needed with obligatory image diagnostics. Radical nephrectomy is still the mainstream treatment of localized disease. Nephron sparing techniques have been used in cases, where radical operation would result in an anephric patient. Efficient adjuvant therapy has not been discovered yet. Until recently interpherone and interleukin were the only known effective treatments for metastatic disease, but now new and more efficient biologic agents are being discovered. The most important prognostic factor for survival is stage at the beginning of treatment. The 5-year survival rate is 95% for patients with stage I disease, 88% for stage II, 59% for stage III and 20% for stage IV. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  18. Negotiating weight and body image in the UAE: strategies among young Emirati women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate weight, nutritional status, and attitudes toward weight and health among a cohort of young women drawn from local populations in the United Arab Emirates. This sample was composed of 103 female Emiratis, aged 18-30. Eighty of the women were students at Zayed University (ZU) in Dubai and 23 were students at UAE University (UAEU) in Al Ain. Research was divided into two phases. Methods included the collection of weight and height measurements (to analyze BMIs) and body fat percentages; 24-h food and activity recalls; semistructured, structured, and unstructured interviews; and participant observation. The distribution of BMIs in this sample was skewed toward underweight and normal weight in the ZU sample and split evenly between underweight-to-normal and overweight-to-obese in the UAEU sample, a finding that stands in contrast to the high rates of overweight and obesity reported in other age cohorts in local populations. This lower distribution of BMIs was correlated with widely expressed concern over body image, whereas reported interest in nutrition was much lower. Dietary patterns reflected attempts to manage weight. There was a marked trend toward nutritionally poor diets and sedentary living. Obesity and overweight among young women in the Emirati population do not appear to be as significant a problem as they are in older populations. However, several other health-related causes for concern emerged in this study, including extreme dieting strategies, insufficient micronutrient and protein intake, and widespread inactivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. EVALUATION OF ACQUISITION STRATEGIES FOR IMAGE-BASED CONSTRUCTION SITE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tuttas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM. The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ... of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and (iii acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane

  20. A Fast, Background-Independent Retrieval Strategy for Color Image Databases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, M; Draper, B. A; Lim, W. J; Manmatha, R; Riseman, E. M

    1996-01-01

    We describe an interactive, multi-phase color-based image retrieval system which is capable of identifying query objects specified by the user in an image in the presence of significant, interfering backgrounds...

  1. Optimization of a Pretargeted Strategy for the PET Imaging of Colorectal Carcinoma via the Modulation of Radioligand Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglis, Brian M; Brand, Christian; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Cook, Brendon E; Carlin, Sean; Reiner, Thomas; Lewis, Jason S

    2015-10-05

    Pretargeted PET imaging has emerged as an effective strategy for merging the exquisite selectivity of antibody-based targeting vectors with the rapid pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled small molecules. We previously reported the development of a strategy for the pretargeted PET imaging of colorectal cancer based on the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between a tetrazine-bearing radioligand and a transcyclooctene-modified huA33 immunoconjugate. Although this method effectively delineated tumor tissue, its clinical potential was limited by the somewhat sluggish clearance of the radioligand through the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we report the development and in vivo validation of a pretargeted strategy for the PET imaging of colorectal carcinoma with dramatically improved pharmacokinetics. Two novel tetrazine constructs, Tz-PEG7-NOTA and Tz-SarAr, were synthesized, characterized, and radiolabeled with (64)Cu in high yield (>90%) and radiochemical purity (>99%). PET imaging and biodistribution experiments in healthy mice revealed that although (64)Cu-Tz-PEG7-NOTA is cleared via both the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, (64)Cu-Tz-SarAr is rapidly excreted by the renal system alone. On this basis, (64)Cu-Tz-SarAr was selected for further in vivo evaluation. To this end, mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 human colorectal carcinoma xenografts were administered huA33-TCO, and the immunoconjugate was given 24 h to accumulate at the tumor and clear from the blood, after which (64)Cu-Tz-SarAr was administered via intravenous tail vein injection. PET imaging and biodistribution experiments revealed specific uptake of the radiotracer in the tumor at early time points (5.6 ± 0.7 %ID/g at 1 h p.i.), high tumor-to-background activity ratios, and rapid elimination of unclicked radioligand. Importantly, experiments with longer antibody accumulation intervals (48 and 120 h) yielded slight decreases in tumoral uptake but also concomitant

  2. Hospital image and the positioning of service centers: an application in market analysis and strategy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Clark, M

    1990-09-01

    The research confirms the coexistence of different images for hospitals, service centers within the same hospitals, and service programs offered by each of the service centers. The images of individual service centers are found not to be tied to the image of the host facility. Further, service centers and host facilities have differential rankings on the same service decision attributes. Managerial recommendations are offered for "image differentiation" between a hospital and its care centers.

  3. New dosing strategies for an old antibiotic: pharmacodynamics of front-loaded regimens of colistin at simulated pharmacokinetics in patients with kidney or liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gauri G; Ly, Neang S; Haas, Curtis E; Garonzik, Samira; Forrest, Alan; Bulitta, Jurgen B; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Tsuji, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that colistin monotherapy is suboptimal at currently recommended doses. We hypothesized that front-loading provides an improved dosing strategy for polymyxin antibiotics to maximize killing and minimize total exposure. Here, we utilized an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to examine the impact of front-loaded colistin regimens against a high bacterial density (10(8) CFU/ml) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pharmacokinetics were simulated for patients with hepatic (half-life [t1/2] of 3.2 h) or renal (t1/2 of 14.8 h) disease. Front-loaded regimens (n=5) demonstrated improvement in bacterial killing, with reduced overall free drug areas under the concentration-time curve (fAUC) compared to those with traditional dosing regimens (n=14) with various dosing frequencies (every 12 h [q12h] and q24h). In the renal failure simulations, front-loaded regimens at lower exposures (fAUC of 143 mg · h/liter) obtained killing activity similar to that of traditional regimens (fAUC of 268 mg · h/liter), with an ∼97% reduction in the area under the viable count curve over 48 h. In hepatic failure simulations, front-loaded regimens yielded rapid initial killing by up to 7 log10 within 2 h, but considerable regrowth occurred for both front-loaded and traditional regimens. No regimen eradicated the high bacterial inoculum of P. aeruginosa. The current study, which utilizes an in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model, demonstrates the potential benefits of front-loading strategies for polymyxins simulating differential pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic and renal failure at a range of doses. Our findings may have important clinical implications, as front-loading polymyxins as a part of a combination regimen may be a viable strategy for aggressive treatment of high-bacterial-burden infections.

  4. System for accessing a collection of histology images using content-based strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez F; Caicedo J C; Cruz Roa A; Camargo, J; Spinel, C

    2010-01-01

    Histology images are an important resource for research, education and medical practice. The availability of image collections with reference purposes is limited to printed formats such as books and specialized journals. When histology image sets are published in digital formats, they are composed of some tens of images that do not represent the wide diversity of biological structures that can be found in fundamental tissues; making a complete histology image collection available to the general public having a great impact on research and education in different areas such as medicine, biology and natural sciences. This work presents the acquisition process of a histology image collection with 20,000 samples in digital format, from tissue processing to digital image capturing. The main purpose of collecting these images is to make them available as reference material to the academic community. In addition, this paper presents the design and architecture of a system to query and explore the image collection, using content-based image retrieval tools and text-based search on the annotations provided by experts. The system also offers novel image visualization methods to allow easy identification of interesting images among hundreds of possible pictures. The system has been developed using a service-oriented architecture and allows web-based access in http://www.informed.unal.edu.co

  5. Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejimba, Lynda; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Baiyu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Zerhouni, Moustafa; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2012-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique that provides 3D structural information of the breast. In contrast to 2D mammography, DBT minimizes tissue overlap potentially improving cancer detection and reducing number of unnecessary recalls. The addition of a contrast agent to DBT and mammography for lesion enhancement has the benefit of providing functional information of a lesion, as lesion contrast uptake and washout patterns may help differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. This study used a task-based method to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: contrast enhanced mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d', derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine contrast, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 5 mm lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d' was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. In general, higher dose gave higher d', but for the lowest iodine concentration and lowest dose, dual energy subtraction tomosynthesis and temporal subtraction tomosynthesis demonstrated the highest performance.

  6. Microvascular pericytes in healthy and diseased kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Szu-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Shuei-Liong

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are interstitial mesenchymal cells found in many major organs. In the kidney, microvascular pericytes are defined anatomically as extensively branched, collagen-producing cells in close contact with endothelial cells. Although many molecular markers have been proposed, none of them can identify the pericytes with satisfactory specificity or sensitivity. The roles of microvascular pericytes in kidneys were poorly understood in the past. Recently, by using genetic lineage tracing to label collagen-producing cells or mesenchymal cells, the elusive characteristics of the pericytes have been illuminated. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in the understanding of microvascular pericytes in the kidneys. In healthy kidney, the pericytes are found to take part in the maintenance of microvascular stability. Detachment of the pericytes from the microvasculature and loss of the close contact with endothelial cells have been observed during renal insult. Renal microvascular pericytes have been shown to be the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts in fibrogenic kidney disease. Targeting the crosstalk between pericytes and neighboring endothelial cells or tubular epithelial cells may inhibit the pericyte–myofibroblast transition, prevent peritubular capillary rarefaction, and attenuate renal fibrosis. In addition, renal pericytes deserve attention for their potential to produce erythropoietin in healthy kidneys as pericytes stand in the front line, sensing the change of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration. Further delineation of the mechanisms underlying the reduced erythropoietin production occurring during pericyte–myofibroblast transition may be promising for the development of new treatment strategies for anemia in chronic kidney disease. PMID:24465134

  7. RLIP76 Targeted Therapy for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singhal, Jyotsana; Figarola, James; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent improvements in chemotherapeutic approaches to treating kidney cancer, this malignancy remains deadly if not found and removed at an early stage of the disease. Kidney cancer is highly drug-resistant, which may at least partially result from high expression of transporter proteins in the cell membranes of kidney cells. Although these transporter proteins can contribute to drug-resistance, targeting proteins from the ATP-binding cassette transporter family has not been effective in reversing drug-resistance in kidney cancer. Recent studies have identified RLIP76 as a key stress-defense protein that protects normal cells from damage caused by stress conditions, including heat, ultra-violet light, X-irradiation, and oxidant/electrophilic toxic chemicals, and is crucial for protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. RLIP76 is the predominant glutathione-electrophile-conjugate (GS-E) transporter in cells, and inhibiting it with antibodies or through siRNA or antisense causes apoptosis in many cancer cell types. To date, blocking of RLIP76, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, as a therapeutic strategy for kidney cancer has not yet been evaluated in human clinical trials, although there is considerable potential for RLIP76 to be developed as a therapeutic agent for kidney cancer. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying apoptosis caused by RLIP76 depletion, the role of RLIP76 in clathrin-dependent endocytosis deficiency, and the feasibility of RLIP76-targeted therapy for kidney cancer.

  8. Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and Decrease Body Size among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents. Findings indicated females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and…

  9. Analysis of spatiotemporal metabolomic dynamics for sensitively monitoring biological alterations in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Miho; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Honda, Youhei; Setoyama, Daiki; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Fuminori; Miura, Daisuke

    2018-01-29

    Clinical application of the major anticancer drug, cisplatin, is limited by severe side effects, especially acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by nephrotoxicity. The detailed metabolic mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated technique combining mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to visualize the diverse spatiotemporal metabolic dynamics in the mouse kidney after cisplatin dosing. Biological responses to cisplatin was more sensitively detected within 24 h as a metabolic alteration, which is much earlier than possible with the conventional clinical chemistry method of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement. Region-specific changes (e.g., medulla and cortex) in metabolites related to DNA damage and energy generation were observed over the 72-h exposure period. Therefore, this metabolomics approach may become a novel strategy for elucidating early renal responses to cisplatin, prior to the detection of kidney damage evaluated by conventional method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The bioengineered kidney: science or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Leif; Carroll, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    This article gives an overview of important new advances relating to kidney bioengineering. Directed differentiation studies have shown that proximal tubules, distal tubules, podocytes, collecting ducts, interstitium and endothelial cells can be generated from patient-derived stem cells using standardized protocols. One caveat to the interpretation of these studies is that the physiological characteristics of differentiated cells remain to be defined. Another important area of progress is scaffolding. Both decellularized organs and polymeric materials are being used as platforms for three-dimensional growth of kidney tissue, and key distinctions between these approaches are discussed. In the past 3 years, it has become clear that building kidney tissue is feasible. The laboratory-grown kidney is an attainable goal if efforts are focused on refining directed differentiation procedures to optimize cell function and on developing scaffolding strategies that ensure physiological function at the tissue level.

  11. Innovation Strategy Research of Yunnan Image in Modern Entertainment Channels based on Regression and Inheritance of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shao[1

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image in the modern entertainment channels based on regression and inheritance of culture. The concept of culture and complicated contents as simply includes material culture and spiritual culture. Cultural inheritance is the process of acculturation a nation it not only is the transmission of national culture, the inheritance and development that also can be refl ected by many indexes. Multicultural education theory formed in the American civil rights movement in the 1960s. Multicultural education theory is that, when the mainstream national culture and the minority subculture in contact, every culture shall be entitled to retain their own cultural traits. Our research integrate the regression and inheritance of culture to then propose the innovation strategy research of the Yunnan image that will promote further development of the corresponding and related industry.

  12. Images and symbols of nuclear energy and environment in Argentine public opinion: the need of a new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahab, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The need to create in the Argentine public opinion new positives symbols and images on nuclear energy and on the benefits of its peaceful applications, is al present so important as the development of new technical tools to improve the nuclear industry. These positives symbols and imagines on nuclear energy must be created in the framework of a joint strategy of all the country's nuclear institutions as well as other public organizations, in view of the new nuclear plan recently announced. This joint strategy will permit to create not only the new positives symbols and images in the public opinion, but also to obtain the support of the mass media and new spaces for negotiation in the national, provincial and municipal levels. (author) [es

  13. WE-G-BRF-09: Force- and Image-Adaptive Strategies for Robotised Placement of 4D Ultrasound Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlemann, I [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Life Science, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Bruder, R; Ernst, F; Schweikard, A [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To allow continuous acquisition of high quality 4D ultrasound images for non-invasive live tracking of tumours for IGRT, image- and force-adaptive strategies for robotised placement of 4D ultrasound probes are developed and evaluated. Methods: The developed robotised ultrasound system is based on a 6-axes industrial robot (adept Viper s850) carrying a 4D ultrasound transducer with a mounted force-torque sensor. The force-adaptive placement strategies include probe position control using artificial potential fields and contact pressure regulation by a PD controller strategy. The basis for live target tracking is a continuous minimum contact pressure to ensure good image quality and high patient comfort. This contact pressure can be significantly disturbed by respiratory movements and has to be compensated. All measurements were performed on human subjects under realistic conditions. When performing cardiac ultrasound, rib- and lung shadows are a common source of interference and can disrupt the tracking. To ensure continuous tracking, these artefacts had to be detected to automatically realign the probe. The detection is realised by multiple algorithms based on entropy calculations as well as a determination of the image quality. Results: Through active contact pressure regulation it was possible to reduce the variance of the contact pressure by 89.79% despite respiratory motion of the chest. The results regarding the image processing clearly demonstrate the feasibility to detect image artefacts like rib shadows in real-time. Conclusion: In all cases, it was possible to stabilise the image quality by active contact pressure control and automatically detected image artefacts. This fact enables the possibility to compensate for such interferences by realigning the probe and thus continuously optimising the ultrasound images. This is a huge step towards fully automated transducer positioning and opens the possibility for stable target tracking in

  14. WE-G-BRF-09: Force- and Image-Adaptive Strategies for Robotised Placement of 4D Ultrasound Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlemann, I; Bruder, R; Ernst, F; Schweikard, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To allow continuous acquisition of high quality 4D ultrasound images for non-invasive live tracking of tumours for IGRT, image- and force-adaptive strategies for robotised placement of 4D ultrasound probes are developed and evaluated. Methods: The developed robotised ultrasound system is based on a 6-axes industrial robot (adept Viper s850) carrying a 4D ultrasound transducer with a mounted force-torque sensor. The force-adaptive placement strategies include probe position control using artificial potential fields and contact pressure regulation by a PD controller strategy. The basis for live target tracking is a continuous minimum contact pressure to ensure good image quality and high patient comfort. This contact pressure can be significantly disturbed by respiratory movements and has to be compensated. All measurements were performed on human subjects under realistic conditions. When performing cardiac ultrasound, rib- and lung shadows are a common source of interference and can disrupt the tracking. To ensure continuous tracking, these artefacts had to be detected to automatically realign the probe. The detection is realised by multiple algorithms based on entropy calculations as well as a determination of the image quality. Results: Through active contact pressure regulation it was possible to reduce the variance of the contact pressure by 89.79% despite respiratory motion of the chest. The results regarding the image processing clearly demonstrate the feasibility to detect image artefacts like rib shadows in real-time. Conclusion: In all cases, it was possible to stabilise the image quality by active contact pressure control and automatically detected image artefacts. This fact enables the possibility to compensate for such interferences by realigning the probe and thus continuously optimising the ultrasound images. This is a huge step towards fully automated transducer positioning and opens the possibility for stable target tracking in

  15. Extended data analysis strategies for high resolution imaging MS : new methods to deal with extremely large image hyperspectral datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, L.A.; Broersen, A.; Fletcher, I.W.; Liere, van R.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The large size of the hyperspectral datasets that are produced with modern mass spectrometric imaging techniques makes it difficult to analyze the results. Unsupervised statistical techniques are needed to extract relevant information from these datasets and reduce the data into a surveyable

  16. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A.; Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony; Sharrard, Mark; Mordekar, Santosh R.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  17. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  18. Strategi Komunikasi Pemasaran dalam Membangun Brand Image pada Media Sosial Twitter @Pekanbaruco

    OpenAIRE

    Febriani, Mega

    2014-01-01

    Social media twitter is a gathering place for those people who want to shareinformation and a place to make new friends and interact online. Therefore, todaymany social media twitter accounts are present using the brand image as businessaccount because success of the twitter to promote products and services. Amidst themany other competitors that carries the same brand image, @PekanbaruCo managein building a brand image as a business accounts evidenced by an increase infollowers and clients. T...

  19. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Farid; Mahnaz Akbari Kamrani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strate...

  20. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Høyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i realistic 3-D training images and (ii an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m  ×  100 m  ×  5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical

  1. Increasing access to kidney transplantation in countries with limited resources: the Indian experience with kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. A Review of Salivary Gland Malignancies: Common Histologic Types, Anatomic Considerations, and Imaging Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Remy; Hawk, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2018-05-01

    Major and minor salivary gland malignancies come in various shapes and sizes. They can present as palpable masses or can be detected incidentally when imaging patients for other indications. A complete evaluation of salivary gland malignancies requires knowledge of the anatomy and various routes of spread of neoplasias. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging are complementary tools in this respect and offer useful information to the proceduralist. Advanced imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging and PET-CT) and other modalities (eg, ultrasound) help with characterization, although biopsy or excision is often needed for definitive tissue diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonography of polycystic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Cho, Seung Gi; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1980-01-01

    Polycystic disease is defined as a heritable disorder with diffuse involvement of both kidneys. The term 'Polycystic disease' comprises at least two separate, genetically different disease-one with an onset typically in childhood (infantile polycystic disease) and the other with an onset typically in adulthood (adult polycystic disease). Adult polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of cystic kidney disease in humans. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected renal diseases as well as screening test. 14 cases of ultrasonography in patient with polycystic kidney were reviewed. All cases show unilateral or bilateral enlarged kidneys. 7 cases reveal kidneys and liver replaced by multiple cysts of varing size. Screening ultrasonography for a familial tree is reported

  4. Opportunities for Engaging Patients in Kidney Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam N. Demian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the rationale for engaging patients in research as well as to review the established and envisioned advantages and strategies for patient-researcher partnerships. The authors of this article, which include a patient and 4 researchers in kidney disease, discuss the expected benefits and opportunities for patient engagement in their respective research programs. The 4 research programs span the spectrum of kidney disease and focus on enhancing bone health, increasing living donor kidney transplants, improving medication adherence, and preventing kidney transplant rejection. Sources of Information: The sources of information for this review include published studies on the topics of patient engagement and the 4 research programs of the new investigators. Key Findings: (1 Patient, health care provider, and researcher partnerships can contribute useful insights capable of enhancing research in kidney disease. (2 Regardless of the research program, there are various strategies and opportunities for engagement of patients with lived experience across the various stages of research in kidney disease. (3 Envisioned advantages of patient-researcher partnerships include: targeting patient-identified research priorities, integrating patients’ experiential knowledge, improving study design and feasibility through patient-researcher input, facilitating dissemination of research findings to other patients, effectively responding to patient concerns about studies, and inspiring researchers to conduct their research. Limitations: The limitations of the current review include the relative scarcity of literature on patient engagement within the field of kidney disease. Implications: The findings of the current review suggest that it will be important for future studies to identify optimal strategies for patient engagement in setting research priorities, study design, participant recruitment

  5. Acute antibody-mediated rejection in pancreas and kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Hanneke de

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, acute rejection after kidney, simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPKT), and islets of Langerhans transplantation was addressed. The focus is on acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after transplantation and on a potential strategy using cellular immune modulation to prevent acute

  6. Testing strategies for digital picture processing of industrial X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, D.; Klatte, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital picture processing for difficult inspection work in general involves long and complex processing and much computer time. An adequate testing strategy can considerably reduce the testing time, which is shown by the example of a strategy for automated radiographic testing of castings. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Respiration-Correlated Image Guidance Is the Most Important Radiotherapy Motion Management Strategy for Most Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte; Nygaard, Ditte; Brink, Carsten; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), 4D image guidance (4D-IG), and beam gating on calculated treatment field margins in a lung cancer patient population. Materials and Methods: Images were acquired from 46 lung cancer patients participating in four separate protocols at three institutions in Europe and the United States. Seven patients were imaged using fluoroscopy, and 39 patients were imaged using 4DCT. The magnitude of respiratory tumor motion was measured. The required treatment field margins were calculated using a statistical recipe (van Herk M, et al. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000;474:1121–1135), with magnitudes of all uncertainties, except respiratory peak-to-peak displacement, the same for all patients, taken from literature. Required margins for respiratory motion management were calculated using the residual respiratory tumor motion for each patient for various motion management strategies. Margin reductions for respiration management were calculated using 4DCT, 4D-IG, and gated beam delivery. Results: The median tumor motion magnitude was 4.4 mm for the 46 patients (range 0–29.3 mm). This value corresponded to required treatment field margins of 13.7 to 36.3 mm (median 14.4 mm). The use of 4DCT, 4D-IG, and beam gating required margins that were reduced by 0 to 13.9 mm (median 0.5 mm), 3 to 5.2 mm (median 5.1 mm), and 0 to 7 mm (median 0.2 mm), respectively, to a total of 8.5 to 12.4 mm (median 8.6 mm). Conclusion: A respiratory management strategy for lung cancer radiotherapy including planning on 4DCT scans and daily image guidance provides a potential reduction of 37% to 47% in treatment field margins. The 4D image guidance strategy was the most effective strategy for >85% of the patients.

  8. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  9. Usefulness of CT in diagnosing and staging of kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batycka-Ugorska, I.

    1993-01-01

    Article presents 170 patients with suspected kidney cancer and applicability of CT in the diagnosis. According to author CT imaging is better than others (ultrasonography, urography) in assessment of the tumor development and detection of metastases to lymphatic nodes of abdomen and other organs. The method is compared with angiography in diagnosis of metastases of kidney cancer to veins

  10. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  11. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression-Based Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett; Staatz, Christine E

    2018-04-01

    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in 20 adult renal transplant patients on 2 occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately 1 month after transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours after dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using 19 published LSSs and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared with the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error) were determined. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute prediction error for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  12. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  13. Emerging role of autophagy in kidney function, diseases and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Björn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002

  14. USRC: a new strategy for adding digital images to the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelle, David; Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil

    2012-10-01

    Many medical schools use learning management systems (LMSs) to give students access to online lecture notes, assignments, quizzes, and other learning resources. LMSs can also be used to provide access to digital radiology images, potentially improving preclinical teaching in anatomy, physiology, and pathology while also allowing students to develop interpretation skills that are important in clinical practice. However, it is unclear how radiology images can best be stored, imported, and displayed in an LMS. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a new web application that allows course designers to import images into pages linked to BlackBoard Learn, a popular LMS. Page content, including images, annotations, captions, and supporting text, are stored as teaching cases on a MIRC (Medical Imaging Resource Center) server. Course designers create cases in MIRC, and then create a corresponding page in BlackBoard by modifying an HTML template so that it holds the URL of a MIRC case. When a user visits the page in BlackBoard, the page requests content from the MIRC case, reformats the text for display in BlackBoard, and loads an image viewer plug-in that allows students to view and interact with the images stored in the case. The USRC technology can be used to reformat MIRC cases for presentation in any website or in any learning management system that supports custom pages written in HTML with embedded JavaScript.

  15. Image Strategy of Nogizaka46 : How Do Young People Perceive It?

    OpenAIRE

    UEDA, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Nogizaka46, one of the top idol groups in Japan, was established as an official rival of AKB48 in 2012. Although its image was initially intended to be different from that of AKB48, ordinary people have some difficulty differentiating the group’s image as unique. This study examines how Nogizaka46 is perceived by young people, utilizing data collected from university students in Tokyo, Japan. Data analysis shows that Nogizaka46 has a distinctly different image from AKB48. Further, the effect ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can ...

  17. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  18. A Fast, Background-Independent Retrieval Strategy for Color Image Databases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, M; Draper, B. A; Lim, W. J; Manmatha, R; Riseman, E. M

    1996-01-01

    .... The method is fast and has low storage overhead. Good retrieval results are obtained with multi-colored query objects even when they occur in arbitrary sizes, rotations and locations in the database images...

  19. Xenograft Models of Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia for the Development of Imaging Strategies and Evaluation of Novel Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelebart, Pascal; Popa, Mihaela; McCormack, Emmet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress made in the comprehension of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over the last 30 years most patients die from their disease. Our understanding of AML has relied on an intensive in-vitro research approach, based on AML cell lines as well as primary AML patient cells. However, experimental insight into the early events of AML leukemogenesis before they become clinically observable is not possible in humans. Thus, preclinical animal models have served the purpose to extend our knowledge of the disease as well as to develop innovative therapeutic strategies. Today, xenograft models using patient-derived neoplastic/leukemia cells represent the strategy of choice for preclinical studies of AML. These models exhibit several key advantages over AML cell lines. In fact, patient-derived cells, in contrast to AML cell lines, encompass the entire complexity of AML disease and can therefore provide more trustworthy results on the efficacy outcome of novel therapies. One other important aspect in the development of xenograft models of AML is the possibility to use imaging techniques to monitor in-vivo the progression of the disease. Imaging techniques also authorize the evaluation of the efficacy of an experimental treatment on tumor growth. This review will focus on the description of xenograft models of AML and will provide researchers and clinicians an overview of how these models have been used for the development of new therapeutic options and new imaging approaches to study AML in-vivo.

  20. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungus to red kidney and wheat plants tolerance grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. ... artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. ... strategies of remediation of highly heavy metal contaminated soils.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.

  2. A novel strategy to access high resolution DICOM medical images based on JPEG2000 interactive protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Cai, Weihua; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2008-03-01

    The demand for sharing medical information has kept rising. However, the transmission and displaying of high resolution medical images are limited if the network has a low transmission speed or the terminal devices have limited resources. In this paper, we present an approach based on JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) to browse high resolution medical images in an efficient way. We designed and implemented an interactive image communication system with client/server architecture and integrated it with Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In our interactive image communication system, the JPIP server works as the middleware between clients and PACS servers. Both desktop clients and wireless mobile clients can browse high resolution images stored in PACS servers via accessing the JPIP server. The client can only make simple requests which identify the resolution, quality and region of interest and download selected portions of the JPEG2000 code-stream instead of downloading and decoding the entire code-stream. After receiving a request from a client, the JPIP server downloads the requested image from the PACS server and then responds the client by sending the appropriate code-stream. We also tested the performance of the JPIP server. The JPIP server runs stably and reliably under heavy load.

  3. Medical Image Registration by means of a Bio-Inspired Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariton Costin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging mainly treats and processes missing, ambiguous, complementary, redundant and distorted data. Biomedical image registration is the process of geometric overlaying or alignment of two or more 2D/3D images of the same scene, taken at different time slots, from different angles, and/or by different acquisition systems. In medical practice, it is becoming increasingly important in diagnosis, treatment planning, functional studies, computer-guided therapies, and in biomedical research. Technically, image registration implies a complex optimization of different parameters, performed at local or/and global levels. Local optimization methods frequently fail because functions of the involved metrics with respect to transformation parameters are generally nonconvex and irregular. Therefore, global methods are often required, at least at the beginning of the procedure. In this paper, a new evolutionary and bio-inspired approach -- bacterial foraging optimization -- is adapted for single-slice to 3-D PET and CT multimodal image registration. Preliminary results of optimizing the normalized mutual information similarity metric validated the efficacy of the proposed method by using a freely available medical image database.

  4. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureters, bladder, and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. Serious kidney complications associated with IBD are rare, ... Proteinuria, an elevated level of protein in the urine, is one sign of amyloidosis. A biopsy (tissue sample) of the kidney can confirm the diagnosis. Various ...

  5. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S. [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  6. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  7. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  8. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  9. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  10. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, you can continue to live a productive life, work, spend time with friends and family, stay physically active, and do other things you enjoy. You may need to change what you eat and add healthy ... active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is ...

  11. Experimental investigation of mouse kidney aging with SR PCI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifeng, P.; Zehua, Z.; Guohao, D.; Tiqiao, X.; Hongjie, X.; Peiping, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Basing on the coherence character of the Synchrotron radiation (SR), the mouse kidney study is performed using the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technology which as one approach of the phase contrasts imaging (PCI). The aim of this paper was to visualize the kidney at different ages and evaluate the latent value of aging mechanism with SR phase contrast imaging technology. Methods. The experiments were performed at the BL13W1 line of the SSRF (the Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility), the samples were soaked in 10% formalin solution, the mouse kidneys at different ages were imaged on the shelf in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging setup and captured with CCD. The captured images were analyzed and compared. Results. When the distance is 50 cm between the samples and imaging plate, good contrast and high resolution were obtained in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI), as such renal capsule revealed well, and the resolution reach to 30 micron; there is significant difference in the shape and vessels structures among the mouse kidneys at different age. Conclusion. The PCI is good for the applying of main light element organization imaging, the difference in shape and vessels structure between the young and old mouse kidney maybe indicated at some extent with the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technology.

  12. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  13. Biodegradable nanoparticles for improved kidney bioavailability of rhein: preparation, characterization, plasma, and kidney pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yinghui; Luo, Xiaoting; Guan, Jiani; Ma, Jianping; Zhong, Yicong; Luo, Jingwen; Li, Fanzhu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop biodegradable nanoparticles for improved kidney bioavailability of rhein (RH). RH-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using an emulsification solvent evaporation method and fully characterized by several techniques. Kidney pharmacokinetics was assessed by implanting a microdialysis probe in rat's kidney cortex. Blood samples were simultaneously collected (via femoral artery) for assessing plasma pharmacokinetics. Optimized nanoparticles were small, with a mean particle size of 132.6 ± 5.95 nm, and homogeneously dispersed. The charge on the particles was nearly zero, the encapsulation efficiency was 62.71 ± 3.02%, and the drug loading was 1.56 ± 0.15%. In vitro release of RH from the nanoparticles showed an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. Plasma and kidney pharmacokinetics showed that encapsulation of RH into nanoparticles significantly increased its kidney bioavailability (AUC kidney /AUC plasma  = 0.586 ± 0.072), clearly indicating that nanoparticles are a promising strategy for kidney drug delivery.

  14. Influence of magnetic field strength and image registration strategy on voxel-based morphometry in a study of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Kherif, Ferath; Krueger, Gunnar; Grabowska, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Multi-centre data repositories like the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) offer a unique research platform, but pose questions concerning comparability of results when using a range of imaging protocols and data processing algorithms. The variability is mainly due to the non-quantitative character of the widely used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Although the stability of the main effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain structure across platforms and field strength has been addressed in previous studies using multi-site MR images, there are only sparse empirically-based recommendations for processing and analysis of pooled multi-centre structural MR data acquired at different magnetic field strengths (MFS). Aiming to minimise potential systematic bias when using ADNI data we investigate the specific contributions of spatial registration strategies and the impact of MFS on voxel-based morphometry in AD. We perform a whole-brain analysis within the framework of Statistical Parametric Mapping, testing for main effects of various diffeomorphic spatial registration strategies, of MFS and their interaction with disease status. Beyond the confirmation of medial temporal lobe volume loss in AD, we detect a significant impact of spatial registration strategy on estimation of AD related atrophy. Additionally, we report a significant effect of MFS on the assessment of brain anatomy (i) in the cerebellum, (ii) the precentral gyrus and (iii) the thalamus bilaterally, showing no interaction with the disease status. We provide empirical evidence in support of pooling data in multi-centre VBM studies irrespective of disease status or MFS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  16. Optical coherence tomography of the living human kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Andrews

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN induced by ischemia is the most common insult to donor kidneys destined for transplantation. ATN results from swelling and subsequent damage to cells lining the kidney tubules. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT to image the renal microstructures of living human donor kidneys and potentially provide a measure to determine the extent of ATN. We also found that Doppler-based OCT (i.e., DOCT reveals renal blood flow dynamics that is another major factor which could relate to post-transplant renal function. All OCT/DOCT observations were performed in a noninvasive, sterile and timely manner on intact human kidneys both prior to (ex vivo and following (in vivo their transplantation. Our results indicate that this imaging model provides transplant surgeons with an objective visualization of the transplant kidneys prior and immediately post transplantation.

  17. A modified elliptical formula to estimate kidney collagen content in a model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jake A; Zhu, Janice; Duan, Bin; Li, Jingsong; Zhou, Ping; Paka, Latha; Yamin, Michael A; Goldberg, Itzhak D; Narayan, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    The extent of scarring or renal interstitial collagen deposition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can only be ascertained by highly invasive, painful and sometimes risky, tissue biopsy. Interestingly, while CKD-related abnormalities in kidney size can often be visualized using ultrasound, not only does the ellipsoid formula used today underestimate true renal size, but the calculated renal size does not inform tubulointerstitial collagen content. We used coronal kidney sections from healthy mice and mice with kidney disease to develop a new formula for estimating renal parenchymal area. While treating the kidney as an ellipse with the major axis (a) the polar distance, this technique involves extending the minor axis (b) into the renal pelvis to obtain a new minor axis, be. The calculated renal parenchymal area is remarkably similar to the true or measured area. Biochemically determined kidney collagen content revealed a strong and positive correlation with the calculated renal parenchymal area. Picrosirius red staining for tubulointerstitial collagen also correlated with calculated renal parenchymal area. The extent of renal scarring, i.e. kidney interstitial collagen content, can now be computed by making just two axial measurements which can easily be accomplished via noninvasive imaging of this organ.

  18. High-surgical-volume hospitals associated with better quality and lower cost of kidney transplantation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yun Tsao

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Seventy-seven percent of kidney transplant surgeries were concentrated at six hospitals in Taiwan. There were significant differences in quality and cost between HSVHs and LSVHs. We suggest adopting volume-based strategies for nonurgent kidney transplants.

  19. Evaluation of Parallel and Fan-Beam Data Acquisition Geometries and Strategies for Myocardial SPECT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yujin; Tsui, B. M. W.; Gilland, K. L.; Frey, E. C.; Gullberg, G. T.

    2004-06-01

    This study evaluates myocardial SPECT images obtained from parallel-hole (PH) and fan-beam (FB) collimator geometries using both circular-orbit (CO) and noncircular-orbit (NCO) acquisitions. A newly developed 4-D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom was used to simulate the /sup 99m/Tc-sestamibi uptakes in human torso with myocardial defects in the left ventricular (LV) wall. Two phantoms were generated to simulate patients with thick and thin body builds. Projection data including the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response and scatter were generated using SIMSET Monte Carlo simulations. A large number of photon histories were generated such that the projection data were close to noise free. Poisson noise fluctuations were then added to simulate the count densities found in clinical data. Noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the iterative OS-EM reconstruction algorithm with attenuation compensation. The reconstructed images from noisy projection data show that the noise levels are lower for the FB as compared to the PH collimator due to increase in detected counts. The NCO acquisition method provides slightly better resolution and small improvement in defect contrast as compared to the CO acquisition method in noise-free reconstructed images. Despite lower projection counts the NCO shows the same noise level as the CO in the attenuation corrected reconstruction images. The results from the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) study show that FB collimator is superior to PH collimator in myocardial defect detection, but the NCO shows no statistical significant difference from the CO for either PH or FB collimator. In conclusion, our results indicate that data acquisition using NCO makes a very small improvement in the resolution over CO for myocardial SPECT imaging. This small improvement does not make a significant difference on myocardial defect detection. However, an FB collimator provides better defect detection than a

  20. Renal oxygenation and hemodynamics in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhleen; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Nordquist, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Acute kidney injury (AKI) puts a major burden on health systems that may arise from multiple initiating insults, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiovascular surgery, radio-contrast administration as well as sepsis. Similarly, the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to increase with significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, an increasing number of AKI patients survive to develop CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). 2. Although the mechanisms for development of AKI and progression of CKD remain poorly understood, initial impairment of oxygen balance is likely to constitute a common pathway, causing renal tissue hypoxia and ATP starvation that will in turn induce extracellular matrix production, collagen deposition and fibrosis. Thus, possible future strategies for one or both conditions may involve dopamine, loop-diuretics, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and atrial natriuretic peptide, substances that target kidney oxygen consumption and regulators of renal oxygenation such as nitric oxide and heme oxygenase-1. PMID:23360244

  1. Impact of PET/CT image reconstruction methods and liver uptake normalization strategies on quantitative image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnert, Georg; Sterzer, Sergej; Kahraman, Deniz; Dietlein, Markus; Drzezga, Alexander; Kobe, Carsten [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheffler, Matthias; Wolf, Juergen [University Hospital of Cologne, Lung Cancer Group Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne Bonn, Cologne (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    In oncological imaging using PET/CT, the standardized uptake value has become the most common parameter used to measure tracer accumulation. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate ultra high definition (UHD) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) PET/CT reconstructions for their potential impact on quantification. We analyzed 40 PET/CT scans of lung cancer patients who had undergone PET/CT. Standardized uptake values corrected for body weight (SUV) and lean body mass (SUL) were determined in the single hottest lesion in the lung and normalized to the liver for UHD and OSEM reconstruction. Quantitative uptake values and their normalized ratios for the two reconstruction settings were compared using the Wilcoxon test. The distribution of quantitative uptake values and their ratios in relation to the reconstruction method used were demonstrated in the form of frequency distribution curves, box-plots and scatter plots. The agreement between OSEM and UHD reconstructions was assessed through Bland-Altman analysis. A significant difference was observed after OSEM and UHD reconstruction for SUV and SUL data tested (p < 0.0005 in all cases). The mean values of the ratios after OSEM and UHD reconstruction showed equally significant differences (p < 0.0005 in all cases). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the SUV and SUL and their normalized values were, on average, up to 60 % higher after UHD reconstruction as compared to OSEM reconstruction. OSEM and HD reconstruction brought a significant difference for SUV and SUL, which remained constantly high after normalization to the liver, indicating that standardization of reconstruction and the use of comparable SUV measurements are crucial when using PET/CT. (orig.)

  2. Spectroscopic photoacoustics for assessing ischemic kidney damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) are caused by return of blood to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients. Damage in the microvasculature causes an inflammatory response and heterogeneous scarring, which is associated with an increase in collagen in the extracellular matrix. Although most often associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRI also occurs when blood reperfuses a transplanted organ. Currently, monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and sample a limited area. In this work, we explored photoacoustic (PA) biomarkers of scarring. IRI events were induced in mice (n=2) by clamping the left renal artery, then re-establishing flow. At 53 days post-surgery, kidneys were saline perfused and cut in half laterally. One half was immediately imaged with a VevoX system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) in two near infrared ranges - 680 to 970 nm (NIR), and 1200 to 1350 nm (NIR II). The other half was decellularized and then imaged at NIR and NIR II. Regions of interest were manually identified and analyzed for each kidney. For both cellularized and decellularized samples, the PA signal ratio based on irradiation wavelengths of 715:930 nm was higher in damaged kidneys than for undamaged kidneys (p collagen in the NIR II range, while healthy kidneys did not. Collagen rich spectra were more apparent in decellularized kidneys, suggesting that in the cellularized samples, other components may be contributing to the signal. PA imaging using spectral ratios associated with collagen signatures may provide a non-invasive tool to determine areas of tissue damage due to IRIs.

  3. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as They Affect Physical Fitness: A Physical Therapist's Point of View (National Kidney Foundation) Solitary Kidney (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients (National Kidney ...

  4. Analysis of 64-row multidetector CT images for preoperative angiographic evaluation of potential living kidney donors; Analyse der mehrphasigen 64-Zeilen-Multidetektor-Computertomographie zur praeoperativen angiographischen Evaluation potenzieller Lebendnierenspender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D.; Andersen, K.; Kroepil, P.; Cohnen, M.; Moedder, U.; Jung, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf, Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie und Nierentransplantation, Duesseldorf (Germany); Ivens, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf, Klinik fuer Nephrologie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Anatomical imaging and the ascertainment of any anomalies in the renal vessels and the ureters are essential in the planning of a kidney donation. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of 64-row multidetector CT in noninvasive examination of the renal vessels and ureters of potential living kidney donors. The evaluation embraced 63 living renal donors (LNS) who underwent preoperative CT examination from December 2004 to January 2007. The examinations were all carried out using a Somatom Sensation -Cardiac 64 (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). As well as CT angiography (CTA), a venous phase of the abdomen and a late phase after 15 min using low-dose technique were performed for CT urography (CTU). The radiological findings were compared with the surgical results, or with the angiograms in 2 cases. Sensitivity, specificity and both negative and positive predictive value were calculated. In the 63 (31 female, 32 male) donors CTA had a sensitivity of 100% in examination of the main and accessory renal arteries and of 98.3% when the venous and ureteric anatomy were assessed. The sensitivity of low-dose CTU was also 100%. The findings recorded in this study indicate that noninvasive preoperative planning with 64-row multidetector CTA and CTU is a reliable 'one-stop shopping' method of examination for potential living kidney donors. (orig.) [German] Die anatomische Darstellung und Erfassung moeglicher Anomalien der Nierengefaesse und Ureteren ist fuer die Planung einer Lebendnierenspende von essenzieller Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Untersuchung soll die Wertigkeit der nichtinvasiven Evaluation mit der 64-Zeilen-Multidetektor-CT untersuchen. In die Auswertung wurden 63 Lebendnierenspender (LNS) eingeschlossen, die im Zeitraum 12.2004 bis 01.2007 mit der CT praeoperativ untersucht wurden. Die Untersuchungen erfolgten mit einem Somatom-Sensation-Cardiac-64 (Siemens Medical Solutions, Deutschland). Neben einer CT-Angiographie (CTA) wurden eine

  5. Mixed-integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization and their applications to medical image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Rui

    2009-01-01

    The target of this work is to extend the canonical Evolution Strategies (ES) from traditional real-valued parameter optimization domain to mixed-integer parameter optimization domain. This is necessary because there exist numerous practical optimization problems from industry in which the set of

  6. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spithoven, E.M.; Meijer, E.; Boertien, W.E.; Gaillard, C.A.J.M.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Nephrology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, RB Groningen (Netherlands); Borns, C.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Jagt, E. van der [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vart, P. [University of Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBF{sub MRI}) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBF{sub MRI} measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBF{sub MRI}. After validation, we measured RBF{sub MRI} in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBF{sub MRI} and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBF{sub MRI} measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBF{sub MRI} compared to RBF{sub Hip,} whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBF{sub MRI}. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. (orig.)

  7. Using intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging to study the renal pathophysiological process of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in rats: Comparison with conventional DWI and arterial spin labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Long; Zhang, Bin [Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Southern Medical University, Graduate College, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Wen-bo; Liang, Chang-hong; Zhang, Shui-xing [Guangdong General Hospital/Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chan, Kannie W.Y.; Li, Yu-guo; Liu, Guan-shu [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of MR Research, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) to assess the renal pathophysiological process in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). Twenty-seven rats were induced with CIAKI model, six rats were imaged longitudinally at 24 h prior to and 30 min, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after administration; three rats were randomly chosen from the rest for serum creatinine and histological studies. D, f, D* and ADC were calculated from IVIM, and renal blood flow (RBF) was obtained from arterial spin labelling (ASL). A progressive reduction in D and ADC was observed in cortex (CO) by 3.07 and 8.62 % at 30 min, and by 25.77 and 28.16 % at 48 h, respectively. A similar change in outer medulla (OM) and inner medulla (IM) was observed at a later time point (12-72 h). D values were strongly correlated with ADC (r = 0.885). As perfusion measurement, a significant decrease was shown for f in 12-48 h and an increase in 72-96 h. A slightly different trend was found for D*, which was decreased by 26.02, 21.78 and 10.19 % in CO, OM and IM, respectively, at 30 min. f and D* were strongly correlated with RBF in the cortex (r = 0.768, r = 0.67), but not in the medulla. IVIM is an effective imaging tool for monitoring progress in renal pathophysiology undergoing CIAKI. (orig.)

  8. RGD-based strategies for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temming, K; Molema, G; Kok, RJ

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, RGD-peptides have become a popular tool for the targeting of drugs and imaging agents to a(v)beta(3)-integrin expressing tumour vasculature. RGD-peptides have been introduced by recombinant means into therapeutic proteins and viruses. Chemical means have been applied to

  9. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  10. Transgenic Xenopus laevis Line for In Vivo Labeling of Nephrons within the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Corkins

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis embryos are an established model for studying kidney development. The nephron structure and genetic pathways that regulate nephrogenesis are conserved between Xenopus and humans, allowing for the study of human disease-causing genes. Xenopus embryos are also amenable to large-scale screening, but studies of kidney disease-related genes have been impeded because assessment of kidney development has largely been limited to examining fixed embryos. To overcome this problem, we have generated a transgenic line that labels the kidney. We characterize this cdh17:eGFP line, showing green fluorescent protein (GFP expression in the pronephric and mesonephric kidneys and colocalization with known kidney markers. We also demonstrate the feasibility of live imaging of embryonic kidney development and the use of cdh17:eGFP as a kidney marker for secretion assays. Additionally, we develop a new methodology to isolate and identify kidney cells for primary culture. We also use morpholino knockdown of essential kidney development genes to establish that GFP expression enables observation of phenotypes, previously only described in fixed embryos. Taken together, this transgenic line will enable primary kidney cell culture and live imaging of pronephric and mesonephric kidney development. It will also provide a simple means for high-throughput screening of putative human kidney disease-causing genes.

  11. Computer-Aided Detection of Kidney Tumor on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Park, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a computer-aided detection system for kidney segmentation and kidney tumor detection on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods: Abdominal CT images were digitized with a film digitizer, and a gray-level threshold method was used to segment the kidney. Based on texture analysis performed on sample images of kidney tumors, a portion of the kidney tumor was selected as seed region for start point of the region-growing process. The average and standard deviations were used to detect the kidney tumor. Starting at the detected seed region, the region-growing method was used to segment the kidney tumor with intensity values used as an acceptance criterion for a homogeneous test. This test was performed to merge the neighboring region as kidney tumor boundary. These methods were applied on 156 transverse images of 12 cases of kidney tumors scanned using a G.E. Hispeed CT scanner and digitized with a Lumisys LS-40 film digitizer. Results: The computer-aided detection system resulted in a kidney tumor detection sensitivity of 85% and no false-positive findings. Conclusion: This computer-aided detection scheme was useful for kidney tumor detection and gave the characteristics of detected kidney tumors

  12. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  13. A comparison of prostate tumor targeting strategies using magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false-negative rate of clinical two-dimensional (2D) TRUS-guided systematic biopsy, but continues to yield false-negative results. This may be improved via needle target optimization, accounting for guidance system errors and image registration errors. As an initial step toward the goal of optimized prostate biopsy targeting, we investigated how needle delivery error impacts tumor sampling probability for two targeting strategies. We obtained MRI and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident assessed these MR images and contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding tumor surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. The biopsy system's root-mean-squared needle delivery error (RMSE) and systematic error were modeled using an isotropic 3D Gaussian distribution. We investigated two different prostate tumor-targeting strategies using (a) the tumor's centroid and (b) a ring in the lateral-elevational plane. For each simulation, targets were spaced at equal arc lengths on a ring with radius equal to the systematic error magnitude. A total of 1000 biopsy simulations were conducted for each tumor, with RMSE and systematic error magnitudes ranging from 1 to 6 mm. The difference in median tumor sampling probability and probability of obtaining a 50% core involvement was determined for ring vs centroid targeting. Our simulation results indicate that ring targeting outperformed centroid targeting in situations where systematic error exceeds RMSE. In these instances, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-32% improvement in sampling probability due to ring targeting. Likewise, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-39% improvement in 50% core involvement probability due to ring targeting. Our results suggest that the optimal targeting scheme for prostate biopsy depends on

  14. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  15. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  16. The Effect of Brand Extension Strategy on Its Image: The Case of Majid Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Abdavi; Zahra Shiralizadeh

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational study examined the effect of brand extension on current image in the scope of Tabriz Majid products in the city of Tabriz. The study population comprised consumers of Majid products and fans of Tractorsazi, and the sample size was 380 persons. A simple random sampling method and an infinite population formula were used as well as a five-option Likert questionnaire. Its reliability was measured at 0.71 by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Spearman ranking correla...

  17. Pharmacogenetics and Imaging-Pharmacogenetics of Antidepressant Response: Towards Translational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Tristram A; Walter, Henrik; Brandl, Eva J

    2016-12-01

    Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice. Nearly all antidepressant pharmacogenetic variants have potentially pleiotropic effects in which they are associated with major depressive disorder, intermediate phenotypes involved in emotional processes, and brain areas affected by antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the advances made in the field of pharmacogenetics of antidepressant efficacy and side effects, imaging findings of antidepressant response, and the latest results in the expanding field of imaging-pharmacogenetics studies. We suggest there is mounting evidence that genetic factors exert their impact on treatment response by influencing brain structural and functional changes during antidepressant treatment, and combining neuroimaging and genetic methods may be a more powerful way to detect biological mechanisms of response than either method alone. The most promising imaging-pharmacogenetics findings exist for the SCL6A4 gene, with converging associations with antidepressant response, frontolimbic predictors of affective symptoms, and normalization of frontolimbic activity following antidepressant treatment. More research is required before imaging-pharmacogenetics informed personalized medicine can be applied to antidepressant treatment; nevertheless, inroads have been made towards assessing genetic and neuroanatomical liability and potential clinical application.

  18. STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.

    2001-04-02

    A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

  19. A Novel Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Internal-Feedback Strategy for Image Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image template matching refers to the technique of locating a given reference image over a source image such that they are the most similar. It is a fundamental mission in the field of visual target recognition. In general, there are two critical aspects of a template matching scheme. One is similarity measurement and the other is best-match location search. In this work, we choose the well-known normalized cross correlation model as a similarity criterion. The searching procedure for the best-match location is carried out through an internal-feedback artificial bee colony (IF-ABC algorithm. IF-ABC algorithm is highlighted by its effort to fight against premature convergence. This purpose is achieved through discarding the conventional roulette selection procedure in the ABC algorithm so as to provide each employed bee an equal chance to be followed by the onlooker bees in the local search phase. Besides that, we also suggest efficiently utilizing the internal convergence states as feedback guidance for searching intensity in the subsequent cycles of iteration. We have investigated four ideal template matching cases as well as four actual cases using different searching algorithms. Our simulation results show that the IF-ABC algorithm is more effective and robust for this template matching mission than the conventional ABC and two state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms do.

  20. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, E M; Meijer, E; Borns, C; Boertien, W E; Gaillard, C A J M; Kappert, P; Greuter, M J W; van der Jagt, E; Vart, P; de Jong, P E; Gansevoort, R T

    2016-03-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBFMRI measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBFMRI. After validation, we measured RBFMRI in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBFMRI and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBFMRI measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBFMRI compared to RBFHip, whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBFMRI. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. Renal blood flow (RBF) can be accurately measured by phase-contrast MRI in ADPKD patients. RBF measured by phase-contrast is associated with ADPKD disease severity. RBF measurement by phase-contrast MRI may be less feasible in patients with an impaired eGFR.

  1. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine. What causes CKD? The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure , which are responsible for up to ...

  2. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant. Possible Complications Health problems ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  3. Kidney removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schwartz MJ, Rais-Bahrami S, Kavoussi LR. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery of the kidney. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ... Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  4. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  5. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you see in the box: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Submit Change ... a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuing education Search clinical ...

  6. National Kidney Foundation Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/2018 Using a Home Test Kit and Smartphone to Test for Kidney Disease - 04/10/2018 ... of millions of Americans at risk. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  7. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  8. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean for you. If you have kidney disease, measuring the albumin in your urine helps your provider ... Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK ...

  9. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  10. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation

  11. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  12. Reassessing marketing of kidneys from the 2008 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eli A; Friedman, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Progressive improvements in all aspects of the kidney transplant regimen establish this form of renal replacement therapy as superior to peritoneal or hemodialysis in terms of extent of rehabilitation and long-term recipient survival. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure sustained by dialytic therapy has not been associated with substantially increased deceased donor kidney contributions, causing intensified stressful waiting periods for potential recipients lacking a live kidney donor. Neither public relation campaigns nor local government efforts have substantially increased kidney donation. Buying a donor kidney is illegal and condemned as fostering exploitation of poor people by the wealthy. Widely publicized examples of coercion of unwilling donors create a negative image of harmful, inhumane conduct deployed to obtain kidneys sold and transplanted under unsavory circumstances. Yet efforts to establish and test governmental programs to supervise and sustain acceptable standards for the sale and implantation of kidneys from fully informed, medically evaluated and protected, fairly compensated donors have been resisted and frustrated by those who consider such compensation loathsome. Accordingly, while selling kidneys is prohibited by law, pressure from those wanting to quench the number of deaths of wait-listed dialysis patients continues forcing reexamination of an issue that, like prohibition of the possession and sale of alcohol in the United States in 1920, places the will of a people in opposition to unreasonably restrictive laws. The debate continues.

  13. SU-E-J-129: A Strategy to Consolidate the Image Database of a VERO Unit Into a Radiotherapy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Medin, P; Yordy, J; Zhao, B; Jiang, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a strategy to integrate the imaging database of a VERO unit with a treatment management system (TMS) to improve clinical workflow and consolidate image data to facilitate clinical quality control and documentation. Methods: A VERO unit is equipped with both kV and MV imaging capabilities for IGRT treatments. It has its own imaging database behind a firewall. It has been a challenge to transfer images on this unit to a TMS in a radiation therapy clinic so that registered images can be reviewed remotely with an approval or rejection record. In this study, a software system, iPump-VERO, was developed to connect VERO and a TMS in our clinic. The patient database folder on the VERO unit was mapped to a read-only folder on a file server outside VERO firewall. The application runs on a regular computer with the read access to the patient database folder. It finds the latest registered images and fuses them in one of six predefined patterns before sends them via DICOM connection to the TMS. The residual image registration errors will be overlaid on the fused image to facilitate image review. Results: The fused images of either registered kV planar images or CBCT images are fully DICOM compatible. A sentinel module is built to sense new registered images with negligible computing resources from the VERO ExacTrac imaging computer. It takes a few seconds to fuse registered images and send them to the TMS. The whole process is automated without any human intervention. Conclusion: Transferring images in DICOM connection is the easiest way to consolidate images of various sources in your TMS. Technically the attending does not have to go to the VERO treatment console to review image registration prior delivery. It is a useful tool for a busy clinic with a VERO unit

  14. Thoracic lymph node station recognition on CT images based on automatic anatomy recognition with an optimal parent strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoping; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Cao, Hanqiang; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Xingyu

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there are many papers that have been published on the detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from medical images. However, it is still a challenging problem owing to low contrast with surrounding soft tissues and the variations of lymph node size and shape on computed tomography (CT) images. This is particularly very difficult on low-dose CT of PET/CT acquisitions. In this study, we utilize our previous automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) framework to recognize the thoracic-lymph node stations defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. The lymph node stations themselves are viewed as anatomic objects and are localized by using a one-shot method in the AAR framework. Two strategies have been taken in this paper for integration into AAR framework. The first is to combine some lymph node stations into composite lymph node stations according to their geometrical nearness. The other is to find the optimal parent (organ or union of organs) as an anchor for each lymph node station based on the recognition error and thereby find an overall optimal hierarchy to arrange anchor organs and lymph node stations. Based on 28 contrast-enhanced thoracic CT image data sets for model building, 12 independent data sets for testing, our results show that thoracic lymph node stations can be localized within 2-3 voxels compared to the ground truth.

  15. The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, among a sample of students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2011 - 2012. The research participants were selected with use of multistage random sample from various colleges. Our research tools were the eating attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26, the Worry about body image questionnaire, the attachment styles questionnaire, and a questionnaire on cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods, with inter and stepwise methods, were used during data analysis. Results The results of this research indicated that worry about body image, an avoidant attachment style, negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and secure attachment style in regression equation remained significant (P < 0.0001. Results also showed that worry about body image, an anxious attachment style, an avoidant attachment style, and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies were significant in the regression equation, predicting 19% of the variance in the eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Concerns about body image, an avoidant attachment style, and cognitive strategies to regulate negative emotions were the strongest predictors for eating disorder symptoms. Based on current research findings, an avoidance attachment style, concerns about body image, and negative emotion regulation cognitive strategies increase eating disorder symptoms in students. Because attachment

  16. Native kidney reincarnation following a failed transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Roberts, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 51-year-old woman with end stage renal failure secondary to Haemolytic Uraemic syndrome underwent a cadaveric renal transplant. A routine post transplant DTPA scan was performed which demonstrated satisfactory renal transplant perfusion and function. Incidental note was made of tracer uptake in the pelvis in the mid-line, which was suspected to be a uterine fibroid. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and at surgery. One week post transplantation the patient became acutely unwell and at laparotomy a perforated diverticular abscess was drained. Intraoperatively the transplant kidney was examined and the surgeon thought there was a area of infarction. This was confirmed on biopsy. As the patient's creatinine was rising a repeat DTPA study was performed. Perfusion and function of the transplant kidney was virtually absent while Doppler studies showed no flow. The patient however continued to produce urine and the creatinine was stable. Subsequently a mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) 3 study was performed which again confirmed absent perfusion and function by the the transplanted kidney as well as the previous noted uterine fibroid. The native kidneys however demonstrated good perfusion and function. The patient's renal function remained stable and she did not require dialysis. A necrotic infarcted transplant kidney was removed uneventfully. This case illustrates the importance of imaging the native kidneys as well as the transplant kidney when there are puzzling clinical features. The presumed cause of the recovery of native renal function was the immunosuppression given for the transplant. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  17. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  18. Strategy of image-information-guided dose rate adjustment in digital X-ray television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, K.

    1992-01-01

    The experiments were so designed and carried out that it was even possible for extremely overexposed or underexposed displays to be ascertained within the framework of this study. They were based on observations in phantoms suitable to simulate situations encountered in actual practice. These permitted variations in patient volume (using different water volumes) just as well as the creation of any desired organ constellation (by insertion of bone material, etc.). It is one requirement of this experimental procedure that the X-ray unit used can be operated without automatic dose rate adjustment. A computer equipped with Frame-Grabber card may serve as an image memory. (orig.) [de

  19. Heart failure in patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuegel, Courtney; Bansal, Nisha

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the population of CKD patients with concurrent HF continues to grow. The accurate diagnosis of HF is challenging in patients with CKD in part due to a lack of validated imaging and biomarkers specifically in this population. The pathophysiology between the heart and the kidneys is complex and bidirectional. Patients with CKD have greater prevalence of traditional HF risk factors as well as unique kidney-specific risk factors including malnutrition, acid-base alterations, uraemic toxins, bone mineral changes, anemia and myocardial stunning. These risk factors also contribute to the decline of kidney function seen in patients with subclinical and clinical HF. More targeted HF therapies may improve outcomes in patients with kidney disease as current HF therapies are underutilised in this population. Further work is also needed to develop novel HF therapies for the CKD population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research.

  1. Novel imaging strategies for the detection of prosthetic heart valve obstruction and endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, W; Budde, R P J; van der Bilt, I A C; Delemarre, B; Hoohenkerk, G; van Rooden, J-K; Scholtens, A M; Habets, J; Chamuleau, S

    2016-02-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction remains difficult to recognise correctly by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography (TTE/TEE). ECG-triggered multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), 18-fluorine-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography including low-dose CT (FDG-PET) and three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) may have additional value. This paper reviews the role of these novel imaging tools in the field of PHV obstruction and endocarditis.For acquired PHV obstruction, MDCT is of additional value in mechanical PHVs to differentiate pannus from thrombus as well as to dynamically study leaflet motion and opening/closing angles. For biological PHV obstruction, additional imaging is not beneficial as it does not change patient management. When performed on top of 2D-TTE/TEE, MDCT has additional value for the detection of both vegetations and pseudoaneurysms/abscesses in PHV endocarditis. FDG-PET has no complementary value for the detection of vegetations; however, it appears more sensitive in the early detection of pseudoaneurysms/abscesses. Furthermore, FDG-PET enables the detection of metastatic and primary extra-cardiac infections. Evidence for the additional value of 3D-TEE is scarce.As clinical implications are major, clinicians should have a low threshold to perform additional MDCT in acquired mechanical PHV obstruction. For suspected PHV endocarditis, both FDG-PET and MDCT have complementary value.

  2. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Han; Wu Qiuwen

    2011-01-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  3. Images of Youth on Screen: Manipulative Translation Strategies in the Dubbing of American Teen Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenella Zanotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teen films have often been a locus of censorial intervention due to the sensitive issues that youth-centred stories most typically address, especially when it comes to the representation of family life, juvenile delinquency, violence, youth sexuality and language. This paper offers an analysis of the dubbed versions of three mainstream youth films from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, namely Rebel Without a Cause (Nicholas Ray, 1955, Splendor in the Grass (Elia Kazan, 1961 and The Summer of 42 (Robert Mulligan, 1971, with the aim to investigate whether the strategies adopted in their linguistic transfer were shaped by censorial concerns or by differences in the way juvenile cultures were represented locally. The study is based on documentary evidence gleaned from archival research and translator manuscript analysis (Munday 2012, 2013.

  4. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...... AFFF-ICP-MS fractograms, which corresponded to the enzymatic digests, showed a major nano-peak (about 80 % recovery of AgNPs spiked to the meat) plus new smaller peaks that eluted close to the void volume of the fractograms. Small, but significant shifts in retention time of AFFF peaks were observed...... for the meat sample extracts and the corresponding neat AgNP suspension, and rendered sizing by way of calibration with AgNPs as sizing standards inaccurate. In order to gain further insight into the sizes of the separated AgNPs, or their possible dissolved state, fractions of the AFFF eluate were collected...

  5. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure. PMID:28243510

  6. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  7. New strategies for measuring and sorting shaped glass stones using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kelnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to propose progressive methods for objectively evaluating significant mechanical and geometrical characteristics of gemstones used for making fashion jewellery. These characteristics significantly affect the overall visual aesthetic look of the respective jewellery stones. Different image processing methods are used in industrial microscopy to design new products. The key aspects for having a successful design is thoroughly analysing the material for possible gem-stone defects and properly defining their behaviour when using different optical systems. Using a high-tech experimental laboratory, the authors carried out a control measurement. The main contribution of this paper is the design, implementation and verification of the functionality of new methods for evaluating the quality of machine cut jewellery stones. These progressive methods have the potential to succeed in industrial microscopy or defectoscopy.

  8. Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt J. Daurer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles. The results point to a wider than expected size distribution (from ∼35 to ∼300 nm in diameter. This is likely to be owing to nonvolatile contaminants from larger droplets during aerosolization and droplet evaporation. The results suggest that the concentration of nonvolatile contaminants and the ratio between the volumes of the initial droplet and the sample particles is critical in such studies. The maximum beam intensity in the focus was found to be 1.9 × 1012 photons per µm2 per pulse. The full-width of the focus at half-maximum was estimated to be 500 nm (assuming 20% beamline transmission, and this width is larger than expected. Under these conditions, the diffraction signal from a sample-sized particle remained above the average background to a resolution of 4.25 nm. The results suggest that reducing the size of the initial droplets during aerosolization is necessary to bring small particles into the scope of detailed structural studies with X-ray lasers.

  9. Accept, distract, or reframe? An exploratory experimental comparison of strategies for coping with intrusive body image thoughts in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andrea S; Thomas, Jennifer J; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth H; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-02-28

    Negative body image is the hallmark of anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). One aspect of body image, appearance-related thoughts, have shown to be a major contributor to relapse, thus further investigation of successful treatment strategies targeting these maladaptive thoughts are warranted. The present study tested an acceptance/mindfulness (AC), a cognitive restructuring (CR), and a distraction strategy with regard to their short-term effectiveness of reducing the frequency of thought occurrence and associated outcomes in participants with AN (n=20), BDD (n=21), and healthy controls (HC; n=22). Although all strategies led to a significant reduction of thought frequency, there was no group × strategy interaction effect in their reduction. Positive affect increased in the BDD group through the AC strategy, but decreased in healthy controls. Acceptance of the thought increased in the CR strategy in AN, whereas that strategy seemed to work least for BDD. Healthy controls showed most acceptance when using distraction. Taken together, the study suggests that all strategies might have their benefits and that it might be worthwhile further investigating differential indication of the strategies with regard to diagnosis and individual factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of 3 kidney injury multiplex panels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, Annette; Vitsky, Allison; Sace, Frederick; Zong, Qing; Ko, Mira; Yafawi, Rolla; Liu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Kidney injury biomarkers have been utilized by pharmaceutical companies as a means to assess the potential of candidate drugs to induce nephrotoxicity. Multiple platforms and assay methods exist, but the comparison of these methods has not been described. Millipore's Kidney Toxicity panel, EMD/Novagen's Widescreen Kidney Toxicity panel, and Meso Scales Kidney Injury panel were selected based on published information. Kidney injury molecule 1, cystatin C, clusterin, and osteopontin were the 4 biomarkers common among all kits tested and the focus of this study. Rats were treated with a low and high dose of para-aminophenol, a known nephrotoxicant, and urine samples were collected and analyzed on the Bio-Plex 200 or MSD's Sector Imager 6000, according to manufacturers specifications. Comparatively, of the 3 kits, Millipore was the most consistent in detecting elevations of 3 out of the 4 biomarkers at both dose levels and indicated time points.