WorldWideScience

Sample records for keywords tectonic engineer

  1. Keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton; Howie, Mark; Sawyer, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Borrowing the title of Raymond Williams' famous study, the following reflections--sometimes collective and sometimes individual--are based on a series of "Keywords", specifically: "fear", "community" and "creativity". By reflecting on the meanings these words have for us today, we attempt to capture their dialogical character, posing them as sites…

  2. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    However one of the reasons for poor uptake of health services at primary health care facilities ... Teaching Hospital's Department of Community Health started attending to patients as the ..... Industrial and. Management Systems Engineering –.

  3. Development of a Taxonomy of Keywords for Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research…

  4. GOseek: a gene ontology search engine using enhanced keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    We propose in this paper a biological search engine called GOseek, which overcomes the limitation of current gene similarity tools. Given a set of genes, GOseek returns the most significant genes that are semantically related to the given genes. These returned genes are usually annotated to one of the Lowest Common Ancestors (LCA) of the Gene Ontology (GO) terms annotating the given genes. Most genes have several annotation GO terms. Therefore, there may be more than one LCA for the GO terms annotating the given genes. The LCA annotating the genes that are most semantically related to the given gene is the one that receives the most aggregate semantic contribution from the GO terms annotating the given genes. To identify this LCA, GOseek quantifies the contribution of the GO terms annotating the given genes to the semantics of their LCAs. That is, it encodes the semantic contribution into a numeric format. GOseek uses microarray experiment data to rank result genes based on their significance. We evaluated GOseek experimentally and compared it with a comparable gene prediction tool. Results showed marked improvement over the tool.

  5. Interest in Anesthesia as Reflected by Keyword Searches using Common Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renyu; García, Paul S; Fleisher, Lee A

    2012-01-23

    Since current general interest in anesthesia is unknown, we analyzed internet keyword searches to gauge general interest in anesthesia in comparison with surgery and pain. The trend of keyword searches from 2004 to 2010 related to anesthesia and anaesthesia was investigated using Google Insights for Search. The trend of number of peer reviewed articles on anesthesia cited on PubMed and Medline from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. The average cost on advertising on anesthesia, surgery and pain was estimated using Google AdWords. Searching results in other common search engines were also analyzed. Correlation between year and relative number of searches was determined with psearch engines may provide different total number of searching results (available posts), the ratios of searching results between some common keywords related to perioperative care are comparable, indicating similar trend. The peer reviewed manuscripts on "anesthesia" and the proportion of papers on "anesthesia and outcome" are trending up. Estimates for spending of advertising dollars are less for anesthesia-related terms when compared to that for pain or surgery due to relative smaller number of searching traffic. General interest in anesthesia (anaesthesia) as measured by internet searches appears to be decreasing. Pain, preanesthesia evaluation, anesthesia and outcome and side effects of anesthesia are the critical areas that anesthesiologists should focus on to address the increasing concerns.

  6. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  7. Keyword: Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  8. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  9. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  10. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  11. Earthquakes, Cities, and Lifelines: lessons integrating tectonics, society, and engineering in middle school Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toke, N.; Johnson, A.; Nelson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most widely covered geologic processes by the media. As a result students, even at the middle school level, arrive in the classroom with preconceptions about the importance and hazards posed by earthquakes. Therefore earthquakes represent not only an attractive topic to engage students when introducing tectonics, but also a means to help students understand the relationships between geologic processes, society, and engineering solutions. Facilitating understanding of the fundamental connections between science and society is important for the preparation of future scientists and engineers as well as informed citizens. Here, we present a week-long lesson designed to be implemented in five one hour sessions with classes of ~30 students. It consists of two inquiry-based mapping investigations, motivational presentations, and short readings that describe fundamental models of plate tectonics, faults, and earthquakes. The readings also provide examples of engineering solutions such as the Alaskan oil pipeline which withstood multi-meter surface offset in the 2002 Denali Earthquake. The first inquiry-based investigation is a lesson on tectonic plates. Working in small groups, each group receives a different world map plotting both topography and one of the following data sets: GPS plate motion vectors, the locations and types of volcanoes, the location of types of earthquakes. Using these maps and an accompanying explanation of the data each group’s task is to map plate boundary locations. Each group then presents a ~10 minute summary of the type of data they used and their interpretation of the tectonic plates with a poster and their mapping results. Finally, the instructor will facilitate a class discussion about how the data types could be combined to understand more about plate boundaries. Using student interpretations of real data allows student misconceptions to become apparent. Throughout the exercise we record student preconceptions

  12. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    contributes to a global turn in cultural keyword studies by exploring keywords from discourse communities in Australia, Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, Melanesia, Mexico and Scandinavia. Providing new case studies, the volume showcases the diversity of ways in which cultural logics form and shape discourse...

  13. The Keck keyword layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A. R.; Lupton, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Each Keck instrument presents a consistent software view to the user interface programmer. The view consists of a small library of functions, which are identical for all instruments, and a large set of keywords, that vary from instrument to instrument. All knowledge of the underlying task structure is hidden from the application programmer by the keyword layer. Image capture software uses the same function library to collect data for the image header. Because the image capture software and the instrument control software are built on top of the same keyword layer, a given observation can be 'replayed' by extracting keyword-value pairs from the image header and passing them back to the control system. The keyword layer features non-blocking as well as blocking I/O. A non-blocking keyword write operation (such as setting a filter position) specifies a callback to be invoked when the operation is complete. A non-blocking keyword read operation specifies a callback to be invoked whenever the keyword changes state. The keyword-callback style meshes well with the widget-callback style commonly used in X window programs. The first keyword library was built for the two Keck optical instruments. More recently, keyword libraries have been developed for the infrared instruments and for telescope control. Although the underlying mechanisms used for inter-process communication by each of these systems vary widely (Lick MUSIC, Sun RPC, and direct socket I/O, respectively), a basic user interface has been written that can be used with any of these systems. Since the keyword libraries are bound to user interface programs dynamically at run time, only a single set of user interface executables is needed. For example, the same program, 'xshow', can be used to display continuously the telescope's position, the time left in an instrument's exposure, or both values simultaneously. Less generic tools that operate on specific keywords, for example an X display that controls optical

  14. Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wu, Dingming

    2013-01-01

    Geo-textual indices play an important role in spatial keyword query- ing. The existing geo-textual indices have not been compared sys- tematically under the same experimental framework. This makes it difficult to determine which indexing technique best supports specific functionality. We provide...... an all-around survey of 12 state- of-the-art geo-textual indices. We propose a benchmark that en- ables the comparison of the spatial keyword query performance. We also report on the findings obtained when applying the bench- mark to the indices, thus uncovering new insights that may guide index...

  15. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user-sup...... different kinds of functionality as well as the ideas underlying their definition....

  16. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However......, the queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query......'s keywords and such that objects are nearest to the query location and have the lowest inter-object distances. Specifically, we study two variants of this problem, both of which are NP-complete. We devise exact solutions as well as approximate solutions with provable approximation bounds to the problems. We...

  17. Video segmentation using keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  18. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  19. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  20. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  1. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    taken account of the balance of expected gains and ... maintenance of quality and the duration of life”. ... a health facility is a determinant of patient's choice of provider and willingness to pay for the services. .... Also to be noted is the work of.

  2. Keywords:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    knew that children with diabetes should eat family diet. Concerning risk ... eating too much sugar is a risk factor. ... Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ..... with regard to some myths and fallacies related to. DM.

  3. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    worldwide tobacco-attributable deaths projected. 3 to reach 6.4 million in 2015 and 8.3 million in 2030. Tobacco use increases the risk of ..... Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

  4. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    serious ramifications because of its implications on their sexual and reproductive health as well ... cross-sectional study among antenatal attendees selected using systematic sampling technique. ... of human rights violations, denying people.

  5. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    based on multi-tier, inter-related system with first. 1 ... provision of critical equipment, consumables, human resources and dedicated governance structure are aimed at improving health coverage ..... ever: World Health Organization; 2008. 9.

  6. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi

    Only about half of surveyed men were found to use ... Influencing men's attitude towards the uptake of ... survey of 259 men aged 15-65 years with at least one child less than 3 years of age was conducted ... been fully explored in Nigeria.

  7. Formwork tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    På engelsk: Based on the concept of techné and framed in architectural studies of tectonics and an experimental practice of making, this paper investigates the multiple technological roles of textiles in fabric formwork for concrete in four analytical studies of experimental data of the author......’s doctoral dissertation Fabric Formwork for Concrete – Investigations into Formwork Tectonics and Stereogeneity in Architectural Constructions. In the paper only textile roles are discussed but it is suggested that a study of multiple technological roles of key formwork elements will emphasize...... their potential as ‘common denominators’ between architects, engineers and builders. Findings include textile used for the ‘textilization’ of concrete and the ‘concretization’ of textiles as two opposite starting points in fabric-forming. Recent research into thin-shell construction using fabric formwork is shown...

  8. Get Beyond Limits: From Colloidal Tectonics Concept to the Engineering of Eco-Friendly Catalytic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Leclercq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between two or more molecules or colloidal particles can be used to obtain a variety of self-assembled systems called supramolecules or supracolloids. There is a clear, but neglected, convergence between these two fields. Indeed, the packing of molecules into colloidal or supracolloidal particles emerges as a smart solution to build an infinite variety of reversible systems with predictable properties. In this respect, the molecular building blocks are called “tectons” whereas “colloidal tectonics” describes the spontaneous formation of (supracolloidal structures using tectonic subunits. As a consequence, a bottom-up edification is allowed from tectons into (supracolloidal particles with higher degrees of organization (Graphical Abstract. These (supracolloidal systems can be very useful to obtain catalysts with tunable amphiphilic properties. In this perspective, an overview of colloidal tectonics concept is presented as well as its use for the design of new, smart, and flexible catalytic systems. Finally, the advantages of these catalytic devices are discussed and the perspective of future developments is addressed especially in the context of “green chemistry.”

  9. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  10. Keyword extraction by nonextensivity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Darooneh, Amir H

    2011-05-01

    The presence of a long-range correlation in the spatial distribution of a relevant word type, in spite of random occurrences of an irrelevant word type, is an important feature of human-written texts. We classify the correlation between the occurrences of words by nonextensive statistical mechanics for the word-ranking process. In particular, we look at the nonextensivity parameter as an alternative metric to measure the spatial correlation in the text, from which the words may be ranked in terms of this measure. Finally, we compare different methods for keyword extraction. © 2011 American Physical Society

  11. Tectonic Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes representative quantitative tectonic-geomorphology studies made during the last century, focusing on fault-bounded mountain-front escarpments, marine terraces, and alluvial geomorphic surfaces (considering stream terraces, piedmont fault scarps, and soils chronosequences). Also suggests where tectonic-geomorphology courses may best fit…

  12. Textile Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2008-01-01

    of the discipline. Inspiring time gathering some of the most exciting architects of the moment, Lars Spuybroeck, Mark Burry, Evan Douglis, Michael Hensel and Cecil Balmond were invited to discuss their understanding of tectonics. Full text available at http://textilefutures.co.uk/exchange/bin/view/TextileFutures/TextileTectonics...

  13. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  14. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario...... the back. As the body accelerated, the foot was forced backward. The rotated disc was forced backward along a detachment fault that was bounded by lateral ramps. The interramp segment matches the width of the dinosaur's foot which created an imbricate fan thrust system that extended to the far end...

  15. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  16. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    Frascari and Kenneth Frampton (Harris & Berke 1997, Read 2000, Frascari 1984, Frampton 1995kilder). Whereas the focus upon everyday architecture seems to have lost its momentum too quickly, tectonic theory in architecture has been steadily growing as a field of research in architecture, especially related...

  17. Tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic, non-volcanic tremor is a weak vibration of ground, which cannot be felt by humans but can be detected by sensitive seismometers. It is defined empirically as a low-amplitude, extended duration seismic signal associated with the deep portion (∼20–40 km depth) of some major faults. It is typically observed most clearly in the frequency range of 2–8 Hz and is depleted in energy at higher frequencies relative to regular earthquakes.

  18. The Pollution Effect: Optimizing Keyword Auctions by Favoring Relevant Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Greg; Meek, Christopher; Chickering, Max

    2011-01-01

    Most search engines sell slots to place advertisements on the search results page through keyword auctions. Advertisers offer bids for how much they are willing to pay when someone enters a search query, sees the search results, and then clicks on one of their ads. Search engines typically order the advertisements for a query by a combination of the bids and expected clickthrough rates for each advertisement. In this paper, we extend a model of Yahoo's and Google's advertising auctions to inc...

  19. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  20. ESIP Documentation Cluster Session: GCMD Keyword Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled Earth Science vocabularies that help ensure Earth science data and services are described in a consistent and comprehensive manner and allow for the precise searching of collection-level metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. Initiated over twenty years ago, the GCMD Keywords are periodically analyzed for relevancy and will continue to be refined and expanded in response to user needs. This talk explores the current status of the GCMD keywords, the value and usage that the keywords bring to different tools/agencies as it relates to data discovery, and how the keywords relate to SWEET (Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology) Ontologies.

  1. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  2. Limitations of the mnemonic-keyword method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; González, María Angeles; Amor, Angeles

    2003-10-01

    The effectiveness of the mnemonic-keyword method was investigated in 4 experiments in which participants were required to learn the 1st-language (L1, Spanish) equivalents of a list of 30 2nd-language words (L2, Latin). Experiments 1 (adolescents) and 2 (adults) were designed to assess whether the keyword method was more effective than the rote method; the researcher supplied the keyword, and the participants were allowed to pace themselves through the list. Experiments 3 (adolescents) and 4 (adults) were similar to Experiments 1 and 2 except that the participants were also supplied with a drawing that illustrated the relationship between the keyword and the L1 target word. All the experiments were performed with groups of participants in their classrooms (i.e., not in a laboratory context). In all experiments, the rote method was significantly more effective than was the keyword method.

  3. Keyword analysis of community planning documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains total hits per keyword expressed as percentage of total hits for the eight domains of the human well-being index. Additional categorical data is...

  4. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Carl; Roos, Jason; Deng, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become mor...

  5. The Keyword Bank as a tool for finding exclusive keywords in WordSmith Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available KeyWords is a very useful program for computer text analysis found in WordSmith Tools. A problem with KeyWords, though, is the large number of keywords returned by the program, which can be at least 500. This paper proposes a procedure for making reductions in lists of keywords based on the concept of exclusive keywords. These are words that are key in the study corpus only, in comparison to lots of others. This procedure draws on the existence of a keyword bank, which is a collection of keywords from several corpora. When contrasted to a study corpus, the keyword bank brings up keywords that are found in the study corpus only, leaving out those that are key in other corpora. This enables the researcher to focus on words that are most typical of his/her own corpus. The analysis reported here, carried out with a large multi-register keyword bank, suggests that the keyword bank achieved its goal, by allowing for a 77% reduction in the total keywords, and by selecting keywords that are most representative of the study corpus in question.

  6. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  7. Fingerprinting Keywords in Search Queries over Tor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Se Eun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Search engine queries contain a great deal of private and potentially compromising information about users. One technique to prevent search engines from identifying the source of a query, and Internet service providers (ISPs from identifying the contents of queries is to query the search engine over an anonymous network such as Tor.

  8. Application of keyword extraction on MOOC resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of massive open online courses (MOOCs. With more and more courses being produced by instructors and being participated by learners all over the world, unprecedented massive educational resources are aggregated. The educational resources include videos, subtitles, lecture notes, quizzes, etc., on the teaching side, and forum contents, Wiki, log of learning behavior, log of homework, etc., on the learning side. However, the data are both unstructured and diverse. To facilitate knowledge management and mining on MOOCs, extracting keywords from the resources is important. This paper aims to adapt the state-of-the-art techniques to MOOC settings and evaluate the effectiveness on real data. In terms of practice, this paper also tries to answer the questions for the first time that to what extend can the MOOC resources support keyword extraction models, and how many human efforts are required to make the models work well. Design/methodology/approach – Based on which side generates the data, i.e instructors or learners, the data are classified to teaching resources and learning resources, respectively. The approach used on teaching resources is based on machine learning models with labels, while the approach used on learning resources is based on graph model without labels. Findings – From the teaching resources, the methods used by the authors can accurately extract keywords with only 10 per cent labeled data. The authors find a characteristic of the data that the resources of various forms, e.g. subtitles and PPTs, should be separately considered because they have the different model ability. From the learning resources, the keywords extracted from MOOC forums are not as domain-specific as those extracted from teaching resources, but they can reflect the topics which are lively discussed in forums. Then instructors can get feedback from the indication. The authors implement two

  9. Evaluation of an Automated Keywording System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Linda C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automated indexing techniques focuses on ways to statistically document improvements in the development of an automated keywording system over time. The system developed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to automate the storage, categorization, and retrieval of information from military exercises is explained, and performance measures are…

  10. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  11. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting

  12. The importance of the keyword-generation method in keyword mnemonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Amor, Angeles; González, María Angeles

    2004-01-01

    Keyword mnemonics is under certain conditions an effective approach for learning foreign-language vocabulary. It appears to be effective for words with high image vividness but not for words with low image vividness. In this study, two experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of a new keyword-generation procedure (peer generation). In Experiment 1, a sample of 363 high-school students was randomly into four groups. The subjects were required to learn L1 equivalents of a list of 16 Latin words (8 with high image vividness, 8 with low image vividness), using a) the rote method, or the keyword method with b) keywords and images generated and supplied by the experimenter, c) keywords and images generated by themselves, or d) keywords and images previously generated by peers (i.e., subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics). Recall was tested immediately and one week later. For high-vivideness words, recall was significantly better in the keyword groups than the rote method group. For low-vividness words, learning method had no significant effect. Experiment 2 was basically identical, except that the word lists comprised 32 words (16 high-vividness, 16 low-vividness). In this experiment, the peer-generated-keyword group showed significantly better recall of high-vividness words than the rote method groups and the subject generated keyword group; again, however, learning method had no significant effect on recall of low-vividness words.

  13. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era......, and partly out of postcolonial ethno-rhetoric. This chapter explores the word kastom ‘traditional culture’ in Bislama and pasin bilong tumbuna ‘the ways of the ancestors’ in Tok Pisin. Specific attention is paid to the shift from “negative “ to “positive” semantics, following from the re...

  14. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  15. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  16. 3D monitoring of active tectonic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Košťák, Blahoslav; Vilímek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 36, 1-2 (2003), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : tectonics * monitoring * active structures Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2003

  17. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  18. Hidden policy ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption with keyword search against keyword guessing attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; QIU; Jiqiang; LIU; Yanfeng; SHI; Rui; ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    Attribute-based encryption with keyword search(ABKS) enables data owners to grant their search capabilities to other users by enforcing an access control policy over the outsourced encrypted data. However,existing ABKS schemes cannot guarantee the privacy of the access structures, which may contain some sensitive private information. Furthermore, resulting from the exposure of the access structures, ABKS schemes are susceptible to an off-line keyword guessing attack if the keyword space has a polynomial size. To solve these problems, we propose a novel primitive named hidden policy ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption with keyword search(HP-CPABKS). With our primitive, the data user is unable to search on encrypted data and learn any information about the access structure if his/her attribute credentials cannot satisfy the access control policy specified by the data owner. We present a rigorous selective security analysis of the proposed HP-CPABKS scheme, which simultaneously keeps the indistinguishability of the keywords and the access structures. Finally,the performance evaluation verifies that our proposed scheme is efficient and practical.

  19. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  20. The Tectonic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    has the consequence that it is difficult to create architecture where the technical concerns are an inherent part of the architectural expression. The aim of the thesis is to discuss the role of digital tools in overcoming the distance between the professional specializations and thereby support...... a tectonic practice. The project develops a framework to understand the role of digital tools in the tectonic practice from and discusses how and in which areas the tectonic practice could become supported by digital tools....

  1. Geomorphology, tectonics, and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explorationists interpret satellite images for tectonic features and patterns that may be clues to mineral and energy deposits. The tectonic features of interest range in scale from regional (sedimentary basins, fold belts) to local (faults, fractures) and are generally expressed as geomorphic features in remote sensing images. Explorationists typically employ classic concepts of geomorphology and landform analysis for their interpretations, which leads to the question - Are there new and evolving concepts in geomorphology that may be applicable to tectonic analyses of images?

  2. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...

  3. TX-Kw: An Effective Temporal XML Keyword Search

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Bin-Thalab; Neamat El-Tazi; Mohamed E.El-Sharkawi

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the great success of information retrieval (IR) style keyword search on the web, keyword search on XML has emerged recently. Existing methods cannot resolve challenges addressed by using keyword search in Temporal XML documents. We propose a way to evaluate temporal keyword search queries over Temporal XML documents. Moreover, we propose a new ranking method based on the time-aware IR ranking methods to rank temporal keyword search queries results. Extensive experiments have been ...

  4. Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2005-01-01

    Tectonics has been an inherent part of the architectural field since the Greek temples while the digital media is new to the field. This paper is built on the assumption that in the intermediate zone between the two there is a lot to be learned about architecture in general and the digital media...... in particular. A model of the aspects in the term tectonics – epresentation, ontology and culture – will be presented and used to discuss the current digital tools’ ability in tectonics. Furthermore it will be discussed what a digital tectonic tool is and could be and how a connection between the digital...... and tectonic could become a part of the architectural education....

  5. An Undergraduate Research Experience that Integrates Traditional Field Mapping, LiDAR, and 3D Numerical Modeling: Applying Lessons from a Recent Report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in an Intermediate-Level Tectonic Landscapes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Brenner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing efforts to improve undergraduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields focus on increasing active student participation and decreasing traditional lecture-based teaching. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs), which engage students in the work of STEM professionals, are an example of these efforts. A recent report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities; 2017) provides characteristics of UREs, and indicates that participation in UREs increases student interest and persistence in STEM as well as provides opportunities to broaden student participation in these fields. UREs offer an excellent opportunity to engage students in research using the rapidly evolving technologies used by STEM professionals. In the fall of 2016, students in the Tectonic Landscapes class at Pomona College participated in a course-based URE that combined traditional field mapping methods with analysis of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and 3D numerical modeling to investigate questions of active local faulting. During the first ten weeks students developed skills in: creation of fault maps from both field observations (GPS included) and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), assessment of tectonic activity through analyses of DEMs of hill slope diffusion models and geomorphic indices, and evaluation of fault geometry hypotheses via 3D elastic modeling. Most of these assignments were focused on a single research site. While students primarily used Excel, ArcMap, and Poly3D, no previous knowledge of these was required or assumed. Through this iterative approach, students used increasingly more complex methods as well as gained greater ownership of the research process with time. The course culminated with a 4-week independent research project in which each student investigated a question of their own

  6. Public-key Encryption with Registered Keyword Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) enables a server to test whether a tag from a sender and a trapdoor from a receiver contain the same keyword. In this paper, we highlight some potential security concern, i.e. a curious server is able to answer whether any selected keyword is

  7. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  8. Intelligent Online Marketing : Predicting Conversion Rate Of New Keywords

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks at the problem of predicting conversion rate of keywords in Google Adwords where little or no data for the keyword is available. Several methods are investigated and tested on data belonging to three different real world clients. The methods try to predict the conversion rate only given the keyword text. All methods are compared, using two different evaluation methods, with results showing good potential. Finally further improvements are suggested that could have a big impac...

  9. Experiences in automatic keywording of particle physics literature

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Ráez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Attributing keywords can assist in the classification and retrieval of documents in the particle physics literature. As information services face a future with less available manpower and more and more documents being written, the possibility of keyword attribution being assisted by automatic classification software is explored. A project being carried out at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) for the development and integration of automatic keywording is described.

  10. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  11. Attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (ABRKS), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, ABRKS allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for ABRKS, and propose two concrete constructions for ABRKS: key-policy ABRKS and ciphertext-policy ABRKS. In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography.

  12. Title, Description, and Subject are the Most Important Metadata Fields for Keyword Discoverability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Yang, L. (2016. Metadata effectiveness in internet discovery: An analysis of digital collection metadata elements and internet search engine keywords. College & Research Libraries, 77(1, 7-19. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.77.1.7 Objective – To determine which metadata elements best facilitate discovery of digital collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving over 32,000 graduate and undergraduate students in the Southwestern United States of America. Subjects – A sample of 22,559 keyword searches leading to the institution’s digital repository between August 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014. Methods – The author used Google Analytics to analyze 73,341 visits to the institution’s digital repository. He determined that 22,559 of these visits were due to keyword searches. Using Random Integer Generator, the author identified a random sample of 378 keyword searches. The author then matched the keywords with the Dublin Core and VRA Core metadata elements on the landing page in the digital repository to determine which metadata field had drawn the keyword searcher to that particular page. Many of these keywords matched to more than one metadata field, so the author also analyzed the metadata elements that generated unique keyword hits and those fields that were frequently matched together. Main Results – Title was the most matched metadata field with 279 matched keywords from searches. Description and Subject were also significant fields with 208 and 79 matches respectively. Slightly more than half of the results, 195 keywords, matched the institutional repository in one field only. Both Title and Description had significant match rates both independently and in conjunction with other elements, but Subject keywords were the sole match in only three of the sampled cases. Conclusion – The Dublin Core elements of Title, Description, and Subject were the most frequently matched fields in keyword

  13. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  14. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  15. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  16. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  17. Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay, this formation is characterized by high level cortex because the basament is cratonized since Middle Devonian. There were formed two main grabens such as Santa Lucia and Mirim-Pelotas which are filled with basalt and sediments.

  18. Tectonic movements monitored in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťák, Blahoslav; Mrlina, Jan; Stemberk, Josef; Chán, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2011), s. 34-44 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA AV ČR IBS3012353; GA AV ČR IAA300120905; GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : pressure pulse * tectonic displacement * earthquake micro swarm Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.007, year: 2011

  19. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...... generation techniques for multiple keywords query results. Consequently, we conduct the extensive evaluation on top of three distinct collaborative tagging systems. The graph-based methods perform significantly better for the Movielens and Bibsonomy datasets. Tag cloud generation based on maximal coverage...

  20. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  1. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  2. An introduction to XML query processing and keyword search

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiaheng

    2013-01-01

    This book systematically and comprehensively covers the latest advances in XML data searching. It presents an extensive overview of the current query processing and keyword search techniques on XML data.

  3. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  4. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    . On the occasion of the Second International Conference on Structures & Architecture held in July 2013 in Portugal the authors organized a special session entitled From open structures to the cladding of control bringing together researchers from the Nordic countries to discuss this issue. Likewise the initiative......By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... conditions of the built environment. We see an increasing number of square meters in ordinary housing, in commercial buildings and in public buildings such as hospitals and schools that are dealt with as performative structural frameworks rather than qualitative spaces for habitation and contemplation...

  5. Effectiveness of author-assigned keywords to INIS indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoko; Habara, Tadashi

    1977-01-01

    A test was carried out on the quality of indexing data which is based only upon author-assigned keywords in order to appreciate effectiveness of the keywords. As measures of the quality, the retrievability and the consistency of the indexing data were evaluated by comparison with the case of the conventional indexing method under the circumstances of the INIS descriptor assignment to the journal articles of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The indexing consistency obtained was approximately 0.61 on an average (or 0.66 when the narrower-broader hierarchical relations were regarded as consistent ones). Of the hit, noise, or total documents retrieved with the conventional indexing data, 0.86, 0.27, or 0.71, respectively, were retrievable with the keywords-based indexing data. From the results the recall ratio for the keywords-based indexing is estimated to be no less than 0.86 of that for the conventional indexing method, and the consistency of the hit documents are to be 0.75 at least. Consequently, the author-assigned keywords proved to be very effective to the document indexing. (auth.)

  6. Gene annotation from scientific literature using mappings between keyword systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Antonio J; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Bork, Peer; Thode, Guillermo; Andrade, Miguel A

    2004-09-01

    The description of genes in databases by keywords helps the non-specialist to quickly grasp the properties of a gene and increases the efficiency of computational tools that are applied to gene data (e.g. searching a gene database for sequences related to a particular biological process). However, the association of keywords to genes or protein sequences is a difficult process that ultimately implies examination of the literature related to a gene. To support this task, we present a procedure to derive keywords from the set of scientific abstracts related to a gene. Our system is based on the automated extraction of mappings between related terms from different databases using a model of fuzzy associations that can be applied with all generality to any pair of linked databases. We tested the system by annotating genes of the SWISS-PROT database with keywords derived from the abstracts linked to their entries (stored in the MEDLINE database of scientific references). The performance of the annotation procedure was much better for SWISS-PROT keywords (recall of 47%, precision of 68%) than for Gene Ontology terms (recall of 8%, precision of 67%). The algorithm can be publicly accessed and used for the annotation of sequences through a web server at http://www.bork.embl.de/kat

  7. Can Item Keyword Feedback Help Remediate Knowledge Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A; Clauser, Amanda L

    2016-10-01

    In graduate medical education, assessment results can effectively guide professional development when both assessment and feedback support a formative model. When individuals cannot directly access the test questions and responses, a way of using assessment results formatively is to provide item keyword feedback. The purpose of the following study was to investigate whether exposure to item keyword feedback aids in learner remediation. Participants included 319 trainees who completed a medical subspecialty in-training examination (ITE) in 2012 as first-year fellows, and then 1 year later in 2013 as second-year fellows. Performance on 2013 ITE items in which keywords were, or were not, exposed as part of the 2012 ITE score feedback was compared across groups based on the amount of time studying (preparation). For the same items common to both 2012 and 2013 ITEs, response patterns were analyzed to investigate changes in answer selection. Test takers who indicated greater amounts of preparation on the 2013 ITE did not perform better on the items in which keywords were exposed compared to those who were not exposed. The response pattern analysis substantiated overall growth in performance from the 2012 ITE. For items with incorrect responses on both attempts, examinees selected the same option 58% of the time. Results from the current study were unsuccessful in supporting the use of item keywords in aiding remediation. Unfortunately, the results did provide evidence of examinees retaining misinformation.

  8. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  9. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Recommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas. Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identi...

  10. Interdisciplinarity of Nano Research Fields : A Keyword Mining Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Notten, A.; Surpatean, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a keyword mining approach, this paper explores the interdisciplinary and integrative dynamics in five nano research fields. We argue that the general trend of integration in nano research fields is converging in the long run, although the degree of this convergence depends greatly on the

  11. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  12. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  13. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geopositioned, and increased focus is being given to serving local content in response to web queries. This development calls for spatial keyword queries that take into account both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the effici......Web users and content are increasingly being geopositioned, and increased focus is being given to serving local content in response to web queries. This development calls for spatial keyword queries that take into account both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study...... the efficient, joint processing of multiple top-k spatial keyword queries. Such joint processing is attractive during high query loads and also occurs when multiple queries are used to obfuscate a user's true query. We propose a novel algorithm and index structure for the joint processing of top-k spatial...... keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  14. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  15. A new taxonomy of sublinear keyword pattern matching algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.; Zwaan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a new taxonomy of sublinear (multiple) keyword pattern matching algorithms. Based on an earlier taxonomy by Watson and Zwaan [WZ96, WZ95], this new taxonomy includes not only suffix-based algorithms related to the Boyer-Moore, Commentz-Walter and Fan-Su algorithms, but

  16. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Keyword-based Ciphertext Search Algorithm under Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xunyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of network storage services, cloud storage have the advantage of high scalability , inexpensive, without access limit and easy to manage. These advantages make more and more small or medium enterprises choose to outsource large quantities of data to a third party. This way can make lots of small and medium enterprises get rid of costs of construction and maintenance, so it has broad market prospects. But now lots of cloud storage service providers can not protect data security.This result leakage of user data, so many users have to use traditional storage method.This has become one of the important factors that hinder the development of cloud storage. In this article, establishing keyword index by extracting keywords from ciphertext data. After that, encrypted data and the encrypted index upload cloud server together.User get related ciphertext by searching encrypted index, so it can response data leakage problem.

  18. Understanding the delayed-keyword effect on metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M. Anderson, 2003; K. W. Thiede, M. C. M. Anderson, & D. Therriault, 2003). The delayed and immediate conditions in these studies confounded the delay between reading and generation tasks with other task lags, including the lag between multiple generation tasks and the lag between generation tasks and judgments. The first 2 experiments disentangle these confounded manipulations and provide clear evidence that the delay between reading and keyword generation is the only lag critical to improving metacomprehension accuracy. The 3rd and 4th experiments show that not all delayed tasks produce improvements and suggest that delayed generative tasks provide necessary diagnostic cues about comprehension for improving metacomprehension accuracy.

  19. Can keyword length indicate Web Users' readiness to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlall, Shalini; Sanders, David; Tewkesbury, Giles; Ndzi, David

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the internet has become an important marketing tool and a profitable selling channel. The biggest challenge for most online business is converting Web users into customers effectively and at a high rate. Understanding the audience of a website is essential for achieving high conversion rates. This paper describes the research carried out in online search behaviour. The research looks at whether the length of a Web user’s search keyword can provide insight into their i...

  20. Imagined affordance: reconstructing a keyword for communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, G; Nagy, P

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology s...

  1. Keyword extraction, ranking, and organization for the neuroinformatics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, S; Palmes, P; Nagata, K; Taniguchi, T; Ueda, N

    2007-04-01

    Brain-related researches encompass many fields of studies and usually involve worldwide collaborations. Recognizing the value of these international collaborations for efficient use of resources and improving the quality of brain research, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) started to coordinate the effort of establishing neuroinformatics (NI) centers and portal sites among the different participating countries. These NI centers and portal sites will serve as the conduit for the interchange of information and brain-related resources among different countries. In Japan, several NI platforms under the support of NIJC (NI Japan Center) are being developed with one platform called, Visiome, already operating and publicly accessible at "http://www.platform.visiome.org". Each of these platforms requires their own set of keywords that represent important terms covering their respective fields of study. One important function of this predefined keyword list is to help contributors classify the contents of their contributions and group related resources. It is vital, therefore, that this predefined list should be properly chosen to cover the necessary areas. Currently, the process of identifying these appropriate keywords relies on the availability of human experts which does not scale well considering that different areas are rapidly evolving. This problem prompted us to develop a tool to automatically filter the most likely terms preferred by human experts. We tested the effectiveness of the proposed approach using the abstracts of the Vision Research Journal (VR) and Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science Journal (IOVS) as source files.

  2. 論美國關鍵字商標初始興趣混淆的民事責任與我國的議題現況評析──以網路搜尋引擎業者與資訊儲存服務提供者為中心 Civil Liability for Trademark Initial Interest Confusion to Keywords in US and Current Evaluation in Taiwan —Centering on Search Engine and Information Storage Service Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    程法彰 Fa-Chang Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 網路搜尋引擎業者強大的資訊蒐集能力與網路資訊儲存業者強大的資訊儲存能力,引起商標權人對初始興趣混淆議題的高度重視。本文認為美國在實務案件中出現對網路搜尋引擎業者或資訊儲存服務提供者關鍵字搜尋的商標運用行為,過度解讀為直接侵權行為。這樣的作法不但破壞了侵權行為的理論基礎,亦不當的平衡商標權人的保護與網路發展的重要性。若我國將來採取與美國相同的基調,經由美國的相關經驗,對網路搜尋引擎業者或資訊儲存服務業關於關鍵字商標初始興趣混淆責任,亦應以間接侵權行為責任相繩。在責任的具體規範上,第一步或許可以藉由通過目前電子通訊傳播法草案,對於業者宣示最低的行為準則。最終本文建議經由草案中避風港條款機制,對於商標間接侵權行為的免責實踐經驗,並參考美國對於智慧財產間接侵權行為的規範,在我國商標法中增列間接侵權行為責任條文。 The enormous data collection power in search engine providers and the tremendous data storage power in information storage service providers arouse strong concerns about initial interest confusion to trademark use among the trademark owners. This article indicates that US judicial practice overreads the trademark use to keyword search mechanism in search engine providers and storage service providers as direct trademark infringement. This phenomenon not only tears down the fundamental torts theory but also strikes the inappropriate balance between the protection of trademark owners and the importance of Internet development. This article concludes that the indirect torts liability would be the most appropriate solution to resolve the trademark dispute for keywords initial confusion regarding search engine and information storage service if Taiwan follows the US experience. To get through the

  3. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  4. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    ’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...... and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye...... in the development of novel prefab solutions. This is pursued trough a deductive study comparing Gottfried Semper’s theories on the origins of construction with Werner Blaser’s technical and practical studies of the joint. In combining Blaser’s constructive understanding of the joint with the interior softness...

  5. Leveraging Bibliographic RDF Data for Keyword Prediction with Association Rule Mining (ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kushwaha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web (Web 3.0 has been proposed as an efficient way to access the increasingly large amounts of data on the internet. The Linked Open Data Cloud project at present is the major effort to implement the concepts of the Seamtic Web, addressing the problems of inhomogeneity and large data volumes. RKBExplorer is one of many repositories implementing Open Data and contains considerable bibliographic information. This paper discusses bibliographic data, an important part of cloud data. Effective searching of bibiographic datasets can be a challenge as many of the papers residing in these databases do not have sufficient or comprehensive keyword information. In these cases however, a search engine based on RKBExplorer is only able to use information to retrieve papers based on author names and title of papers without keywords. In this paper we attempt to address this problem by using the data mining algorithm Association Rule Mining (ARM to develop keywords based on features retrieved from Resource Description Framework (RDF data within a bibliographic citation. We have demonstrate the applicability of this method for predicting missing keywords for bibliographic entries in several typical databases. −−−−− Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC-2014 March 27-28, 2014. Organized by VIT University, Chennai, India. Sponsored by BRNS.

  6. Efficient Continuously Moving Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the computation on the server as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space pruning. Empirical studies...... keyword data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within a zone. However, existing safe zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We propose two algorithms for computing...

  7. Mining the literature: new methods to exploit keyword profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic records in the PubMed database of biomedical literature are annotated with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) by curators, which summarize the content of the articles. Two recent publications explain how to generate profiles of MeSH terms for a set of bibliographic records and to use them to define any given concept by its associated literature. These concepts can then be related by their keyword profiles, and this can be used, for example, to detect new associations between genes ...

  8. Mining the literature: new methods to exploit keyword profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic records in the PubMed database of biomedical literature are annotated with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) by curators, which summarize the content of the articles. Two recent publications explain how to generate profiles of MeSH terms for a set of bibliographic records and to use them to define any given concept by its associated literature. These concepts can then be related by their keyword profiles, and this can be used, for example, to detect new associations between genes and inherited diseases. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/13/249/abstracthttp://genomemedicine.com/content/4/9/75/abstract.

  9. Supporting ontology-based keyword search over medical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kementsietsidis, Anastasios; Lim, Lipyeow; Wang, Min

    2008-11-06

    The proliferation of medical terms poses a number of challenges in the sharing of medical information among different stakeholders. Ontologies are commonly used to establish relationships between different terms, yet their role in querying has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we study the problem of supporting ontology-based keyword search queries on a database of electronic medical records. We present several approaches to support this type of queries, study the advantages and limitations of each approach, and summarize the lessons learned as best practices.

  10. PKIS: practical keyword index search on cloud datacenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jae Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the importance of the interoperability of the encrypted DB in terms of the characteristics of DB and efficient schemes. Although most prior researches have developed efficient algorithms under the provable security, they do not focus on the interoperability of the encrypted DB. In order to address this lack of practical aspects, we conduct two practical approaches--efficiency and group search in cloud datacenter. The process of this paper is as follows: first, we create two schemes of efficiency and group search--practical keyword index search--I and II; second, we define and analyze group search secrecy and keyword index search privacy in our schemes; third, we experiment on efficient performances over our proposed encrypted DB. As the result, we summarize two major results: (1our proposed schemes can support a secure group search without re-encrypting all documents under the group-key update and (2our experiments represent that our scheme is approximately 935 times faster than Golle's scheme and about 16 times faster than Song's scheme for 10,000 documents. Based on our experiments and results, this paper has the following contributions: (1 in the current cloud computing environments, our schemes provide practical, realistic, and secure solutions over the encrypted DB and (2 this paper identifies the importance of interoperability with database management system for designing efficient schemes.

  11. Extracting Rankings for Spatial Keyword Queries from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keles, Ilkcan; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Studies suggest that many search engine queries have local intent. We consider the evaluation of ranking functions important for such queries. The key challenge is to be able to determine the “best” ranking for a query, as this enables evaluation of the results of ranking functions. We propose...

  12. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  13. Use of keyword hierarchies to interpret gene expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masys, D R; Welsh, J B; Lynn Fink, J; Gribskov, M; Klacansky, I; Corbeil, J

    2001-04-01

    High-density microarray technology permits the quantitative and simultaneous monitoring of thousands of genes. The interpretation challenge is to extract relevant information from this large amount of data. A growing variety of statistical analysis approaches are available to identify clusters of genes that share common expression characteristics, but provide no information regarding the biological similarities of genes within clusters. The published literature provides a potential source of information to assist in interpretation of clustering results. We describe a data mining method that uses indexing terms ('keywords') from the published literature linked to specific genes to present a view of the conceptual similarity of genes within a cluster or group of interest. The method takes advantage of the hierarchical nature of Medical Subject Headings used to index citations in the MEDLINE database, and the registry numbers applied to enzymes.

  14. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  15. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  16. The Ecology of Urban Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    This paper is related to previous research by the authors that examine the phenomenon of tectonics as architectural design theory and method. These studies have shown that the notion of tectonics at large is associated with exclusive architecture, and that, as a profession architects have...... to develop methods for applying tectonic knowledge extracted from significant existing examples for developing future practical methods (Frampton 2002: 81). The specific intention of this paper is to push the understanding of tectonics further, into the scale of the urban context and thereby to discuss...... using Hansen’s work as a case study. (Beim & Madsen (ed.) 2014) Methodologically this has been done by applying the notion of ‘urban tectonics’ inspired by the work of Eduard F. Sekler, as a critical lens. (Sekler 1964, Sekler 1965) Through this lens we study how Hansen was able to treat culture...

  17. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  18. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  19. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  20. WORDGRAPH: Keyword-in-Context Visualization for NETSPEAK's Wildcard Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehmann, Patrick; Gruendl, Henning; Potthast, Martin; Trenkmann, Martin; Stein, Benno; Froehlich, Benno

    2012-09-01

    The WORDGRAPH helps writers in visually choosing phrases while writing a text. It checks for the commonness of phrases and allows for the retrieval of alternatives by means of wildcard queries. To support such queries, we implement a scalable retrieval engine, which returns high-quality results within milliseconds using a probabilistic retrieval strategy. The results are displayed as WORDGRAPH visualization or as a textual list. The graphical interface provides an effective means for interactive exploration of search results using filter techniques, query expansion, and navigation. Our observations indicate that, of three investigated retrieval tasks, the textual interface is sufficient for the phrase verification task, wherein both interfaces support context-sensitive word choice, and the WORDGRAPH best supports the exploration of a phrase's context or the underlying corpus. Our user study confirms these observations and shows that WORDGRAPH is generally the preferred interface over the textual result list for queries containing multiple wildcards.

  1. Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and Their Applications in Earth Science Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, A.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview and discussion of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and their applications in Earth science data discovery. The GCMD Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled keywords covering the Earth science disciplines, including: science keywords, service keywords, data centers, projects, location, data resolution, instruments and platforms. Controlled vocabularies (keywords) help users accurately, consistently and comprehensively categorize their data and also allow for the precise search and subsequent retrieval of data. The GCMD Keywords are a community resource and are developed collaboratively with input from various stakeholders, including GCMD staff, keyword users and metadata providers. The GCMD Keyword Landing Page and GCMD Keyword Community Forum provide access to keyword resources and an area for discussion of topics related to the GCMD Keywords. See https://earthdata.nasa.gov/about/gcmd/global-change-master-directory-gcmd-keywords

  2. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  3. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  4. Tectonic phase separation applied to the Sudetic Marginal Fault Zone (NE part of the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 251-267 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Sudetic Marginal Fault Zone * paleostress reconstruction * active tectonics * frequency analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2015

  5. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  6. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 ;complex networks; articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  7. Global tectonics and space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth

    1992-01-01

    Much of the success of plate tectonics can be attributed to the near rigidity of tectonic plates and the availability of data that describe the rates and directions of motion across narrow plate boundaries of about 1 to 60 kilometers. Nonetheless, many plate boundaries in both continental and oceanic lithosphere are not narrow but are hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide. Wide plate boundary zones cover approximately 15 percent of earth's surface area. Space geodesy, which includes very long baseline radio interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and the global positioning system, provides the accurate long-distance measurements needed to estimate the present motion across and within wide plate boundary zones. Space geodetic data show that plate velocities averaged over years are remarkably similar to velocities avaraged over millions of years.

  8. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  9. Is There a Standard Default Keyword Operator? A Bibliometric Analysis of Processing Options Chosen by Libraries To Execute Keyword Searches in Online Public Access Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gary M.

    1994-01-01

    Online public access catalogs from 67 libraries using NOTIS software were searched using Internet connections to determine the positional operators selected as the default keyword operator on each catalog. Results indicate the lack of a processing standard for keyword searches. Five tables provide information. (Author/AEF)

  10. Habitability from Tidally Induced Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Diana; Tan, Vivian Yun Yan; Zajac, Zachary

    2018-04-01

    The stability of Earth’s climate on geological timescales is enabled by the carbon–silicate cycle that acts as a negative feedback mechanism stabilizing surface temperatures via the intake and outgassing of atmospheric carbon. On Earth, this thermostat is enabled by plate tectonics that sequesters outgassed CO2 back into the mantle via weathering and subduction at convergent margins. Here we propose a separate tectonic mechanism—vertical recycling—that can serve as the vehicle for CO2 outgassing and sequestration over long timescales. The mechanism requires continuous tidal heating, which makes it particularly relevant to planets in the habitable zone of M stars. Dynamical models of this vertical recycling scenario and stability analysis show that temperate climates stable over timescales of billions of years are realized for a variety of initial conditions, even as the M star dims over time. The magnitude of equilibrium surface temperatures depends on the interplay of sea weathering and outgassing, which in turn depends on planetary carbon content, so that planets with lower carbon budgets are favored for temperate conditions. The habitability of planets such as found in the Trappist-1 system may be rooted in tidally driven tectonics.

  11. Exhortation toward assigning of keywords in free terms to papers by their authors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    The features and the effective utilization of keywords are explained, and the prompt author-assigned keywords are desirable. What are the keywords is illustrated with two examples. The keywords have more detailed information than subject headings. A set of keywords express a gist of paper briefly and represent the contents of the paper approximately. The keywords can be selected easily because they are the arrangement of technical terms. The following effects are expected when the keywords are written together in papers: (1) the papers attract attention easily; (2) the circulation of the papers becomes wider and more exact; (3) the classification is made more accurately; (4) the indexes of subjects are easy to make; and (5) the keywords can be utilized for the administration of papers: The knowledge of assigning keywords is (1) to select meaningful words, (2) to use noun form, (3) to employ the terms having meaning as narrow as possible, (4) to use full spelling for the names of elements, nuclides, compounds and alloys, (5) to use only the abbreviations which are popular internationally, (6) to use only the compound words and phrases which are commonly used, (7) to take care not to omit words in selection because they are too natural, (8) to select about ten keywords, (9) to make a short sentence with the selected keywords, and (10) to adapt words, if any, which still perplex the author, within 15 keywords. The knowledge for instituting keyword system is that (1) the original authors of papers select keywords; (2) check-up must be required during initial one or two years for unifying expression; (3) keywords must be assigned to as many papers as possible, (4) keywords should be selected from headings and abstracts as a rule; (5) keywords are expressed in English and; (6) the prescription on keywords must be specified in the regulations and manuals for writing. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Drosos, V.; Georgarakos, T.; Kourkoulis, R.

    2008-12-01

    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions, but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset. The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan, offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting, have (re)fueled the interest on the subject. This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation. The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps: the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil, and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner; and the second (at the global level) investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1. A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges, founded on piles or caissons. Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation. End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm. Floating piles perform better, and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections, they could survive much larger offsets. Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress. Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful. Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable, while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress). For large-span cantilever-construction bridges, where a statically determinate system is hardly an option, inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports. An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge, demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  13. Top-k Keyword Search Over Graphs Based On Backward Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jia-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keyword search is one of the most friendly and intuitive information retrieval methods. Using the keyword search to get the connected subgraph has a lot of application in the graph-based cognitive computation, and it is a basic technology. This paper focuses on the top-k keyword searching over graphs. We implemented a keyword search algorithm which applies the backward search idea. The algorithm locates the keyword vertices firstly, and then applies backward search to find rooted trees that contain query keywords. The experiment shows that query time is affected by the iteration number of the algorithm.

  14. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  15. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  16. Navigating Towards Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem...... a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between...

  17. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    tectonic thinking. The ideas of German Theorist Gottfried Semper are presented as a strategy for describing form as a result of materials and technical matter. Furthermore the idea of poetic construction are presented. Set forth by the english / american theorist Kenneth Frampton, the idea is that poetic...... techniques are used in an iterative process, exploring boundaries rather than defining solutions. The Object Oriented design paradigm is found to support such development, allowing for structuring of code into ’classes’ such as: concept, geometry / material, and fabrication. Based on an analysis...

  18. Community Involvement in Enhancing the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Controlled Vocabularies (Keywords)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T.; Ritz, S.; Aleman, A.; Genazzio, M.; Morahan, M.; Wharton, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) develops and expands a hierarchical set of controlled vocabularies (keywords) covering the Earth sciences and associated information (data centers, projects, platforms, instruments, etc.). The purpose of the keywords is to describe Earth science data and services in a consistent and comprehensive manner, allowing for the precise searching of metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. The keywords are accessible in a standardized SKOSRDFOWL representation and are used as an authoritative taxonomy, as a source for developing ontologies, and to search and access Earth Science data within online metadata catalogues. The keyword development approach involves: (1) receiving community suggestions, (2) triaging community suggestions, (3) evaluating the keywords against a set of criteria coordinated by the NASA ESDIS Standards Office, and (4) publication/notification of the keyword changes. This approach emphasizes community input, which helps ensure a high quality, normalized, and relevant keyword structure that will evolve with users changing needs. The Keyword Community Forum, which promotes a responsive, open, and transparent processes, is an area where users can discuss keyword topics and make suggestions for new keywords. The formalized approach could potentially be used as a model for keyword development.

  19. Extraction of Protein-Protein Interaction from Scientific Articles by Predicting Dominant Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Shun; Phan, Thi Thanh Thuy; Ohkawa, Takenao

    2015-01-01

    For the automatic extraction of protein-protein interaction information from scientific articles, a machine learning approach is useful. The classifier is generated from training data represented using several features to decide whether a protein pair in each sentence has an interaction. Such a specific keyword that is directly related to interaction as "bind" or "interact" plays an important role for training classifiers. We call it a dominant keyword that affects the capability of the classifier. Although it is important to identify the dominant keywords, whether a keyword is dominant depends on the context in which it occurs. Therefore, we propose a method for predicting whether a keyword is dominant for each instance. In this method, a keyword that derives imbalanced classification results is tentatively assumed to be a dominant keyword initially. Then the classifiers are separately trained from the instance with and without the assumed dominant keywords. The validity of the assumed dominant keyword is evaluated based on the classification results of the generated classifiers. The assumption is updated by the evaluation result. Repeating this process increases the prediction accuracy of the dominant keyword. Our experimental results using five corpora show the effectiveness of our proposed method with dominant keyword prediction.

  20. An Object-Oriented Approach of Keyword Querying over Fuzzy XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the fuzzy data management has become one of the main research topics and directions, the question of how to obtain the useful information by means of keyword query from fuzzy XML documents is becoming a subject of an increasing needed investigation. Considering the keyword query methods on crisp XML documents, smallest lowest common ancestor (SLCA semantics is one of the most widely accepted semantics. When users propose the keyword query on fuzzy XML documents with the SLCA semantics, the query results are always incomplate, with low precision, and with no possibilities values returned. Most of keyword query semantics on XML documents only consider query results matching all keywords, yet users may also be interested in the query results matching partial keywords. To overcome these limitations, in this paper, we investigate how to obtain more comprehensive and meaningful results of keyword querying on fuzzy XML documents. We propose a semantics of object-oriented keyword querying on fuzzy XML documents. First, we introduce the concept of "object tree", analyze different types of matching result object trees and find the "minimum result object trees" which contain all keywords and "result object trees" which contain partial keywords. Then an object-oriented keyword query algorithm ROstack is proposed to obtain the root nodes of these matching result object trees, together with their possibilities. At last, experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed algorithm.

  1. On the state of the TM 71 extensometer monitoring in Slovenia: seven years of micro-tectonic displacement measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gosar, A.; Šebela, S.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 389-402 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : geodynamics * TM 71 extensometer * micro-tectonic displacements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/04_11/2_Gosar.pdf

  2. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  3. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...

  4. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    High-resolution Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) surveys offshore of La Jolla in southern California and the Eel River in northern California provide the opportunity to investigate the role of tectonics in the formation of stratigraphic architecture and margin morphology. Both study sites are characterized by shore-parallel tectonic deformation, which is largely observed in the structure of the prominent angular unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify three sedimentary sequences offshore of La Jolla: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. The estuarine unit is confined to the canyon edges in what may have been embayments during the last sea-level rise. The healing-phase unit appears to infill rough areas on the transgressive surface that may be related to relict fault structures. The upper transparent unit is largely controlled by long-wavelength tectonic deformation due to the Rose Canyon Fault. This unit is also characterized by a mid-shelf (˜40 m water depth) thickness high, which is likely a result of hydrodynamic forces and sediment grain size. On the Eel margin, we observe three distinct facies: a seaward-thinning unit truncated by the transgressive surface, a healing-phase unit confined to the edges of a broad structural high, and a highly laminated upper unit. The seaward-thinning wedge of sediment below the transgressive surface is marked by a number of channels that we interpret as distributary channels based on their morphology. Regional divergence of the sequence boundary and transgressive surface with up to ˜8 m of sediment preserved across the interfluves suggests the formation of subaerial accommodation during the lowstand. The healing-phase, much like that in southern California, appears to infill rough areas in the

  5. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  6. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  7. Automatic medical image annotation and keyword-based image retrieval using relevance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Lee, JiHyeon; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents novel multiple keywords annotation for medical images, keyword-based medical image retrieval, and relevance feedback method for image retrieval for enhancing image retrieval performance. For semantic keyword annotation, this study proposes a novel medical image classification method combining local wavelet-based center symmetric-local binary patterns with random forests. For keyword-based image retrieval, our retrieval system use the confidence score that is assigned to each annotated keyword by combining probabilities of random forests with predefined body relation graph. To overcome the limitation of keyword-based image retrieval, we combine our image retrieval system with relevance feedback mechanism based on visual feature and pattern classifier. Compared with other annotation and relevance feedback algorithms, the proposed method shows both improved annotation performance and accurate retrieval results.

  8. Reexamining the Relationship between Verbal Knowledge Background and Keyword Training for Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben; Lawson

    1997-07-01

    The literature on keyword training presents a confusing picture of the usefulness of the keyword method for foreign language vocabulary learning by students with strong verbal knowledge backgrounds. This paper reviews research which notes the existence of conflicting sets of findings concerning the verbal background-keyword training relationship and presents the results of analyses which argue against the assertion made by McDaniel and Pressley (1984) that keyword training will have minimal effect on students with high verbal ability. Findings from regression analyses of data from two studies did not show that the relationship between keyword training and immediate recall performance was moderated by verbal knowledge background. The disparate sets of findings related to the keyword training-verbal knowledge relationship and themes emerging from other research suggest that this relationship requires further examination.

  9. Recent movements along tectonic failures in the Západní Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurková, Nikola; Briestenský, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2008), s. 341-346 ISSN 0560-3137. [Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň. Ždiar, 01.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : recent tectonics * faults * displacements Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  10. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  11. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  12. Where the bugs are: analyzing distributions of bacterial phyla by descriptor keyword search in the nucleotide database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Andrea

    2011-07-26

    The associations between bacteria and environment underlie their preferential interactions with given physical or chemical conditions. Microbial ecology aims at extracting conserved patterns of occurrence of bacterial taxa in relation to defined habitats and contexts. In the present report the NCBI nucleotide sequence database is used as dataset to extract information relative to the distribution of each of the 24 phyla of the bacteria superkingdom and of the Archaea. Over two and a half million records are filtered in their cross-association with each of 48 sets of keywords, defined to cover natural or artificial habitats, interactions with plant, animal or human hosts, and physical-chemical conditions. The results are processed showing: (a) how the different descriptors enrich or deplete the proportions at which the phyla occur in the total database; (b) in which order of abundance do the different keywords score for each phylum (preferred habitats or conditions), and to which extent are phyla clustered to few descriptors (specific) or spread across many (cosmopolitan); (c) which keywords individuate the communities ranking highest for diversity and evenness. A number of cues emerge from the results, contributing to sharpen the picture on the functional systematic diversity of prokaryotes. Suggestions are given for a future automated service dedicated to refining and updating such kind of analyses via public bioinformatic engines.

  13. An evaluation of criteria for defining tectonic, seismic, or seismotectonic provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    A compilation and generic critique of the diagnostic siting criteria now in use throughout the world to delineate or approximate bounded tectonic, seismic, or seismotectonic provinces or zones, are presented. The criteria are referenced and tabulated to facilitate determination of their regulatory, scientific and practical application to siting of important engineered structures in Canada

  14. Path Index Based Keywords to SPARQL Query Transformation for Semantic Data Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilini Cooray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is a highly emerging research domain. Enhancing the ability of keyword query processing on Semantic Web data provides a huge support for familiarizing the usefulness of Semantic Web to the general public. Most of the existing approaches focus on just user keyword matching to RDF graphs and output the connecting elements as results. Semantic Web consists of SPARQL query language which can process queries more accurately and efficiently than general keyword matching. There are only about a couple of approaches available for transforming keyword queries to SPARQL. They basically rely on real time graph traversals? for identifying subgraphs which can connect user keywords. Those approaches are either limited to query processing on a single data store or a set of interlinked data sets. They have not focused on query processing on a federation of independent data sets which belongs to the same domain. This research proposes a Path Index based approach eliminating real time graph traversal for transforming keyword queries to SPARQL. We have introduced an ontology alignment based approach for keyword query transforming on a federation of RDF data stored using multiple heterogeneous vocabularies. Evaluation shows that the proposed approach have the ability to generate SPARQL queries which can provide highly relevant results for user keyword queries. The Path Index based query transformation approach has also achieved high efficiency compared to the existing approach.

  15. The Keyword Method of Foreign Vocabulary Learning: An Investigation of Its Generalizability. Working Paper No. 270.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    In five experiments, college-age students of differing foreign language-learning abilities were asked to learn Latin word translations to determine the effectiveness of the keyword method of foreign language vocabulary learning. The Latin words were the types for which it has been argued that the keyword method effects would be maximized (the…

  16. Paleoarchean bedrock lithologies across the Makhonjwa Mountains of South Africa and Swaziland linked to geochemical, magnetic and tectonic data reveal early plate tectonic genes flanking subduction margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten de Wit

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Makhonjwa Mountains, traditionally referred to as the Barberton Greenstone Belt, retain an iconic Paleoarchean archive against which numerical models of early earth geodynamics can be tested. We present new geologic and structural maps, geochemical plots, geo- and thermo-chronology, and geophysical data from seven silicic, mafic to ultramafic complexes separated by major shear systems across the southern Makhonjwa Mountains. All reveal signs of modern oceanic back-arc crust and subduction-related processes. We compare the rates of processes determined from this data and balance these against plate tectonic and plume related models. Robust rates of both horizontal and vertical tectonic processes derived from the Makhonjwa Mountain complexes are similar, well within an order of magnitude, to those encountered across modern oceanic and orogenic terrains flanking Western Pacific-like subduction zones. We conclude that plate tectonics and linked plate-boundary processes were well established by 3.2–3.6 Ga. Our work provides new constraints for modellers with rates of a ‘basket’ of processes against which to test Paleoarchean geodynamic models over a time period close to the length of the Phanerozoic. Keywords: Paleoarchean, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Onverwacht Suite, Geologic bedrock and structural maps, Geochemistry and geophysics, Plate tectonics

  17. A Novel Model for Lattice-Based Authorized Searchable Encryption with Special Keyword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugeng Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data stored in the cloud servers, keyword search, and access controls are two important capabilities which should be supported. Public-keyword encryption with keyword search (PEKS and attribute based encryption (ABE are corresponding solutions. Meanwhile, as we step into postquantum era, pairing related assumption is fragile. Lattice is an ideal choice for building secure encryption scheme against quantum attack. Based on this, we propose the first mathematical model for lattice-based authorized searchable encryption. Data owners can sort the ciphertext by specific keywords such as time; data users satisfying the access control hand the trapdoor generated with the keyword to the cloud sever; the cloud sever sends back the corresponding ciphertext. The security of our schemes is based on the worst-case hardness on lattices, called learning with errors (LWE assumption. In addition, our scheme achieves attribute-hiding, which could protect the sensitive information of data user.

  18. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-09-26

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period.

  19. CoPub: a literature-based keyword enrichment tool for microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; van Beek, Pieter; Bouwhuis, Maurice; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Polman, Jan; Alkema, Wynand

    2008-07-01

    Medline is a rich information source, from which links between genes and keywords describing biological processes, pathways, drugs, pathologies and diseases can be extracted. We developed a publicly available tool called CoPub that uses the information in the Medline database for the biological interpretation of microarray data. CoPub allows batch input of multiple human, mouse or rat genes and produces lists of keywords from several biomedical thesauri that are significantly correlated with the set of input genes. These lists link to Medline abstracts in which the co-occurring input genes and correlated keywords are highlighted. Furthermore, CoPub can graphically visualize differentially expressed genes and over-represented keywords in a network, providing detailed insight in the relationships between genes and keywords, and revealing the most influential genes as highly connected hubs. CoPub is freely accessible at http://services.nbic.nl/cgi-bin/copub/CoPub.pl.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the evolution of novelty in cinema through crowdsourced keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Sameet

    2013-01-01

    The generation of novelty is central to any creative endeavor. Novelty generation and the relationship between novelty and individual hedonic value have long been subjects of study in social psychology. However, few studies have utilized large-scale datasets to quantitatively investigate these issues. Here we consider the domain of American cinema and explore these questions using a database of films spanning a 70 year period. We use crowdsourced keywords from the Internet Movie Database as a window into the contents of films, and prescribe novelty scores for each film based on occurrence probabilities of individual keywords and keyword-pairs. These scores provide revealing insights into the dynamics of novelty in cinema. We investigate how novelty influences the revenue generated by a film, and find a relationship that resembles the Wundt-Berlyne curve. We also study the statistics of keyword occurrence and the aggregate distribution of keywords over a 100 year period. PMID:24067890

  1. Theory of denudation tectonics and practice in prospecting. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1994-01-01

    The theory of denudation tectonics--earth science frontiers--upsurged in the 1980's of the century and a great mass fervor of its research has spread to the uranium geology. For the studying and applying the theory of denudation tectonics and on the invitation of the Editorial Department of 'Uranium Geology', this paper has been written and will be published in several issues with the following contents accordingly: (1) New progress in the research on denudation tectonics in China; (2) The evolution of denudation tectonics' concept and layer zoning of the Earth; (3) The fundamental implication of the denudation tectonics and relevant tectonic terminology; (4) Discussion on dynamics of the formation of denudation tectonics; (5) Definition and discrimination of denudation tectonics; (6) Research method of denudation tectonics; (7) Ore control theory of denudation tectonics and prospecting; (8) Outlook on the research of denudation tectonics

  2. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  3. A unified framework for image retrieval using keyword and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Feng; Li, Mingling; Zhang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Bo

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, a unified image retrieval framework based on both keyword annotations and visual features is proposed. In this framework, a set of statistical models are built based on visual features of a small set of manually labeled images to represent semantic concepts and used to propagate keywords to other unlabeled images. These models are updated periodically when more images implicitly labeled by users become available through relevance feedback. In this sense, the keyword models serve the function of accumulation and memorization of knowledge learned from user-provided relevance feedback. Furthermore, two sets of effective and efficient similarity measures and relevance feedback schemes are proposed for query by keyword scenario and query by image example scenario, respectively. Keyword models are combined with visual features in these schemes. In particular, a new, entropy-based active learning strategy is introduced to improve the efficiency of relevance feedback for query by keyword. Furthermore, a new algorithm is proposed to estimate the keyword features of the search concept for query by image example. It is shown to be more appropriate than two existing relevance feedback algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  4. Comparison of two schemes for automatic keyword extraction from MEDLINE for functional gene clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ciliax, Brian J; Borges, Karin; Dasigi, Venu; Ram, Ashwin; Navathe, Shamkant B; Dingledine, Ray

    2004-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the unprecedented quatities of data on gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the nature of the functional links among genes within the derived clusters. However, the quality of the keyword lists extracted from biomedical literature for each gene significantly affects the clustering results. We extracted keywords from MEDLINE that describes the most prominent functions of the genes, and used the resulting weights of the keywords as feature vectors for gene clustering. By analyzing the resulting cluster quality, we compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalized z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). The best combination of background comparison set, stop list and stemming algorithm was selected based on precision and recall metrics. In a test set of four known gene groups, a hierarchical algorithm correctly assigned 25 of 26 genes to the appropriate clusters based on keywords extracted by the TDFIDF weighting scheme, but only 23 og 26 with the z-score method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clusters from microarray profiles, 44 yeast genes that are differentially expressed during the cell cycle were used as a second test set. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords had higher purity, lower entropy, and higher mutual information than those produced from normalized z-score weighted keywords. The optimized algorithms should be useful for sorting genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  5. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-01-01

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust

  6. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  7. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break with the indu......Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... with the industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards...... an increased customisation of casting moulds. The hypothesis of this research is that the techniques used in this research do not fully address the tectonic potentials of concrete which gives rise to the primary research question: Is it possible to enhance existing or develop new concrete casting techniques...

  8. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  9. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2008-08-27

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  10. Using the weighted keyword model to improve information retrieval for answering biomedical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang

    2009-03-01

    Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data.

  11. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

  12. The importance of continent tectonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of tectonic study in the continents are presented, including the use of methods that measure the isotope radioactive disintegration of some elements presents in rocks and the mineral distribution in African and South American continents. (author)

  13. Towards a Tectonic Sustainable Building Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    and environmental problems? The objective of the project is to analyse and develop the tectonic practice based on case studies, in relation to: • Cultural anchoring and identity creation • Building culture and creative processes • Sustainability, lifecycle and resource management The research project is divided...... into a main project and various subprojects, respectively, two levels that mutually feed each other.The main project, which constitutes the general level, seeks to identify a coherent strategy towards a new tectonically sustainable building culture.The subprojects look at partial issues and go into specific......Can a tectonic building practice be strengthened through new creation processes, where resources are used more purposefully, deliberately and systematically? Which new measures are necessary if we are to develop a strong tectonic building practice with due consideration for increasing climate...

  14. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  15. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan, China, Germany, France, the U.S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes, rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic survey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P., the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  16. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃胜

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan,China, Germany, France, the U. S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes,rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic sur-vey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P. , the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  17. Radon emanation in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Subsurface radon emanation has been continuously monitored for up to three years by the Track Etch method in shallow dry holes at more than 60 sites along several tectonic faults in central California and at 9 sites near the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The measured emanation in these tectonically active areas shows large long-term variations that may be related mainly to crustal strain changes

  18. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  19. The revised tectonic history of Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Paulien, Nicolas; Missenard, Yves; Saint-Bézar, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Constraining the timing of the emplacement of the volcano-tectonic province of Tharsis is critical to understanding the evolution of mantle, surface environment and climate of Mars. The growth of Tharsis had exerted stresses on the lithosphere, which were responsible for tectonic deformation, previously mapped as radial or concentric faults. Insights into the emplacement history of Tharsis may be gained from an analysis of the characteristics and ages of these tectonic features. The number, total length, linear density of extensional or compressional faults in the Tharsis region and deformation rates are reported for each of the following 6 stages: Early and Middle Noachian (stage 1); Late Noachian (stage 2); Early Hesperian (stage 3); Late Hesperian (stage 4), Early Amazonian (stage 5) and Middle Amazonian to Late Amazonian (stage 6). 8571 Tharsis-related tectonic features (radial or concentric to the center of Tharsis) were assigned to one of these periods of time based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the most recent geological map. Intense faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. However, we report a peak in both compressive and extensive rates of deformation during the Early Hesperian whereas the quantitative indicators for compressional and extensional tectonics vary within less than one order of magnitude from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian. These observations indicate a protracted growth of Tharsis during the first quarter of Mars evolution and declining from 3 Gyrs ago.

  20. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  1. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kostakos

    Full Text Available Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE, is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  2. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  3. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  4. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The reference lists and indexes are generated from a computer-searchable bibliographic data base; an indexing program collects and alphabetizes authors' names and keywords and correlates them with reference numbers

  5. Effect of keywords assignment on secondary information processing and notice on their selection and description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Oi, Shoichi; Ebinuma, Yukio.

    1976-01-01

    Completed are the observation and analysis which have been made on author-assigned keywords to his paper by the Special Committee on Nuclear Documentation in cooperation with the INIS National Center. The keywords must be the most suitable information items in principle for a brief representation of the paper. Each of the keywords is a title-augmentative term, capable of structuring a very short summary. Consequently, it may be possible to transfer them easily to descriptors in every secondary information system. Keywords cited in the two journals of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan are considerably effective in general to get a high quality of indexing and a subsequent high quality of information retrieval, because of both the indexing consistency of 66% and the hit retrieval consistency of 75% in the INIS. On the other hand, it is stressed that the keywords should be selected from the terms in title and abstract of the paper except for short notes. Resulting from the experience in checking of the keywords, a guideline for their selection and description are proposed over eight items on trial so that more adequate assignment can be uniformly attained by all authors concerned. (auth.)

  6. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals.

  7. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy, but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals.

  8. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert

    2017-12-23

    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  9. A keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Yaling

    2018-01-01

    Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme is a new type of data encryption primitive, which is very suitable for data cloud storage for its fine-grained access control. Keyword-based searchable encryption scheme enables users to quickly find interesting data stored in the cloud server without revealing any information of the searched keywords. In this work, we provide a keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage, which is a combination of attribute-based encryption scheme and keyword searchable encryption scheme. The new scheme supports the user's attribute update, especially in our new scheme when a user's attribute need to be updated, only the user's secret key related with the attribute need to be updated, while other user's secret key and the ciphertexts related with this attribute need not to be updated with the help of the cloud server. In addition, we outsource the operation with high computation cost to cloud server to reduce the user's computational burden. Moreover, our scheme is proven to be semantic security against chosen ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack in the general bilinear group model. And our scheme is also proven to be semantic security against chosen keyword attack under bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption.

  10. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Easy handling of tectonic data: the programs TectonicVB for Mac and TectonicsFP for Windows™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo; Reiter, Franz; Acs, Peter

    2002-12-01

    TectonicVB for Macintosh and TectonicsFP for Windows TM operating systems are two menu-driven computer programs which allow the shared use of data on these environments. The programs can produce stereographic plots of orientation data (great circles, poles, lineations). Frequently used statistical procedures like calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, calculation of mean vector with concentration parameters and confidence cone can be easily performed. Fault data can be plotted in stereographic projection (Angelier and Hoeppener plots). Sorting of datasets into homogeneous subsets and rotation of tectonic data can be performed in interactive two-diagram windows. The paleostress tensor can be calculated from fault data sets using graphical (calculation of kinematic axes and right dihedra method) or mathematical methods (direct inversion or numerical dynamical analysis). The calculations can be checked in dimensionless Mohr diagrams and fluctuation histograms.

  12. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

  13. Keyword Query Expansion Paradigm Based on Recommendation and Interpretation in Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ambiguity and impreciseness of keyword query in relational databases, the research on keyword query expansion has attracted wide attention. Existing query expansion methods expose users’ query intention to a certain extent, but most of them cannot balance the precision and recall. To address this problem, a novel two-step query expansion approach is proposed based on query recommendation and query interpretation. First, a probabilistic recommendation algorithm is put forward by constructing a term similarity matrix and Viterbi model. Second, by using the translation algorithm of triples and construction algorithm of query subgraphs, query keywords are translated to query subgraphs with structural and semantic information. Finally, experimental results on a real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed method.

  14. It's a sentence, not a word: insights from a keyword analysis in cancer communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly; Thorne, Sally; Oliffe, John L

    2015-01-01

    Keyword analysis has been championed as a methodological option for expanding the insights that can be extracted from qualitative datasets using various properties available in qualitative software. Intrigued by the pioneering applications of Clive Seale and his colleagues in this regard, we conducted keyword analyses for word frequency and "keyness" on a qualitative database of interview transcripts from a study on cancer communication. We then subjected the results from these operations to an in-depth contextual inquiry by resituating word instances within their original speech contexts, finding that most of what had initially appeared as group variations broke down under close analysis. In this article, we illustrate the various threads of analysis, and explain how they unraveled under closer scrutiny. On the basis of this tentative exercise, we conclude that a healthy skepticism for the benefits of keyword analysis within a qualitative investigative process seems warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A computer program for creating keyword indexes to textual data files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.

    1972-01-01

    A keyword-in-context (KWIC) or out-of-context (KWOC) index is a convenient means of organizing information. This keyword index program can be used to create either KWIC or KWOC indexes of bibliographic references or other types of information punched on. cards, typed on optical scanner sheets, or retrieved from various Department of Interior data bases using the Generalized Information Processing System (GIPSY). The index consists of a 'bibliographic' section and a keyword-section based on the permutation of. document titles, project titles, environmental impact statement titles, maps, etc. or lists of descriptors. The program can also create a back-of-the-book index to documents from a list of descriptors. By providing the user with a wide range of input and output options, the program provides the researcher, manager, or librarian with a means of-maintaining a list and index to documents in. a small library, reprint collection, or office file.

  16. Linguistic measures of chemical diversity and the "keywords" of molecular collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Michał; Wołos, Agnieszka; Modrzyk, Urszula; Górski, Rafał L; Winkowski, Jan; Bajczyk, Michał; Szymkuć, Sara; Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Eder, Maciej

    2018-05-15

    Computerized linguistic analyses have proven of immense value in comparing and searching through large text collections ("corpora"), including those deposited on the Internet - indeed, it would nowadays be hard to imagine browsing the Web without, for instance, search algorithms extracting most appropriate keywords from documents. This paper describes how such corpus-linguistic concepts can be extended to chemistry based on characteristic "chemical words" that span more than traditional functional groups and, instead, look at common structural fragments molecules share. Using these words, it is possible to quantify the diversity of chemical collections/databases in new ways and to define molecular "keywords" by which such collections are best characterized and annotated.

  17. Intelligent system for topic survey in MEDLINE by keyword recommendation and learning text characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Nakazono, S; Matsuno, H; Tsujimoto, H; Kitamura, Y; Miyano, S

    2000-01-01

    We have implemented a system for assisting experts in selecting MEDLINE records for database construction purposes. This system has two specific features: The first is a learning mechanism which extracts characteristics in the abstracts of MEDLINE records of interest as patterns. These patterns reflect selection decisions by experts and are used for screening the records. The second is a keyword recommendation system which assists and supplements experts' knowledge in unexpected cases. Combined with a conventional keyword-based information retrieval system, this system may provide an efficient and comfortable environment for MEDLINE record selection by experts. Some computational experiments are provided to prove that this idea is useful.

  18. Seasonal variation in internet keyword searches: a proxy assessment of sex mating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-05-01

    The current study investigated seasonal variation in internet searches regarding sex and mating behaviors. Harmonic analyses were used to examine the seasonal trends of Google keyword searches during the past 5 years for topics related to pornography, prostitution, and mate-seeking. Results indicated a consistent 6-month harmonic cycle with the peaks of keyword searches related to sex and mating behaviors occurring most frequently during winter and early summer. Such results compliment past research that has found similar seasonal trends of births, sexually transmitted infections, condom sales, and abortions.

  19. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  20. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  1. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  2. Enriched Title-Based Keyword Index Generation Using dBase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, P. P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of a database management system (DBMS)--dBaseII--to create an enriched title-based keyword index for a collection of news items at the Renewable Energy Resources Information Center of the Asian Institute of Technology. The use of DBMSs in libraries in developing countries is emphasized. (Author/LRW)

  3. Certificate-Based Encryption with Keyword Search: Enabling Secure Authorization in Electronic Health Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Gritti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an e-Health scenario, we study how the practitioners are authorized when they are requesting access to medical documents containing sensitive information. Consider the following scenario. A clinician wants to access and retrieve a patient’s Electronic Health Record (EHR, and this means that the clinician must acquire sufficient access right to access this document. As the EHR is within a collection of many other patients, the clinician would need to specify some requirements (such as a keyword which match the patient’s record, as well as having a valid access right. The complication begins when we do not want the server to learn anything from this query (as the server might be outsourced to other place. To encompass this situation, we define a new cryptographic primitive called Certificate-Based Encryption with Keyword Search (CBEKS, which will be suitable in this scenario. We also specify the corresponding security models, namely computational consistency, indistinguishability against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks, indistinguishability against keyword-guessing attacks and collusion resistance. We provide a CBEKS construction that is proven secure in the standard model with respect to the aforementioned security models.

  4. MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.

  5. Re-examining the "Limitations" of the Mnemonic Keyword Method. Working Paper No. 329.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    A series of four experiments explored a discrepancy in the findings of research regarding the use of the keyword method for learning vocabulary, specifically whether the presentation method (paced vs. unpaced) or the treatment administration (subjects in groups vs. subjects as individuals) determines its effectiveness. Two experiments involved…

  6. A Comparison of Keyword Subject Searching on Six British University OPACs Online Public Access Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanonson, John

    1987-01-01

    Compares features of online public access catalogs (OPACs) at six British universities: (1) Cambridge; (2) Hull; (3) Newcastle; (4) Surrey; (5) Sussex; and (6) York. Results of keyword subject searches on two topics performed on each of the OPACs are reported and compared. Six references are listed. (MES)

  7. User Practices in Keyword and Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Pat

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of keyword and Boolean searching techniques in online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a study conducted at Indiana State University that examined users' attitudes toward searching on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Total Integrated System). Relevant literature is reviewed, and implications for library instruction are suggested. (17…

  8. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  9. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  10. Fostering Learners' Metacognitive Skills of Keyword Reformulation in Image Seeking by Location-Based Hierarchical Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Kinshuk; Wen, Dunwei

    2013-01-01

    It is critical that students learn how to retrieve useful information in hypermedia environments, a task that is often especially difficult when it comes to image retrieval, as little text feedback is given that allows them to reformulate keywords they need to use. This situation may make students feel disorientated while attempting image…

  11. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  12. Generating Keywords Improves Metacomprehension and Self-Regulation in Elementary and Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Thiede, Keith W.; Camp, Gino; Redford, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The ability to monitor understanding of texts, usually referred to as metacomprehension accuracy, is typically quite poor in adult learners; however, recently interventions have been developed to improve accuracy. In two experiments, we evaluated whether generating delayed keywords prior to judging comprehension improved metacomprehension accuracy…

  13. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  14. The Use of Keywords for Delivering Immediate Performance Feedback on Teacher Competence Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Nele; Kreijns, Karel; Jochems, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that feedback that is specific, immediate and goal-oriented is effective on (pre-service) teachers' performance. Synchronous coaching gives this kind of feedback. Due to immediateness of feedback, pre-service teachers can suffer from cognitive load. We propose a set of standardised keywords through which this performance feedback…

  15. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  16. The Effect of Keyword Method on Vocabulary Retention of Senior High School EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Dina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of keyword method, as one of the mnemonic strategies, on vocabulary retention of Iranian senior high school EFL learners. Following a quasi-experimental design, the study used thirty eight (n = 38) female senior high school students in grade four from two intact classes at a public high school. The…

  17. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  18. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  19. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Devi Munisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  20. Mineral fabrics in high-level intrusions recording crustal strain and volcano-tectonic interactions: the Shellenbarger pluton, Sierra Nevada, California

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Verner, K.; Holub, F. V.; Sláma, Jiří; Paterson, S. R.; Memeti, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-208 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : tectonics * volcanic rocks * volcanoes * Late Cretaceous * magmatic arc Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.037, year: 2016

  1. The Nysa-Morava Zone: an active tectonic domain with Late Cenozoic sedimentary grabens in the Western Carpathians' foreland (NE Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, P.; Bábek, O.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Švancara, J.; Pazdírková, J.; Sedláček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-990 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Upper Morava Basin * tectonic evolution * seismicity * sedimentary grabens Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  2. Can deep seated gravitational slope deformations be activated by regional tectonic strain: First insights from displacement measurements in caves from the Eastern Alps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, I.; Plan, L.; Grasemann, B.; Mitrovic, I.; Lenhardt, W.; Hausmann, H.; Stemberk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 259, APR 15 (2016), 81-89 ISSN 0169-555X Grant - others:Austrian Science Fund(AT) P25884-N29 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : tectonic strain * slope failure * earthquake Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  3. Recent geodynamic and geomorphological analyses of the Diendorf–Čebín Tectonic Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roštínský, Pavel; Pospíšil, L.; Švábenský, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 599, 25. červen 2013 (2013), s. 45-66 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0097 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Diendorf – Čebín Tectonic Zone * Bohemian Massif * recent movement Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.04.008

  4. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 289, SI (2017), s. 3-17 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Deep seated gravitational slope deformations * Displacement monitoring * Tectonic strain changes * Bohemian Massif * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  5. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were ...... 9. Macdonald et al (1995). 8. 1. 35.9. 3.7. Kenya, Turkana Rift (Bird Nest,. Central). 3 ...... reproduction in diverse applications. 4.2 Comparison of linear discriminant analysis.

  6. Venus tectonics: another Earth or another Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of presumably primordial large craters has led to the suggestion that Venus may have a thick lithosphere like that of Mars despite its similarities to Earth in size and density. However, crust and upper mantle temperatures on Venus are very likely higher than on Earth so that a dry Venus could have a lithosphere with a thickness similar to that of Earth. If a trace of volatiles is present in the mantle, the lithosphere of Venus could be thinner. Due to the absence of liquid water, erosion and deposition will be much slower on Venus than on Earth, favoring retention of primordial cratered surfaces on portions of the crust that have not been destroyed or buried by tectonic and volcanic activity. Geochemical models of solar system origin and petrological considerations suggest that K is about as abundant in Venus as in Earth. The abundance of 40 Ar in the atmosphere of Venus lies somewhere between the Earth value and one-tenth of the Earth value. Because erosional liberation of 40 Ar on Venus will be relatively inefficient, this range for 40 Ar abundance at least permits an active tectonic history, and if the 40 Ar abundance is towards the high end of the range, it may well require an active tectonic history. Thus we are not constrained to a Mars-like model of Venus tectonics by craters and possible mantle dryness; an Earth-like model is equally probable

  7. Tectonic studies in the Lansjaerv region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, H.

    1987-10-01

    This report contains the results and the analysis of ground geophysical measurements and the tectonic interpretation in the 150x200 km Lansjaerv study area. It describes the data and methods used. The significance of strike slip fault patterns in relation to the surface morphology is discussed. The obtained results are used to suggest a tentative model for the present tectonic deformation. The report is part of the bedrock stability programme of SKB. The major conclusions regarding the tectonic structure are: Three regional fault systems are identified, two steep NW and N trending and a third NNE trending with gentle ESE dips, the steep fault systems have strike slip generated deformation patterns both in the Precambrian structures and in the surface morphology, the post-glacial faults of the area are part of this fault pattern and represent movements mainly on reactivated, gently dipping zones, several suspected late or post-glacial, fault related features are found along the steep NW and N faults. Sites for drilling and geodetic networks for deformation measurements are suggested. Detailed background data are documented in additional 4 reports. The basic geophysical and geological datasets are documented in color plotted 1:250 000 maps. A tectonic interpretation map in the same scale has been produced by combined interpretation of magnetic, elevation, elevation relief and gravity data. (orig./HP) With 6 maps

  8. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  9. Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgment Elicitation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C.; Youngs, R.R.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgement Excitation Project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate methods for the excitation of expert judgement, and (2) to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for use in the EPRI-HLW performance assessment. Specifically, the technical issue considered is the probability of differential fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For this study, a strategy for quantifying uncertainties was developed that relies on the judgements of multiple experts. A panel of seven geologists and seismologists was assembled to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for the performance assessment model. A series of technical workshops focusing on these issues were conducted. Finally, each expert was individually interviewed in order to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. This report summarizes the methodologies used to elicit the judgements of the earthquakes and tectonics experts (termed ''specialists''), and summarizes the technical assessments made by the expert panel

  10. Tectonic vocabulary and materialization: Discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2015-01-01

    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday....... On the occasion of the Second International Conference on Structures & Architecture held in July 2013 in Portugal the authors organized a special session entitled From open structures to the cladding of control bringing together researchers from the Nordic countries to discuss this issue. Likewise the initiative...... to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...

  11. A text zero-watermarking method based on keyword dense interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhu, Yuesheng; Jiang, Yifeng; Qing, Yin

    2017-07-01

    Digital watermarking has been recognized as a useful technology for the copyright protection and authentication of digital information. However, rarely did the former methods focus on the key content of digital carrier. The idea based on the protection of key content is more targeted and can be considered in different digital information, including text, image and video. In this paper, we use text as research object and a text zero-watermarking method which uses keyword dense interval (KDI) as the key content is proposed. First, we construct zero-watermarking model by introducing the concept of KDI and giving the method of KDI extraction. Second, we design detection model which includes secondary generation of zero-watermark and the similarity computing method of keyword distribution. Besides, experiments are carried out, and the results show that the proposed method gives better performance than other available methods especially in the attacks of sentence transformation and synonyms substitution.

  12. Improving the precision of the keyword-matching pornographic text filtering method using a hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-yang; Li, Jian-hua; Ma, Ying-hua; Li, Sheng-hong

    2004-09-01

    With the flooding of pornographic information on the Internet, how to keep people away from that offensive information is becoming one of the most important research areas in network information security. Some applications which can block or filter such information are used. Approaches in those systems can be roughly classified into two kinds: metadata based and content based. With the development of distributed technologies, content based filtering technologies will play a more and more important role in filtering systems. Keyword matching is a content based method used widely in harmful text filtering. Experiments to evaluate the recall and precision of the method showed that the precision of the method is not satisfactory, though the recall of the method is rather high. According to the results, a new pornographic text filtering model based on reconfirming is put forward. Experiments showed that the model is practical, has less loss of recall than the single keyword matching method, and has higher precision.

  13. Phonetic spelling filter for keyword selection in drug mention mining from social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Patki, Apurv; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Social media postings are rich in information that often remain hidden and inaccessible for automatic extraction due to inherent limitations of the site's APIs, which mostly limit access via specific keyword-based searches (and limit both the number of keywords and the number of postings that are returned). When mining social media for drug mentions, one of the first problems to solve is how to derive a list of variants of the drug name (common misspellings) that can capture a sufficient number of postings. We present here an approach that filters the potential variants based on the intuition that, faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar, complex word (the drug name), users will tend to revert to phonetic spelling, and we thus give preference to variants that reflect the phonemes of the correct spelling. The algorithm allowed us to capture 50.4 - 56.0 % of the user comments using only about 18% of the variants.

  14. Scenarios constructed for the effects of tectonic processes on the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Borns, D.J.; Fridrich, C.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive collection of scenarios is presented that connect initiating tectonic events with radionuclide releases by logical and physically possible combinations or sequences of features, events and processes. The initiating tectonic events include both discrete faulting and distributed rock deformation developed through the repository and adjacent to it, as well as earthquake-induced ground motion and changes in tectonic stress at the site. The effects of these tectonic events include impacts on the engineered-barrier system, such as container rupture and failure of repository tunnels. These effects also include a wide range of hydrologic effects such as changes in pathways and flow rates in the unsaturated and saturated zones, changes in the water-table configuration, and in the development of perched-water systems. These scenarios are intended go guide performance-assessment analyses and to assist principal investigators in how essential field, laboratory, and calculational studies are used. This suite of scenarios will help ensure that all important aspects of the system disturbance related to a tectonic scenario are captured in numerical analyses. It also provides a record of all options considered by project analysts to provide documentation required for licensing agreement. The final portion of this report discusses issues remaining to be addressed with respect to tectonic activity. 105 refs

  15. Geodynamic reactions to recent tectonic events observed on selected sites monitored in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petro, L.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef; Vlčko, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 453-467 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA AV ČR IAA300120905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : finite pressure pulse * geodynamic monitoring * tectonic process Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/04_11/7_Petro.pdf

  16. A Study on Effectiveness of Search Keyword Advertising to Attract Tourists Online

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 真嗣

    2015-01-01

    Regional tourism is currently receiving a great deal of attention, but the methodology for effectively attracting visitors is still developing. To effectively attract tourists, several factors that affect travelers’ destination decisions must be examined. In this study, I conducted a survey on attracting tourists online and measured the effect. I displayed ads on search results of keywords related to regional tourism, such as“ tourism Noto,”“ Noto tourism,” and“ Nanao tourism,” and used these...

  17. Big Data Analysis for Personalized Health Activities: Machine Learning Processing for Automatic Keyword Extraction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Huh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The obese population is increasing rapidly due to the change of lifestyle and diet habits. Obesity can cause various complications and is becoming a social disease. Nonetheless, many obese patients are unaware of the medical treatments that are right for them. Although a variety of online and offline obesity management services have been introduced, they are still not enough to attract the attention of users and are not much of help to solve the problem. Obesity healthcare and personalized health activities are the important factors. Since obesity is related to lifestyle habits, eating habits, and interests, I concluded that the big data analysis of these factors could deduce the problem. Therefore, I collected big data by applying the machine learning and crawling method to the unstructured citizen health data in Korea and the search data of Naver, which is a Korean portal company, and Google for keyword analysis for personalized health activities. It visualized the big data using text mining and word cloud. This study collected and analyzed the data concerning the interests related to obesity, change of interest on obesity, and treatment articles. The analysis showed a wide range of seasonal factors according to spring, summer, fall, and winter. It also visualized and completed the process of extracting the keywords appropriate for treatment of abdominal obesity and lower body obesity. The keyword big data analysis technique for personalized health activities proposed in this paper is based on individual’s interests, level of interest, and body type. Also, the user interface (UI that visualizes the big data compatible with Android and Apple iOS. The users can see the data on the app screen. Many graphs and pictures can be seen via menu, and the significant data values are visualized through machine learning. Therefore, I expect that the big data analysis using various keywords specific to a person will result in measures for personalized

  18. Supporting Keyword Search for Image Retrieval with Integration of Probabilistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Hua Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing quantities of digital photo resources are annotated with enriching vocabularies to form semantic annotations. Photo-sharing social networks have boosted the need for efficient and intuitive querying to respond to user requirements in large-scale image collections. In order to help users formulate efficient and effective image retrieval, we present a novel integration of a probabilistic model based on keyword query architecture that models the probability distribution of image annotations: allowing users to obtain satisfactory results from image retrieval via the integration of multiple annotations. We focus on the annotation integration step in order to specify the meaning of each image annotation, thus leading to the most representative annotations of the intent of a keyword search. For this demonstration, we show how a probabilistic model has been integrated to semantic annotations to allow users to intuitively define explicit and precise keyword queries in order to retrieve satisfactory image results distributed in heterogeneous large data sources. Our experiments on SBU (collected by Stony Brook University database show that (i our integrated annotation contains higher quality representatives and semantic matches; and (ii the results indicating annotation integration can indeed improve image search result quality.

  19. An Interval Estimation Method of Patent Keyword Data for Sustainable Technology Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiho Uhm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology forecasting (TF is forecasting the future state of a technology. It is exciting to know the future of technologies, because technology changes the way we live and enhances the quality of our lives. In particular, TF is an important area in the management of technology (MOT for R&D strategy and new product development. Consequently, there are many studies on TF. Patent analysis is one method of TF because patents contain substantial information regarding developed technology. The conventional methods of patent analysis are based on quantitative approaches such as statistics and machine learning. The most traditional TF methods based on patent analysis have a common problem. It is the sparsity of patent keyword data structured from collected patent documents. After preprocessing with text mining techniques, most frequencies of technological keywords in patent data have values of zero. This problem creates a disadvantage for the performance of TF, and we have trouble analyzing patent keyword data. To solve this problem, we propose an interval estimation method (IEM. Using an adjusted Wald confidence interval called the Agresti–Coull confidence interval, we construct our IEM for efficient TF. In addition, we apply the proposed method to forecast the technology of an innovative company. To show how our work can be applied in the real domain, we conduct a case study using Apple technology.

  20. Efficient Multi-keyword Ranked Search over Outsourced Cloud Data based on Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, more and more data owners are motivated to outsource their data to the cloud server for great flexibility and less saving expenditure. Because the security of outsourced data must be guaranteed, some encryption methods should be used which obsoletes traditional data utilization based on plaintext, e.g. keyword search. To solve the search of encrypted data, some schemes were proposed to solve the search of encrypted data, e.g. top-k single or multiple keywords retrieval. However, the efficiency of these proposed schemes is not high enough to be impractical in the cloud computing. In this paper, we propose a new scheme based on homomorphic encryption to solve this challenging problem of privacy-preserving efficient multi-keyword ranked search over outsourced cloud data. In our scheme, the inner product is adopted to measure the relevance scores and the technique of relevance feedback is used to reflect the search preference of the data users. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can meet strict privacy requirements for such a secure cloud data utilization system. Performance evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme can achieve low overhead on both computation and communication.

  1. Using Gazetteers to Extract Sets of Keywords from Free-Flowing Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If you have a copy of a text in electronic format stored on your computer, it is relatively easy to keyword search for a single term. Often you can do this by using the built-in search features in your favourite text editor. However, scholars are increasingly needing to find instances of many terms within a text or texts. For example, a scholar may want to use a gazetteer to extract all mentions of English placenames within a collection of texts so that those places can later be plotted on a map. Alternatively, they may want to extract all male given names, all pronouns, stop words, or any other set of words. Using those same built-in search features to achieve this more complex goal is time consuming and clunky. This lesson will teach you how to use Python to extract a set of keywords very quickly and systematically from a set of texts. It is expected that once you have completed this lesson, you will be able to generalise the skills to extract custom sets of keywords from any set of locally saved files.

  2. Taking Word Clouds Apart: An Empirical Investigation of the Design Space for Keyword Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Cristian; Franconeri, Steven; Bertini, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of four user studies aimed at exploring the visual design space of what we call keyword summaries: lists of words with associated quantitative values used to help people derive an intuition of what information a given document collection (or part of it) may contain. We seek to systematically study how different visual representations may affect people's performance in extracting information out of keyword summaries. To this purpose, we first create a design space of possible visual representations and compare the possible solutions in this design space through a variety of representative tasks and performance metrics. Other researchers have, in the past, studied some aspects of effectiveness with word clouds, however, the existing literature is somewhat scattered and do not seem to address the problem in a sufficiently systematic and holistic manner. The results of our studies showed a strong dependency on the tasks users are performing. In this paper we present details of our methodology, the results, as well as, guidelines on how to design effective keyword summaries based in our discoveries.

  3. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  4. Assessing explicit error reporting in the narrative electronic medical record using keyword searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Stetson, Peter; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Many types of medical errors occur in and outside of hospitals, some of which have very serious consequences and increase cost. Identifying errors is a critical step for managing and preventing them. In this study, we assessed the explicit reporting of medical errors in the electronic record. We used five search terms "mistake," "error," "incorrect," "inadvertent," and "iatrogenic" to survey several sets of narrative reports including discharge summaries, sign-out notes, and outpatient notes from 1991 to 2000. We manually reviewed all the positive cases and identified them based on the reporting of physicians. We identified 222 explicitly reported medical errors. The positive predictive value varied with different keywords. In general, the positive predictive value for each keyword was low, ranging from 3.4 to 24.4%. Therapeutic-related errors were the most common reported errors and these reported therapeutic-related errors were mainly medication errors. Keyword searches combined with manual review indicated some medical errors that were reported in medical records. It had a low sensitivity and a moderate positive predictive value, which varied by search term. Physicians were most likely to record errors in the Hospital Course and History of Present Illness sections of discharge summaries. The reported errors in medical records covered a broad range and were related to several types of care providers as well as non-health care professionals.

  5. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  6. The alternative concept of global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyansky, Mikhael

    2016-04-01

    The existing plate tectonic paradigm becomes more questionable in relation to the new facts of the Earth. The most complete to date criticism of plate tectonics provisions contained in the article (Pratt, 2000). Authors can recall a few facts that contradict the idea of long-range movement of plates: - The absence of convection cells in the mantle, detected by seismic tomography; - The presence of long-lived deep regmatic network in the crust, not distorted by the movement of plates; - The inability of linking the global geometry of the of mutual long-distance movement of plates. All this gives reason to believe that correct, or at least a satisfactory concept of global tectonics are not exist now. After overcoming the usual inertia of thinking the plate paradigm in the foreseeable future will replace by different concept, more relevant as the observable facts of the Earth and the well-known physical laws. The authors suggest that currently accumulated sufficient volume of facts and theoretical ideas for the synthesis of a new general hypothesis of the structure and dynamics of the Earth. Analysis of the existing tectonic theory suggests that most of their provisions are mutually compatible. Obviously, plume tectonics perfectly compatible with any of classical models. It contradicts the only plate tectonics (movement of hot spots in principle not linked either with each other or with the general picture of the plate movements, the presence of mantle convection and mantle streams are mutually exclusive, and so on). The probable transfer of the heated material down up within the Earth may occur in various forms, the simplest of which (and, consequently, the most probable) are presented plumes. The existence in the mantle numerous large volumes of decompressed substances (detected seismic tomography), can be correlated with the bodies of plumes at different stages of uplift. Plumes who raise to the bottom of the lithosphere, to spread out to the sides and form a set

  7. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  8. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  9. The Recent Trend in a Human Resource Management Journal: A Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous changes in technology, economic, social and psychological understandings and structures have influence on both Human Resources and their management. Organizations approach their human capital in a more sensitive way in order to win the loyalty and commitment of them, while increasing profit and maximizing the efficiency/effectiveness of its work power. Human Resources Management helps achieving these goals by recruiting, training, developing, motivating and rewarding employees. Therefore, the identification of current research interests is essential to lead them in defining organizational human resources strategies. The main purpose of this research is to identify top rated factors related to Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers in a Human Resource Management journal from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2012. As a result of analyzing the keywords of all abstracts, the frequencies of the keyword categories are identified. Except the keywords related to Human Resources (17.6%, it is observed that the studies for the period consider the following: Employee rights and their career (18.3%, management (14.6%, contextual issues (10%, organizational strategies (9.5%, performance measurement and training (9.5%, behavioral issues and employee motivation (5.7, organizational culture (5.4%, technical issues (4.1%, etc. It should be noted that the researchers (a mainly stress on practice more than theory and (b consider the organization less than the individual. Interestingly, employee motivation is found to be less considered by the researchers. This study is believed to be useful for future studies and the industry by identifying the hot and top rated factors related to Human Resource Management.

  10. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  11. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, J.; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-09-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show that the occurrence rate of brand names forms a highly correlated time signal.

  12. A User-Friendly, Keyword-Searchable Database of Geoscientific References Through 2007 for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Sipeki, Julianna; Scofield, M.L. Sco

    2008-01-01

    This report includes a document and accompanying Microsoft Access 2003 database of geoscientific references for the country of Afghanistan. The reference compilation is part of a larger joint study of Afghanistan?s energy, mineral, and water resources, and geologic hazards currently underway by the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Geological Survey, and the Afghanistan Geological Survey. The database includes both published (n = 2,489) and unpublished (n = 176) references compiled through calendar year 2007. The references comprise two separate tables in the Access database. The reference database includes a user-friendly, keyword-searchable interface and only minimum knowledge of the use of Microsoft Access is required.

  13. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide...... examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show...

  14. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  15. Public regulations towards a tectonic architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2006-01-01

    's activities has primarily been to support the optimization of the building process through ‘trimmed building’ and ‘partnering’ that only takes the immediate economic benefits of the changes to the building process into account and as such has no measures for architectural quality. The public initiatives so......Public regulations can support tectonic architecture by changes to the tendering system, supporting new organizational structures of the building industry in public building projects and suggesting a focus on innovation through increased research and development activity. The Danish state...... are happening very slowly which is understandable when there is no economic incitement for the industry to change. A change of these public regulations from sticks to carrots could create the economic incitement for the building industry to create tectonic architecture and thereby develop the building industry...

  16. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  17. Identifying tectonic parameters that influence tsunamigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Iris; Brizzi, Silvia; van Dinther, Ylona; Heuret, Arnauld; Funiciello, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The role of tectonics in tsunami generation is at present poorly understood. However, the fact that some regions produce more tsunamis than others indicates that tectonics could influence tsunamigenesis. Here, we complement a global earthquake database that contains geometrical, mechanical, and seismicity parameters of subduction zones with tsunami data. We statistically analyse the database to identify the tectonic parameters that affect tsunamigenesis. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients reveal high positive correlations of 0.65 between, amongst others, the maximum water height of tsunamis and the seismic coupling in a subduction zone. However, these correlations are mainly caused by outliers. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient results in more robust correlations of 0.60 between the number of tsunamis in a subduction zone and subduction velocity (positive correlation) and the sediment thickness at the trench (negative correlation). Interestingly, there is a positive correlation between the latter and tsunami magnitude. In an effort towards multivariate statistics, a binary decision tree analysis is conducted with one variable. However, this shows that the amount of data is too scarce. To complement this limited amount of data and to assess physical causality of the tectonic parameters with regard to tsunamigenesis, we conduct a numerical study of the most promising parameters using a geodynamic seismic cycle model. We show that an increase in sediment thickness on the subducting plate results in a shift in seismic activity from outerrise normal faults to splay faults. We also show that the splay fault is the preferred rupture path for a strongly velocity strengthening friction regime in the shallow part of the subduction zone, which increases the tsunamigenic potential. A larger updip limit of the seismogenic zone results in larger vertical surface displacement.

  18. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  19. Facilitation of receptive and productive foreign vocabulary learning using the keyword method: the role of image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Gruneberg, Michael M; Hyde, Christopher; Shufflebottom, Alex; Sykes, Robert N

    2005-07-01

    Ellis and Beaton (1993a) reported that the keyword method of learning enhanced memory of foreign vocabulary items when receptive learning was measured. However, for productive learning, rote repetition was superior to the keyword method. The first two experiments reported here show that, in comparison with rote repetition, both receptive and productive learning can be enhanced by the keyword method, provided that the quality of the keyword images is adequate. In a third experiment using a subset of words from Ellis and Beaton (1993a), the finding they reported, that for productive learning rote repetition was superior to the keyword method, was reversed. The quality of keyword images will vary from study to study and any generalisation regarding the efficacy of the keyword method must take this into account.

  20. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  1. Tectonic evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Frank, Sharon L.; Mcgill, George E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. Lavinia is a broad lowland over 2000 km across, centered at about 45 deg S latitude, 345 deg E longitude. Herein, the tectonic evolution of Lavinia is discussed, and its possible relationship to processes operating in the planet's interior. The discussion is restricted to the region from 37.3 to 52.6 deg S latitude and from about 340 to 0 deg E longitude. One of the most interesting characteristics of Lavinia is that the entire region possesses a regional tectonic framework of striking regularity. Lavinia is also transected by a complex pattern of belts of intense tectonic deformation known as ridge belts. Despite the gross topographic similarity of all of the ridge belts in Lavinia, they exhibit two rather distinct styles of near surface deformation. One is composed of sets of broad, arch-like ridges rising above the surrounding plains. In the other type, obvious fold-like ridges are rare to absent in the radar images. Both type show evidence for small amounts of shear distributed across the belts.

  2. Mimas: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Mimas, the innermost of the major saturnian satellites, occupies an important place in comparative studies of icy satellites. It is the smallest icy satellite known to have a mostly spherical shape. Smaller icy objects like Hyperion and Puck are generally irregular in shape, while larger ones like Miranda and Enceladus are spherical. Thus Mimas is near the diameter where the combination of increasing surface gravity and internal heating begin to have a significant effect on global structure. The nature and extent of endogenic surface features provide important constraints on the interior structure and history of this transitional body. The major landforms on Mimas are impact craters. Mimas has one of the most heavily cratered surfaces in the solar system. The most prominent single feature on Mimas is Herschel, an unrelaxed complex crater 130 km in diameter. The only other recognized landforms on Mimas are tectonic grooves and lineaments. Groove locations were mapped by Schenk, but without analysis of groove structures or superposition relationships. Mimas' tectonic structures are remapped here in more detail than previously has been done, as part of a general study of tectonic features on icy satellites.

  3. A palaeomagnetic perspective of Precambrian tectonic styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P. W.; Embleton, B. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The considerable success derived from palaeomagnetic studies of Phanerozoic rocks with respect to the tectonic styles of continental drift and plate tectonics, etc., have not been repeated by the many palaeomagnetic studies of Precambrian rocks. There are 30 years of research with results covering the major continents for Precambrian times that overlap considerably yet there is no concensus. There is good evidence that the usual assumptions employed by palaeomagnetism are valid for the Precambrian. The exisence of magnetic reversals during the Precambrian, for instance, is difficult to explain except in terms of a geomagnetic field that was predominantly dipolar in nature. It is a small concession to extend this notion of the Precambrian geomagnetic field to include its alignment with the Earth's spin axis and the other virtues of an axial geocentric dipole that characterize the recent geomagnetic field. In terms of greenstone terranes it is obvious that tectonic models postulated to explain these observations are paramount in understanding Precambrian geology. What relevance the current geographical relationships of continents have with their Precambrian relationships remains a paradox, but it would seem that the ensialic model for the development of greenstone terranes is favored by the Precambrian palaeomagnetic data.

  4. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  5. PANDORA: keyword-based analysis of protein sets by integration of annotation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Noam; Vaaknin, Avishay; Linial, Michal

    2003-10-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput methods and the application of computational tools for automatic classification of proteins have made it possible to carry out large-scale proteomic analyses. Biological analysis and interpretation of sets of proteins is a time-consuming undertaking carried out manually by experts. We have developed PANDORA (Protein ANnotation Diagram ORiented Analysis), a web-based tool that provides an automatic representation of the biological knowledge associated with any set of proteins. PANDORA uses a unique approach of keyword-based graphical analysis that focuses on detecting subsets of proteins that share unique biological properties and the intersections of such sets. PANDORA currently supports SwissProt keywords, NCBI Taxonomy, InterPro entries and the hierarchical classification terms from ENZYME, SCOP and GO databases. The integrated study of several annotation sources simultaneously allows a representation of biological relations of structure, function, cellular location, taxonomy, domains and motifs. PANDORA is also integrated into the ProtoNet system, thus allowing testing thousands of automatically generated clusters. We illustrate how PANDORA enhances the biological understanding of large, non-uniform sets of proteins originating from experimental and computational sources, without the need for prior biological knowledge on individual proteins.

  6. Comparison Of Keyword Based Clustering Of Web Documents By Using Openstack 4j And By Traditional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiza Anand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the number of hypertext documents are increasing continuously day by day on world wide web. Therefore clustering methods will be required to bind documents into the clusters repositories according to the similarity lying between the documents. Various clustering methods exist such as Hierarchical Based K-means Fuzzy Logic Based Centroid Based etc. These keyword based clustering methods takes much more amount of time for creating containers and putting documents in their respective containers. These traditional methods use File Handling techniques of different programming languages for creating repositories and transferring web documents into these containers. In contrast openstack4j SDK is a new technique for creating containers and shifting web documents into these containers according to the similarity in much more less amount of time as compared to the traditional methods. Another benefit of this technique is that this SDK understands and reads all types of files such as jpg html pdf doc etc. This paper compares the time required for clustering of documents by using openstack4j and by traditional methods and suggests various search engines to adopt this technique for clustering so that they give result to the user querries in less amount of time.

  7. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storetvedt, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  8. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  9. A Privacy-Preserving Intelligent Medical Diagnosis System Based on Oblivious Keyword Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the concerns people have is how to get the diagnosis online without privacy being jeopardized. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving intelligent medical diagnosis system (IMDS, which can efficiently solve the problem. In IMDS, users submit their health examination parameters to the server in a protected form; this submitting process is based on Paillier cryptosystem and will not reveal any information about their data. And then the server retrieves the most likely disease (or multiple diseases from the database and returns it to the users. In the above search process, we use the oblivious keyword search (OKS as a basic framework, which makes the server maintain the computational ability but cannot learn any personal information over the data of users. Besides, this paper also provides a preprocessing method for data stored in the server, to make our protocol more efficient.

  10. The Influence of Reference Corpus Size on Wordsmith Tools Keywords Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Berber Sardinha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A KeyWords analysis (using WordSmith Tools enables the discovery of lexical items which reveal the main lexical sets in a text or corpus. Such an analysis requires that a reference corpus be compared to the corpus the researcher intends to describe (the study corpus. This paper presents a mathematical method for finding out the influence of reference corpus size on the number of key words extracted by the program. The results reveal that a reference corpus that is at least five times as large as the study corpus allows for drawing an amount of key words that is statistically equivalent to larger reference corpora, thus suggesting five times (as larger as the study corpora as the minimum order of magnitude for reference corpora.

  11. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  12. Secure Multi-Keyword Search with User/Owner-side Efficiency in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of data in the cloud grows, ranked search system, the similarity of a query to data is ranked, are of significant importance. on the other hand, to protect privacy, searchable encryption system are being actively studied. In this paper, we present a new similarity-based multi-keyword search scheme for encrypted data. This scheme provides high flexibility in the pre- and post-processing of encrypted data, including splitting stem/suffix and computing from the encrypted index-term matrix, demonstrated to support Latent Semantic Indexing(LSI. On the client side, the computation and communication costs are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous methods, as demonstrated in the experimental results. we also provide a security analysis of the proposed scheme.

  13. Multi-stream LSTM-HMM decoding and histogram equalization for noise robust keyword spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllmer, Martin; Marchi, Erik; Squartini, Stefano; Schuller, Björn

    2011-09-01

    Highly spontaneous, conversational, and potentially emotional and noisy speech is known to be a challenge for today's automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, which highlights the need for advanced algorithms that improve speech features and models. Histogram Equalization is an efficient method to reduce the mismatch between clean and noisy conditions by normalizing all moments of the probability distribution of the feature vector components. In this article, we propose to combine histogram equalization and multi-condition training for robust keyword detection in noisy speech. To better cope with conversational speaking styles, we show how contextual information can be effectively exploited in a multi-stream ASR framework that dynamically models context-sensitive phoneme estimates generated by a long short-term memory neural network. The proposed techniques are evaluated on the SEMAINE database-a corpus containing emotionally colored conversations with a cognitive system for "Sensitive Artificial Listening".

  14. A Step Beyond Simple Keyword Searches: Services Enabled by a Full Content Digital Journal Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary ( e . g . , the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools for journal searches, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  15. Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects using MATLAB and ... Keywords: electrical engineering; MATLAB; graphic user interface (GUI); educational software. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  17. Volcanism/tectonics working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Young, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the impacts of earthquakes, fault rupture, and volcanic eruption on the underground repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The tectonics and seismic history of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is discussed and geologic analogs to that site are described

  18. The Nature of Tectonic Spatial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Since earliest times mankind has sought inspiration from nature for our built structures. However until the dawn of the modern era in architecture and design, the true structural character of a building was invariably full y or partially encased in an ornamented cladding, of often stylised motifs...... particularly of Kenneth Frampton, this paper will argue that the direct inspiration of nature and the increasing use of advanced parametric digital design tools that replicate virtually instantaneously evolutionary processes results in structures that are not only elegant tectonically and in terms of economy...

  19. Tectonic forward modelling of positive inversion structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, C. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Schmidt, C. [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Positive tectonic inversion structures are common features that were recognized in many deformed sedimentary basins (Lowell, 1995). They are characterized by a two phase fault evolution, where initial normal faulting was followed by reverse faulting along the same fault, accompanied by the development of hanging wall deformation. Analysing the evolution of such inversion structures is important for understanding the tectonics of sedimentary basins and the formation of hydrocarbon traps. We used a 2D tectonic forward modelling approach to simulate the stepwise structural evolution of inversion structures in cross-section. The modelling was performed with the software FaultFold Forward v. 6, which is based on trishear kinematics (Zehnder and Allmendinger, 2000). Key aspect of the study was to derive the controlling factors for the geometry of inversion structures. The simulation results show, that the trishear approach is able to reproduce the geometry of tectonic inversion structures in a realistic way. This implies that inversion structures are simply fault-related folds that initiated as extensional fault-propagation folds, which were subsequently transformed into compressional fault-propagation folds when the stress field changed. The hanging wall deformation is a consequence of the decrease in slip towards the tip line of the fault. Trishear angle and propagation-to-slip ratio are the key controlling factors for the geometry of the fault-related deformation. We tested trishear angles in the range of 30 - 60 and propagation-to-slip ratios between 1 and 2 in increments of 0.1. Small trishear angles and low propagation-to-slip ratios produced tight folds, whereas large trishear angles and high propagation-to-slip ratios led to more open folds with concentric shapes. This has a direct effect on the size and geometry of potential hydrocarbon traps. The 2D simulations can be extended to a pseudo 3D approach, where a set of parallel cross-sections is used to describe

  20. Tectonic feedback and the earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    1985-09-01

    The occurrence of cyclical instabilities along plate boundaries at regular intervals suggests that the process of earthquake causation differs in some respects from the model of elastic rebound in its simplest forms. The model of tectonic feedback modifies the concept of this original model in that it provides a physical interaction between the loading rate and the state of strain on the fault. Two examples are developed: (a) Central Chile, and (b) Mexico. The predictions of earthquake hazards for both types of models are compared.

  1. Tectonic analysis of the Oklo deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Ruhland, M.; Weber, F.

    1975-01-01

    A large folded structure with a 40 0 incline and extending 500 m in the north-south direction has been uncovered at the Oklo mine. This structure has been analysed from the geometric and dynamic points of view in order to determine the possible role of tectonic activity in the creation of the uraniferous concentrations. Compression and extension zones which at certain points control the shape and arrangement of the lodes are associated with the structure. The natural reactors are situated in an extension zone where compartmentation and slippage, which explain the arrangement of the reactors, are observed

  2. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora, E-mail: rexha.vry@gmail.com [Master Program of Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  4. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  5. Exploring the Knowledge Structure of Nursing Care for Older Patients With Delirium: Keyword Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So

    2018-05-01

    Prevention of delirium is considered a critical part of the agenda for patient safety and an indicator of healthcare quality for older patients. As the incidence rate of delirium for older patients has increased in recent years, there has been a significant expansion in knowledge relevant to nursing care. The purposes of this study were to analyze the knowledge structure and trends in nursing care for older adults with delirium based on a keyword network analysis, and to provide a foundation for future research. Data analysis showed that knowledge structure in this area consists of three themes of research: postoperative acute care for older patients with delirium, prevention of delirium for older patients in intensive care units, and safety management for the improvement of outcomes for patients with delirium. Through research trend analysis, we found that research on care for patients with delirium has achieved both quantitative and qualitative improvements over the last decades. Concerning future research, we propose the expansion of patient- and family-centered care, community care, specific nursing interventions, and the integration of new technology into care for patients with delirium. These results provide a reference framework for understanding and developing nursing care for older adults with delirium.

  6. Teaching Tectonics to Undergraduates with Web GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Rutzmoser, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial reasoning skills provide a means for manipulating, interpreting, and explaining structured information and are involved in higher-order cognitive processes that include problem solving and decision-making. Appropriately designed tools, technologies, and curriculum can support spatial learning. We present Web-based visualization and analysis tools developed with Javascript APIs to enhance tectonic curricula while promoting geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animations that allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that are not easily recognized. Features include a swipe tool that enables users to see underneath layers, query tools useful in exploration of earthquake and volcano data sets, a subduction and elevation profile tool which facilitates visualization between map and cross-sectional views, drafting tools, a location function, and interactive image dragging functionality on the Web GIS. The Web GIS platform is independent and can be implemented on tablets or computers. The GIS tool set enables learners to view, manipulate, and analyze rich data sets from local to global scales, including such data as geology, population, heat flow, land cover, seismic hazards, fault zones, continental boundaries, and elevation using two- and three- dimensional visualization and analytical software. Coverages which allow users to explore plate boundaries and global heat flow processes aided learning in a Lehigh University Earth and environmental science Structural Geology and Tectonics class and are freely available on the Web.

  7. Scheme of fault tectonic and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasynkov, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristic of fault tectonics and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction is presented. Mosaic-block structure of the area, predetermined by the development of diagonal systems of activated tectonic dislocations with different displacement amplitudes and different stratigraphic ranges of manifestation, was established. Strained-stressed state of the region is determined by the presence of the South-Azov zone of deep fault and Krasnogorsk-Samarlinks fault system. The presented scheme can be used as tectonic basis of seismogenic activity of the region

  8. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  9. Tectonics control over instability of volcanic edifices in transtensional tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Capra, L.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Manea, M.; Groppelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of analogue modeling designed to investigate the interactions between volcanic edifices and transtensional basement faulting. Three sets of experiments were run to account for three examples of stratovolcanoes in active transtensive tectonics regimes, the Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in Mexico, and the Mayon volcano in the Philippines. All these volcanoes show different behavior and relationship among volcanism, instability of the volcanic edifice, and basement tectonics. Field geological and structural data gave the necessary constrains to the models. The modeling apparatus consisted of a sand cone on a sheared basal layer. Injections of vegetable oil were used to model the rising of magma inside the deformed analogue cones. Set 1: In the case of a volcano directly on top of a basal transtensive shear producing a narrow graben, as observed on the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the analogue models reveal a strong control of the basement faulting on the magma migration path and the volcano instability. Small lateral collapses are directed parallel to the basal shear and affect a limited sector of the cone. Set 2: If the graben generated by transtensive tectonics is bigger in respect to the volcanic edifice and the volcano sits on one boundary fault, as in the case of Mayon volcano, the combined normal and transcurrent movements of the analogue basement fault generate a sigmoidal structure in the sand cone, inducing major sector collapses directed at approx 45° relative to the basement shear toward the downthrown block. Set 3: For volcanoes located near major transtensive faults, as the Jocotitlan volcano, analogue modelling shows an important control of the regional tectonics on the geometry of the fractures and migration paths of magma inside the cone. These structures render unstable the flanks of the volcano and promote sector collapses perpendicular to the basement shear and directed toward the graben formed by the transtensive

  10. Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial Atlantic region of Africa using Bouguer anomaly gravity data. ... Ife Journal of Science ... 3-D standard Euler deconvolution analysis was carried out on Bouguer anomaly gravity data for configuration definition and approximate depth estimate of tectonic ...

  11. Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.

    1993-09-01

    Glaciations have occurred episodically at different time intervals and for different durations in Earth's history. Ice covers have formed in a wide range of plate tectonic and structural settings but the bulk of Earth's glacial record can be shown to have been deposited and preserved in basins within extensional settings. In such basins, source area uplift and basin subsidence fulfill the tectonic preconditions for the initiation of glaciation and the accomodation and preservation of glaciclastic sediments. Tectonic setting, in particular subsidence rates, also dictates the type of glaciclastic facies and facies successions that are deposited. Many pre-Pleistocene glaciated basins commonly contain well-defined tectonostratigraphic successions recording the interplay of tectonics and sedimentation; traditional climatostratigraphic approaches involving interpretation in terms of either ice advance/retreat cycles or glacio-eustatic sea-level change require revision. The direct record of continental glaciation in Earth history, in the form of classically-recognised continental glacial landforms and "tillites", is meagre; it is probable that more than 95% of the volume of preserved "glacial" strata are glacially-influenced marine deposits that record delivery of large amounts of glaciclastic sediment to offshore basins. This flux has been partially or completely reworked by "normal" sedimentary processes such that the record of glaciation and climate change is recorded in marine successions and is difficult to decipher. The dominant "glacial" facies in the rock record are subaqueous debris flow diamictites and turbidites recording the selective preservation of poorly-sorted glaciclastic sediment deposited in deep water basins by sediment gravity flows. However, these facies are also typical of many non-glacial settings, especially volcanically-influenced environments; numerous Archean and Proterozoic diamictites, described in the older literature as tillites, have no

  12. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  13. Tectonic controlled submarine slidings and dewatering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hirono, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic structures associated with mass movements processes such as slumping, sliding, and creeping can be the key to understanding the tectonic or geologic constraints in the time they were formed. Because they are sensitively reflected by the paleo-topography which must be associated with active tectonics. It must be very useful if the direction of paleo-slope instability is known easily in a wide area. We paid attentions to convolute lamination and flame structure which might be associated with dewatering and loading, respectively. Some recent researches report the possibility that well regulated flame structures might be formed in relation to paleo-slope instability. However, there is an alternative idea that they were reflection of heterogeneous loading associated with ripple marks on the sandy layers. This controversy has not been settled. Accordingly, to evaluate the reliability of the relationship between formation of such structures with well regulated arrays and paleo-slope instability, the Pliocene Chikura Group in the southern part of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, was studied. The Chikura Group overlying the Miura Group, Miocene accretionary prism, is composed of trench-fill sediments in the lowermost and of trench-slope basin sediments in the upper. The Chikura Group was deposited on an east-west extended sedimentary basin during east-west trending folds and faults development. These indicate the direction of paleo-slope in the Chikura Group due north or south. Flame structures and convolute laminations were recognized over 60 sites in the Chikura Group. They have well-regulated planar arrays which extend almost east west, perpendicular to the direction of paleo-slope instability. Some examples of such structures and slump deposit were observed in the same outcrop. Vergence of these slump deposits were toward north or south, and ridges of flame structures and convolute laminations extend east-west. Experimental study of direct imaging of

  14. Monitoring caustic injuries from emergency department databases using automatic keyword recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignally, P; Fondi, G; Taggi, F; Pitidis, A

    2011-03-31

    In Italy the European Union Injury Database reports the involvement of chemical products in 0.9% of home and leisure accidents. The Emergency Department registry on domestic accidents in Italy and the Poison Control Centres record that 90% of cases of exposure to toxic substances occur in the home. It is not rare for the effects of chemical agents to be observed in hospitals, with a high potential risk of damage - the rate of this cause of hospital admission is double the domestic injury average. The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of injuries caused by caustic agents in Italy using automatic free-text recognition in Emergency Department medical databases. We created a Stata software program to automatically identify caustic or corrosive injury cases using an agent-specific list of keywords. We focused attention on the procedure's sensitivity and specificity. Ten hospitals in six regions of Italy participated in the study. The program identified 112 cases of injury by caustic or corrosive agents. Checking the cases by quality controls (based on manual reading of ED reports), we assessed 99 cases as true positive, i.e. 88.4% of the patients were automatically recognized by the software as being affected by caustic substances (99% CI: 80.6%- 96.2%), that is to say 0.59% (99% CI: 0.45%-0.76%) of the whole sample of home injuries, a value almost three times as high as that expected (p < 0.0001) from European codified information. False positives were 11.6% of the recognized cases (99% CI: 5.1%- 21.5%). Our automatic procedure for caustic agent identification proved to have excellent product recognition capacity with an acceptable level of excess sensitivity. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, the automatic recognition system provided a level of identification of agents possessing caustic effects that was significantly much greater than was predictable on the basis of the values from current codifications reported in the European Database.

  15. Remembering myth and ritual in the everyday tectonics of hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2015-01-01

    When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...... emphasis on both the physical construction and mental construing of architecture. With this dual perspective Frascari established a discourse in tectonic thinking which brings the tectonic expression beyond structural genius into socio-cultural realms of storytelling, myth and ritual. However, in everyday...... architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing...

  16. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Grabens on Io: Evidence for Extensional Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.

    2012-12-01

    Io may well be the most geologically active body in the solar system. A variety of volcanic features have been identified, including a few fissure eruptions, but tectonism is generally assumed to be limited to compression driven mountain formation (Schenk et al., 2001). A wide range of structural features can also be identified including scarps, lineaments, faults, and circular depressions (pits and patera rims). Narrow curvilinear graben (elongated, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults on its sides) are also scattered across Io's volcanic plains. These features are dwarfed by the more prominent neighboring volcanoes and mountains, and have been largely ignored in the literature. Although they are likely to be extensional in origin, their relationship to local or global stress fields is unknown. We have mapped the locations, length and width of graben on Io using all available Voyager and Galileo images with a resolution better than 5 km. We compare the locations of graben with existing volcanic centers, paterae and mountain data to determine the degree of correlation between these geologic features and major topographic variations (basins/swells) in our global topographic map of Io (White et al., 2011). Graben are best observed in > 1-2 km low-sun angle images. Approximately 300 images were converted from ISIS to ArcMap format to allow easy comparison with the geological map of Io (Williams et al., 2012) along with previous higher resolution structural mapping of local areas (e.g. Crown et al., 1992). We have located >45 graben to date. Typically 1-3 kilometers across, some of these features can stretch for over 500 kilometers in length. Their formation may be related to global tidal stresses or local deformation. Io's orbit is eccentric and its solid surface experiences daily tides of up to ˜0.1 km, leading to repetitive surface strains of 10-4 or greater. These tides flex and stress the lithosphere and can cause it to fracture

  18. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  19. Is There a Tectonically Driven Supertidal Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A. M.; Molloy, J. L.; Davies, H. S.; Duarte, J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Earth is 180 Myr into the current supercontinent cycle, and the next supercontinent is predicted to form in 250 Myr. The continuous changes in continental configuration can move the ocean between resonant states, and the semidiurnal tides are currently large compared to the past 252 Myr due to tidal resonance in the Atlantic. This leads to the hypothesis that there is a "supertidal" cycle linked to the supercontinent cycle. Here this is tested using new tectonic predictions for the next 250 Myr as bathymetry in a numerical tidal model. The simulations support the following hypothesis: a new tidal resonance will appear 150 Myr from now, followed by a decreasing tide as the supercontinent forms 100 Myr later. This affects the dissipation of tidal energy in the oceans, with consequences for the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, ocean circulation and climate, and implications for the ocean's capacity of hosting and evolving life.

  20. GEOMAGNETIC CONJUGACY OF MODERN TECTONIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Khachikyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An earthquake is an element of the global electric circuit (GEC –  this new idea suggested in the space age is tested in our study. In the frame of the GEC concept, one may expect that tectonic structures of the northern and southern hemispheres may be magnetically conjugated. It is found that the midocean ridges of the southern hemisphere, located along the boundary of the Antarctic lithosphere plate, are magnetically conjugated with the areas of the junction of continental orogens and platforms in the northern hemisphere. The closest geomagnetic conjugacy exists between the southern boundary of Nazca lithospheric plate and the northern boundaries of Cocos and Caribbean lithospheric plates.

  1. Tectonic thinking in contemporary industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing) – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice......This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect...... and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction) and how this attention forms...

  2. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  3. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briestenský, Miloš; Rowberry, Matthew David; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, P.; Vozár, J.; Šebela, S.; Petro, L.; Bella, P.; Gaal, L.; Ormukov, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2015), s. 427-438 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/05/2770; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Eurasian Plate * Balkan Peninsula * active tectonics research * aseismic transient deformations * slow-slip phenomena Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2015 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/66-5/article-780

  4. Documenting and predicting topic changes in Computers in Biology and Medicine: A bibliometric keyword analysis from 1990 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Faust

    Full Text Available The Computers in Biology and Medicine (CBM journal promotes the use of computing machinery in the fields of bioscience and medicine. Since the first volume in 1970, the importance of computers in these fields has grown dramatically, this is evident in the diversification of topics and an increase in the publication rate. In this study, we quantify both change and diversification of topics covered in. This is done by analysing the author supplied keywords, since they were electronically captured in 1990. The analysis starts by selecting 40 keywords, related to Medical (M (7, Data (D (10, Feature (F (17 and (AI (6 methods. Automated keyword clustering shows the statistical connection between the selected keywords. We found that the three most popular topics in CBM are: Support Vector Machine (SVM, Electroencephalography (EEG and IMAGE PROCESSING. In a separate analysis step, we bagged the selected keywords into sequential one year time slices and calculated the normalized appearance. The results were visualised with graphs that indicate the CBM topic changes. These graphs show that there was a transition from Artificial Neural Network (ANN to SVM. In 2006 SVM replaced ANN as the most important AI algorithm. Our investigation helps the editorial board to manage and embrace topic change. Furthermore, our analysis is interesting for the general reader, as the results can help them to adjust their research directions. Keywords: Research trends, Topic analysis, Topic detection and tracking, Text mining, Computers in biology and medicine

  5. Late-Variscan Tectonic Inheritance and Salt Tectonics Interplay in the Central Lusitanian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carlos R.; Marques, Fernando O.

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic inheritance and salt structures can play an important role in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of basins. The Alpine regional stress field in west Iberia had a horizontal maximum compressive stress striking approximately NNW-SSE, related to the Late Miocene inversion event. However, this stress field cannot produce a great deal of the observed and mapped structures in the Lusitanian Basin. Moreover, many observed structures show a trend similar to well-known basement fault systems. The Central Lusitanian basin shows an interesting tectonic structure, the Montejunto structure, generally assigned to this inversion event. Therefore, special attention was paid to: (1) basement control of important observed structures; and (2) diapir tectonics (vertical maximum compressive stress), which can be responsible for significant vertical movements. Based on fieldwork, tectonic analysis and interpretation of geological maps (Portuguese Geological Survey, 1:50000 scale) and geophysical data, our work shows: (1) the Montejunto structure is a composite structure comprising an antiform with a curved hinge and middle Jurassic core, and bounding main faults; (2) the antiform can be divided into three main segments: (i) a northern segment with NNE-SSW trend showing W-dipping bedding bounded at the eastern border by a NNE-SSW striking fault, (ii) a curved central segment, showing the highest topography, with a middle Jurassic core and radial dipping bedding, (iii) a western segment with ENE-WSW trend comprising an antiform with a steeper northern limb and periclinal termination towards WSW, bounded to the south by ENE-WSW reverse faulting, (3) both fold and fault trends at the northern and western segments are parallel to well-known basement faults related to late-Variscan strike-slip systems with NNE-SSW and ENE-WSW trends; (4) given the orientation of Alpine maximum compressive stress, the northern segment border fault should be mostly sinistral strike-slip and the western

  6. Oil prospection using the tectonic plate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointu, Agnès

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic plate models are an intellectual setting to understand why oil deposits are so uncommon and unequally distributed and how models can be used in actual oil and gas prospection. In this case, we use the example of the Ghawar deposit (Saudi Arabia), one of the largest producing well in the world. In the first step, physical properties of rocks composing the oil accumulation are studied by laboratory experiments. Students estimate the porosity of limestone and clay by comparing their mass before and after water impregnation. Results are compared to microscopic observations. Thus, students come to the conclusion that oil accumulations are characterized by superposition of rocks with very different properties: a rich organic source rock (clays of the Hanifa formation), a porous reservoir rock to store the petroleum in (limestones of the Arab formation) and above an impermeable rock with very low porosity (evaporites of the Tithonien). In previous lessons, students have seen that organic matter is usually mineralized by bacteria and that this preservation requires particular conditions. The aim is to explain why biomass production has been so important during the deposit of the clays of the Hanifa formation. Tectonic plate models make it possible to estimate the location of the Arabian Peninsula during Jurassic times (age of Hanifa formation). In order to understand why the paleo-location of the Arabian Peninsula is important to preserve organic matter, students have different documents showing: - That primary production of biomass by phytoplankton is favored by climatic conditions, - That the position of continents determinate the ocean currents and the positions of upwelling zones and zones where organic matter will be able to be preserved, - That north of the peninsula there was a passive margin during Jurassic times. An actual seismic line is studied in order to highlight that this extensive area allowed thick sedimentary deposits to accumulate and that fast

  7. Window of Opportunity for New Disease Surveillance: Developing Keyword Lists for Monitoring Mental Health and Injury Through Syndromic Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Ursula; Chen, Jian-Hua; Lin, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster. Data typically consist of daily visit reports from hospital emergency departments (EDs) of basic patient data and free-text chief complaints. To develop keyword lists, comparisons were made with existing CDC categories and then integrated with lists from the New York City and New Jersey health departments in a collaborative effort. Two comprehensive lists were developed, each containing multiple subcategories and over 100 keywords for both mental health and injury. The data classifiers using these keywords were used to assess impacts of Sandy on mental health and injuries in New York State. The lists will be validated by comparing the ED chief complaint keyword with the final ICD diagnosis code. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:173-178).

  8. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  9. Parametric Design in Timber Gridshell Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailiyah Al Athas Syarifah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a simple proposition: rather than mimicking the geometric structures found in nature, perhaps the most effective modes of sustainable fabrication can be found throughunderstanding the nature of materials themselves. The material becomes a design parameter through the constraints of fabrication tools, limitations of material size, and most importantly the productivecapacity of material resistance a given material’s capacity and tendencies to take shape, rather than cutting shape out of material. Gridshell structures provide an intriguing case study to pursue this proposition. Not only is there clear precedent in the form finding experiments of frei Otto and the institute for lightweight structures, but also the very nurbs based tools of current design practices developed from the ability of wood to bend. Taking the bent wood spline quite literally, gridshells provide a means that is at once formally expressive, structurally optimized, materially efficient, and quite simply a delight to experience. The the larger motivation of this work anticipates a parametric system linking the intrinsic material values of the gridshell tectonic with extrinsic criteria such as programmatic needs and environmental response. Through an applied case study of gridshells, the play between form and material is tested out through the author’s own experimentation with gridshells and the pedagogical results of two gridshell studios.The goal of this research is to establish a give and take relationship between top down formal emphasis and a bottom-up material influence.

  10. MEVTV workshop on tectonic features on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, T.R.; Golombek, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The state of knowledge of tectonic features on Mars was determined and kinematic and mechanical models were assessed for their origin. Three sessions were held: wrinkle ridges and compressional structure; strike-slip faults; and extensional structures. Each session began with an overview of the features under discussion. In the case of wrinkle ridges and extensional structures, the overview was followed by keynote addresses by specialists working on similar structures on the Earth. The first session of the workshop focused on the controversy over the relative importance of folding, faulting, and intrusive volcanism in the origin of wrinkle ridges. The session ended with discussions of the origin of compressional flank structures associated with Martian volcanoes and the relationship between the volcanic complexes and the inferred regional stress field. The second day of the workshop began with the presentation and discussion of evidence for strike-slip faults on Mars at various scales. In the last session, the discussion of extensional structures ranged from the origin of grabens, tension cracks, and pit-crater chains to the origin of Valles Marineris canyons. Shear and tensile modes of brittle failure in the formation of extensional features and the role of these failure modes in the formation of pit-crater chains and the canyons of Valles Marineris were debated. The relationship of extensional features to other surface processes, such as carbonate dissolution (karst) were also discussed

  11. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  12. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    margins of the basin, whereas, others are aligned .... areas of mantle upwelling, igneous intrusions, deep ... to and during the sedimentary accumulation, and ...... The development of continental margins in plate tectonic theory; J. Aust. Petrol.

  13. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  14. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Tool of the Architect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the term tectonics in the field of architectural design theory. It considers tectonic thinking as a ‘tool of the architect’ to analyse and interpret buildings from the past, to be operative in design practices of the present, and to trigger...... imaginations for the future. Contextualisation: In architectural theory the term tectonics was introduced not until the first half of the 19th century, to more or less disappear from it again with the rise of the modern movement. Only from the 1980ies onwards the term has gained renewed critical attention......: To answer the research question, this paper will develop an overarching Framework for Tectonic Thinking (FTT) by combining three different categories loadbearing construction, type of construction and constructive expression with the following oppositional poles as distinguishing criteria: loadbearing...

  15. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  16. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  17. Analysis of semantic search within the domains of uncertainty: using Keyword Effectiveness Indexing as an evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel; Abraham, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Medical and health-related searches pose a special case of risk when using the web as an information resource. Uninsured consumers, lacking access to a trained provider, will often rely on information from the internet for self-diagnosis and treatment. In areas where treatments are uncertain or controversial, most consumers lack the knowledge to make an informed decision. This exploratory technology assessment examines the use of Keyword Effectiveness Indexing (KEI) analysis as a potential tool for profiling information search and keyword retrieval patterns. Results demonstrate that the KEI methodology can be useful in identifying e-health search patterns, but is limited by semantic or text-based web environments.

  18. Looking for Plate Tectonics in all the wrong fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaille, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Ever since the theory of Plate Tectonics in the 1960's, the dream of the geomodeler has been to generate plate tectonics self-consistently from thermal convection in the laboratory. By selfconsistenly, I mean that the configuration of the plate boundaries is in no way specified a priori, so that the plates develop and are wholly consumed without intervention from the modeler. The reciepe is simple : put a well-chosen fluid in a fishtank heated from below and cooled from above, wait and see. But the « well-chosen » is the difficult part... and the interesting one. Plate tectonics is occuring on Earth because of the characteristics of the lithosphere rheology. The latter are complex to estimate as they depend on temperature, pressure, phase, water content, chemistry, strain rate, memory and scale. As a result, the ingredients necessary for plate tectonics are still debated, and it would be useful to find an analog fluid who could reproduce plate tectonics in the laboratory. I have therefore spent the last 25 years to try out fluids, and I shall present a number of failures to generate plate tectonics using polymers, colloids, ketchup, milk, chocolate, sugar, oils. To understand why they failed is important to narrow down the « well-chosen » fluid.

  19. Late Tharsis tectonic activity and implications for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, S.; Baratoux, D.; Paulien, N.; Missenard, Y.; Saint-Bezar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the timing of Tharsis volcanism is critical to understanding the planet's evolution including its climate, surface environment and mantle dynamics. The tectonic history of the Tharsis bulge was previously documented from the distribution and ages of related tectonic features [1]. Here we revisit the ages of 7493 Tharsis-related tectonic features based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the new geological map [2]. Conversely to previous tectonic mapping [1], which suggested that Tharsis growth was nearly achieved during the Noachian, we find a protracted growth of Tharsis during the Hesperian. Faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. Accumulated tectonic deformation was maximum in the Early Hesperian for compressional strain (Solis, Lunae and Ascuris Planum) and extended over time from Noachian to Amazonian for extensional strain (Noctis Labyrinthus and Fossae, Sinai Planum and Tractus, Ulysses and Fortuna fossae, Alba Patera). This new scenario is consistent with a protracted growth of Tharsis dome during the Hesperian and with the timing a large Tharsis-driven true polar wander post-dating the incision of Late Noachian/Hesperian valley networks[3]. References:[1] Anderson et al. JGR-Planets 106, E9, 20,563-20,585 (2001).[2] Tanaka, K.L. et al. Geologic map of Mars (2014). [3] Bouley et al. Nature doi:10.1038 (2016)

  20. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography [1]). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible

  1. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  2. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  3. The Effect of Different Modes of English Captioning on EFL learners’ General Listening Comprehension: Full text Vs. Keyword Captions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorayya Behroozizad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners’ general listening comprehension. To this end, forty five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (full-captions and keyword-captions and one control group (no-captions. Research instrumentation included a pre-test and a post-test following an experimental design. Participants took a pre-test and a post-test containing 50 multiple-choice questions (25question for pre-test and 25 question for post-test selected from a standard listening test PET, and also 15 treatment sessions. The findings showed significant differences among full-captions, keyword-captions, and no-captions in terms of their effect on learners’ general listening comprehension. This study provided some pedagogical implications for teaching listening through using different modes of captions. Keywords: Caption, full caption, keyword caption, listening comprehension

  4. The Effects of Visual Imagery and Keyword Cues on Third-Grade Readers' Memory, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Heather Rogers

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that nearly 70% of high school students in the United States need some form of reading remediation, with the most common need being the ability to comprehend the content and significance of the text (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004). Research findings support the use of visual imagery and keyword cues as effective comprehension…

  5. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  6. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  7. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Vernekar

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka,. Surathkal ... proposed approach is an effective method for engine fault diagnosis. Keywords. Engine fault ... (DAQ) card and analysed using LabVIEW software from. Figure 1. .... and reduce numerical difficulties during the calculation. T.

  8. Development of an Intelligent Car Engine Fault Troubleshooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of an Intelligent Car Engine Fault Troubleshooting System (CEFTS) ... and also provides a troubleshooting framework for other researchers to work on. Keywords: ... inference engine, knowledge acquisition, artificial intelligence.

  9. Extending Whole-earth Tectonics To The Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.; Maruyama, S.; Dohm, J. M.

    Based on the need to explain a great many geological and geophysical anomalies on Mars, and stimulated by the new results from the Mars Global Surveyor Mission, we propose a conceptual model of whole-EARTH (Episodic Annular Revolving Thermal Hydrologic) tectonics for the long-term evolution of terrestrial planets. The theory emphasizes (1) the importance of water in planetary evolution, and (2) the physi- cal transitions in modes of mantle convection in relation to planetary heat produc- tion. Depending on their first-order geophysical parameters and following accretion and differentiation from volatile-rich planetessimals, terrestrial planets should evolve through various stages of mantle convection, including magma ocean, plate tectonic, and stagnant lid processes. If a water ocean is able to condense from the planet's early steam atmosphere, an early regime of plate tectonics will follow the initial magma ocean. This definitely happened on earth, probably on Mars, and possibly on Venus. The Mars history led to transfer of large amounts of water to the mantle during the pe- riod of heavy bombardment. Termination of plate tectonics on Mars during the heavy bombardment period led to initiation of superplumes at Tharsis and Elysium, where long-persistent volcanism and water outbursts dominated much of later Martian his- tory. For Venus, warming of the early sun made the surface ocean unstable, eliminating its early plate-tectonic regime. Although Venus now experiences stagnant-lid convec- tion with episodic mantle overturns, the water subducted to its lower mantle during the ancient plate-tectonic regime manifests itself in the initation of volatile-rich plumes that dominate its current tectonic regime.

  10. Contents, Abstracts and Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ethnic Minority Rights from the Angle of Multiculturalism Zhou Shaoqing(1) Abstract: Historically, multiculturalism was closely related to the ethnic minority rights. Currently there are two features in the research on multiculturalism and the ethnic minority rights. One is that most researchers do not strictly distinguish the different dimensions of multiculturalism, the other is that they tend to regard only multiculturalism as a theory of the ethnic minority rights, and less attach its importance to the multi-ethnie state construction. The thesis argues that multiculturalism has at least five dimensions, such as fact, theory, ideology, policy, and normative principle. The concept of the ethnic minority rights in each dimension has its special meaning and effect. The ethnic minority rights protection and the multi-ethnic state construction are two different aspects in the same historical process. Multiculturalism is not only a theory of the ethnic minority rights, but also an important supportive theory of the multi-ethnic state construction.

  11. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    propose two algorithms for computing safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the server-side computation as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space...... text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...... pruning. We present techniques that aim to compute the next safe zone efficiently, and we present two types of conservative safe zones that aim to reduce the communication cost. Empirical studies with real data suggest that the proposals are efficient. To understand the effectiveness of the proposed safe...

  12. Research article Abstract Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appointed Kovacs in terms of a financing agreement in a “Build Operate Transfer” (BOT) model whereby UWC leases land to KOVACS with a right to develop student residences exclusive to. UWC students with a right to collect rentals at full risk. The financing agreement to UWC is regulated by a “Development Agreement”, ...

  13. Salt tectonics in an experimental turbiditic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Nicolas; Vendeville, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    We modelled the effect of the deposition of clastic sediments wedges along passive margin by combining two different experimental approaches. The first approach, which uses flume experiments in order to model turbiditic transport and deposition, had focused, so far mainly on the stratigraphic architecture and flow properties. But most experiments have not accounted for the impact of syndepositional deformation. The second approach is the classic tectonic modelling (sand-box experiments) is aimed essentially at understanding deformation, for example the deformation of a sediment wedge deposited onto a mobile salt layer. However, with this approach, the sediment transport processes are crudely modelled by adding each sediment layer uniformly, regardless of the potential influence of the sea-floor bathymetry on the depositional pattern. We designed a new tectono-stratigraphic modelling tank, which combines modelling of the turbiditic transport and deposition, and salt-related deformation driven by sediment loading. The set-up comprises a channel connected to a main water tank. A deformation box is placed at the mouth of the channel, on the base of the tank. The base of the box can be filled with various kinds of substrates either rigid (sand) or viscous (silicone polymer, simulating mobile salt layer having varying length and thickness). A mixture of fine-grained powder and water is maintained in suspension in a container, and then released and channelled toward the basin, generating an analogue of basin-floor fans or lobes. We investigated the effect of depositing several consecutive turbiditic lobes on the deformation of the salt body and its overburden. The dynamics of experimental turbidity currents lead to deposits whose thickness varied gradually laterally: the lobe is thick in the proximal region and thins progressively distally, thus creating a very gentle regional surface slope. As the fan grows by episodic deposition of successive turbiditic lobes, the model

  14. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  15. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  16. Quarternary tectonics in the Lower Elbe region. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the Lower Elbe region, quarternary tectonic movements cannot be excluded, neither on the basis of ground survey findings and exploratory drills nor by evaluation of topographic and geological maps and geoscientific literature. It can be stated that: 1) The deep quarternary channels are neither tectonic structures nor fossil river beds cut into a foreland assumed to have been raised by 300-400 m but, rather, subglacially deepened erosion valleys; this hypothesis is proved not only by their shape and course but also by their being filled with purely nordic material. 2) Fracture-tectonic terrace movements cannot be proved; disturbances in geest regions are due to unit shortening of ice, dead ice subsidences, etc. 3) The river beds in the Lower Elbe region do not follow tectonic lines, and hydrographic 'anomalies' in the Gorleben region are randomly constructed. 4) The so-called 'crust movements' in the north-west GDR are, among others, relative movements against sea level and have many components whose order of magnitude is difficult to estimate. In particular, the apparently undisturbed location of the lower Elbe terrace makes tectonic mobility and earthquake hazards appear highly improbable. 5) Subrosion sinks and collapse sinks have so far not been detected over the Gorleben salt dome, and their existence is highly improbable. (orig.) [de

  17. Active Tectonics Revealed by River Profiles along the Puqu Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Puqu Fault is situated in Southern Tibet. It is influenced by the eastward extrusion of Northern Tibet and carries the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. Thus, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonic evolution remains active alongside. This study intends to understand the tectonic activity in the Puqu Fault Region from the river profiles obtained from the remotely sensed satellite imagery. A medium resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 20 m was generated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo pair of images and the stream network in this region was extracted from this DEM. The indices of slope and drainage area were subsequently calculated from this ASTER DEM. Based on the stream power law, the area-slope plots of the streams were delineated to derive the indices of channel concavity and steepness, which are closely related to tectonic activity. The results show the active tectonics varying significantly along the Puqu Fault, although the potential influence of glaciations may exist. These results are expected to be useful for a better understanding of tectonic evolution in Southeastern Tibet.

  18. SIRW: A web server for the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System that combines sequence motif searches with keyword searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Chenna

    2003-07-01

    SIRW (http://sirw.embl.de/) is a World Wide Web interface to the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System (SIR) that is capable of parsing and indexing various flat file databases. In addition it provides a framework for doing sequence analysis (e.g. motif pattern searches) for selected biological sequences through keyword search. SIRW is an ideal tool for the bioinformatics community for searching as well as analyzing biological sequences of interest.

  19. Automated Classification of Radiology Reports for Acute Lung Injury: Comparison of Keyword and Machine Learning Based Natural Language Processing Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Imre; Cooke, Colin R; Xia, Fei; Wurfel, Mark M

    2009-11-01

    This paper compares the performance of keyword and machine learning-based chest x-ray report classification for Acute Lung Injury (ALI). ALI mortality is approximately 30 percent. High mortality is, in part, a consequence of delayed manual chest x-ray classification. An automated system could reduce the time to recognize ALI and lead to reductions in mortality. For our study, 96 and 857 chest x-ray reports in two corpora were labeled by domain experts for ALI. We developed a keyword and a Maximum Entropy-based classification system. Word unigram and character n-grams provided the features for the machine learning system. The Maximum Entropy algorithm with character 6-gram achieved the highest performance (Recall=0.91, Precision=0.90 and F-measure=0.91) on the 857-report corpus. This study has shown that for the classification of ALI chest x-ray reports, the machine learning approach is superior to the keyword based system and achieves comparable results to highest performing physician annotators.

  20. m2-ABKS: Attribute-Based Multi-Keyword Search over Encrypted Personal Health Records in Multi-Owner Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinbin; Ma, Jianfeng; Liu, Ximeng; Wei, Fushan; Liu, Zhiquan; Wang, Xu An

    2016-11-01

    Online personal health record (PHR) is more inclined to shift data storage and search operations to cloud server so as to enjoy the elastic resources and lessen computational burden in cloud storage. As multiple patients' data is always stored in the cloud server simultaneously, it is a challenge to guarantee the confidentiality of PHR data and allow data users to search encrypted data in an efficient and privacy-preserving way. To this end, we design a secure cryptographic primitive called as attribute-based multi-keyword search over encrypted personal health records in multi-owner setting to support both fine-grained access control and multi-keyword search via Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. Formal security analysis proves our scheme is selectively secure against chosen-keyword attack. As a further contribution, we conduct empirical experiments over real-world dataset to show its feasibility and practicality in a broad range of actual scenarios without incurring additional computational burden.

  1. Engineering a de Novo Transport Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březovský, J.; Babková, P.; Degtjarik, Oksana; Fořtová, A.; Gora, A.; Iermak, Iuliia; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Dvořák, P.; Kutá Smatanová, Ivana; Prokop, Z.; Chaloupková, R.; Damborský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2016), s. 7597-7610 ISSN 2155-5435 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : transport tunnel * protein engineering * protein design Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  2. Engineering a de Novo Transport Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březovský, J.; Babková, P.; Degtjarik, O.; Fořtová, A.; Gora, A.; Iermak, I.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Dvořák, P.; Kutá Smatanová, I.; Prokop, Z.; Chaloupková, R.; Damborský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2016), s. 7597-7610 ISSN 2155-5435 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : transport tunnel * protein engineering * protein design * activity * specificity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  3. Scaling and spatial complementarity of tectonic earthquake swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Passarelli, Luigi

    2017-11-10

    Tectonic earthquake swarms (TES) often coincide with aseismic slip and sometimes precede damaging earthquakes. In spite of recent progress in understanding the significance and properties of TES at plate boundaries, their mechanics and scaling are still largely uncertain. Here we evaluate several TES that occurred during the past 20 years on a transform plate boundary in North Iceland. We show that the swarms complement each other spatially with later swarms discouraged from fault segments activated by earlier swarms, which suggests efficient strain release and aseismic slip. The fault area illuminated by earthquakes during swarms may be more representative of the total moment release than the cumulative moment of the swarm earthquakes. We use these findings and other published results from a variety of tectonic settings to discuss general scaling properties for TES. The results indicate that the importance of TES in releasing tectonic strain at plate boundaries may have been underestimated.

  4. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the crustal and tectonic structure of the Arctic region north of 60° N latitude, constrained as a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The region is largely...... formed by (i) Archean-Paleoproterozoic shields and platforms, (ii) orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic ages overlain by platform and basin sediments, (iii) Cenozoic rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic Ocean...... and thickness of the sedimentary cover and presents tectonic regionalization based on 18 major crustal types (oceanic, transitional, and continental) recognized in the Arctic. A 7600. km-long crustal geotransect across the region illustrates the details of its crustal and tectonic structure. We discuss...

  5. Study of the the efficacy Magiran, Noormags and SID database in retrieval and relevance of Information Science and Knowledge subject by free keywords and Compare them in terms of the use of controlled keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Shahbazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, Speed and coverage are two important factors that are considered by databases. In fact, a database in a particular subject area can be valid when a large percentage of the area covered by the thematic keywords and consequently it can provide most of the resources with the resources for that subject. The present study was conducted based on analytical - survey method with the main objectives of comparing Noormagz, Magiran and SID databases according to the rate of information, knowledge retrieval, and relevance of thematic vocabulary by free and controlled Keywords as well as Secondary objectives of comparing the coverage and overlap of these three databases of indexed journals in the field of information science and knowledge. All journals in the field of information and knowledge science are approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, according to the latest list of valid publications of this ministry in March 2016 , and key words taken from the articles in these journals were considered population of this research. Searching and comparing selected thematic keywords in each of the study databases indicated that there are a huge difference regarding free and controlled vocabulary retrieval of information and knowledge science in Noormagz database compared to the other two sites. In addition, studying the thematic relevance of research data showed that the ability of this database for receiving other related articles is more than two other databases. Although the titles of journals in Magiran database were more than those two databases and this database compared to two other databases was more update, the number of journals published in Noormagz database were more than others.

  6. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  7. Sandbox Tectonics As A Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaughter, J.

    2005-12-01

    obvious manner. Because the experiments produce tangible results, the students experience them on a more visceral level and may be able to incorporate the concepts better than they would through a description or computer simulation of the effects (Klosko et al., 2000). And, as the equipment used is very inexpensive, the experiment is well within the means of almost any school system. References Carey, S., R. Evans, M. Honda, E. Jay, C. Unger, 1989, ``An experiment is when you try it and see if it works'': A study of grade 7 students' understanding of the construction of knowledge, International Journal of Science Education, 11, 514-529 DeLaughter, J., S. Stein, C. Stein, K. R. Bain, 1998, Preconceptions abound among students in an introductory earth science course, EOS, 79, 429+432 Dominguez, S, J. Malavieille, S. Lallemand, 2000, Deformation of accretionary wedges in response to seamount subduction: Insights from sandbox experiments, Tectonics, 19(1), 182-196 Herbert, B., 2003, The role of scaffolding student metacognition in developing mental models of complex, Earth and environmental systems. DFG-NSF International Workshops on Research and Development in Mathematics and Science Education, November 19-21, 2003, Washington D.C. http://geoexplorer.tamu.edu/dfgnsf/WG1.html Horsfield, W.T., 1977, An experimental approach to basement controlled faulting, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 56, 363-370 Klosko, E., J. DeLaughter, S. Stein, 2000, Technology in introductory geophysics: the high - low mix, Computers & Geosciences, 26(6), 693-698

  8. Anomalous Transport in Natural Fracture Networks Induced by Tectonic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the high uncertainty and large heterogeneity associated with fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transportthrough fractured rock remains poorly understood. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown, only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of geologic (tectonic) stress on flow and tracer transport through natural fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) [2], which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation of pre-existing fractures, and propagation of new cracks, upon changes in the stress field. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual rock outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions. We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture network, and show that the stress state is a powerful determinant of transport behavior: (1) An anisotropic stress state induces preferential flow paths through shear dilation; (2) An increase in geologic stress increases aperture heterogeneity that induces late-time tailing of particle breakthrough curves. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through the stressed fracture

  9. Self-potential anomalies preceding tectonic and volcanic crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patella, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper I consider a possible physical mechanism capable of explaining self-potential anomalies, which are currently observed on the ground surface prior to tectonic and volcanic activities. A rock cracking-fluid diffusion-charge polarization model is described. The electrical charge polarization is assumed to be the electrokinetic effect due to invasion of fluid into new fissures, which open inside a stressed rock material because of dilatancy, in the case of tectonic activity, and of the rising of a magma intrusion in the case of volcanic activity. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  10. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  11. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  12. Tectonic reactivation in the Indian Ocean: Evidences from seamount morphology and manganese nodule characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Khadge, N.H.

    The Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) was subjected to tectonic reactivation in geological past which is unusual for a basin occurring on an apparently single tectonic plate. ENE-WSW trending latitude parallel zone of reactivation across the central...

  13. Registering of tectonic shove in a mountain mass with the help of a tiltmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, G.D.; Kolomiets, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    The authors observed shifting of the rock on the tectonic dislocation which took place approximately 800mm away fromn the tiltmeter station. Now the process is under study. The shifts are of an interrupted nature and possibily of tectonic origin.

  14. Assessment of tectonic hazards to waste storage in interior-basin salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.

    1979-01-01

    Salt domes in the northern Gulf of Mexico may make ideal sites for storage of radioactive waste because the area is tectonically quiet. The stability of such salt domes and the tectonic activity are discussed

  15. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai

    1998-12-01

    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  16. A new tectonic model for southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    S Alaska consists of a complex tectonic boundary that is gradational from subduction of Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath N American Plate (NA) in the W to a transform fault between these two plates in the SE. Adding complexity, the Yakutat Plate (YAK) is in between. The YAK is exposed in NE Gulf of Alaska and has been well mapped (Plafker, 1987). It is bound by the NA to the E at the Fairweather fault and by the PAC to the S. Relative to NA, YAK is moving 47 mm/yr N30°W and PAC is moving 51 mm/yr N20°W (Fletcher & Freymueller, 2003). The YAK and deeper PAC extend NW beneath the NA as flat slabs (Brocher et al., 1994). They subduct to the W and NW in Cook Inlet region (Ratchkovsky et al., 1997), resulting in the Cook Inlet volcanic arc. They also subduct farther NNW toward the Denali volcanic gap and fault. The subducted part of the YAK is split by a transform fault exposed at Montana Creek (MC) at 62°06'N to 62°10'N at 150°W. It extends S60°W toward the most N Cook Inlet volcano, Hayes, and extends N60°E beyond Talkeetna Mts. Right-lateral WSW motion and thick fault gauge have been documented by McGee (1978) on MC and a S60°W fault scarp cutting Quaternary deposits has been mapped (Reed & Nelson, 1980). Fuis et al. (2008) seismically recognized 110 km of missing YAP NW of Talkeetna Mts, which he thought was due to a 'tear' in the YAK to the far S. Nikoli Greenstone has been found in the Talkeetna Mts just S of this transform (Schmidt, 2003) that is 70 km SW of any other mapped Nikoli. This fault offset is also shown by 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours, which represent the YAK (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2006), as 110 km at N60°W. Based on magnetic data (Csejtey & Griscom, 1978; Saltus et al., 2007), the fault is regionally recognized as a 10× km zone on the WSW margin of the large S Alaska magnetic high. The fault zone has narrow WSW magnetic highs and depressions. This fault is also recognized on digital relief (Riehle et al., 1996); but, another pronounced N60

  17. Creating global comparative analyses of tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanism and inverted relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    I have been all around the world, and to other planets and have travelled from the present to the Archaean and back to seek out the most significant tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanoes and examples of inverted relief. I have done this to provide a broad foundation of the comparative analysis for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault nomination to UNESCO world Heritage. This would have been an impossible task, if not for the cooperation of the scientific community and for Google Earth, Google Maps and academic search engines. In preparing global comparisons of geological features, these quite recently developed tools provide a powerful way to find and describe geological features. The ability to do scientific crowd sourcing, rapidly discussing with colleagues about features, allows large numbers of areas to be checked and the open GIS tools (such as Google Earth) allow a standardised description. Search engines also allow the literature on areas to be checked and compared. I will present a comparative study of rifts of the world, monogenetic volcanic field and inverted relief, integrated to analyse the full geological system represented by the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault. The analysis confirms that the site is an exceptional example of the first steps of continental drift in a mountain rift setting, and that this is necessarily seen through the combined landscape of tectonic, volcanic and geomorphic features. The analysis goes further to deepen the understanding of geological systems and stresses the need for more study on geological heritage using such a global and broad systems approach.

  18. Visualizing the context of citations referencing papers published by Eugene Garfield: a new type of keyword co-occurrence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Hug, Sven E

    2018-01-01

    During Eugene Garfield's (EG's) lengthy career as information scientist, he published about 1500 papers. In this study, we use the impressive oeuvre of EG to introduce a new type of bibliometric networks: keyword co-occurrences networks based on the context of citations, which are referenced in a certain paper set (here: the papers published by EG). The citation context is defined by the words which are located around a specific citation. We retrieved the citation context from Microsoft Academic. To interpret and compare the results of the new network type, we generated two further networks: co-occurrence networks which are based on title and abstract keywords from (1) EG's papers and (2) the papers citing EG's publications. The comparison of the three networks suggests that papers of EG and citation contexts of papers citing EG are semantically more closely related to each other than to titles and abstracts of papers citing EG. This result accords with the use of citations in research evaluation that is based on the premise that citations reflect the cognitive influence of the cited on the citing publication.

  19. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape

  20. tectonic environments and rare metal mineralization in pegmatites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The discrimination diagrams: Rb versus Nb +Y and Nb versus Y, and Th/Ta ratio combined with field observations and empirical information from the literature were used to infer the tectonic environments and sources of the rare metal mineralization in the pegmatites of Komu area, southwestern Nigeria. The discrimination ...

  1. Pennsylvania seismic monitoring network and related tectonic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the operation of the Pennsylvania Seismic Monitoring Network during the interval May 1, 1983--March 31, 1985 to monitor seismic activity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas, to characterize the earthquake activity in terms of controlling tectonic structures and related tectonic stress conditions in the crust, and to obtain improved crustal velocity models for hypocentral determinations. Most of the earthquake activity was concentrated in the Lancaster, PA area. The magnitude 4.2 mainshock that occurred there on April 23, 1984 was the largest ever recorded instrumentally and its intensity of VI places it among the largest in the historic record for that area. Other activity during the monitoring interval of this report was confined to eastern Pennsylvania. The very large number of quarry explosions that occur regularly in Pennsylvania account for most of the seismic events recorded and they provide important crustal velocity data that are needed to obtain accurate hypocenter estimates. In general the earthquakes that occurred are located in areas of past historic seismicity. Block-tectonic structures resulting from pre-Ordovician tectonic displacements appear to influence the distribution of contemporary seismicity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. 17 refs., 5 figs

  2. Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi

  3. Devonian through early Carboniferous (Mississippian) metallogenesis and tectonics of northeast Asia, Chapter 6 in Metallogenesis and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2010-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  4. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  5. Breaking rocks made easy: subcritical processes and tectonic predesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Krautblatter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In geomorphic studies, to change in landforms, e.g. by rock slope failure, fluvial or glacial erosion, a threshold is commonly assumed, which is crossed either by an increase in external driving or a decrease of internal resisting forces, respectively. If the threshold is crossed, bedrock breaks and slope fails, rivers incise and glaciers plug and sew their bed. Here we put forward a focus on the decrease of the resisting forces, as an increase in the driving forces, to match the strength of bedrock, is not that likely. We suggest that the degradation of resisting forces of bedrock can be better explained by subcritical processes like creep, fatigue and stress corrosion interplaying with tectonic predesign. Both concepts, subcritical processes and tectonic predesign have been issued in the last century, but have not been widely accepted nor have their assumptions been explicitly stressed in recent case studies. Moreover both concepts profit especially on scale issues if merged. Subcritical crack growth, includes different mechanisms promoting fractures well below the ultimate strength. Single infinitesimal but irreversible damage and deformations are induced in the material over time. They interact with inherent microstructural flaws and low applied stresses, limiting local strength and macroscopic behavior of bedrock. This reissues the concept of tectonic predesigned, as proposed by A.E. Scheidegger, which not only encompasses structural features that determine the routing of drainage patterns and shear planes, e.g. joints, faults and foliations, but also the (neo)tectonic stress-field and the (in-situ) strain state of bedrocks and mountains. Combining subcritical processes and tectonic predesign we can better explain, why and where we see a dissected, eroded and geomorphic divers' landscape. In this conceptual framework actual magnitudes of the driving forces are accounted for and so is the nature of the bedrock material, to better understand the trajectories of

  6. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  7. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  8. Tectonic isolation from regional sediment sourcing of the Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Appalachian and Ouachita-Marathon mountain ranges were created by a series of tectonic collisions that occurred through the middle and late Paleozoic along North America's eastern and southern margins, respectively. Previous work employing detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated that fluvial and eolian systems transported Appalachian-derived sediment across the continent to North America's Paleozoic western margin. However, contemporaneous intraplate deformation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) compartmentalized much of the North American western interior and mid-continent. We employ lithofacies characterization, stratigraphic thickness, paleocurrent data, sandstone petrography, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to evaluate source-sink relationships of the Paradox Basin, which is one of the most prominent ARM basins. Evaluation of provenance is conducted through quantitative comparison of detrital zircon U-Pb distributions from basin samples and potential sources via detrital zircon mixture modeling, and is augmented with sandstone petrography. Mixing model results provide a measure of individual source contributions to basin stratigraphy, and are combined with outcrop and subsurface data (e.g., stratigraphic thickness and facies distributions) to create tectonic isolation maps. These maps elucidate drainage networks and the degree to which local versus regional sources influence sediment character within a single basin, or multiple depocenters. Results show that despite the cross-continental ubiquity of Appalachian-derived sediment, fluvial and deltaic systems throughout much of the Paradox Basin do not record their influence. Instead, sediment sourcing from the Uncompahgre Uplift, which has been interpreted to drive tectonic subsidence and formation of the Paradox Basin, completely dominated its sedimentary record. Further, the strong degree of tectonic isolation experienced by the Paradox Basin appears to be an emerging, yet common

  9. New conclusions about the tectonic structure in the Gandlova deposit of Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simecek, M

    1979-01-01

    The Gandlov coal deposit is confined to volcanic-sedimentary sections. The author examines examples of complex tectonic disturbances associated with the concept of landslide-gravitational tectonics. The consideration of such types of tectonic disturbances must be aided by the most modern technical means available.

  10. Raft tectonics in northern Campos Basin; Tectonica de jangada (raft tectonics) na area norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marilia R. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Fugita, Adhemar M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP

    2004-07-01

    In the northern area of Campos Basin salt gliding/spreading processes promoted the break-up and transport of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks overlying the evaporites. This process is known as raft tectonics, and it represents the most extreme form of thin-skinned extension above the salt decollement surface. Three distinct geotectonic domains were recognized that formed in response to the raft tectonics. The first one, confined to the shallower shelf portion of the basin, is characterized by minor extension (pre-raft domain), probably because of small salt thickness and low gradient. In the second domain (or disorganized rafts domain), located in distal platformal and slope areas, seismic sections show the occurrence of blocks or rafts with angular shapes, sometimes imbricated and frequently discontinuous. In the third domain, or domain of organized rafts, located in bacinal region, seismic sections show a more continuous raft pattern, often folded because of salt compression in the distal portions of the basin. The main purposes of this work is to characterize these three tectonic domains distinguished by raft tectonics, as well as their importance in hydrocarbon accumulations in calcarenites. (author)

  11. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    The Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific is recorded mainly in the orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern part of the North Asian Craton and the western part of the North American Craton. These collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes that are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons; they are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages. The geologic history of the terranes and overlap assemblages is highly complex because of postaccretionary dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins.We analyze the complex tectonics of this region by the following steps. (1) We assign tectonic environments for the orogenic collages from regional compilation and synthesis of stratigraphic and faunal data. The types of tectonic environments include cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental-margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, seamount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic. (2) We make correlations between terranes. (3) We group coeval terranes into a single tectonic origin, for example, a single island arc or subduction zone. (4) We group igneous-arc and subduction- zone terranes, which are interpreted as being tectonically linked, into coeval, curvilinear arc/subduction-zone complexes. (5) We interpret the original positions of terranes, using geologic, faunal, and paleomagnetic data. (6) We construct the paths of tectonic migration. Six processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of the complexities of the collage of terranes and overlap assemblages around the Circum-North Pacific, as follows. (1) During the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along

  12. Measurements of Active Tectonic Deformation on the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T.; Cundy, A.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    The study of tectonic deformation rates using displaced shoreline features is relatively well-established, and has provided much useful information on seismic hazard. Such studies have frequently been complemented by analysis of the coastal sedimentary record, where past marine to terrestrial environmental changes (and vice versa) may be recorded by clear changes in stratigraphy. Studies of this type are particularly valuable for tectonically-active areas where the preservation of former shoreline features is poor, or where long-term subsidence has resulted in their erosion, drowning or burial. The specific objective of this study is to derive rates of tectonic deformation from geomorphic and stratigraphic studies of the Guerrero coastal area, and to examine the feasibility of this stratigraphic approach in the coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific coast, in the Guerrero gap. The Guerrero gap coastal area, where a major earthquake is expected to occur, parallels the Cocos plate subduction zone. Here convergence rates vary from 5.2 cm/yr to 5.8 cm/yr. The Guerrero gap has experienced several historical earthquakes, notably the 1911 (7.8 Ms). However, no large magnitude events since the 1911 earthquake and only a few Ms~6 events have occurred near the Guerrero gap edges. It is expected that a major interplate earthquake of estimated magnitude Mw=8.1 to 8.4 has a high probability to occur. Landforms within the Guerrero gap indicate that the coast is subsiding. A series of key indicators such as elongated islands reminiscent of ancient barriers, submerged barriers island, extensive marshy environments, increased depths in the lagoons, and submerged anthropogenic features (shell mounds), among others, suggest active tectonic subsidence of the coast. In contrast, the adjacent northwest area off the Guerrero gap exhibits landforms characteristic of tectonic uplift (marine terraces and uplifted beach ridges), indicating a different seismo-tectonic regime northwest of the

  13. Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Spakman, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Seismic travel-time tomography of the mantle under SE Asia reveals patterns of subduction-related seismic P-wave velocity anomalies that are of great value in helping to understand the region's tectonic development. We discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of an area centred on Indonesia and including Malaysia, parts of the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. We begin with an explanation of seismic tomography and causes of velocity anomalies in the mantle, and discuss assessment of model quality for tomographic models created from P-wave travel times. We then introduce the global P-wave velocity anomaly model UU-P07 and the tectonic model used in this paper and give an overview of previous interpretations of mantle structure. The slab-related velocity anomalies we identify in the upper and lower mantle based on the UU-P07 model are interpreted in terms of the tectonic model and illustrated with figures and movies. Finally, we discuss where tomographic and tectonic models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important conclusions concerning the history of the region. The tomographic images of the mantle record subduction beneath the SE Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. In the upper mantle anomalies mainly record subduction during the last 10 to 25 Ma, depending on the region considered. We interpret a vertical slab tear crossing the entire upper mantle north of west Sumatra where there is a strong lateral kink in slab morphology, slab holes between c.200-400 km below East Java and Sumbawa, and offer a new three-slab explanation for subduction in the North Sulawesi region. There is a different structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle and the deep structure changes from west to east. What was imaged in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below SE Asia has a clear internal structure and we argue that many features can be identified as older subduction zones. We identify remnants of slabs

  14. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  16. Understanding Engineering Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi O. Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering ethics aims to enhance engineer’s ability to confront moral issues raised by engineering activities. It covers engineering as social experimentation, the engineer’s responsibility for safety, and the rights of engineers. What constitutes engineering ethics is the underlining question of this research. Hence, the objective of the research is to systematically provide answers to the aforementioned question. The research also studies the scope and the origin of the subject matter. At the same time, the research highlights the significance of the subject from diverse perspectives; including Western and Islamic perspectives. ABSTRAK: Etika kejuruteraan bertujuan meningkatkan keupayaan juruera menghadapi isu-isu moralyang timbul dari aktiviti-aktiviti kejuruteraan. Ia merangkumi kejuruteraan sebagai eksperimentasi sosial, tanggungjawab jurutera terhadap keselamatan dan hak-hak jurutera. Persoalan utama penyelidikan ini adalah apa yang merangkumi etika kejuruteraan. Penyelidikan ini juga mengkaji skop dan asal usul etika kejuruteraan. Kajian ini turut membincangkan subjek kajian dari pelbagai perspektif, Barat dan Islam.KEYWORDS: engineering ethics; engineer; akhlaq; values; confidentiality; corruption; conflict of interest; whistle-blowing

  17. Tectonic characteristics and uranium prospecting direction in Suasu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zhongming; Wang Baoqun

    2002-01-01

    The Suasu area geologically is divided into three subsidiary tectonic units, namely the southern syncline, the median uplift and the northern monoclinal zone. Authors suggest that uranium ore-formation occurred after the appearance of the above subsidiary tectonic units, and sandstone bodies of the II, III, IV, VII cycles, Shuixigou Group in the southern syncline, and sandstone bodies of the I, II, III, V cycles, Shuixigou Group, as well as sandstone bodies of Xiaoquangou Group in the northern monoclinal zone, they are prospecting potential. According to metallogenic conditions, such as the continuity and distribution area of the ore-hosting horizon, characteristics of sandstone bodies and features of interlayer oxidation zone, prospecting potential of the northern monoclinal zone is better than that of the southern syncline

  18. How the continents deform: The evidence from tectonic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2009-01-01

    Space geodesy now provides quantitative maps of the surface velocity field within tectonically active regions, supplying constraints on the spatial distribution of deformation, the forces that drive it, and the brittle and ductile properties of continental lithosphere. Deformation is usefully described as relative motions among elastic blocks and is block-like because major faults are weaker than adjacent intact crust. Despite similarities, continental block kinematics differs from global plate tectonics: blocks are much smaller, typically ∼100–1000 km in size; departures from block rigidity are sometimes measurable; and blocks evolve over ∼1–10 Ma timescales, particularly near their often geometrically irregular boundaries. Quantitatively relating deformation to the forces that drive it requires simplifying assumptions about the strength distribution in the lithosphere. If brittle/elastic crust is strongest, interactions among blocks control the deformation. If ductile lithosphere is the stronger, its flow properties determine the surface deformation, and a continuum approach is preferable.

  19. Tectonic lineaments in the Baltic from Gaevle to Simrishamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floden, T.

    1977-12-01

    The present report deals with the tectonic pattern within the offshore area of middle and SE Sweden. The study is restricted to the large scale pattern that can be detected by seismic reflection profiling. Neotectonic events are discussed in connection with the special study of echosounding and seismic records from the Baltic Sea. This report is mainly based on investigations performed during the period 1966-1976 by means of continuous seismic reflection profiling. The investigations were mainly concentrated to areas with a sedimentary rock cover and thus, there is a large discrepance in the amount of available information between different parts of the Baltic. In the coastal zone, only those tectonic lineaments that are of importance for the understanding of the offshore conditions are included in the present maps. References to other known lineaments are made in the text

  20. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  1. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-02

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs.

  2. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs

  3. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  4. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  5. Active Tectonics Around Almaty and along the Zailisky Alatau Rangefront

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, C.; Walker, R. T.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Mukambaev, A.; Elliott, A. J.; Elliott, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Zailisky Alatau is a >250 km long mountain range in Southern Kazakhstan. Its northern rangefront around the major city of Almaty has more than 4 km topographic relief, yet in contrast to other large mountain fronts in the Tien Shan, little is known about its Late Quaternary tectonic activity despite several destructive earthquakes in the historical record. We analyze the tectonic geomorphology of the rangefront fault using field observations, differential GPS measurements of fault scarps, historical and recent satellite imagery, meter-scale topography derived from stereo satellite images, and decimeter-scale elevation models from unmanned aerial vehicle surveys. Fault scarps ranging in height from 2 m to >20 m in alluvial fans indicate that surface rupturing earthquakes occurred along the rangefront fault since the Last Glacial Maximum. Minimum estimated magnitudes for those earthquakes are M6.8-7. Radiocarbon dating results from charcoal layers in uplifted river terraces indicate a Holocene slip rate of 1.2-2.2 mm/a. We find additional evidence for active tectonic deformation all along the Almaty rangefront, basinward in the Kazakh platform, and in the interior of the Zailisky mountain range. Our data indicate that the seismic hazard faced by Almaty comes from a variety of sources, and we emphasize the problems related to urban growth into the loess-covered foothills and secondary earthquake effects. With our structural and geochronologic framework, we present a schematic evolution of the Almaty rangefront that may be applicable to similar settings of tectonic shortening in the mountain ranges of Central Asia.

  6. Tectonic controls of Holocene erosion in a glaciated orogen

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Byron A.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a strong, worldwide, glacial impact of orogen erosion rates over the last 2 Ma. While it may be assumed that glaciers increased erosion rates when active, the degree to which past glaciations influence Holocene erosion rates through the adjustment of topography is not known. In this study, we investigate the influence of long-term tectonic and post-glacial topographic controls on erosion in a glaciated orogen, the Olympic Mountains, USA. We present 14 new 10Be and ...

  7. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  8. Petroleum and natural gas geology and plate tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, B.

    1984-01-01

    Several processes of oil and gas geology are studied in connection with plate-tectonical processes. Thus it becomes clear, that there is a distinct difference between the Paleozoic development of the European plate and the Mesozoic development. One can state, that the Paleozoic development is essentially influenced by the positions of the mobile belts and the cratonized parts of the plates. The development during Meso-Caenozoic is mainly characterized by crustal processes in the result of the disintegration of Pangaea.

  9. Structural Characteristics and Physical Properties of Tectonically Deformed Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Yiwen Ju; Zhifeng Yan; Xiaoshi Li; Quanlin Hou; Wenjing Zhang; Lizhi Fang; Liye Yu; Mingming Wei

    2012-01-01

    Different mechanisms of deformation could make different influence on inner structure and physical properties of tectonically deformed coal (TDC) reservoirs. This paper discusses the relationship between macromolecular structure and physical properties of the Huaibei-Huainan coal mine areas in southern North China. The macromolecular structure and pore characteristics are systematically investigated by using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron mic...

  10. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  11. Temporal Variation of Tectonic Tremor Activity Associated with Nearby Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Pu, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and slow slip events, located downdip from the seismogenic zone, hold the key to recurring patterns of typical earthquakes. Several findings of slow aseismic slip during the prenucletion processes of nearby earthquakes have provided new insight into the study of stress transform of slow earthquakes in fault zones prior to megathrust earthquakes. However, how tectonic tremor is associated with the occurrence of nearby earthquakes remains unclear. To enhance our understanding of the stress interaction between tremor and earthquakes, we developed an algorithm for the automatic detection and location of tectonic tremor in the collisional tectonic environment in Taiwan. Our analysis of a three-year data set indicates a short-term increase in the tremor rate starting at 19 days before the 2010 ML6.4 Jiashian main shock (Chao et al., JGR, 2017). Around the time when the tremor rate began to rise, one GPS station recorded a flip in its direction of motion. We hypothesize that tremor is driven by a slow-slip event that preceded the occurrence of the shallower nearby main shock, even though the inferred slip is too small to be observed by all GPS stations. To better quantify what the necessary condition for tremor to response to nearby earthquakes is, we obtained a 13-year ambient tremor catalog from 2004 to 2016 in the same region. We examine the spatiotemporal relationship between tremor and 37 ML>=5.0 (seven events with ML>=6.0) nearby earthquakes located within 0.5 degrees to the active tremor sources. The findings from this study can enhance our understanding of the interaction among tremor, slow slip, and nearby earthquakes in the high seismic hazard regions.

  12. Do cratons preserve evidence of stagnant lid tectonics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for episodic crustal growth extending back to the Hadean has recently prompted a number of numerically based geodynamic models that incorporate cyclic changes from stagnant lid to mobile lid tectonics. A large part of the geologic record is missing for the times at which several of these cycles are inferred to have taken place. The cratons, however, are likely to retain important clues relating to similar cycles developed in the Mesoarchean and Neoarchean. Widespread acceptance of a form of plate tectonics by ∼3.2 Ga is not at odds with the sporadic occurrence of stagnant lid tectonics after this time. The concept of scale as applied to cratons, mantle plumes and Neoarchean volcanic arcs are likely to provide important constraints on future models of Earth's geodynamic evolution. The Superior Province will provide some of the most concrete evidence in this regard given that its constituent blocks may have been locked into a stagnant lid relatively soon after their formation and then assembled in the next global plate tectonic interval. Perceived complexities associated with inferred mantle plume – volcanic arc associations in the Superior Province and other cratons may be related to an over estimation of plume size. A possible stagnant lid episode between ∼2.9 Ga and ∼2.8 Ga is identified by previously unexplained lapses in volcanism on cratons, including the Kaapvaal, Yilgarn and Superior Province cratons. If real, then mantle dynamics associated with this episode likely eliminated any contemporaneous mantle plume incubation sites, which has important implications for widespread plumes developed at ∼2.7 Ga and favours a shallow mantle source in the transition zone. The Superior Province provides a uniquely preserved local proxy for this global event and could serve as the basis for detailed numerical models in the future.

  13. Theatrical Tectonics: The Mediating Agent for a Contesting Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevork Hartoonian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits the idea that the theme of agency in architecture is parallactic. It discusses the tectonic as an agent through which architecture turns into a state of constant flux. The intention is to promote a discourse of criticality, the thematic of which is drawn from the symptoms that galvanise architecture’s rapport with the image-laden culture of late capitalism. In an attempt to log the thematic of a contested practice, this essay will re-map the recent history of contemporary architecture.Exploring New Brutalism’s criticism of the established ethos of International Style architecture, the first part of this paper will highlight the movement’s tendency towards replacing the painterly with the sculptural, and this in reference to the contemporary interest in monolithic architecture. Having established the import of tectonics for the architecture of Brutalism, the paper then argues that in the present situation, when architecture – like other cultural products – is infatuated with the spectacle of late capitalism, a re-thinking of the Semperian notion of theatricality is useful. Of interest in the tectonic of theatricality is the work’s capacity to bring forth the division between intellectual and physical labours, and this in reference to architecture’s reserved acceptance of technification for which the aforementioned division is vital.Particular attention will be given to two projects, Zaha Hadid’s Phaeno Center and OMA’s Casa da Musica, where architectonic aspects of New Brutalism are revisited in the light of the tectonic of theatricality.

  14. Ore-lead isotopes and Grenville plate tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the 'whole earth' modelling of evolutionary processes of Pb isotopes shed light upon the origin of the metals found in various types of ore deposits. On the bases of these models and several recently published data sets, we believe that the ore deposits formed in various plate tectonic environments may carry 'isotopic fingerprints' which, when used with other characteristics such as mineral assemblages, may identify the depositional environments of many ore bodies. In the present study Pb-isotopic measurements have been made of a number of Precambrain mineralization types and localities throughout the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. The data for individual deposits are at best ambiguous, but fall into two groups sufficiently distinctive to allow some degree of 'fingerprint' identification. Comparisons with data from other areas suggest that the major periods of sedimentation within the Central Metasedimentary Belt accompanied plate rifting and/or island arc tectonic activity, with most of the mineralized lead being derived from mantle sources. Detailed comparisons between the Grenville and other regions are uncertain, mainly because there are few detailed high-accuracy data sets from younger, tectonically unambiguous mineral occurrences. We suggest that once these data sets are availble, isotopic fingerprinting may become diagnostic for deposits ranging well back into the Precambrain

  15. Tectonic DSAEK for the Management of Impending Corneal Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique O. Graue-Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of severe corneal thinning secondary to dry eye treated with a tectonic Descemet stripping automated lamellar keratoplasty (DSAEK and amniotic membrane graft. Methods. A 72-year-old man with a history of long standing diabetes mellitus type 2 and dry eye presented with 80% corneal thinning and edema on the right eye and no signs of infectious disease, initially managed with topical unpreserved lubrication and 20% autologous serum drops. Eight weeks after, the defect advanced in size and depth until Descemetocele was formed. Thereafter, he underwent DSAEK for tectonic purposes. One month after the procedure, the posterior lamellar graft was well adhered but a 4 mm epithelial defect was still present. A multilayered amniotic membrane graft was then performed. Results. Ocular surface healed quickly and reepithelization occurred over a 2-week period. Eight months after, the ocular surface remained stable and structurally adequate. Conclusion. Tectonic DSAEK in conjunction with multilayered amniotic graft may not only provide structural support and avoid corneal perforation, but may also promote reepithelization and ocular surface healing and decrease concomitant inflammation.

  16. Discovery of candidate KEN-box motifs using cell cycle keyword enrichment combined with native disorder prediction and motif conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Sushama; Travé, Gilles; Ramu, Chenna; Chica, Claudia; Gibson, Toby J

    2008-02-15

    KEN-box-mediated target selection is one of the mechanisms used in the proteasomal destruction of mitotic cell cycle proteins via the APC/C complex. While annotating the Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource (ELM, http://elm.eu.org/), we found that KEN motifs were significantly enriched in human protein entries with cell cycle keywords in the UniProt/Swiss-Prot database-implying that KEN-boxes might be more common than reported. Matches to short linear motifs in protein database searches are not, per se, significant. KEN-box enrichment with cell cycle Gene Ontology terms suggests that collectively these motifs are functional but does not prove that any given instance is so. Candidates were surveyed for native disorder prediction using GlobPlot and IUPred and for motif conservation in homologues. Among >25 strong new candidates, the most notable are human HIPK2, CHFR, CDC27, Dab2, Upf2, kinesin Eg5, DNA Topoisomerase 1 and yeast Cdc5 and Swi5. A similar number of weaker candidates were present. These proteins have yet to be tested for APC/C targeted destruction, providing potential new avenues of research.

  17. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  18. ["Crisis"--oscillating between keyword and buzzword. On the discourse about a "crisis of medicine" in the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The buzzword "crisis" has not only become omnipresent since the recent financial crisis. The term that originated in Ancient Greece underwent several different usages--quantitatively as well as qualitatively; especially in the Weimar Republic, the time period that has long been considered as the crisis era par excellence. Using the discourse about the "crisis of medicine" in the 1920s and the early 1930s as an example, the article attempts to provide a critical reflection on the concept of "crisis". The focus of this article is on the idea's construction, the different semantic usages of "crisis" and the motives of the different authors for their respective rhetorical applications of this term. The analysis of the examined publications on the "crisis of medicine", how they influenced other periods and the reconstruction of their origin show that the semantics of the word "crisis" went far beyond a simply negative connotation, and with regard to its rhetorical usage have oscillated between keyword and a meaningless but catchy buzzword.

  19. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry and photochemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 16. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, I.C.; Helman, W.P.; Hug, G.L.; Ross, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry is a current-awareness service published by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center (RCDC), with special emphasis on the kinetics and other properties of transient ions, radicals, and excited species. Papers are included on the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of organic and inorganic systems, biological molecules and polymers, with references to ESR and luminescence studies. Complete coverage is attempted only for those studies which are initiated by light or ionizing radiation, and which provide quantitative physical chemical data such as quantum yields, specific rates, G values, etc. No attempt is made to cover topics such as mechanistic and preparative photochemistry, photosynthesis, photography, and irradiation of metals. The references listed herein are obtained from scanning about 60 current journals as well as Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex and several other publications listing current references. The reference lists, which are issued biweekly, are cumulated annually with the addition of keyword and author indexes. Indexed cumulations were published semiannually for Vol. 4-6 (1971-73) and are published annually for Vol. 7+ (1974+); back copies are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

  20. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty

    2018-04-01

    transgressive systems tract motif to grow eventually passing upwards into the Karai Shale Formation, whose contact with the Dalmiapuram Formation is gradational. Keywords: Syn-sedimentary tectonics, Facies analysis, Carbonate shelf, Cretaceous, Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin

  1. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  2. Does Teaching Mnemonics for Vocabulary Learning Make a Difference? Putting the Keyword Method and the Word Part Technique to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the effectiveness of the word part technique in comparison with the keyword method and self-strategy learning. One hundred and twenty-one Chinese year-one university students were randomly assigned to one of the three learning conditions: word part, keyword or self-strategy learning condition. Half of the target words…

  3. Tectonics on Iapetus: Despinning, respinning, or something completely different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.

    2011-11-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus is unique in that it has apparently despun while retaining a substantial equatorial bulge. Stresses arising from such a non-hydrostatic shape should in principle cause surface deformation (tectonics). As part of a search for such a tectonic signature, lineaments (linear surface features) on Iapetus were mapped on both its bright and dark hemispheres. Lineament orientations were then compared to model stress patterns predicted for spin-down from a rotation period of 16.5 h (or less) to its present synchronous period, and for a range of lithospheric thicknesses. Many lineaments are straight segments of crater rimwalls, which may be faults or joints reactivated during complex crater collapse. Most striking are several large troughs on the bright, trailing hemisphere. These troughs appear to be extensional and are distinctive on that hemisphere, because the interior floors and walls of the troughs contain dark material. Globally, no specific evidence of strike slip or thrust offsets are seen, but this could be due to the age and degraded nature of any such features. We find that observed lineament orientations do not correlate with predicted patterns due to despinning on either hemisphere (the equatorial ridge was specifically excluded from this analysis, and is considered separately). Modest evidence for preferred orientations ±40° from north could be construed as consistent with respinning, which is not necessarily far-fetched. Assuming the rigidity of unfractured ice, predicted maximum lithospheric differential stresses from despinning range from ˜1 MPa to ˜160 MPa for the elastic spheroid and thin lithosphere limits, respectively (although it is only for thicker elastic lithospheres that we expect a nonhydrostatic state to be maintained over geologic time against lithospheric failure). The tectonic signature of despinning may have been obscured over time because the surface of Iapetus is very ancient, Iapetus' thick lithosphere may have

  4. Evaluation of tectonic impact on radon level of lithological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkowicz, S.; Strzelecki, R.

    2000-01-01

    The radon potential maps of the Sudetes Mountains and Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been prepared on a base of arithmetic mean value of radon concentration in soil air in distinguished lithological/stratigraphic units. Both zones of shallow position of ground table and the fault zones influence value of this parameter: the first one affects in specific conditions lowering of background values, the second ones - origin of values several and teen times higher than rock background values. Estimation of power of tectonic influence on general radon potential of the lithological units has been made on a base of examination of histograms of distribution of radon concentration in soil air. In the Sudetes area, 0 % to about 30 % of the measurements is related to fault zones. Higher tectonic engagement (about 30 %) characterizes the Karkonosze Granites, Izera Gneisses and Strzegom Granites. In the cases of Karkonosze Granites and the Strzegom Granites, rock background values concentrations in soil air are a little than 50 kBq/m 3 , what is the value defined for lower threshold of high radon risk areas. In conclusion, presence of numerous fault zones and fissures increases radon risk category with one class. Background modal values of radon emanations, defined for the studied units, in the 5 cases fulfill criteria for medium radon risk areas, and in other cases do not exceed of the threshold 10 kBq/m 3 . It displays, that in the case of low radon potential rocks only a few-percent rich population of measurements related to tectonic zones, is sufficient to substantially deform of the image of the studied unit radon potential. For instance, medium radon potential characterizes the Klodzko - Zloty Stok Granites (the arithmetic mean value of this class is 36.15 kBq/m 3 , n=104) and small tectonic engagement (about 3.8 %). In the result the modal value belongs to the class 20-30 kBq/m 3 . The Poreba Beds in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin are characterised by almost the same radon

  5. 关键词推广使用他人商标的反不正当竞争法规制%The Regulation on Anti-unfair Competition of Using Others’ Trademarks as Keyword Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润涛

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the attributes of trademarks that only be used as keywords of search engine promotion, namely trademark infringement, unfair competition or legitimate use. There are many different judgments in judicial practice. This paper begins from the theory and practice of trademark use in keyword promotion, and argues that the behavior that trademarks are used only as keywords does not belong to trademark use in trademark law, and it is not easy to confuse the public. Although trademark use as keyword promotion does not constitute trademark infringement in trademark law, it may be adjusted by anti-unfair competition law if it is achieved by unfair means and clearly violates the principle of honesty and credit and the generally recognized business ethics. Otherwise, the law should not intervene and leave the market to choose. We should prevent improperly expanding the application of anti-unfair competition to hinder the free competition, and carry out the legal policy of promoting innovation and encouraging free competition.%仅将他人商标用作关键词进行搜索引擎推广,是商标侵权行为、不正当竞争行为抑或不侵权,争议较大,司法实践很多判决出现截然不同的结果。文章从关键词推广是否构成商标使用的理论与实践梳理入手,分析仅将他人的商标用作搜索关键词不属于商标使用,不会导致相关公众混淆。

  6. Gender, cancer experience and internet use: a comparative keyword analysis of interviews and online cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive; Ziebland, Sue; Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    A new method, comparative keyword analysis, is used to compare the language of men and women with cancer in 97 research interviews and two popular internet based support groups for people with cancer. The method is suited to the conjoint qualitative and quantitative analysis of differences between large bodies of text, an alternative to the 'code and retrieval' approach used in much thematic analysis of qualitative materials. Web forums are a rich source of data about illness experience and gender differences. Marked differences in the performance of gender are evident. These differences follow linguistic and other behavioural patterns (such as social network differences) established in other contexts. Men with prostate cancer indicate in research interviews that they are more likely to seek information on the internet; women with breast cancer that they are more likely to seek social and emotional support. Men's concerns cluster around treatment information, medical personnel and procedures. Their experience of disease is more localised on particular areas of the body, while women's experience is more holistic. Women's forum postings orientate much more towards the exchange of emotional support, including concern with the impact of illness on a wide range of other people. Women's use of superlatives as well as words referring to feelings indicate their enactment of greater emotional expressivity. Web forums are platforms for an intensification of men's knowledge gathering activities. Web forums, though actually quite publicly visible, appear to be subjectively experienced by both sexes as relatively private places for the exchange of intimate personal information. The 'privacy' of the breast cancer forum facilitated interactions found in other studies to be characteristic of women's friendship groups.

  7. Education of indoor enviromental engineering technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kic, P.; Zajíček, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, Spec. 1 (2011), s. 83-90 ISSN 1406-894X. [Biosystems Engineering 2011. Tartu, 12.05.2011-13.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Biosystems engineering * indoor environment * study * programs Subject RIV: AM - Education http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/VS/zajicek-education of indoor enviromental engineering technology.pdf

  8. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  9. Late Pliocene Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necea, Diana; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.

    2005-12-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ˜11 Ma) subduction/underthrusting and continental collision between the East European/Scythian/Moesian foreland and the inner Carpathians Tisza-Dacia unit. In particular, the SE corner of the arcuate orogenic belt represents the place of still active large-scale differential vertical movements between the uplifting mountain chain and the subsiding Focşani foredeep basin. In this key area, we have analysed the configuration of the present day landforms and the drainage patterns in order to quantify the amplitude, timing and kinematics of these post-collisional late Pliocene-Quaternary vertical movements. A river network is incising in the upstream a high topography consisting of the external Carpathians nappes and the Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene sediments of the foreland. Further eastwards in the downstream, this network is cross-cutting a low topography consisting of the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the foreland. Geological observations and well-preserved geomorphic features demonstrate a complex succession of geological structures. The late Pliocene-Holocene tectonic evolution is generally characterised by coeval uplift in the mountain chain and subsidence in the foreland. At a more detailed scale, these vertical movements took place in pulses of accelerated motion, with laterally variable amplitude both in space and in time. After a first late Pliocene uplifting period, subsidence took place during the Earliest Pleistocene resulting in a basal Quaternary unconformity. This was followed by two, quantifiable periods of increased uplift, which affected the studied area at the transition between the Carpathians orogen and the Focşani foreland basin in the late Early Pleistocene and the

  10. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  11. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  12. Stress drops of induced and tectonic earthquakes in the central United States are indistinguishable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihe; Ellsworth, William L; Beroza, Gregory C

    2017-08-01

    Induced earthquakes currently pose a significant hazard in the central United States, but there is considerable uncertainty about the severity of their ground motions. We measure stress drops of 39 moderate-magnitude induced and tectonic earthquakes in the central United States and eastern North America. Induced earthquakes, more than half of which are shallower than 5 km, show a comparable median stress drop to tectonic earthquakes in the central United States that are dominantly strike-slip but a lower median stress drop than that of tectonic earthquakes in the eastern North America that are dominantly reverse-faulting. This suggests that ground motion prediction equations developed for tectonic earthquakes can be applied to induced earthquakes if the effects of depth and faulting style are properly considered. Our observation leads to the notion that, similar to tectonic earthquakes, induced earthquakes are driven by tectonic stresses.

  13. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    Eocene times tectonic activity related to the final stage of opening of the North Atlantic was apparently controlling the sediment input in the North Sea as sediment pulses correlate well with tectonic events. Although there is no signs of Cenozoic tectonic activity onshore Scandinavia (igneous bodies......, faulting), tectonic disturbance related to ocean opening could be responsible for deposition of thick Paleocene wedges along the western coast of Norway. During subsequent Cenozoic periods domal structures in the Norwegian shelf are a proof for mild and protracted compression. However, depositional...... patterns from offshore Scandinavia have been interpreted as a result of significant tectonic movements. In the absence of proofs for active tectonic agents we attempt to explain these sediment input variations as a result of climate fluctuations. The Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse climate transition...

  14. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  15. The Potential for Volcanism and Tectonics on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Roberge, Aki

    2018-01-01

    JWST and other next-generation space telescopes (e.g., LUVOIR, HabEx, & OST) will usher in a new era of exoplanet characterization that may lead to the identification of habitable, Earth-like worlds. Like the planets and moons in our solar system, the surfaces and interiors of terrestrial exoplanets may be shaped by volcanism and tectonics (Fu et al., 2010; van Summeren et al., 2011; Henning and Hurford, 2014). The magnitude and rate of occurrence of these dynamic processes can either facilitate or preclude the existence of habitable environments. Likewise, it has been suggested that detections of cryovolcanism on icy exoplanets, in the form of geyser-like plumes, could indicate the presence of subsurface oceans (Quick et al., 2017).The presence of volcanic and tectonic activity on solid exoplanets will be intimately linked to planet size and heat output in the form of radiogenic and/or tidal heating. In order to place bounds on the potential for such activity, we estimated the heat output of a variety of exoplanets observed by Kepler. We considered planets whose masses and radii range from 0.067 ME (super-Ganymede) to 8 ME (super-Earth), and 0.5 to 1.8 RE, respectively. These heat output estimates were then compared to those of planets, moons, and dwarf planets in our solar system for which we have direct evidence for the presence/absence of volcanic and tectonic activity. After exoplanet heating rates were estimated, depths to putative molten layers in their interiors were also calculated. For planets such as TRAPPIST-1h, whose densities, orbital parameters, and effective temperatures are consistent with the presence of significant amounts of H2O (Luger et al., 2017), these calculations reveal the depths to internal oceans which may serve as habitable niches beneath surface ice layers.

  16. Teaching And Learning Tectonics With Web-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Sahagian, D. L.; Bodzin, A.; Teletzke, A. L.; Rutzmoser, S.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Burrows, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tectonics is a new curriculum enhancement consisting of six Web GIS investigations designed to augment a traditional middle school Earth science curriculum. The investigations are aligned to Disciplinary Core Ideas: Earth and Space Science from the National Research Council's (2012) Framework for K-12 Science Education and to tectonics benchmark ideas articulated in the AAAS Project 2061 (2007) Atlas of Science Literacy. The curriculum emphasizes geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry and consists of the following modules: Geohazards, which plate boundary is closest to me? How do we recognize plate boundaries? How does thermal energy move around the Earth? What happens when plates diverge? What happens when plate move sideways past each other? What happens when plates collide? The Web GIS interface uses JavaScript for simplicity, intuition, and convenience for implementation on a variety of platforms making it easier for diverse middle school learners and their teachers to conduct authentic Earth science investigations, including multidisciplinary visualization, analysis, and synthesis of data. Instructional adaptations allow students who are English language learners, have disabilities, or are reluctant readers to perform advanced desktop GIS functions including spatial analysis, map visualization and query. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animation in addition to newly developed features, which allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that would not be easily visible using typical classroom instructional materials. The Tectonics curriculum uses a spatial learning design model that incorporates a related set of frameworks and design principles. The framework builds on the work of other successful technology-integrated curriculum projects and includes, alignment of materials and assessments with learning goals, casting key ideas in real-world problems, engaging students in scientific practices that foster the use of key

  17. Learning Plate Tectonics Using a Pre-Analogy Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Sandoval, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that children tend to demonstrate lower performance on analogical reasoning tasks at a causal relations level compared to most adults (Gentner & Toupin, 1986). This tendency is an obstacle that geoscience educators must overcome because of the high frequency of analogies used in geoscience pedagogy. In particular, analog models are used to convey complex systems of non-everyday/non-observable events found in nature, such as plate tectonics. Key factors in successful analogical reasoning that have been suggested by researchers include knowledge of the causal relations in the base analog (Brown & Kane, 1988; Gentner, 1988; Gentner & Toupin, 1986), and development of learning strategies and metaconceptual competence(Brown & Kane, 1988). External factors, such as guiding cues and hints have been useful cognitive supports that help students reason through analogical problems (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). Cognitive supports have been seen by researchers to decrease processing demands on retrieval and working memory (Richland, Zur, & Holyoak, 2007). We observed third and fourth graders learning about plate tectonics beginning with a pre-analogy step-a cognitive support activity a student can do before working with an analogy to understand the target. This activity was designed to aid students in developing their understanding of object attributes and relations within an analog model so that more focus can be placed on mapping the corresponding higher-order relations between the base and target. Students learned targeted concepts of plate tectonics, as measured by pre to post gains on items adapted from the Geosciences Concept Inventory. Analyses of classroom interaction showed that students used the object attributes and higher-order relations highlighted in the pre-analogy activity as resources to reason about plate boundaries and plate movement during earthquakes.

  18. Study On Aftershock Triggering In Consideration Of Tectonic Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Cai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    : The occurrence of earthquake is related to the strength of rock and tectonic stress field. The seismic risk factor (SRF),D=\\left|{τn }\\right|/(μσn ) is proposed to describe the dangerous status of aftershock triggering in this paper. Dearthquakes, velocity field from GPS as well as geological survey. As one order of approximation, the magnitudes of the regional tectonic stress field can be estimated by the Coulomb failure criterion. Finite element method (FEM) and the concept of the factor D are used to study the aftershock triggering of the 1976 Tangshan Ms=7.8 earthquake. The results show that: (1) Most of the aftershocks triggered by the Tangshan earthquake occurred in the two-leaf-shaped regions of D≥ 1 near the north-east end of the main-shock fault. The largest leaf is about 100km long and 40km wide. (2) The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by the seismic risk factorD and Δ CFS (the changes in the Coulomb failure stress) are almost the same near the fault. The difference between them is that the aftershock area predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0 is too large and the area predicted by the factor D≥ 1 is limited. The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0.04 MPa are nearly the same as those of D≥ 1 obtained by the study. (3) Sometimes Δ CFS =0.01MPa is taken as a low threshold of aftershock triggering. However, Δ CFS≥ 0 only means the probability increase of the earthquake triggering, not means the earthquake will occur. The earthquake occurrence is not only related to Δ CFS, but also to the tectonic stress field before the main-shock.

  19. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  20. Unsteady Landscapes: Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Fluvial Terrace Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are common landforms throughout mountainous regions which represent abandoned remnants of active river systems and their floodplains. The formation of these landforms points to a fundamental unsteadiness in the incision rate of the fluvial network, providing important information on channel response to climatic, tectonic, and base-level forcing, sediment storage and dynamics within mountainous systems, and the relative importance of lateral and vertical incision rates. In his 1877 Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains, G.K. Gilbert suggested that strath terraces may form due to climatically-driven increase in sediment supply, causing armouring of the channel bed and hindering vertical incision. An alternative hypothesis suggests that strath terraces may be preserved through progressive tectonic uplift or base-level fall. These different formation mechanisms should result in varying distribution of terrace elevations along channels: if terraces are formed through climate-driven variations in sediment supply, we might expect that terrace elevations would be random, whereas progressive fluvial incision should result in a series of terraces with a systematic elevation pattern. Here we test alternative hypotheses for strath terrace formation using a new method for objectively and rapidly identifying terrace surfaces from digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales. Our new method identifies fluvial terraces using their gradient and elevation compared to the modern channel, thresholds of which are statistically calculated from the DEM and do not need to be set manually by the user. We use this method to extract fluvial terraces for every major river along the coast of California, and quantify their distribution and elevation along the fluvial long profile. Our results show that there is no systematic pattern in terrace elevations despite a well-constrained spatial variation in uplift rates, suggesting that terraces in this region do

  1. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  2. Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.

    2010-12-01

    We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian

  3. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    , very smooth t o- po graphic plane on either side characterizes segment C. Si n- gle - channel seismic reflection data over this segment depict a thick pile of sediments, with expressions of e x- tensional tectonics. Seismic eviden ce indicates... that there is more than 2 km thick sediment overburden over this spreading segment 2,8 . The axial trough along the entire length of segment C is well maintained in spite of high sediment influx in the region. Flanks of the spreading segment A, define a fan...

  4. Western Indian Ocean - A glimpse of the tectonic scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A.K.

    is the en echelon displacement of the NW-SE trending ridge axis by numerous NE-SW trending fracture Western Indian Ocean - A Glimpse of the Tectonic Scenario 693 Table 1. Some information from the scientific drilling campaigns in the western Indian Ocean...: Raman Seamount; P: Panikkar Seamount; W: Wadia Guyot; S: SagarKanya Seamount; SR: ShebaRidge; CR: Carlsberg Ridge; CIR: Central Indian Ridge; SWIR: Southwest Indian Ridge; RTJ: Rodrigues Triple Junction; OFZ: Owen Fracture Zone; LR: Laxmi Ridge; MR...

  5. Seismo-tectonic model regarding the genesis and occurrence of Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.; Enescu, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of this paper contains a very short description of some previous attempts in seismo-tectonic modeling of Vrancea zone. The seismo-tectonic model developed by the authors of this work is presented in the second part of the paper. This model is based on the spatial distribution of hypo-centers and focal mechanism characteristics. Lithosphere structure and tectonics of the directly implied zones represent very important characteristics of the seismo-tectonic model. Some two-dimensional and three-dimensional sketches of the model, which satisfy all the above mentioned characteristics and give realistic explanations regarding the genesis and occurrence of Vrancea earthquakes are presented. (authors)

  6. 95 a study on affective work skills needs of engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P< 0.05 level of significant was used to analyse the data. Some of the findings ... Keywords: Affective work skills, Engineering, North Central, Technology ... referred to as non technical abilities, employability.

  7. (cucumis sativus l.) in spent engine oil contaminated soil amended

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compost treatment recorded the highest number of leaves while the number of leaves for 0% ... KEYWORDS: Growth, Cucumis sativus, Urena lobata, spent engine oil, contamination, .... sawdust, peat, waste cotton and organic manures are.

  8. The combination of meltblown and electrospinning for bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erben, J.; Pilařová, K.; Sanetrník, F.; Chvojka, J.; Jenčová, V.; Blažková, L.; Havlíček, J.; Novák, O.; Mikeš, P.; Prosecká, Eva; Lukáš, D.; Kuželová Kostaková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, mar 15 (2015), s. 172-176 ISSN 0167-577X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : meltblown * electrospinning * tissue engineering * polycaprolactone Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2015

  9. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx.

  10. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2009-0206'' in the ``Keyword'' box. Click ``Search,'' then click on the... ``read comments'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Keyword'' box, insert ``USCG... add definitions that describe the terms ``engine cut-off switch link,'' ``engine cut- off switch...

  11. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  12. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  13. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  14. Extensional Tectonic Regime of Garut Basin based on Magnetotelluric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.162Garut Basin are is part of Bandung-Garut Greater Basin (Bandung Zone characterized by a large basin surrounded by mountain ranges. Active volcanoes had distributed their material as pyroclastic deposits around the outer border of the zone and as lava flow deposit separating the two basins. Bouguer gravity anomaly data had also indicated the presence of several low anomaly closures at about the area of Bandung and Garut Basins that were surrounded by high gravity anomaly zones. Two magnetotelluric surveys were completed to acquire the subsurface model that might explain the tectonic evolution of studied area. The first stage was characterized sby the presence of horst - graben structures that might imply an extensional regime of the area. The next stage of evolutionwas indicated by the horizontal layering correlated to the relative non-active tectonic. In addition, a most recent structure that appeared near the surface might suggest a possible extension force as the current stage.

  15. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  16. Denudation rates and tectonic geomorphology of the Spanish Betic Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, N.; Vanacker, V.; Kubik, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The tectonic control on landscape morphology and long-term denudation is largely documented for settings with high uplift rates. Relatively little is known about the rates of geomorphic response in areas of low tectonic uplift. Here, we evaluate spatial variations in denudation of the Spanish Betic Cordillera based on cosmogenic 10Be-derived denudation rates. Denudation rates are compared to published data on rock uplift and exhumation of the Betic Cordillera to evaluate steady-state topography. The spatial patterns of catchment-wide denudation rates (n=20) are then analysed together with topographic metrics of hillslope and channel morphology. Catchments draining the Betic ranges have relatively low denudation rates (64±54 mm kyr), but also show large variation as they range from 14 to 246 mm kyr-1. Catchment-wide denudation is linearly proportional to the mean hillslope gradient and local relief. Despite large spatial variation in denudation, the magnitude and spatial pattern of denudation rates are generally consistent with longer-term local uplift rates derived from elevated marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. This might be indicative of a steady-state topography where rock uplift is balanced by denudation.

  17. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  18. Traces of warping subsided tectonic blocks on Miranda, Enceladus, Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    Icy satellites of the outer Solar system have very large range of sizes - from kilometers to thousands of kilometers. Bodies less than 400-500 km across have normally irregular shapes , often presenting simple Plato's polyhedrons woven by standing inertiagravity waves (see an accompanying abstract of Kochemasov). Larger bodies with enhanced gravity normally are rounded off and have globular shapes but far from ideal spheres. This is due to warping action of inertia-gravity waves of various wavelengths origin of which is related to body movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations (alternating accelerations cause periodically changing forces acting upon a body what means oscillations of its spheres in form of standing warping waves). The fundamental wave 1 and its first overtone wave 2 produce ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy - two segmental structure and tectonic sectoring superimposed on this dichotomy. Two kinds of tectonic blocks (segments and sectors) are formed: uplifted (+) and subsided (-). Uplifting means increasing planetary radius of blocks, subsiding - decreasing radius (as a sequence subsiding blocks diminishing their surfaces must be warped, folded, wrinkled; uplifting blocks increasing their surfaces tend to be deeply cracked, fallen apart). To level changing angular momenta of blocks subsided areas are filled with denser material than uplifted ones (one of the best examples is Earth with its oceanic basins filled with dense basalts and uplifted continents built of less dense on average andesitic material). Icy satellites follow the same rule. Their warped surfaces show differing chemistries or structures of constructive materials. Uplifted blocks are normally built with light (by color and density) water ice. Subsided blocks - depressions, "seas', "lakes", coronas - by somewhat denser material differing in color from water ice (very sharply - Iapetus, moderately - Europa, slightly - many saturnian satellites). A very

  19. Relocation of earthquakes at southwestern Indian Ocean Ridge and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Zhao, M.; Haridhi, H.; Lee, C. S.; Qiu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a typical ultra-slow spreading ridge (Dick et al., 2003) and further plate boundary where the earthquakes often occurred. Due to the lack of the seismic stations in SWIR, positioning of earthquakes and micro-earthquakes is not accurate. The Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) seismic experiment was carried out for the first time in the SWIR 49 ° 39 'E from Jan. to March, 2010 (Zhao et al., 2013). These deployed OBS also recorded the earthquakes' waveforms during the experiment. Two earthquakes occurred respectively in Feb. 7 and Feb. 9, 2010 with the same magnitude of 4.4 mb. These two earthquakes were relocated using the software HYPOSAT based on the spectrum analysis and band-pass (3-5 Hz) filtering and picking up the travel-times of Pn and Sn. Results of hypocentral determinations show that there location error is decreased significantly by joined OBS's recording data. This study do not only provide the experiences for the next step deploying long-term wide-band OBSs, but also deepen understanding of the structure of SWIR and clarify the nature of plate tectonic motivation. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41176053, 91028002, 91428204). Keywords: southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), relocation of earthquakes, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), HYPOSAT References:[1] Dick, H. J. B., Lin J., Schouten H. 2003. An ultraslow-spreading class of ocean ridge. Nature, 426(6965): 405-412. [2] Zhao M. H., et al. 2013. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39' E). Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 14(10): 4544-4563.

  20. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  1. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  2. Search Engine : an effective tool for exploring the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, W.M. Tharanga Dilruk

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become the largest source of information. Today, millions of Websites exist and this number continuous to grow. Finding the right information at the right time is the challenge in the Internet age. Search engine is searchable database which allows locating the information on the Internet by submitting the keywords. Search engines can be divided into two categories as the Individual and Meta Search engines. This article discusses the features of these search engines in detail.

  3. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    potassium salt deposits occur in the Dongling Lake area. Keywords: Qaidam Basin, Magnetostratigraphy, 230Th dating, Salt lake evolution, Tectonic activity

  4. Tectonic stress history and the relationship with uranium mineralization in Shenchong mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingqiang; Lin Yinshan; Kang Zili

    1996-01-01

    The rejection method of maximum statistical for principal stress axis is applied to complex granite body, this paper divide mining area tectonic process into six epochs. The relationship between the tectonic process and uranium mineralization is also discussed, and the later 3 times fracture process of Diwa epoch control the removing and gathering of Uranium in this area

  5. Dynamic evolution of shear - extensional tectonics in South China and uranium resource exploration strategic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi; Tao Zhijun; Han Qiming

    2012-01-01

    A variety of multi- types, multi-level, multi-era shear - extensional tectonics in south China is developed, the main form of shear-extensional tectonics, and developmental characteristics and metallogenic geodynamic evolution is discovered, and thus uranium resource exploration strategic analysis is conducted

  6. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  7. Mare Orientale: Widely Accepted Large Impact or a Regular Tectonic Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2018-04-01

    Mare Orientale is one of the critical features on Moon surface explaining its tectonics. The impact origin of it is widely accepted, but an attentive examination shows that this large Mare is a part of endogenous tectonic structure, not a random impact.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  9. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  10. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gurneet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Search Engines are an indispensible platform for users all over the globe to search for relevant information online. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the exercise of improving the position of a website in search engine rankings, for a chosen set of keywords. SEO is divided into two parts: On-Page and Off-Page SEO. In order to be successful, both the areas require equal attention. This paper aims to explain the functioning of the search engines along with the role and importance of search e...

  11. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... influencede.g. Miocene deposition and controlled the generation of second order faults. The latter detached along the top Chalk Group due to the topography generated during faulting, i.e. they are second order detachment surfaces. We conclude that the regional tectonic significance of the Cenozoic structures...

  12. Tectonics, hydrothermal zoning, and uranium in the central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabelman, J W

    1961-01-01

    The geological features of the Peruvian Andes are discussed in some detail. The geologic history of the Andrean tectonics was found to be virtually the same as that represented in both North and South American Cordillera. The study indicated that Andrean hydrothermal mineralization occurred intermittently but in close time relation with accompanying deformations from the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary up to the present. The mineralization cycle is discussed as it relates to several metals, particularly uranium. Uranium is believed to occupy the same several temperature--environmental positions in the Andes that it does throughout the rest of the western hemisphere Cordillera. Even though uranium is present in minor quantities in several high-to-moderate-temperature environments, the bulk of uranium present in the cycle is believed to precipitate in the subepithermal environment.

  13. Quaternary tectonics of recent basins in northwestern Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Shalaeva, E. A.; Saakyan, L. Kh.; Bachmanov, D. M.; Lebedev, V. A.; Trikhunkov, Ya. I.; Simakova, A. N.; Avagyan, A. V.; Tesakov, A. S.; Frolov, P. D.; Lyubin, V. P.; Belyaeva, E. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Ozherelyev, D. V.; Kolesnichenko, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    New data on the stratigraphy, faults, and formation history of lower to middle Pleistocene rocks in Late Cenozoic basins of northwestern Armenia are presented. It has been established that the low-mountain topography created by tectonic movements and volcanic activity existed in the region by the onset of the Pleistocene. The manifestations of two geodynamic structure-forming factors became clear in Pleistocene: (i) collisional interaction of plates due to near-meridional compression and (ii) deep tectogenesis and magma formation expressed in the distribution of vertical movements and volcanism. The general uplift of the territory, which was also related to deep processes, reached 350-500 m in basins and 600-800 m in mountain ranges over the last 0.5 Ma. The early Pleistocene ( 1.8 Ma) low- and medium-mountain topography has been reconstructed by subtraction of the latest deformations and uplift of the territory. Ancient human ancestry appeared at that time.

  14. Radon soil increases before volcano-tectonic earthquakes in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, G.; Serna, D.; Diago, J.; Moran, C.

    2003-01-01

    Continuous studies of radon concentration changes in soils for the purpose of earthquake monitoring have been carried out in three colombian districts and in the edifices of Galeras and nevado del Ruiz volcanoes since 1995. In zones of active faulting have been measured radon soil emissions between 1000 and 2500 pCi/L. In an intersection of two active geological faults have been measured levels of 25 000 pCi/L. In the present work appears a compilation of examples of the registered anomalous radon emissions in several stations before earthquakes of tectonic character. Examples of registered radon increases before: (1) events of magnitudes between 2 and 4; (2) the occurrence of seismic swarms; and (3) the Quindio (Colombia) earthquake (M w = 6, 2) of January 1999, are described. A model of transport mechanism for the studied isotopes is presented. (orig.)

  15. The evolution of Tharsis: Implications of gravity, topography, and tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerdt, W.B.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dominating the Western Hemisphere of Mars, the Tharsis rise is an elongate area centered on Syria Planum that ascends as much as 8 to 10 km above the datum. It is intensely fractured by long, narrow grabens that extend radially hundreds of kilometers beyond the rise and is ringed by mostly concentric wrinkle ridges that formed over 2,000 km from the center of the rise. Its size, involving a full hemisphere of Mars, gives it a central role in the thermo-tectonic evolution of the planet and has stimulated a number of studies attempting to determine the sequence of events responsible for this feature. The constraints that gravity and topography data place on the current structure of Tharsis, along with insights into its development derived from comparisons of detailed regional mapping of faulting with theoretical deformation models are reviewed. Finally, a self-consistent model for the structure of Tharsis is proposed

  16. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  17. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  18. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  19. Tectonics of Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Tests for Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Phillips, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of Lakshmi Planum and its surrounding mountain belts remains an important unresolved element in the global tectonic framework of Venus. From the perspective of gravity signature and potential driving forces, the mantle upwelling model is the simplest and its principal failure, that it cannot produce radial shortening on the uplift periphery, may be resolved if the lithosphere is laterally heterogeneous. The preferred model consists of a hot mantle plume rising beneath a pre-existing block of tessera. The lithosphere is weakened at this hotter and presumably thicker crust, and the outward near-surface flow is attenuated at the peripheral discontinuity in lithospheric strength. Crustal thickening and mountain belt formation occur there. The authors propose several criteria to test this tessera-plume model together with its competitors at the higher resolution in both imaging and gravity afforded by the Magellan mission

  20. The Paranagua Batholith: proposition, age, petrogenetic considerations and tectonics implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.; Reis Neto, J.M. dos

    1990-01-01

    The Paranagua Batholith comprises the major portion of the Costeiro Domain which is one of the three internal tectonic unities of the Joinville Massif in the southern Brazil (Mantiqueira Province). U-Pb in zircon (614 ± 10 Ma) and Rb-Sr whole rock isochron (543 ± 21 Ma) data are interpreted respectively as ages of the mineral crystallization and granitoid emplacement for the main igneous phase of the Paranagua Batholith. Sr, Pb and Nd analyses carried on this coarse biotite-microcline granitoid reveals its crustal melt origin with a source in the lower crust. It is here proposed the association of this Costeiro Domain (Parana), the Costeiro Complex (Sao Paulo) and Brusque Belt (or Tijucas Belt, Santa Catarina) as parts of the same collisional structure of the southern region of South America. (author)

  1. Scaling of Convection and Plate Tectonics in Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, D. C.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of three Super-Earths around different stars, possible only in the last year, prompts us to study the characteristics of our planet within a general context. The Earth, being the most massive terrestrial object in the solar system is the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics. We think this might not be a coincidence and explore the role that mass plays in determining the mode of convection. We use the scaling of convective vigor with Rayleigh number commonly used in parameterized convection. We study how the parameters controlling convection: Rayleigh number (Ra), boundary layer thickness (δ), internal temperature (T_i) and convective velocities (u) scale with mass. This is possible from the scaling of heat flux, mantle density, size and gravity with mass which we reported in Valencia, et. al 2006. The extrapolation to massive rocky planets is done from our knowledge of the Earth. Even though uncertainties arise from extrapolation and assumptions are needed we consider this simple scaling to be a first adequate step. As the mass of a planet increases, Ra increases, yielding a decrease in δ and an increase in u, while T_i increases very slightly. This is true for an isoviscous case and is more accentuated in a temperature dependent viscosity scenario. In a planet with vigorous convection (high u), a thin lithosphere (low δ) is easier to subduct and hence, initiate plate tectonics. The lithosphere also has to be dense enough (cold and thick) to have the bouyancy necessary for subduction. We calculate that a convective cycle for an isoviscous planet is τ ~ M^{-0.3} considering whole mantle convection. Meaning that if these planets have continents, the timescale for continental rearrangement is shorter (about half the Earth's for a 5 earth-mass planet). Additionally, we explore the negative feedback cycle between convection and temperature dependent viscosity and estimate a timescale for this effect.

  2. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  3. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  4. APPLICABILITY OF SIMILARITY CONDITIONS TO ANALOGUE MODELLING OF TECTONIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Goncharov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at comparing concepts of V.V. Belousov and M.V. Gzovsky, outstanding researchers who established fundamentals of tectonophysics in Russia, specifically similarity conditions in application to tectonophysical modeling. Quotations from their publications illustrate differences in their views. In this respect, we can reckon V.V. Belousov as a «realist» as he supported «the liberal point of view» [Methods of modelling…, 1988, p. 21–22], whereas M.V. Gzovsky can be regarded as an «idealist» as he believed that similarity conditions should be mandatorily applied to ensure correctness of physical modeling of tectonic deformations and structures [Gzovsky, 1975, pp. 88 and 94].Objectives of the present publication are (1 to be another reminder about desirability of compliance with similarity conditions in experimental tectonics; (2 to point out difficulties in ensuring such compliance; (3 to give examples which bring out the fact that similarity conditions are often met per se, i.e. automatically observed; (4 to show that modeling can be simplified in some cases without compromising quantitative estimations of parameters of structure formation.(1 Physical modelling of tectonic deformations and structures should be conducted, if possible, in compliance with conditions of geometric and physical similarity between experimental models and corresponding natural objects. In any case, a researcher should have a clear vision of conditions applicable to each particular experiment.(2 Application of similarity conditions is often challenging due to unavoidable difficulties caused by the following: a Imperfection of experimental equipment and technologies (Fig. 1 to 3; b uncertainties in estimating parameters of formation of natural structures, including main ones: structure size (Fig. 4, time of formation (Fig. 5, deformation properties of the medium wherein such structures are formed, including, first of all, viscosity (Fig. 6

  5. Magmatism and underplating, a broadband seismic perspective on the Proterozoic tectonics of the Great Falls and Snowbird Tectonic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Dokht, R.; Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal and lithospheric structures beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and northern Montana contain vital records of the Precambrian tectonic development of Laurentia. In this study, we analyze the broadband seismic data recorded by the USArray and the most complete set of regional seismic networks to date near the WCSB. We adopt an integrated approach to investigate crustal structure and history, based primarily on P-to-S receiver functions but incorporate results from noise correlation functions, finite-frequency tomography and potential field measurements. In comparison with existing regional and global models, our stacked receiver functions show considerable improvements in the resolution of both Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. We identify major variations in Moho depth from the WCSB to the adjacent Cordillera. The Moho deepens steeply from 40 km in the Alberta basin to 50 km beneath the foothills, following Airy isostasy, but thermal buoyancy may be responsible for a flat, shallow ( 35 km) Moho to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. The Moho depth also increases sharply near the Snowbird Tectonic Zone (STZ), which is consistent with earlier findings from active-source data. Multiple lower crustal phases, a high velocity shallow mantle and elevated Vp/Vs ratios along the westernmost STZ jointly suggest major Proterozoic subduction and magmatism along this collisional boundary. In northern Montana, the Moho deepens along the Great Falls Tectonic Zone (GFTZ), a proposed Proterozoic suture between the Medicine Hat Block and Wyoming craton. This transition occurs near the Little Belt Mountain, which is located south of the Great Falls Shear Zone, an extensive northeast striking fault system characterized by strong potential field gradients. Similar to the STZ, our receiver functions offer new evidence for Proterozoic underplating in the vicinity of the GFTZ. In view of similar rock ages near the collisional boundaries in all parts of northern

  6. Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand Earth's present tectonic style–plate tectonics–and how it may have evolved from single plate (stagnant lid tectonics, it is instructive to consider how common it is among similar bodies in the Solar System. Plate tectonics is a style of convection for an active planetoid where lid fragment (plate motions reflect sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones, causing upwelling of asthenosphere at divergent plate boundaries and accompanied by focused upwellings, or mantle plumes; any other tectonic style is usefully called “stagnant lid” or “fragmented lid”. In 2015 humanity completed a 50+ year effort to survey the 30 largest planets, asteroids, satellites, and inner Kuiper Belt objects, which we informally call “planetoids” and use especially images of these bodies to infer their tectonic activity. The four largest planetoids are enveloped in gas and ice (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are not considered. The other 26 planetoids range in mass over 5 orders of magnitude and in diameter over 2 orders of magnitude, from massive Earth down to tiny Proteus; these bodies also range widely in density, from 1000 to 5500 kg/m3. A gap separates 8 silicate planetoids with ρ = 3000 kg/m3 or greater from 20 icy planetoids (including the gaseous and icy giant planets with ρ = 2200 kg/m3 or less. We define the “Tectonic Activity Index” (TAI, scoring each body from 0 to 3 based on evidence for recent volcanism, deformation, and resurfacing (inferred from impact crater density. Nine planetoids with TAI = 2 or greater are interpreted to be tectonically and convectively active whereas 17 with TAI <2 are inferred to be tectonically dead. We further infer that active planetoids have lithospheres or icy shells overlying asthenosphere or water/weak ice. TAI of silicate (rocky planetoids positively correlates with their inferred Rayleigh number. We conclude that some type of stagnant lid tectonics is

  7. The use of damaged speleothems and in situ fault displacement monitoring to characterise active tectonic structures: an ex¬ample from Západní Cave, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briestenský, Miloš; Stemberk, Josef; Rowberry, Matthew David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2014), s. 129-138 ISSN 0583-6050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/05/2770; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : active tectonics * speleothem damage * fault displacement * stress field * Lusatian Thrust Zone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2014

  8. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  9. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  10. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  11. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  12. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  13. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  14. How Does the Keyword Method Affect Vocabulary Comprehension and Usage? Report from the project on Studies in Language: Reading and Communication. Working Paper No. 278.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to determine how the keyword method of vocabulary instruction affects both subjects' comprehension of words encountered in sentences (experiments 1 and 2), and their ability to use words in appropriate sentences (experiments 3 and 4). In the first two experiments, college students were presented sentences containing…

  15. New trends in spinal cord tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-145 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomaterial * cell therapy * regenerative medicine * spinal cord injury * stem cells scaffold * tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  16. Practical Engineering Aspects of Catalysis in Microreactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křišťál, Jiří; Stavárek, Petr; Vajglová, Zuzana; Vondráčková, Magdalena; Pavlorková, Jana; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9357-9371 ISSN 0922-6168. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Castle Trest, 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * homogeneous catalysis * photo catalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  17. Recent Approaches in Tooth Engineering Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švandová, Eva; Veselá, Barbora; Křivánek, J.; Hampl, A.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, Suppl 1 (2014), s. 21-29 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418; GA MZd(CZ) NT11420 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : engineering * tooth * stem cells * culture techniques Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  18. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  19. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  20. Extensional tectonics on continents and the transport of heat and matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Intracontinental zones of extensional tectonic style are commonly of finite width and length. Associated sedimentary troughs are fault-controlled. The evolution of those structures is accompanied by volcanic activity of variable intensity. The characteristic surface structures are usually underlaid by a lower crust of the transitional type while deeper subcustal areas show delayed travel times of seismic waves especially at young tectonic provinces. A correspondence between deep-seated processes and zones of continental extension appears obvious. A sequential order of mechanisms and their importance are discussed in the light of modern data compilations and quantitative kinematic and dynamic approaches. The Cenozoic exensional tectonics related with the Rhine River are discussed.

  1. Quantitative analysis of the tectonic subsidence in the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliana A. G.; de Castro, David L.; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The Potiguar Basin, located in the Brazilian Equatorial Margin, evolved from a complex rifting process implemented during the Atlantic Ocean opening in the Jurassic/Cretaceous. Different driving mechanisms were responsible for the onset of an aborted onshore rift and an offshore rift that initiated crustal rupture and the formation of a continental transform margin. Therefore, we applied the backstripping method to quantify the tectonic subsidence during the rift and post-rift phases of Potiguar Basin formation and to analyze the spatial variation of subsidence during the two successive and distinct tectonic events responsible for the basin evolution. The parameters required to apply this methodology were extracted from 2D seismic lines and exploratory well data. The tectonic subsidence curves present periods with moderate subsidence rates (up to 300 m/My), which correspond to the evolution of the onshore Potiguar Rift (∼141 to 128 Ma). From 128-118 Ma, the tectonic subsidence curves show no subsidence in the onshore Potiguar Basin, whereas subsidence occurred at high rates (over 300 m/My) in the offshore rift. The post-rift phase began ca. 118 Ma (Aptian), when the tectonic subsidence drastically slowed to less than 35 m/My, probably related to thermal relaxation. The tectonic subsidence rates in the various sectors of the Potiguar Rift, during the different rift phases, indicate that more intense faulting occurred in the southern portion of the onshore rift, along the main border faults, and in the southeastern portion of the offshore rift. During the post-rift phase, the tectonic subsidence rates increased from the onshore portion towards the offshore portion until the continental slope. The highest rates of post-rift subsidence (up to 35 m/My) are concentrated in the central region of the offshore portion and may be related to lithospheric processes related to the continental crust rupture and oceanic seafloor spreading. The variation in subsidence rates and

  2. Extrusive and Intrusive Magmatism Greatly Influence the Tectonic Mode of Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, D.; Tackley, P. J.; Rozel, A.; Ballmer, M.

    2017-09-01

    Plate tectonics on Earth-like planets is typically modelling using a strongly temperature-dependent visco-plastic rheology. Previous analyses have generally focussed on purely thermal convection. However, we have shown that the influence of compositional heterogeneity in the form of continental or oceanic crust can greatly influence plate tectonics by making it easier (i.e. it occurs at a lower yield stress or friction coefficient). Here we present detailed results on this topic, in particular focussing on the influence of intrusive vs. extrusive magmatism on the tectonic mode.

  3. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed

  4. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  5. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  6. Score Normalization for Keyword Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    oluşabilir. Mevcut ASA sistemlerinin çoğu otomatik konuşma tanıma (OKT) çıktılarına metin geri This study uses the IARPA Babel Program base period...belirli sayıda tekrar etmesini gerektiren döngü yapıları eklenir. Örneğin, Şekil 1’de gösterilen “Ali” sorgusu- nun ASDD’si için bulunan eşleşmede...2012. [5] M. Saraclar, A. Sethy, B. Ramabhadran, L. Mangu, J. Cui, X. Cui, B. Kingsbury, and J. Mamou, “An empirical study of confusion mod- eling

  7. research article Abstract Keywords Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.jsaa.ac.za. Listen, live and learn: A review of the application process, aiming to enhance diversity within the Listen, Live and Learn senior student housing initiative at Stellenbosch University. Mathew Smorenburg* and Munita Dunn** research article. * Coordinator: Listen, Live and Learn, Stellenbosch University, ...

  8. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    hypothesized to be a causal relationship, with the PKT terrain reducing the thickness of the lithosphere and permitting preferential dike emplacement and extrusion there. We speculate that high-Ti and olivine-rich composition in late stage basalts may be consistent with low Si and high Ti and low degrees of partial melting. Large numbers of sinuous rilles and small ridges are identified and mapped. Many young ridges were found inside Imbrium, suggesting a very extended period (at least as young as the last 50 Ma) of the Moon's tectonic activity. The distinct compositions of both highlands and mare basalts and extended tectonism emphasize how the Imbrium basin is an important area for understanding the Moon.

  9. Miocene shale tectonics in the Moroccan margin (Alboran Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Couto, D.; El Abbassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Gorini, C.; Estrada, F.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; Jolivet, L.; Jabour, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Betic (Southern Spain) and Rif (Morocco) mountains form an arcuate belt that represents the westernmost termination of the peri-mediterranean Alpine mountain chain. The Miocene Alboran Basin and its subbasins is located in the hinterland of the Betic-Rif belt. It is considered to be a back-arc basin that developed during the coeval westward motion of the Alboran domain and the extensional collapse of previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) is the major sedimentary depocenter with a sediment thickness in excess of 10 km, it is bordered by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge. Part of the WAB is affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2D seismic profiles acquired on the Moroccan margin of the Alboran Basin during the last decade reveal the multiple history of the basin. This study deals with the analysis of a number of these seismic profiles that are located along and orthogonal to the Moroccan margin. Seismic stratigraphy is calibrated from industrial wells. We focus on the interactions between the gravity-driven tectonic processes and the sedimentation in the basin. Our seismic interpretation confirms that the formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). The fast subsidence of the basin floor coeval to massive sedimentation induced the undercompaction of early miocene shales during their deposition. Downslope migration of these fine-grained sediments initiated during the deposition of the Langhian siliciclastics. This gravity-driven system was accompanied by continuous basement subsidence and induced disharmonic deformation in Mid Miocene units (i.e. not related to basement deformation). The development of shale-cored anticlines and thrusts in the deep basin is the result of compressive deformation at the front of the gravity-driven system and lasted for ca. 15 Ma. The compressive front has been re-activated by strong

  10. From tectonics to tractors: New insight into Earth's changing surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    Weathering and erosion of rock and the transport of sediment continually modify Earth's surface. The transformation and transfer of material by both natural and anthropogenic processes drives global cycles and influences the habitability of our planet. By quantitatively linking erosional and depositional landforms to the processes that form them, we better understand how Earth's surface will evolve in the future, and gain the ability to look into the past to recognize how planetary surfaces evolved when environments were drastically different than today. Many of the recent advances in our understanding of the processes that influence landscape evolution have been driven by the development and application of tools such as cosmogenic nuclides, computational models, and digital topographic data. Here I present results gleaned from applying these tools to a diverse set of landscapes, where erosion is driven by factors ranging from tectonics to tractors, to provide insight into the mechanics, chemistry, and history of Earth's changing surface. I will first examine the landslide response of hillslopes in the Himalaya to spatial gradients in tectonic forcing to assess the paradigm of threshold hillslopes. Second, I will present soil production and chemical weathering rates measured in the Southern Alps of New Zealand to determine the relationship between physical erosion and chemical weathering in one of Earth's most rapidly uplifting landscapes, and discuss the implications for proposed links between mountain uplift and global climate. Third, I will discuss results from numerical flood simulations used to explore the interplay between outburst flood hydraulics and canyon incision in the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington, and explore the implications for reconstructing discharge in flood-carved canyons on Earth and Mars. Finally, I will present new work that couples high resolution spectral and topographic data to estimate the spatial extent of agriculturally

  11. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  12. Designing an Earthquake-Proof Art Museum: An Arts- and Engineering-Integrated Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Anastasia; Hussain, Mahjabeen

    2016-01-01

    In this practical arts-integrated science and engineering lesson, an inquiry-based approach was adopted to teach a class of fourth graders in a Midwest elementary school about the scientific concepts of plate tectonics and earthquakes. Lessons were prepared following the 5 E instructional model. Next Generation Science Standards (4-ESS3-2) and the…

  13. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  14. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  15. Water isotopes and the Eocene. A tectonic sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrande, A. N.; Roberts, C. D.; Tripati, A.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    The early Eocene (54 Million years ago) is one of the warmest periods in the last 65 Million years. Its climate is postulated to have been the result of enhanced greenhouse gas concentration, with CO2 roughly 4 times pre-industrial and methane 7 times pre-industrial concentrations. One interesting feature of this period to emerge recently is the intermittent presence of fossilized Azolla, a type of freshwater fern, in the Arctic Ocean. Synchronous (within dating error) with this appearance were major changes in the restriction of the Arctic Ocean and the other global oceans. We investigate this time period using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE-R, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model that incorporates water isotopes throughout the hydrologic cycle, making it an ideal model to test hypotheses of past climate change and to compare to paleoclimate proxy data. We assess the impact of tectonic variability by using minimal and maximal levels of restriction for the Arctic Ocean seaways. We find that the modulation of connectivity of these basins dramatically alters global salinity distribution, leading to large changes in ocean circulation. Greater restriction of the Arctic Basin is associated with fresh and relatively warmer conditions. The same mechanisms responsible for this redistribution of salt also change the global distribution of water isotopes, and can alias (water isotope) proxy climate signals of warmth.

  16. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  17. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  18. Generalized statistical mechanics approaches to earthquakes and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Michas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extreme complexity that characterizes the mechanism of the earthquake generation process, simple empirical scaling relations apply to the collective properties of earthquakes and faults in a variety of tectonic environments and scales. The physical characterization of those properties and the scaling relations that describe them attract a wide scientific interest and are incorporated in the probabilistic forecasting of seismicity in local, regional and planetary scales. Considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the statistical mechanics of earthquakes, which, based on the principle of entropy, can provide a physical rationale to the macroscopic properties frequently observed. The scale-invariant properties, the (multi) fractal structures and the long-range interactions that have been found to characterize fault and earthquake populations have recently led to the consideration of non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM) as a consistent statistical mechanics framework for the description of seismicity. The consistency between NESM and observations has been demonstrated in a series of publications on seismicity, faulting, rock physics and other fields of geosciences. The aim of this review is to present in a concise manner the fundamental macroscopic properties of earthquakes and faulting and how these can be derived by using the notions of statistical mechanics and NESM, providing further insights into earthquake physics and fault growth processes. PMID:28119548

  19. Post-Eocene tectonics of the Central Taurus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün AKAY

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available In post-Eocene time, the Central Taurus mountains have been subjected to four episodes of compression in probably Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene, Langhian, Upper Tortonian, and Upper Pliocene to recent times. In the Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene compressional period, Ecemiş, and Beyşehir conjugate faults which have both vertical and lateral components have been formed after an N - S compression. In the Langhian compression period, the Lycian nappes were emplaced from the NW to SE and this tectonic movement has also effected the Antalya and the Adana Miocene basins. In the Upper Tortonian compression period, firstly a WSW-ENE compression has resulted in the formation of Aksu thrust, Kırkkavak oblique reverse fault, Köprüçay syncline, Beşkonak anticline, Radyoring anticline, Taşağıl syncline and Kargı reverse faults. In this period a later phase of N — S compression has formed Çakallar folds, Gökçeler normal fault, the smooth anticline in Mut Karaman and the syncline in Ulukışla. In the latest compressional period from Upper Pliocene to recent, first on E — W compression which can be recognized by some mesoscopic faults has been developed and later a N — S compression resulted in the formation of the active faults on Ecemiş and Gökçeler faults, and the Antalya bay graben.

  20. Tectonic control of erosion in the southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Pedro; Venerdini, Agostina L.; Ouimet, William; Alvarado, Patricia; Hoke, Gregory D.

    2018-01-01

    Landscape evolution modeling and global compilations of exhumation data indicate that a wetter climate, mainly through orographic rainfall, can govern the spatial distribution of erosion rates and crustal strain across an orogenic wedge. However, detecting this link is not straightforward since these relationships can be modulated by tectonic forcing and/or obscured by heavy-tailed frequencies of catchment discharge. This study combines new and published along-strike average rates of catchment erosion constrained by 10Be and river-gauge data in the Central Andes between 28°S and 36°S. These data reveal a nearly identical latitudinal pattern in erosion rates on both sides of the range, reaching a maximum of 0.27 mm/a near 34°S. Collectively, data on topographic and fluvial relief, variability of rainfall and discharge, and crustal seismicity suggest that the along-strike pattern of erosion rates in the southern Central Andes is largely independent of climate, but closely relates to the N-S distribution of shallow crustal seismicity and diachronous surface uplift. The consistently high erosion rates on either side of the orogen near 34°S imply that climate plays a secondary role in the mass flux through an orogenic wedge where the perturbation to base level is similar on both sides.