WorldWideScience

Sample records for key factors controlling

  1. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  2. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  4. Clusters Regarding Key Factors Affecting Changes in Accounting, Finance, Administration and Management Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gabriela Blidisel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, important changes have occurred in public governance, which has evolved in this time from hierarchical bureaucracy to participatory governance, where the role of citizens in public decision-making process is more direct. There were performed reforms in finance, management administration and finances of public sector. Starting from the factors that influenced during the history the accounting, finances, administration and management control, we want to test the factors that affect the changes of these elements in Romanian environment.

  5. Lake variability: Key factors controlling mercury concentrations in New York State fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, Howard A.; Loukmas, Jefferey J.; Skinner, Lawrence C.; Roy, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    A 4 year study surveyed 131 lakes across New York State beginning in 2003 to improve our understanding of mercury and gather information from previously untested waters. Our study focused on largemouth and smallmouth bass, walleye and yellow perch, common piscivorous fish shown to accumulate high mercury concentrations and species important to local fisheries. Fish from Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve lakes generally had higher mercury concentrations than those from lakes in other areas of the state. Variability between nearby individual lakes was observed, and could be due to differences in water chemistry, lake productivity or the abundance of wetlands in the watershed. We found the following factors impact mercury bioaccumulation: fish length, lake pH, specific conductivity, chlorophyll a, mercury concentration in the water, presence of an outlet dam and amount of contiguous wetlands. - Lake water chemistry variables, dams, and wetlands play major roles in determining fish mercury concentrations

  6. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  7. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  8. Tight glycaemic control is a key factor in wound healing enhancement strategies in an experimental diabetes mellitus model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, J B

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of impaired wound healing. The aim of this study was to establish a glucose-controlled diabetic wound healing model. METHOD: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control group (C), Diabetic Non-glucose Controlled group (DNC) and Diabetic glucose Controlled group (DC). RESULTS: Glucose control was achieved using Insulman Rapid (average daily glucose level <10 mmol\\/L). 18 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a dorsal skin wound incision and 10 days later were killed. Fresh and fixed wound tensile strength, hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor beta-1 levels were improved in the DC group when compared to the DNC group. The quantity of fibroblasts present was similar in each group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the impact that diabetes has on acute wound healing and suggests that wound modulating agents must be tested in both the tightly glucose-controlled as well as the poorly glucose-controlled diabetic animal models prior to proceeding with translational clinical studies.

  9. Identification of key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration in the sluice-controlled river reaches of the Shaying River in China via statistical analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Zuo, Qiting; Mi, Qingbin

    2015-08-01

    The construction of sluices creates a strong disturbance in water environmental factors within a river. The change in water pollutant concentrations of sluice-controlled river reaches (SCRRs) is more complex than that of natural river segments. To determine the key factors affecting water pollutant concentration changes in SCRRs, river reaches near the Huaidian Sluice in the Shaying River of China were selected as a case study, and water quality monitoring experiments based on different regulating modes were implemented in 2009 and 2010. To identify the key factors affecting the change rates for the chemical oxygen demand of permanganate (CODMn) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations in the SCRRs of the Huaidian Sluice, partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis and principal factor analysis were used. The results indicate four factors, i.e., the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, water pollutant concentration from upper reaches, and turbidity before the sluice, which are the common key factors for the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen before a sluice is a key factor for the permanganate concentration from CODMn change rate, and the water depth before a sluice is a key factor for the NH3-N concentration change rate. Multiple linear regressions between the water pollutant concentration change rate and key factors were established via multiple linear regression analyses, and the quantitative relationship between the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates and key affecting factors was analyzed. Finally, the mechanism of action for the key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration changes was analyzed. The results reveal that the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, permanganate concentration from CODMn from upper reaches and dissolved oxygen before the sluice have a negative influence and the turbidity before the sluice has a positive

  10. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  11. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  12. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-04

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Key Success Factors in Medical Tourism Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    The planners in tourism businesses and medical institutes, the evaluation criteria and dimensions for Medical Tourism Marketing are determined by experts through expert interviews. The weights and correlations among the dimensions and criteria are determined by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to construct an evaluating indicator model suitable for Medical Tourism Marketing. By organizing the overall weight of the key success factors in Medical Tourism Marketing, the top five indicators conta...

  14. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age, using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members, not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help

  15. KEY FACTORS IN MARKETING FOCUSED SERVICES BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Yohanna Martínez Castrillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the key success factors in the marketing area and describe them as managerial allies for companies that wish to position themselves in the market under a good sustainable performance , for it has been consulted theoretical references of Marketing as a management partner with collection and integration of data. Methodologically, it is located within the type of descriptive research field, with a design of transactional non-experimental, with an intentional non-probabilistic stratified sample of four reporting units. The findings established fifteen (15 points of influence called "key success factors (FCE in the area of marketing, and managerial allies of service companies in the security, surveillance and protection sector in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Finally, it is intended that the actions of marketing service companies should focus to the welfare of both the organization, such as users, both in the environment, and economic, social and technological, characterized by ethics, sustainable development and transparency to respond appropriately.

  16. BENCHMARKING - PRACTICAL TOOLS IDENTIFY KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ju. Malinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a practical example of the application of benchmarking techniques. The object of study selected fashion store Company «HLB & M Hennes & Mauritz», located in the shopping center «Gallery», Krasnodar. Hennes & Mauritz. The purpose of this article is to identify the best ways to develop a fashionable brand clothing store Hennes & Mauritz on the basis of benchmarking techniques. On the basis of conducted market research is a comparative analysis of the data from different perspectives. The result of the author’s study is a generalization of the ndings, the development of the key success factors that will allow to plan a successful trading activities in the future, based on the best experience of competitors.

  17. KEY PERFORMING FACTORS OF LEADING ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial economic ratios provides managers and external partners feedback on the results obtained from operational activities and the associated performance and risks. This paper studies the functional dependence of the companies’ success (on performance over internal financial management elements. The research was carried out for the most traded non-financial securities Bucharest listed companies and covers the period 2011- 2013. To carry out its purpose it analyzed the interdependence between the key financial ratios, studying the impact of liquidity ratios, solvency and efficiency on profitability. The study provides empirical evidences to identify factors that have ensured the performance of companies and their ranking in the segment of the most traded companies in Romania. Results suggest the view that the source of company success on the capital market lies in the positive signals sent to investors regarding profitability and the low risk of solvency. This study gives additional information for managerial decision-making in order to create more value and a better positioning of the companies in the market

  18. Key factors of enterprise innovation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugina Maryna Anatoliivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the studies of factors and conditions that define enterprise innovative activity. It is distinguished factors that influence the orientation on innovation of a company and factors that influence the innovation ability. It is noted an interdependence between innovative ability, orientation and activity. The article is also dedicated to analyses of influence specific industry characteristics and inner view of enterprise. It is discussed the influence of such factors as knowledge base, the organizational learning mechanisms, an external openness and the structure of innovative connections on the company opportunities to innovate. It is tried to focus on the impact of the environment on enterprise capabilities.

  19. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  20. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2010-09-09

    The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  1. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2 domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  2. Key Success Factors in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Adamala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence can bring critical capabilities to an organization, but the implementation of such capabilities is often plagued with problems. Why is it that certain projects fail, while others succeed? The aim of this article is to identify the factors that are present in successful Business Intelligence projects and to organize them into a framework of critical success factors. A survey was conducted during the spring of 2011 to collect primary data on Business Intelligence projects. Findings confirm that Business Intelligence projects are wrestling with both technological and non-technological problems, but the non-technological problems are found to be harder to solve as well as more time consuming than their counterparts. The study also shows that critical success factors for Business Intelligence projects are different from success factors for Information Systems projects in general. Business Intelligences projects have critical success factors that are unique to the subject matter. Major differences can be found primarily among non-technological factors, such as the presence of a specific business need and a clear vision to guide the project. Success depends on types of project funding, the business value provided by each iteration in the project and the alignment of the project to a strategic vision for Business Intelligence at large. Furthermore, the study provides a framework for critical success factors that, explains sixty-one percent of variability of success for projects. Areas which should be given special attention include making sure that the Business Intelligence solution is built with the end users in mind, that the Business Intelligence solution is closely tied to the company’s strategic vision and that the project is properly scoped and prioritized to concentrate on the best opportunities first.

  3. Personality, a key factor in personalized medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Beek, Andre P.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of health problems resulting from obesity is growing and obesity and its related diseases has become one of the main causes in death in industrialized societies. Environmental influences are crucial for the interactions between genetic, neurohormonal and metabolic factors that may be

  4. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  5. Key factors in successful green roof training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, H.; Ansel, W.

    2004-01-01

    The green roof market in Germany has increased significantly in the past 3 decades, reaching a market share of 11 to 14 per cent. Three factors were responsible for the success of the green roof movement in Germany, namely the early introduction of quality standards and guidelines; the scientific investigation of ecological and economic benefits and the development of innovative and reliable technologies. In addition, seminars and workshops targeted at relevant groups encouraged green roof construction. Training courses and seminars proved to be efficient communication tools with the advantage of direct feedback from the participants to address sophisticated green roof problems and to integrate current ecological and economic frameworks. The content of the courses were tailored to the specific needs of the participants. In addition, organizers had considerable knowledge of green roof technology and related disciplines. The green roof guidelines in Germany are based on a range of scientific studies from universities, technical colleges and regional research institutions. These studies explored the technical performance of different green roof constructions and the ecological benefits for people and the environment. The market development in Germany is backed by the development of a wide range of innovative technologies which offer solutions for nearly all green roof issues, such as landscaping of sloped, barrel shaped roofs with low load bearing capacities. The German company ZinCo offers the international market a range of well tested and proven green roof systems for intensive and extensive roofs. Their flexible modular products can be adapted to the needs of different roof constructions and to locally specific climatic conditions. 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. Key factors influencing the implementation success of home telecare application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, T.R.F.; Peeters, J.M.; Friele, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The introduction of home telecare in healthcare organizations has shown mixed results in practice. The aim of this study is to arrive at a set of key factors that can be used in further implementation of video communication. We argue that key factors are mainly found in the organizational

  7. EG-VEGF: a key endocrine factor in placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also named prokineticin 1, is the canonical member of the prokineticin family. Numerous reports suggest a direct involvement of this peptide in normal and pathological reproductive processes. Recent advances propose EG-VEGF as a key endocrine factor that controls many aspects of placental development and suggest its involvement in the development of preeclampsia (PE), the most threatening pathology of human pregnancy. This review describes the finely tuned action and regulation of EG-VEGF throughout human pregnancy, argues for its clinical relevance as a potential diagnostic marker of the onset of PE, and discusses future research directions for therapeutic targeting of EG-VEGF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Model of key success factors for Business Intelligence implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mesaros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New progressive technologies recorded growth in every area. Information-communication technologies facilitate the exchange of information and it facilitates management of everyday activities in enterprises. Specific modules (such as Business Intelligence facilitate decision-making. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of Business Intelligence to decision-making. The first step is to put in place the enterprise. The implementation process is influenced by many factors. This article discusses the issue of key success factors affecting to successful implementation of Business Intelligence. The article describes the key success factors for successful implementation and use of Business Intelligence based on multiple studies. The main objective of this study is to verify the effects and dependence of selected factors and proposes a model of key success factors for successful implementation of Business Intelligence. Key success factors and the proposed model are studied in Slovak enterprises.

  9. The concept of key success factors: Theory and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Ellegaard, Charlotte

    1992-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. The term key success factors can be used in four different ways: a) as a necessary ingre-dient in a management information system, b) as a unique characteristic of a company, c) as a heuristic tool for managers to sharpen their thinking, d) as a description of the major skills...... and resources required to be successful in a given market. We adopt the last view. 2. The actual key success factors on a market, and those key success factors perceived by decision-makers in companies operating in the market, will be different. A number of psychological mechanisms result in misperceptions...... or resource that a business can i in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. 4. Key success factors differ from core skills and resources, which are prerequisites for being on a market, but do not explain...

  10. Analysis of Key Factors Driving Japan’s Military Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    no change to our policy of not giving in to terrorism.”40 Though the prime minister was democratically supported, Koizumi’s leadership style took...of the key driving factors of Japan’s normalization. The areas of prime ministerial leadership , regional security threats, alliance issues, and...analysis of the key driving factors of Japan’s normalization. The areas of prime ministerial leadership , regional security threats, alliance issues, and

  11. Control of nuclear material hold-up: The key factors for design and operation of MOX fuel fabrication plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, M.; Beckers, J.; Boella, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Some protagonists of the nuclear industry suggest that MOX fuel fabrication plants are awash with nuclear materials which cannot be adequately safeguarded and that materials 'stuck in the plant' could conceal clandestine diversion of plutonium. In Europe the real situation is quite different: nuclear operators have gone to considerable efforts to deploy effective systems for safety, security, quality and nuclear materials control and accountancy which provide detailed information. The safeguards authorities use this information as part of the safeguards measures enabling them to give safeguards assurances for MOX fuel fabrication plants. This paper focuses on the issue of hold-up: definition of the hold-up and of the so-called 'hidden inventory'; measures implemented by the plant operators, from design to day to day operations, for minimising hold-up and 'hidden inventory'; plant operators' actions to manage the hold-up during production activities but also at PIT/PIV time; monitoring and management of the 'hidden inventory'; measures implemented by the safeguards authorities and inspectorate for verification and control of both hold-up and 'hidden inventory'. The examples of the different plant specific experiences related in this paper reveal the extensive experience gained in european MOX fuel fabrication plants by the plant operators and the safeguards authorities for the minimising and the control of both hold-up and 'hidden inventory'. MOX fuel has been fabricated in Europe, with an actual combined capacity of 2501. HM/year subject, without any discrimination, to EURATOM Safeguards, for more than 30 years and the total output is, to date, some 1000 t.HM. (author)

  12. A Key Management Method for Cryptographically Enforced Access Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; Yagüe, Mariemma I.

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  13. Efficient key management for cryptographically enforced access control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zych, Anna; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem

    Cryptographic enforcement of access control mechanisms relies on encrypting protected data with the keys stored by authorized users. This approach poses the problem of the distribution of secret keys. In this paper, a key management scheme is presented where each user stores a single key and is

  14. DISTANCE AS KEY FACTOR IN MODELLING STUDENTS’ RECRUITMENT BY UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distance as Key Factor in Modelling Students’ Recruitment by Universities. In a previous paper analysing the challenge of keeping up with the current methodologies in the analysis and modelling of students’ recruitment by universities in the case of some ECE countries which still don’t register or develop key data to take advantage from the state of the art knowledge on the domain, we have promised to approach the factor distance in a future work due to the extent of the topic. This paper fulfill that promise bringing a review of the literature especially dealing with modelling the geographical area of recruiting students of an university, where combining distance with the proximate key factors previously reviewed, complete the meta-analysis of existing literature we have started a year ago. Beyond the theoretical benefit from a practical perspective, the metaanalysis aimed at synthesizing elements of good practice that can be applied to the local university system.

  15. Mitigation of Control Channel Jamming via Combinatorial Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati, Abolfazl; Azarafrooz, Mahdi

    The problem of countering control channel jamming against internal adversaries in wireless ad hoc networks is addressed. Using combinatorial key distribution, a new method to secure the control channel access is introduced. This method, utilizes the established keys in the key establishment phase to hide the location of control channels without the need for a secure BS. This is in obtained by combination of a collision free one-way function and a combinatorial key establishment method. The proposed scheme can be considered as a special case of the ALOHA random access schemes which uses the common established keys as its seeds to generate the pattern of transmission.

  16. WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Deena L; Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Lin, Jun; Ringler, Patricia; Boken, Ashley K; Langum, Tanner J; Smidt, Lucas; Boomsma, Darius D; Emme, Nicholas J; Chen, Xianfeng; Finer, John J; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, senescence, seed dormancy and seed germination. For over 15 years, limited evidence has been available suggesting that WRKY TFs may play roles in regulating plant responses to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), notably some WRKY TFs are ABA-inducible repressors of seed germination. However, the roles of WRKY TFs in other aspects of ABA signalling, and the mechanisms involved, have remained unclear. Recent significant progress in ABA research has now placed specific WRKY TFs firmly in ABA-responsive signalling pathways, where they act at multiple levels. In Arabidopsis, WRKY TFs appear to act downstream of at least two ABA receptors: the cytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR-protein phosphatase 2C-ABA complex and the chloroplast envelope-located ABAR-ABA complex. In vivo and in vitro promoter-binding studies show that the target genes for WRKY TFs that are involved in ABA signalling include well-known ABA-responsive genes such as ABF2, ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, DREB1a, DREB2a and RAB18. Additional well-characterized stress-inducible genes such as RD29A and COR47 are also found in signalling pathways downstream of WRKY TFs. These new insights also reveal that some WRKY TFs are positive regulators of ABA-mediated stomatal closure and hence drought responses. Conversely, many WRKY TFs are negative regulators of seed germination, and controlling seed germination appears a common function of a subset of WRKY TFs in flowering plants. Taken together, these new data demonstrate that WRKY TFs are key nodes in ABA-responsive signalling networks. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Positioning and deciding : key factors for talent development in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannekens, R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Talent identification and development implicate recognizing youth players who will be successful in the future and guiding them to the top. A major determinant of this success is tactical skills. To identify possible key factors that help in predicting success over time, this study assesses the

  18. ERP IMPLANTATION: KEY FACTORS OF SUCCESS AND IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Valentin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of an ERP (abbreviation for "Enterprise Resource Planning" system is an enterprise project that implies the remodeling of the information system, mostly the rethinking of management procedures within the organization. The expansion and the complexity of these projects demand a theoretical framework and « optimal practices » in order to model and to evaluate the key factors of implementation success and to analyze its impact on the organization’s performance. The research problem of our communication can be divided into three research questions: - What conceptual framework for ERP implantation? - What are the key factors of success in ERP implantation? - What is the relationship between ERP implantation and enterprise performance?

  19. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  20. WRKY Transcription Factors: Key Components in Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    networks that take inputs from numerous stimuli and that they are involved in mediating responses to numerous phytohormones including salicylic acid ... jasmonic acid , ABA and GA. These roles in multiple signalling pathways may in turn partly explain the pleiotropic effects commonly seen when TF genes are...Review article WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling Deena L. Rushton1, Prateek Tripathi1, Roel C. Rabara1, Jun Lin1

  1. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  2. Exploring key factors in online shopping with a hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Yu, Jian; Wang, Jiangtao; Zheng, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the web increasingly influences retail sales. An in-depth analysis of consumer decision-making in the context of e-business has become an important issue for internet vendors. However, factors affecting e-business are complicated and intertwined. To stimulate online sales, understanding key influential factors and causal relationships among the factors is important. To gain more insights into this issue, this paper introduces a hybrid method, which combines the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) with the analytic network process, called DANP method, to find out the driving factors that influence the online business mostly. By DEMATEL approach the causal graph showed that "online service" dimension has the highest degree of direct impact on other dimensions; thus, the internet vendor is suggested to made strong efforts on service quality throughout the online shopping process. In addition, the study adopted DANP to measure the importance of key factors, among which "transaction security" proves to be the most important criterion. Hence, transaction security should be treated with top priority to boost the online businesses. From our study with DANP approach, the comprehensive information can be visually detected so that the decision makers can spotlight on the root causes to develop effectual actions.

  3. Market Makers' Recognition of Key Success Factors in Electronic Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Stockdale

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the recognition and use of critical success factors by market makers in electronic marketplaces. A content analysis of e-marketplace websites enabled an examination of how these factors have been incorporated into marketplace sites. Evidence of market makers’ awareness of the success factors was found in all the sites although there remain questions and issues to be addressed. Awareness of the need for critical mass and privacy were very evident, but the key factors of security, technological infrastructure and neutrality were identified as areas of concern. Evidence of an awareness of the importance of trust by market makers was found, but more effective signalling of trust to buyers and sellers within the marketplaces is required.

  4. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  5. Application of the Value Optimization Model of Key Factors Based on DSEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key factors of the damping solvent extraction method (DSEM for the analysis of the unbounded medium are the size of bounded domain, the artificial damping ratio, and the finite element mesh density. To control the simulation accuracy and computational efficiency of the soil-structure interaction, this study establishes a value optimization model of key factors that is composed of the design variables, the objective function, and the constraint function system. Then the optimum solutions of key factors are obtained by the optimization model. According to some comparisons of the results provided by the different initial conditions, the value optimization model of key factors is feasible to govern the simulation accuracy and computational efficiency and to analyze the practical unbounded medium-structure interaction.

  6. Key factors of successful JIT integration with IBS - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, Mohammad Azwanie Naim Mohammad; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Nadarajan, Santhirasegaran

    2016-08-01

    The Just-In-Time (JIT) philosophy has been used for many decades to increase productivity through waste elimination process. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge by addressing the transportation and material delivery activities in Industrialized Building System (IBS) and integrating JIT to improve the performance of those activities. The literature review has been conducted through relevant database. It was found that there is a need for more holistic approach to be adopted to integrate JIT in IBS project. This paper discusses the key success factors for effective integration between JIT and IBS in the context of transportation and material delivery activities.

  7. Stensund wastewater aquaculture. Studies of key factors for its optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guterstam, B.; Forsberg, L.E. [Stensund Ecological Center, Stensunds Fold Center, S-61991 Trosa (Sweden); Buczynska, A. [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, 175 Wolczanska strasse, PL-90942 Lodz (Poland); Frelek, K. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL-80416 Gdansk (Poland); Pilkaityte, R. [Natural Science Faculty, University of Klaipeda, LT-5813 Klaipeda (Lithuania); Reczek, L. [Department of Water Supply and Sewage Systems, Warsaw Agricultural University, 166 Nowoursynowska strasse, PL-02787 Warsaw (Poland); Rucevska, I. [Latvian Environmental Data Center, Straumes 2, Jurmala LV 2015 (Latvia)

    1998-10-21

    This paper is a summary of an in-depth study of key factors in the function of a 7-year-old aquaculture system designed for treatment and recycling of domestic wastewater at Stensund, Trosa, Sweden. The reported areas are: wastewater flows, reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus, nitrogen, and fecal bacteria. Plant production is recorded as harvested biomass, and energy results are given as generated heat and electricity consumption. Special studies were conducted on the reduction of copper by anaerobic treatment. Nitrification was studied with different filter media. Microalgal autofocculation of phosphorus was studied in relation to pH and water hardness for the green algal genus Scenedesmus. Limiting factors for the growth of Daphnia magna in the zooplankton step of the constructed aquatic food-web was studied in a specially designed reproduction test. The results are analyzed in order to optimize the function of the wastewater aquaculture

  8. Agricultural Cooperatives in the Netherlands: key success factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the ongoing success of agricultural cooperatives in the Netherlands can be explained by the combination of five factors. First, the Netherlands has an enabling cooperative legislation. Second, cooperatives in the Netherlands have been able to maintain effective member control

  9. Key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaveewatanaseth, K.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cities become more vulnerable to climate change impacts causing by urbanization, economic growth, increasing of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. People who live in the cities have already been affected from the impacts in terms of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Sustainable transport plays the key role in CO2 mitigation and contributes positive impacts on sustainable development for the cities. Several studies in megacities both in developed and developing countries support that mass transit system is an important transportation mode in CO2 mitigation and sustainable transport development. This paper aims to study key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport. The Bangkok Mass Rapid Transit System (MRT) located in Bangkok was the study area. Data collection was using semi-structured in-depth interview protocol with thirty respondents consisting of six groups i.e. governmental agencies, the MRT operators, consulting companies, international organizations, non-profit organizations, and experts. The research findings highlighted the major factors and supplemental elements composing of institution and technical capacity, institutional framework, policy setting and process, and plan of implementation that would support more effective strategic process for low carbon development strategy (LCDS) for sustainable transport. The study would highly recommend on readiness of institution and technical capacities, stakeholder mapping, high-level decision- makers participation, and a clear direction of the governmental policies that are strongly needed in achieving the sustainable transport.

  10. Key Success Factors in E-Learning in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Emami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: As in many countries, Medical Education (ME is offered in three levels including Undergraduate ME, Graduate ME, and Continuing ME. Informtion tehnology development has provided a suitable chance for ME. E-learning in ME is growing more and more. The present study seeks to determine the key success factors (KSF in E-learning in medical fields.Methods: KSF has been scrutinized in the literature following of which, and due to similarity, a classification with seven groupings was established including institutional factor, technology, interested parties, information knowledge, methods and approaches educational resources, and environmental factors. Through a questionnaire, the data were gatered from the information technology (IT directors in all medical universities throughout the country. The data collected were subjected to factorial analysis. Data from heads of educational groups were obtained through focus group discussion. Cronbach reliability coefficient was calculated for questionnaire used. Factorial analysis was used to identify meaningful KSF. T-Test, and one-way variance analysis as well as Pearson’s correlation were used. The analysis was conducted with SPSS softwareResults: The results showed no significant differences between age, sex, career, and level of education, and KSF. The preparedness factors were analyzed through group discussions with the heads of the academic departments under the study. By factorial analyses, five factors were found including the departmental interest and potential (27.3%, task performance potential (25.1%, E-teaching development in basic and clinical sciences , and continuing education (20.1%, suitable cultural environment (16.8%, and infrastructures (10.8%. Fisher Exeact Test was used to compare the obtained ratios in 5% curve whose results showed that among the three factors including legal and technocal environment, specialized hardwareand software, and high speed internet

  11. A qualitative study of the key factors in implementing telemedical monitoring of diabetic foot ulcer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B S B; Jensen, L K; Froekjaer, J

    2015-01-01

    of a telemedical intervention. We posed the following research question: What are the key organizational factors in the implementation of telemedicine in wound care? METHODS: In connection with a randomized controlled trial of telemedical intervention for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in the region...

  12. Myopic Loss Aversion: Demystifying the Key Factors Influencing Decision Problem Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Andrew M.; Looney, Clayton Arlen

    2012-01-01

    Advancement of myopic loss aversion theory has been hamstrung by conflicting results, methodological inconsistencies, and a piecemeal approach toward understanding the key factors influencing decision problem framing. A series of controlled experiments provides a more holistic view of the variables promoting myopia. Extending the information…

  13. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  15. Behaviour, the key factor for sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Stralen, Maartje M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-11-01

    Safety in sports and physical activity is an important prerequisite for continuing participation in sports, as well as for maintenance of a healthy physically active lifestyle. For this reason, prevention, reduction and control of sports injuries are important goals for society as a whole. Recent advances in sports medicine discuss the need for research on real-life injury prevention. Such views call for a more behavioural approach when it comes to actual sports injury prevention. Nevertheless, the role of behaviour in sports injury prevention remains under-researched. In order to push the field of sports injury prevention forward, this article provides an overview of the relationship between behaviour and sports injury risk. Different types of behaviour relate to injury risk factors and injury mechanisms. Behaviour that influences risk factors and injury mechanisms is not confined only to the athlete. Various types of behaviour by, for example, the coach, referee, physical therapist or sports associations, also influence risk factors and injury mechanisms. In addition, multiple behaviours often act together. Some types of behaviour may directly affect injury risk and are by definition a risk factor. Other behaviours may only affect risk factors and injury mechanisms, and influence injury risk indirectly. Recent ideas on injury prevention that call for studies on real-life injury prevention still rely heavily on preventive measures that are established through efficacy research. A serious limitation in such an approach is that one expects that proven preventive measures will be adopted if the determinants and influences of sports safety behaviours are understood. Therefore, if one truly wants to prevent sports injuries in a real-life situation, a broader research focus is needed. In trying to do so, we need to look at lessons learned from other fields of injury prevention research.

  16. Key success factors in enterprises practicing social marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, Mong-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises could create multi-service values of customer satisfaction, enterprise profit, and social benefit through Social Marketing. Constructing a positive Social Service Value Chain to achieve mind management in marketing would reinforce the core competitive advantages of an enterprise, enhance high-quality services, and lead the enterprise to sustainable management. With the Delphi Method, a questionnaire is applied to assess the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing. The superiors and the employees in Formosa Plastics Group were selected as the research participants for 200 questionnaires. A total of 133 valid copies are retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. According to the overall weights of the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing, the following summary is concluded. 1. The evaluation criteria in Organizational Characteristics are ordered in the following way: Intrinsic Structure, Internal Environment, Cost Effectiveness, Organizational Advantage, Organizational Weakness, and Inspiration. 2. The evaluation criteria in the External Environment are ordered this way: Information Resources, Environmental Opportunities, and Environmental Threats. 3. The order of the evaluation criteria in Marketing Strategy is Appropriate Media, Targeted Objects, Market Selection, Market Response, and Behavioral Change. 4. The evaluation criteria in Process Orientation are ordered in the following way: Tracking Adjustment, Feedback Systems, Operation Performance, and Operation Processes.A través del márquetin social, las empresas podrían crear valores de multiservicio para la satisfacción del cliente, para incrementar los beneficios de la empresa y para beneficiar a la sociedad. La construcción de una Cadena de Valor de Servicio Social positiva para conseguir una gestión mental en el márquetin reforzaría las principales ventajas competitivas de una empresa, realzaría servicios de alta calidad y

  17. ORIENTATION: KEY TO THE OODA LOOP – THE CULTURE FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. MACCUISH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Colonel John Boyd developed what he called the OODA-Loop as both a learning and decision making model to help us better understand how we make decisions and learn. His OODA-Loop model consists of non-sequential elements: Observe – Orient – Decide – Action. He contended if one could cycle through these phases quicker and more accurately than one’s adversary you could then get inside your adversary’s OODA-Loop and “win”. The key to the OODA-Loop he noted is Orientation. He only drew one diagram of his OODA-Loop. Only in the Orientation phase did he elaborate component elements. These elements are: Cultural Traditions, Genetic Heritage, Analysis/Synthesis, New Information, and Previous Experience. All of these elements he contended are interconnected. Thus, the interaction of all these factors effects how we orient ourselves to the situation at hand. In this article I will share my view of the “Culture Factor” in Orientation.

  18. Key Success Factors and Guidance for International Collaborative Design Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Soetanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the built environment (BE sector, the co-creation process of design demands understanding of requirements (as viewed by parties involved, mobilisation of tacit knowledge, negotiation, and complex exchange of information. The need to collaborate over distance has further exacerbated the complexity of the process, and, in itself, represents a significant challenge for BE professionals who are increasingly expected to undertake this process within globally distributed virtual teams. The research aims to identify key success factors and develop guidance for international collaborative design projects, via the implementation of collaborative design courses in UK and Canadian universities over three academic years. Questionnaire surveys, focus groups, observation of online meetings, personal reflections provided data for the analysis. The findings reveal the significance of the perceived risk of collaboration and a difference in preferred communication mode between architects and civil/structural engineers. These findings suggest the impact of training in the subject discipline, and that the opportunity for co-located working has helped the development of trust. The guidance is aimed at BE educators who wish to implement this activity in their courses.

  19. The Assistant Manager - a Key Factor of the Managerial Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer Ph. D. Niculina Vargolici

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The new economic context, marked by the crisis and by radical transformations of the labor market, generates the need for more and more sophisticated skills for the assistant manager. That is because the efficiency of the secretarial activity implies both strategic skills and complex abilities, starting from knowledge about the specific activity of the company/institution where the person works as assistant manager, to connected areas such as: management, marketing, human resources, brand communication, company’s culture etc. Whether the manager changes his job together with the “boss”, or the boss is changed and he is bond to adapt to new conditions, a strong team spirit between the manager and his assistant is one of the most important elements that contribute to the productivity and efficiency of the both. The loyalty to the boss and to the company where he works, his adaptation capacity, his competence and his professionalism make the today’s assistant manager a key factor of the managerial team. The essence of the assistant manager job consists in making more efficient the managerial activities, namely, to make it respond to the expectations expressed or not of the manager, or even to anticipate them.

  20. Key factors that influence for seasonal production of Guinea grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Climate, soil and management are the main drives for growth and production of tropical pastures. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of these factors and their interactions under climate conditions is required to obtain effective management options. Here, we used data from two field trials to research on climate and management interactions on the production seasonality of Panicum maximum Jacq. Treatments included four sampling times (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C accumulated during eight regrowth period, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and, cuts were made to simulate grazing intensity. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. At each sampling time, basal tillers were sampled to observe meristematic differentiation and were linked with the respective daylength. Soil moisture was determined, and the water availability index (WAI was calculated. The dry matter production (DMP was taken and relative productivity was calculated. Soil moisture was the key seasonal drive in spring-summer and the WAI could be used to adjust the maximum production for that season. The major drive for DMP in fall was the daylength, which was found at 11.81 h. For all seasons, DMP correlated better with the residues in early regrowth phase (r = 0.82 and p < 0.0001 and with degree-days at final regrowth phase (r = 0.73 p < 0.01. Applying these critical values to management guidelines should make Guinea grass DMP more efficient on tropical farms.

  1. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  2. Key Factors for Nuclear Being Economic after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Myung Sub; Park, Seo Yeon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    It is hard to overstate the importance of electricity to the standard of living and the quality of life in a country. Electricity demand grows with population and with the changing nature, level and composition of economic and social activity. Civilization, industrialization and urbanization are, of course, key factors. It, historically, has shown that each major nuclear accident has caused a re-examination of the risk of nuclear power leading to more stringent safety requirement and higher costs. The Fukushima accident and its likely impact on future nuclear power development are difficult to foresee. The accident was a tragedy for the people affected and seriously undermined public confidence in the safety of nuclear power. A number of countries announced reviews of their programs, some took steps toward phasing out nuclear power entirely, and others reemphasized their expansion plans. The Korean nuclear community is carry out many ambitious projects for last three decades continuously and facing the another challenges relating to the future nuclear power economics and difficulty in financing new investment. In order to meet the above economic objective, it is strongly recommended that great emphasis should be placed on maintaining the nuclear economics without jeopardizing safety such as design simplification, standardization, shortening of construction period, increased availability, etc

  3. Key Factors for Nuclear Being Economic after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Myung Sub; Park, Seo Yeon

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to overstate the importance of electricity to the standard of living and the quality of life in a country. Electricity demand grows with population and with the changing nature, level and composition of economic and social activity. Civilization, industrialization and urbanization are, of course, key factors. It, historically, has shown that each major nuclear accident has caused a re-examination of the risk of nuclear power leading to more stringent safety requirement and higher costs. The Fukushima accident and its likely impact on future nuclear power development are difficult to foresee. The accident was a tragedy for the people affected and seriously undermined public confidence in the safety of nuclear power. A number of countries announced reviews of their programs, some took steps toward phasing out nuclear power entirely, and others reemphasized their expansion plans. The Korean nuclear community is carry out many ambitious projects for last three decades continuously and facing the another challenges relating to the future nuclear power economics and difficulty in financing new investment. In order to meet the above economic objective, it is strongly recommended that great emphasis should be placed on maintaining the nuclear economics without jeopardizing safety such as design simplification, standardization, shortening of construction period, increased availability, etc

  4. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.V.M.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125 I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  5. Some considerations on the key economic factors of ISER development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    In Sweden and the U.S., experiments are being made for testing and verification of the basic PIUS principle and the stability of interfaces at high temperature and high pressure. Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry envisaged, in its 1986 future planning of nuclear power, a nuclear capacity of 87 GWe in 2010 and 137 GWe in 2030. Before contemplating an actual siting of ISER near or in an city, ISER experimental reactor must pass severe tests. Required tests for ISER, however, are simple and limited, because the probable frequency and characteristics of major abnormal situations can be well identified and defined in the course of conceptual design and detailed safety analyses. Economy of LWRs in general, and PIUS-ISER in particular, rests on many factors including the services for the front end, uranium supply-enrichment and the back end of its fuel cycle; spent fuel storage and low level waste management; and the safety and availability of the reactor. PIUS-ISER has several unique features that are not available in existing LWRs. These features are related with control rod, control room, reliance on natural circulation cooling, source term, containment, BOP and emergency AC power. Technological development work for ISER should cover interface design, steam generator, antiseismic design, and pool water cooling measures. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M. [Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Rigola, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  7. Key developments of a rod control system - 15101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouillot, M.; Jegou, H.; Duthou, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Rod Control System is to carry out the insertion and withdrawal of control rod clusters to provide the power required by the grid (G-mode control), to control the temperature of the reactor, or to provide negative reactivity margin when the reactor is shut down. The rod control system is not classified important for safety, but its correct operation is essential for the availability of the reactor, as the spurious drop of a single cluster usually results in a reactor trip. Rolls-Royce has been designing, manufacturing and providing rod control systems since 1977, in France, China, Belgium, Korea, and South Africa, as an original manufacturer and for modernization projects. All the corresponding nuclear units share the following features, key points for the system design: -) The power source is a three-phased 260 Vac with neutral, provided by zigzag-coupled alternators; -) The Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDM) are 'three-coil type': Stationary Gripper (SG), Movable Gripper (MG) and Lift Coil (LC); -) Rod clusters are arranged in banks and sub-banks, the bank being composed of one or two sub-banks and a sub-bank is a set of 4 clusters moved simultaneously, the central cluster being an exception; and -) Most of those reactors are operated in G-mode (load following). (authors)

  8. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Elie; Bellusci, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  9. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El Agha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  10. Key Success Factors for Organizational Innovation in the Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2013-08-01

    on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC and the Analytic Network Process (ANP, called ‘MAB’ – Multi-criteria Assessment Balanced Scorecard. Firstly, key performance indicators (KPIs are evaluated in order to assess the performance level of a typical fashion industry. The development of an index system and methods is aimed to form a set of useful tools for policy-makers to facilitate the transformation of an industrial development mode and support the performance of the fashion industry.

  11. Safety and reliability in industrial organizations - The key factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.A.; Sarkis, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    A survey-based technique has been developed that measures and generates comparative data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. This paper describes the results of an analysis of data from more than 2,700 employees in the chemical, oil, construction, and wood products industries. These analyses indicate that several key variables are significantly related to accidents in the workplace

  12. The adenoid as a key factor in upper airway infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cauwenberge, P B; Bellussi, L; Maw, A R; Paradise, J L; Solow, B

    1995-06-01

    The adenoids (and the nasopharynx) play a key role in the normal functioning and in various pathologies of the upper respiratory tract. In this paper the role of adenoidal pathology and the beneficial effect of adenoidectomy in some upper respiratory tract and facial anomalies and diseases are discussed; otitis media with effusion, recurrent acute otitis media, sinusitis, snoring and sleep apnea and abnormal patterns in the midface growth and development.

  13. The development of today's mineable oil sands projects, the key factors influencing economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many factors influence the perception of economic performance for developing projects. Some of these factors can be controlled by the developer, while some are outside the developer's sphere of influence. Technology selection, management systems, stakeholder involvement, environmental responsiveness and risk management are areas that may be influenced, however interest rates, product prices and currency exchange all have a measurable effect on project economics and are beyond a developer's control. Economic considerations for evaluating mineable oil sand development projects are outlined, focussing on the key factors unique to such developments in general and to the OSLO project in particular. The OSLO project is a proposed $5 billion energy development that entails constructing an open pit oil sands mine and a bitumen extraction facility north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, coupled with a bitumen upgrader in the Redwater area. 7 figs

  14. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  15. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly de...

  16. 153 Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Key Factor in Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    expression in some media to project images in visual forms which are inherently embedded ... factor. As first described by Shulman (1986, 1987), PCK is a teachers' ..... ability and power of observation to represent foreshortening accurately in.

  17. Key Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction in Korea's Mobile Service Sector

    OpenAIRE

    JAE YOUNG KIM; HYUNG SEOK LEE

    2013-01-01

    Advances in wireless technology have expanded the existing internet environment and accelerated the rapid development of mobile service. Many previous studies were conducted on users’ needs and satisfaction prior to the expansion of the mobile service. Thus, the impact of mobile service factors on user satisfaction has important implications for both academics and practitioners. This study investigates the factors affecting user satisfaction related to mobile service. First, this study extrac...

  18. An Analysis of Key Factors in Developing a Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidana Šiurytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept Smart City is used widely but it is perceived differently as well. Literature review reveals key elements of the Smart City – Information and Communication Technologies and Smart Citizens. Nevertheless, raising public awareness is not a priority of local municipalities which are trying to develop cities. Focus group discussion aims to analyse citizens’ insights in regards to the Smart City and their contribution to creation of it. Case study of Vilnius examines a position of mu-nicipality in developing city as smart. Study contains suggestions for the improvement of communication in the city. Methods employed: comparative literature analysis, focus group investigation, case study.

  19. Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eCORBINEAU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GAs. Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 μL L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1 demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a cross-talk between hormones and other signals will be discussed.

  20. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Reguera, David, E-mail: dreguera@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  1. Key factors driving corporate social responsibility of Vietnamese firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Thai Minh, H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of firm, corporate governance and managerial characteristics on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of Vietnamese listed firms. Our results show that export-oriented firms engage in more CSR activities. As for corporate governance factors, we observe that

  2. Migration towards fibre to the home: key cost factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. W.; Mas Machuca, C.; Zhao, R.; Grunert, K.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive cost model for migration towards FTTH, some case study results from different network area scenarios, as well as the identification of the most important cost factors to be considered by operators aiming at increasing the profitability of their networks.

  3. Key factors in children's competence to consent to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Irma M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A.; Zwaan, C. Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Although law is established on a strong presumption that persons younger than a certain age are not competent to consent, statutory age limits for asking children's consent to clinical research differ widely internationally. From a clinical perspective, competence is assumed to involve many factors

  4. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agrifood Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, Frances T.J.M.; Batterink, Maarten H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) assesses a company’s drivers and barriers to innovation and benchmarks the critical success and failure factors of its innovation projects with data of agrifood prospector companies around the world. The present paper discusses its application in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France. It is concluded that WIAT by uncovering the tacit knowledge of the innovation project team creates opportunities for subs...

  5. Model of key success factors for Business Intelligence implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mesaros; Tomas Mandicak; Daniela Mackova; Stefan Carnicky; Martina Habinakova; Marcela Spisakova

    2016-01-01

    New progressive technologies recorded growth in every area. Information-communication technologies facilitate the exchange of information and it facilitates management of everyday activities in enterprises. Specific modules (such as Business Intelligence) facilitate decision-making. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of Business Intelligence to decision-making. The first step is to put in place the enterprise. The implementation process is influenced by many factors. This a...

  6. Empirical Investigation of Key Business Factors for Digital Game Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem, Saiqa; Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Ahmed, Faheem

    2015-01-01

    Game development is an interdisciplinary concept that embraces software engineering, business, management, and artistic disciplines. This research facilitates a better understanding of the business dimension of digital games. The main objective of this research is to investigate empirically the effect of business factors on the performance of digital games in the market and to answer the research questions asked in this study. Game development organizations are facing high pressure and compet...

  7. Identifying Key Factors Relevant for Base Camp Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    centers. 3.2.6.3 Religious and historical sites Respecting sacred sites helps build rapport with the host nation. 3.2.6.4 Local infrastructure...churches, mosques, national libraries, hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites...controlled and protected wells. • Electricity: town engineer • Academic: government and religious leaders • Trash: private business (local

  8. Maturation of arteriovenous fistula: Analysis of key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Siddiqui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing proportion of individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease has considerable repercussions for both kidney specialists and primary care. Progressive and permanent renal failure is most frequently treated with hemodialysis. The efficiency of hemodialysis treatment relies on the functional status of vascular access. Determining the type of vascular access has prime significance for maximizing successful maturation of a fistula and avoiding surgical revision. Despite the frequency of arteriovenous fistula procedures, there are no consistent criteria applied before creation of arteriovenous fistulae. Increased prevalence and use of arteriovenous fistulae would result if there were reliable criteria to assess which arteriovenous fistulae are more likely to reach maturity without additional procedures. Published studies assessing the predictive markers of fistula maturation vary to a great extent with regard to definitions, design, study size, patient sample, and clinical factors. As a result, surgeons and specialists must decide which possible risk factors are most likely to occur, as well as which parameters to employ when evaluating the success rate of fistula development in patients awaiting the creation of permanent access. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the role of patient factors and blood markers in the development of arteriovenous fistulae.

  9. Key factors in children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A; Zwaan, C Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-10-24

    Although law is established on a strong presumption that persons younger than a certain age are not competent to consent, statutory age limits for asking children's consent to clinical research differ widely internationally. From a clinical perspective, competence is assumed to involve many factors including the developmental stage, the influence of parents and peers, and life experience. We examined potential determining factors for children's competence to consent to clinical research and to what extent they explain the variation in competence judgments. From January 1, 2012 through January 1, 2014, pediatric patients aged 6 to 18 years, eligible for clinical research studies were enrolled prospectively at various in- and outpatient pediatric departments. Children's competence to consent was assessed by MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Potential determining child variables included age, gender, intelligence, disease experience, ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). We used logistic regression analysis and change in explained variance in competence judgments to quantify the contribution of a child variable to the total explained variance. Contextual factors included risk and complexity of the decision to participate, parental competence judgment and the child's or parents decision to participate. Out of 209 eligible patients, 161 were included (mean age, 10.6 years, 47.2 % male). Age, SES, intelligence, ethnicity, complexity, parental competence judgment and trial participation were univariately associated with competence (P competence judgments was 71.5 %. Only age and intelligence significantly and independently explained the variance in competence judgments, explaining 56.6 % and 12.7 % of the total variance respectively. SES, male gender, disease experience and ethnicity each explained less than 1 % of the variance in competence judgments. Contextual factors together explained an extra 2.8 % (P > 0.05). Age is the factor that

  10. A Key Factor of the DCF Model Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Adamczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The aim of this paper is to provide economically justified evidence that the business value calculated by income valuation methods is the same, regardless of the type of cash flow used in the valuation algorithm. Design/methodology/approach - The evidence was arrived at using free cash flow to equity (FCFE, debt (FCFD and firm (FCFF. The article draws attention to the FCFF method's particular popularity in income valuation, based on analysts' practice. It shows an overview of various approaches to determine the capital structure in the formula for WACC, both in practice and theory. Finally, it examines an empirical example with the authors' own derivations and postulates. Findings - The conclusion drawn from the conducted analysis is that the key to the reconciliation process, and thus DCF model coherency, is to apply the appropriate method of capital structure estimation during the calculation of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC. This capital structure will henceforth be referred to as 'income weights'. Research implications/limitations - It should be noted that the obtained compliance of valuation results does not imply that the income valuation becomes an objective way of determining business value. It still remains subjective. Originality/value/contribution - According to the presented approach, the DCF model's subjectivism is limited to the forecasts. The rest is the algorithm which, based on the principles of mathematics, should be used in the same way in every situation.

  11. Reliable LED Lighting Technologies: Key Factors and Procurement Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Arquit Niederberger, Anne

    2015-10-08

    Abstract— Lighting systems have the ability to transform the economic and educational infrastructure of disadvantaged communities, and eradicating “light poverty” has become one of the primary goals of the International Year of Light 2015. Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology, based on light-emitting diode (LED) light sources, has emerged as the next generation of lighting technology, with a current global market penetration of roughly 5%. This paper will report on recent research on understanding SSL lighting system reliability (failure modes, environmental stressors, electrical power quality); discuss the implications of SSL technology reliability for providing lighting services; and suggest practical approaches to ensure SSL reliability to benefit humanity. Among the key findings from this work is that LED sources can be extremely reliable, withstanding a broad range of environmental stresses without failure. Nonetheless, SSL lighting systems can have a negative impact on electrical power reliability, as well as on the affordability of lighting services, without attention to the quality of the accompanying power infrastructure. It is therefore critical to ensure that the performance of the power supply electronics used in lighting systems is matched to the quality of the power source, when evaluating energy efficient lighting choices.

  12. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Borges,Álefe Vitorino; Saraiva,Rodrigo Moreira; Maffia,Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness...

  13. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Radiological Terrorism Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    measurements are made, these are collected electronically4 and automatically exported to local operation centers and incident command posts where the...economic, natural and built environments and a move to self-sufficiency, sustainability and resilience.” As can be seen in Figure 3-11, some long-term...Transportation and access routes Bridges Streets and thoroughfares Sidewalks and walkways Release of property from radiologically controlled areas

  14. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  15. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  16. Modeling lichen communities : ecological key factors in a changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Pedro António Pinho, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 O fenómeno das alterações globais influencia o funcionamento de muitos dos sistemas planetários. Embora os factores ambientais associados a esse fenómeno funcionem numa escala global, os seus efeitos nos ecossistemas têm de ser estudados localmente. Este estudo é complexo não só pela necessidade de obter informação com uma elevada resolução espacial, mas também pela dificuldade de estarmos a trab...

  17. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-02-01

    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

  18. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-08-15

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  19. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  20. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  1. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álefe Vitorino Borges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness of gelatin regarding inoculum adhesion. Infection with an isolate from tomato plants that was previously inoculated into petioles and then re-isolated was successful. An isolate from strawberry plants was also aggressive, although less than that from tomato plants. Tomato plants close to flowering, at 65 days after sowing, and younger, middle and apical stem portions were more susceptible. There was positive correlation between lesion length and sporulation and between lesion length and broken stems. Lesion length and the percentage of sporulation sites were reduced by using a moist chamber and were not affected by adding gelatin to the inoculum suspension. This methodology has been adopted in studies of B. cinerea in tomato plants showing reproducible results. The obtained results may assist researchers who study the gray mold.

  2. Key factors influencing the implementation success of a home telecare application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, T.R.F.; Peeters, J.M.; Freide, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The introduction of home telecare in healthcare organizations has shown mixed results in practice. The aim of this study is to arrive at a set of key factors that can be used in further implementation of video communication. We argue that key factors are mainly found in the organizational

  3. Tissue Factor-Factor VII Complex As a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF-fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF-fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF-fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF-fVII function.

  4. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  5. Factoring RSA keys from certified smart cards : Coppersmith in the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chang, Y.A.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, L.P.; Heninger, N.; Lange, T.; Someren, van N.

    2013-01-01

    An attacker can efficiently factor at least 184 distinct 1024-bit RSA keys from Taiwan's national "Citizen Digital Certificate" database. The big story here is that these keys were generated by government-issued smart cards that were certified secure. The certificates had all the usual buzzwords:

  6. Using the key success factor concept in competitor intelligence and benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren; Sørensen, Elin; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1997-01-01

    A key success factor is regarded as a skill or a resource that a business can invest in, which explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value of the offer and/or relative costs of bringing that offer to the marketplace. Key success factors are potentially useful in structu......A key success factor is regarded as a skill or a resource that a business can invest in, which explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value of the offer and/or relative costs of bringing that offer to the marketplace. Key success factors are potentially useful...... in structuring the generation of market intelligence in competitor analysis and benchmarking. To this end, a method was developed, based on a reverse laddering procedure, which elicits decision-makers' subjec causal maps. When aggregated, these maps can be used to derive competitor analysis systems. The paper...

  7. GREEN KEY AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR FOR STAFF LOYALTY AND SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgov, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is connected to staff motivation: which kind of motivation tools motivate employees, and does the Green Key motivate employees to work in the organization which is holding this eco label. The main goal of the thesis was determine the influence of the Green Key on motivation and sustainable development. The objectives of the thesis were to find out which motivational factors are present in the current hotel for employees to perform their job better. Which motivational factors are t...

  8. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Pin; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2015-11-30

    Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  9. The transcription factor NFATp plays a key role in susceptibility to TB in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Via

    Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.

  10. Identification of the key factors for success in the hotel sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2018-02-01

    Design/methodology: A review of the literature has been carried out, which has provided references related to the hotel sector and different factors that impact it. The knowledge provided by the scientific community through the articles and texts consulted are reflected in this document and allow us to determine the existence of the key factors for success.  Contributions/results: Considering the importance of the hotel sector in the Spanish economy, this study identifies the key factors in the different hotel establishments. However, the materialization of these factors provides and shows us which financial aspects, management systems and other more global aspects, such as longevity or location, enable the company to be successful in the hotel sector.  Originality/value: Based on the literature reviewed, a list of key factors for success in the hotel sector was composed. This also revealed a lack of similar studies on this topic.

  11. EVALUATING KEY ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS FOR POLLUTION AT INTERNATIONAL PORTS IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach to evaluate the key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan. Relying on the literature and experts’ opinions, a hierarchical structure with three risk aspects and thirteen risk factors is first constructed, and a FAHP model then proposed. Based on data from the AHP experts’ questionnaires, we use the FAHP approach to determine key environmental risk factors. Finally, the results show that: (1 Air pollution is the most important aspect of environmental pollution at international ports in Taiwan. (2 In order of relative importance, the top five key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan are the oil leaks from ships, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, exhaust emissions from ships at berth, harmful coatings on ships' hulls, and ships' failure to use low-pollution fuel. Furthermore, some discussions are provided for port authority in Taiwan.

  12. A New Key-lock Method for User Authentication and Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Dongyao; ZHANG Futai; WANG Yumin

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new key-lock methodfor user authentication and access control based onChinese remainder theorem, the concepts of the ac-cess control matrix, key-lock-pair, time stamp, and the NS public key protocol. Our method is dynamicand needs a minimum amount of computation in thesense that it only updates at most one key/lock foreach access request. We also demonstrate how an au-thentication protocol can be integrated into the ac-cess control method. By applying a time stamp, themethod can not only withstand replay attack, butalso strengthen the authenticating mechanism, whichcould not be achieved simultaneously in previous key-lock methods.

  13. Controlling Water Intercalation Is Key to a Direct Graphene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, Ken; Schouteden, Koen; Wu, Cheng-Han; Peters, Lisanne; Vrancken, Nandi; Wu, Xiangyu; Li, Zhe; Erkens, Maksiem; Porret, Clement; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Van Haesendonck, Chris; De Gendt, Stefan; Brems, Steven

    2017-10-25

    The key steps of a transfer of two-dimensional (2D) materials are the delamination of the as-grown material from a growth substrate and the lamination of the 2D material on a target substrate. In state-of-the-art transfer experiments, these steps remain very challenging, and transfer variations often result in unreliable 2D material properties. Here, it is demonstrated that interfacial water can insert between graphene and its growth substrate despite the hydrophobic behavior of graphene. It is understood that interfacial water is essential for an electrochemistry-based graphene delamination from a Pt surface. Additionally, the lamination of graphene to a target wafer is hindered by intercalation effects, which can even result in graphene delamination from the target wafer. For circumvention of these issues, a direct, support-free graphene transfer process is demonstrated, which relies on the formation of interfacial water between graphene and its growth surface, while avoiding water intercalation between graphene and the target wafer by using hydrophobic silane layers on the target wafer. The proposed direct graphene transfer also avoids polymer contamination (no temporary support layer) and eliminates the need for etching of the catalyst metal. Therefore, recycling of the growth template becomes feasible. The proposed transfer process might even open the door for the suggested atomic-scale interlocking-toy-brick-based stacking of different 2D materials, which will enable a more reliable fabrication of van der Waals heterostructure-based devices and applications.

  14. Examining the Key Factors Affecting e-Service Quality of Small Online Apparel Businesses in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Che Nawi Noorshella; Al Mamun Abdullah; Ahmad Raston Nursalihah

    2015-01-01

    e-Service quality (eSQ) is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online. This study, therefore, is aimed at identifying the key determinants of eSQ among the small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. This study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected from 765 customers who pur...

  15. Investigation of key interventions for shigellosis outbreak control in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianmu Chen

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a major public health concern in China, where waterborne disease outbreaks are common. Shigellosis-containing strategies, mostly single or multiple interventions, are implemented by primary-level health departments. Systematic assessment of the effectiveness of these measures is scarce. To estimate the efficacy of commonly used intervention strategies, we developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious/Asymptomatic-Recovered-Water model. No intervention was predicted to result in a total attack rate (TAR of 90% of the affected population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.65-92.80 and duration of outbreak (DO of 89 days, and the use of single-intervention strategies can be futile or even counter-productive. Prophylactics and water disinfection did not improve TAR or DO. School closure for up to 3 weeks did not help but only increased DO. Isolation alone significantly increased DO. Only antibiotics treatment could shorten the DO to 35 days with TAR unaffected. We observed that these intervention effects were additive when in combined usage under most circumstances. Combined intervention "Isolation+antibiotics+prophylactics+water disinfection" was predicted to result in the lowest TAR (41.9%, 95%CI: 36.97-47.04% and shortest DO (28 days. Our actual Shigellosis control implementation that also included school closure for 1 week, attained comparable results and the modeling produced an epidemic curve of Shigellosis highly similar to our actual outbreak data. This lends a strong support to the reality of our model that provides a possible reference for public health professionals to evaluate their strategies towards Shigellosis control.

  16. [Analysis on the key factors affecting the inheritance of the acupuncture learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-yun; Zhang, Li-jian; Gang, Wei-juan; Xu, Wen-bin; Xu, Qing-yan

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of systematicly reviewing the developmental history of acupuncture and moxibustion and profoundly understanding its academic connotations, the authors of the present article make a summary and analysis on the key factors influencing the development of acupuncturology. These key factors are (1) the emergence of "microacupuncture needle regulating-Qi" and the establishement of their corresponding theory system, (2) a large number of practitioners who inherited the learnings of acupuncturology generations by generations, and abundant medical classical works which recorded the valuable academic thoughts and clinical experience of the predecesors, (3) the application of acupuncture charts and manikins, and (4) modernizing changes of acupuncture learnings after introduction of western medicine to China. Just under the influence of these key factors, the acupuncture medicine separates itself from the level of the simple experience medicine, and has formed a set of special theory system and developed into a mature subject.

  17. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and communication technology, coordination and feedback, human factors and decision making, and measurement are the identified factors to be taken into account. Industrial interviews with three case companies, that are participating to the research program called The Norwegian Manufacturing Future (SFI NORMAN......This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...

  18. Secured Session-key Distribution using control Vector Encryption / Decryption Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim; Khaleqdad Khan, ANM; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent key changes are very much desirable for the secret communications and are thus in high demand. A session-key distribution technique has been designed and implemented using the programming language C on which the communication between the end-users is encrypted is used for the duration of a logical connection. Each session-key is obtained from the key distribution center (KDC) over the same networking facilities used for end-user communication. The control vector is cryptographically coupled with the session-key at the time of key generation in the KDC. For this, the generated hash function, master key and the session-key are used for producing the encrypted session-key, which has to be transferred. All the operations have been performed using the C programming language. This process can be widely applicable to all sorts of electronic transactions online or offline; commercially and academically.(authors)

  19. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were ma...

  20. Studies of key success factors of product development success: A reinterpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten; Harmsen, Hanne

    In this paper the general validity of the research area of key factors of success in product development is discussed. To be more specific we argue that validity hinges on the causal relation between success and success factrors ­ a relation that unaccounted for in the empirical studies....... The theoretical tradition of the resource-based perspective provides ­ at least to some extent ­ an account of this causality. An important point in the paper is that the key factors of success in the empi studies are not factors causally related to success, but at the most a number of valuable resources and thus......, but in the studies problems concerning implementation are not discussed. When the lists factors of success are interprested as valuable resources and capabilities, we show that some implications on the implementability might be deduced from the resource-based perspective....

  1. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex As a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are...

  2. Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the operational levels ... from slums in central New Delhi to the city's desolate periphery face daily indignities and danger as they collect water o.

  3. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  4. Students' educational careers in Higher Education: a search into key factors regarding study outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Cyrille A.C. Van Bragt

    2010-01-01

    Students' educational careers in Higher Education: a search into key factors regarding study outcome One of the political goals of the EU is to develop 'the most competitive knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010'. The Dutch knowledge economy faces an increased demand for highly-educated

  5. Key Motivational Factors in the Retention of Three Generations of Public High School Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospichal, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the similarities and differences between five key motivational factors: (a) new teacher induction, (b) noninduction mentor support in the early years of teaching, (c) salary and benefits, (d) working conditions, and (e) administrative support influential in retention of employment in…

  6. Six Key Factors for Changing Preservice Teachers' Attitudes/Beliefs about Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, M. Arthur

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author postulates there are six key factors associated with changing preservice teachers' attitudes toward and beliefs about diversity-their dispositions, which include openness, self-awarenesss/self-reflectiveness, and commitment to social justice; and their experiences, which include intercultural, educational, and support…

  7. What to copy: the key factor of observational learning in striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2014-03-01

    Animals in social environments can enhance their learning efficiency by observing the behaviour of others. Our previous study showed that learning efficiency of schooling fish increased through the observation of the behaviour of trained demonstrator conspecifics. The present study aimed to verify the key factor of observational learning by investigating what information is important for social transmission of feeding information. A striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) observer was provided with one of the five observation treatments: (a) pellets observation, where pellets were dropped near the aeration in an adjacent tank; (b) responding conspecific observation, where a trained conspecific demonstrator responded to the aeration without food in the adjacent tank; (c) foraging conspecific observation, where a conspecific demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank; (d) nearby pellets observation, where pellets were dropped in a transparent column near the aeration in the observer tank; and (e) foraging heterospecific observation, where a filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank. The response to the aeration in these observers was compared with that of controls who did not observe any behaviour. Only individuals who observed foraging conspecifics showed a response to the aeration after observing. These results suggest that observer fish acquire feeding information not through recognition of prey items or through imitation of the demonstrator, but through the vicarious reinforcement of a conspecific for foraging.

  8. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF NOVEL ROUND KEYS GENERATION SCHEME FOR CRYPTOGRAPHY APPLICATIONS BY ERROR CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENTHILKUMAR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel implementation of code based cryptography (Cryptocoding technique for multi-layer key distribution scheme is presented. VLSI chip is designed for storing information on generation of round keys. New algorithm is developed for reduced key size with optimal performance. Error Control Algorithm is employed for both generation of round keys and diffusion of non-linearity among them. Two new functions for bit inversion and its reversal are developed for cryptocoding. Probability of retrieving original key from any other round keys is reduced by diffusing nonlinear selective bit inversions on round keys. Randomized selective bit inversions are done on equal length of key bits by Round Constant Feedback Shift Register within the error correction limits of chosen code. Complexity of retrieving the original key from any other round keys is increased by optimal hardware usage. Proposed design is simulated and synthesized using VHDL coding for Spartan3E FPGA and results are shown. Comparative analysis is done between 128 bit Advanced Encryption Standard round keys and proposed round keys for showing security strength of proposed algorithm. This paper concludes that chip based multi-layer key distribution of proposed algorithm is an enhanced solution to the existing threats on cryptography algorithms.

  9. Key Factors of Quality in the Sector of Tourism Services Providers: Case Study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main results of partial research aimed at detection of the key factors affecting quality in the sector of tourism services providers, namely tour operators and travel agencies. A primary questionnaire survey was conducted; the researched factors were distributed in the context of service quality dimensions (Grönroos model; the dimensions were tested in relation to sex, age and education of the respondents (ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe test. Assurance was identified as the most important dimension. The output of the study is determining the significance of individual quality factors from the perspective of a potential customer when selecting a service provider.

  10. The polyadenylation factor subunit CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30: A key factor of programmed cell death and a regulator of immunity in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2014-04-04

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. Indeed, incompatible plant-pathogen interactions are well known to induce the hypersensitive response, a localized cell death. Mutational analyses have identified several key PCD components, and we recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for the key enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myoinositol synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD, revealing roles for myoinositol or inositol derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Here, we identified a regulator of plant PCD by screening for mutants that display transcriptomic profiles opposing that of the mips1 mutant. Our screen identified the oxt6 mutant, which has been described previously as being tolerant to oxidative stress. In the oxt6 mutant, a transfer DNA is inserted in the CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR30 (CPSF30) gene, which encodes a polyadenylation factor subunit homolog. We show that CPSF30 is required for lesion formation in mips1 via SA-dependent signaling, that the prodeath function of CPSF30 is not mediated by changes in the glutathione status, and that CPSF30 activity is required for Pseudomonas syringae resistance. We also show that the oxt6 mutation suppresses cell death in other lesion-mimic mutants, including lesion-simulating disease1, mitogen-activated protein kinase4, constitutive expressor of pathogenesis-related genes5, and catalase2, suggesting that CPSF30 and, thus, the control of messenger RNA 3′ end processing, through the regulation of SA production, is a key component of plant immune responses. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of key factors regulating self-renewal and differentiation in EML hematopoietic precursor cells by RNA-sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shan; Deng, Shuyun; Chen, Kenian; Wu, Jia Qian

    2014-11-11

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used clinically for transplantation treatment to rebuild a patient's hematopoietic system in many diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma. Elucidating the mechanisms controlling HSCs self-renewal and differentiation is important for application of HSCs for research and clinical uses. However, it is not possible to obtain large quantity of HSCs due to their inability to proliferate in vitro. To overcome this hurdle, we used a mouse bone marrow derived cell line, the EML (Erythroid, Myeloid, and Lymphocytic) cell line, as a model system for this study. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) has been increasingly used to replace microarray for gene expression studies. We report here a detailed method of using RNA-Seq technology to investigate the potential key factors in regulation of EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. The protocol provided in this paper is divided into three parts. The first part explains how to culture EML cells and separate Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The second part of the protocol offers detailed procedures for total RNA preparation and the subsequent library construction for high-throughput sequencing. The last part describes the method for RNA-Seq data analysis and explains how to use the data to identify differentially expressed transcription factors between Lin-CD34+ and Lin-CD34- cells. The most significantly differentially expressed transcription factors were identified to be the potential key regulators controlling EML cell self-renewal and differentiation. In the discussion section of this paper, we highlight the key steps for successful performance of this experiment. In summary, this paper offers a method of using RNA-Seq technology to identify potential regulators of self-renewal and differentiation in EML cells. The key factors identified are subjected to downstream functional analysis in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhao

    Full Text Available In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  13. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  14. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  15. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    % arrival time and potential key soil properties, site factors and boundary conditions will be presented in order to identify key properties which control the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions.

  16. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  17. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  18. Key factors of case management interventions for frequent users of healthcare services: a thematic analysis review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Lambert, Mireille; Diadiou, Fatoumata; Bouliane, Danielle; Beaudin, Jérémie

    2017-10-22

    The aim of this paper was to identify the key factors of case management (CM) interventions among frequent users of healthcare services found in empirical studies of effectiveness. Thematic analysis review of CM studies. We built on a previously published review that aimed to report the effectiveness of CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services, using the Medline, Scopus and CINAHL databases covering the January 2004-December 2015 period, then updated to July 2017, with the keywords 'CM' and 'frequent use'. We extracted factors of successful (n=7) and unsuccessful (n=6) CM interventions and conducted a mixed thematic analysis to synthesise findings. Chaudoir's implementation of health innovations framework was used to organise results into four broad levels of factors: (1) ,environmental/organisational level, (2) practitioner level, (3) patient level and (4) programme level. Access to, and close partnerships with, healthcare providers and community services resources were key factors of successful CM interventions that should target patients with the greatest needs and promote frequent contacts with the healthcare team. The selection and training of the case manager was also an important factor to foster patient engagement in CM. Coordination of care, self-management support and assistance with care navigation were key CM activities. The main issues reported by unsuccessful CM interventions were problems with case finding or lack of care integration. CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services should ensure adequate case finding processes, rigorous selection and training of the case manager, sufficient intensity of the intervention, as well as good care integration among all partners. Other studies could further evaluate the influence of contextual factors on intervention impacts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. Key factors regulating the mass delivery of macromolecules to model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Richard A.; Watkins, Erik B.; Jagalski, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    We show that both gravity and electrostatics are key factors regulating interactions between model cell membranes and self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates of dendrimers and phospholipids. The system is a proxy for the trafficking of reservoirs of therapeutic drugs to cell membranes for slow...... of the aggregates to activate endocytosis pathways on specific cell types is discussed in the context of targeted drug delivery applications....

  20. Key Factors Affecting the Price of Airbnb Listings: A Geographically Weighted Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhang; Rachel J. C. Chen; Lee D. Han; Lu Yang

    2017-01-01

    Airbnb has been increasingly gaining popularity since 2008 due to its low prices and direct interactions with the local community. This paper employed a general linear model (GLM) and a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to identify the key factors affecting Airbnb listing prices using data sets of 794 samples of Airbnb listings of business units in Metro Nashville, Tennessee. The results showed that the GWR model performs better than the GLM in terms of accuracy and affected vari...

  1. Exploring the Key Risk Factors for Application of Cloud Computing in Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the cloud computing information technology environment, cloud computing has some advantages such as lower cost, immediate access to hardware resources, lower IT barriers to innovation, higher scalability, etc., but for the financial audit information flow and processing in the cloud system, CPA (Certified Public Accountant firms need special considerations, for example: system problems, information security and other related issues. Auditing cloud computing applications is the future trend in the CPA firms, given this issue is an important factor for them and very few studies have been conducted to investigate this issue; hence this study seeks to explore the key risk factors for the cloud computing and audit considerations. The dimensions/perspectives of the application of cloud computing audit considerations are huge and cover many criteria/factors. These risk factors are becoming increasingly complex, and interdependent. If the dimensions could be established, the mutually influential relations of the dimensions and criteria determined, and the current execution performance established; a prioritized improvement strategy designed could be constructed to use as a reference for CPA firm management decision making; as well as provide CPA firms with a reference for build auditing cloud computing systems. Empirical results show that key risk factors to consider when using cloud computing in auditing are, in order of priority for improvement: Operations (D, Automating user provisioning (C, Technology Risk (B and Protection system (A.

  2. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  3. Study of dynamic amplification factor of DEMO blanket caused by a gap at the supporting key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frosi, Paolo; Mazzone, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • With the preliminary hypothesis established, the dynamic displacements are not so high and the state of stress (not reported) does not exhibit large region with plastic strain. • The dynamic displacements show a certain dependency from the mesh adopted, and the geometry chosen. • The energy (kinetic or strain) of the whole structure gives useful information about the key behavior during impact. • In order to better understand the overall phenomenon other details (non-linear material, better evaluation of damping, other disruption rise-times and so on. - Abstract: Among the design activities of the in vessel components for DEMO promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization, this work deals with the gap required at the supporting keys of the blanket. Due to its higher operating temperatures compared to the vacuum vessel (VV) ones, this gap will increase during operation. The electro magnetic (EM) loads due to fast disruptions occur on a short time and might accelerate the blanket significantly before it touches the supporting keys, causing an impact of the blanket itself onto the keys. Depending on their stiffness, the EM loads with their short time scale could excite the structure's natural frequencies, causing dynamic amplification. Both phenomena (impact and dynamic amplification) can cause stresses in the structure significantly higher than the static ones. This work develops a finite element model of DEMO blanket to study its non-linear transient dynamic behavior under impact loadings. A VV sector, the ribs between the inner and outer VV, the backward manifolds and the supporting keys of the blanket have been modeled. The analyses have been performed with Abaqus [1] and Ansys [2] FEM codes focused on the displacements of the keys in their housing on the blanket. The dynamic amplification factor has been evaluated as the ratio of dynamic to static displacements in meaningful points of the structure for a growing gap

  4. Study of dynamic amplification factor of DEMO blanket caused by a gap at the supporting key

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.frosi@enea.it; Mazzone, Giuseppe

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • With the preliminary hypothesis established, the dynamic displacements are not so high and the state of stress (not reported) does not exhibit large region with plastic strain. • The dynamic displacements show a certain dependency from the mesh adopted, and the geometry chosen. • The energy (kinetic or strain) of the whole structure gives useful information about the key behavior during impact. • In order to better understand the overall phenomenon other details (non-linear material, better evaluation of damping, other disruption rise-times and so on. - Abstract: Among the design activities of the in vessel components for DEMO promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization, this work deals with the gap required at the supporting keys of the blanket. Due to its higher operating temperatures compared to the vacuum vessel (VV) ones, this gap will increase during operation. The electro magnetic (EM) loads due to fast disruptions occur on a short time and might accelerate the blanket significantly before it touches the supporting keys, causing an impact of the blanket itself onto the keys. Depending on their stiffness, the EM loads with their short time scale could excite the structure's natural frequencies, causing dynamic amplification. Both phenomena (impact and dynamic amplification) can cause stresses in the structure significantly higher than the static ones. This work develops a finite element model of DEMO blanket to study its non-linear transient dynamic behavior under impact loadings. A VV sector, the ribs between the inner and outer VV, the backward manifolds and the supporting keys of the blanket have been modeled. The analyses have been performed with Abaqus [1] and Ansys [2] FEM codes focused on the displacements of the keys in their housing on the blanket. The dynamic amplification factor has been evaluated as the ratio of dynamic to static displacements in meaningful points of the structure for a growing

  5. Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Ogawa, Satoshi; Uga, Yusaku; Selvaraj, Michael G.; Kagale, Sateesh

    2017-12-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as ERF (ethylene response factors), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ZFP (zinc finger proteins), WRKY and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review was to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been tested as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and nontransgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a gold-standard reference genome

  6. Key factors in the successful implementation of enterprise resource planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajollah Rahnavard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP are considered as the newest and most effective tools of enterprise resource planning and include an interconnected information, management and engineering system that meets all the needs of an organization. ERP implementation is costly and time-consuming and makes fundamental change in the process, if not implemented correctly it will cause challenges in most parts of the organization and will certainly fail. Therefore, the identification of key success factors in implementing ERP helps organizations avoid the loss of the project. This research aims to identify key success factors for ERP by examining 185 managers, professionals, experts of the Information and Communication Technology Institute associated with the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from exploratory factor analysis indicate that five factors: 1 user friendliness, flexible and consistency 2 establishment of project management; 3 alignment with user needs; 4 Management of organizational changes, and 5 observing the principles of successful implementation of ERP affect the institute and the corresponding suggestions are proposed consistent with these findings.

  7. Effect of 3 Key Factors on Average End to End Delay and Jitter in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Hakak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected by wireless links where each node or mobile device is independent to move in any desired direction and thus the links keep moving from one node to another. In such a network, the mobile nodes are equipped with CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance transceivers and communicate with each other via radio. In MANETs, routing is considered one of the most difficult and challenging tasks. Because of this, most studies on MANETs have focused on comparing protocols under varying network conditions. But to the best of our knowledge no one has studied the effect of other factors on network performance indicators like throughput, jitter and so on, revealing how much influence a particular factor or group of factors has on each network performance indicator. Thus, in this study the effects of three key factors, i.e. routing protocol, packet size and DSSS rate, were evaluated on key network performance metrics, i.e. average delay and average jitter, as these parameters are crucial for network performance and directly affect the buffering requirements for all video devices and downstream networks.

  8. Examining the Key Factors Affecting e-Service Quality of Small Online Apparel Businesses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Nawi Noorshella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available e-Service quality (eSQ is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online. This study, therefore, is aimed at identifying the key determinants of eSQ among the small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. This study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected from 765 customers who purchased apparel online at the point-of-purchase. Findings of this study indicate that “product information quality,” “website design,” “security and privacy,” and “expected consumer service” are the key determinants of eSQ among small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. The implication for the owner-managers of the apparel businesses in Malaysia is that they must be aware of the significance of the key eSQ indicators while designing their businesses, to attract and retain customers.

  9. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  10. Available nitrogen is the key factor influencing soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Xu, Han; Li, Yide; Deng, Ye; Li, Diqiang; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-08-20

    Tropical rainforests cover over 50% of all known plant and animal species and provide a variety of key resources and ecosystem services to humans, largely mediated by metabolic activities of soil microbial communities. A deep analysis of soil microbial communities and their roles in ecological processes would improve our understanding on biogeochemical elemental cycles. However, soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforests and causative factors remain unclear. GeoChip, contained almost all of the key functional genes related to biogeochemical cycles, could be used as a specific and sensitive tool for studying microbial gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest was analyzed by using GeoChip technology. Gene categories detected in the tropical rainforest soils were related to different biogeochemical processes, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling. The relative abundance of genes related to C and P cycling detected mostly derived from the cultured bacteria. C degradation gene categories for substrates ranging from labile C to recalcitrant C were all detected, and gene abundances involved in many recalcitrant C degradation gene categories were significantly (P rainforest. Soil available N could be the key factor in shaping the soil microbial functional gene structure and metabolic potential.

  11. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  12. Two-Factor User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A password authentication scheme using smart card is called two-factor authentication scheme. Two-factor authentication scheme is the most accepted and commonly used mechanism that provides the authorized users a secure and efficient method for accessing resources over insecure communication channel. Up to now, various two-factor user authentication schemes have been proposed. However, most of them are vulnerable to smart card loss attack, offline password guessing attack, impersonation attack, and so on. In this paper, we design a password remote user authentication with key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme has high level of security. Moreover, the proposed scheme is more practical and secure in contrast to some related schemes.

  13. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  14. The E2F transcription factors: key regulators of cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, the RB-1 gene and the corresponding protein, pRB, have been a focal point of cancer research. The isolation of E2F transcription factors provided the key to our current understanding of RB-1 function in the regulation of the cell cycle and in tumor suppression....... It is becoming more and more evident that the regulatory circuits governing the cell cycle are very complex and highly interlinked. Certain aspects of RB-1 function, for instance its role in differentiation, cannot be easily explained by the current models of pRB-E2F interaction. One reason is that pRB has...

  15. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  16. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-12-14

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  17. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.’s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment. PMID:27983616

  18. Effect of Loads and Other Key Factors on Oil-Transformer Ageing: Sustainability Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Godina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformers are one of the more expensive pieces of equipment found in a distribution network. The transformer’s role has not changed over the last decades. With simple construction and at the same time mechanically robust, they offer long term service that on average can reach half a century. Today, with the ongoing trend to supply a growing number of non-linear loads along with the notion of distributed generation (DG, a new challenge has arisen in terms of transformer sustainability, with one of the possible consequences being accelerated ageing. In this paper we carefully review the existing studies in the literature of the effect of loads and other key factors on oil-transformer ageing. The state-of-the-art is reviewed, each factor is analysed in detail, and in the end a smart transformer protection method is sought in order to monitor and protect it from upcoming challenges.

  19. CHILD-PARENT VIOLENCE: MAIN CHARACTERISTICS, RISK FACTORS AND KEYS TO INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Child-parent Violence (hereinafter CPV is an increasingly evident problem in the social, health, and judicial protection systems which, however, continue to show a number of major deficiencies with respect to the main characteristics of CPV, the people involved, the underlying factors, and efficacious interventions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus regarding its devastating consequences. The present bibliographical review is focused on analysing the problem of CPV with the aim of offering useful data for future research and intervention proposals. Specifically, this paper provides a definition of CPV and its types, some data on prevalence, the main characteristics of aggressive children and abused parents, and the most important individual, family, school and community risk factors highlighted in the current scientific literature. The keys areas of intervention with this group are also presented.

  20. Authenticated Blind Issuing of Symmetric Keys for Mobile Access Control System without Trusted Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile authentication can be used to verify a mobile user’s identity. Normally this is accomplished through the use of logon passwords, but this can raise the secret-key agreement problem between entities. This issue can be resolved by using a public-key cryptosystem, but mobile devices have limited computation ability and battery capacity and a PKI is needed. In this paper, we propose an efficient, non-PKI, authenticated, and blind issued symmetric key protocol for mobile access control systems. An easy-to-deploy authentication and authenticated key agreement system is designed such that empowered mobile devices can directly authorize other mobile devices to exchange keys with the server upon authentication using a non-PKI system without trusted parties. Empowered mobile users do not know the key value of the other mobile devices, preventing users from impersonating other individuals. Also, for security considerations, this system can revoke specific keys or keys issued by a specific user. The scheme is secure, efficient, and feasible and can be implemented in existing environments.

  1. Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ali Ataee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male′s hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001. The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient′s manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  2. [Discussion on developing a data management plan and its key factors in clinical study based on electronic data capture system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-na; Huang, Xiu-ling; Gao, Rui; Lu, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Data management has significant impact on the quality control of clinical studies. Every clinical study should have a data management plan to provide overall work instructions and ensure that all of these tasks are completed according to the Good Clinical Data Management Practice (GCDMP). Meanwhile, the data management plan (DMP) is an auditable document requested by regulatory inspectors and must be written in a manner that is realistic and of high quality. The significance of DMP, the minimum standards and the best practices provided by GCDMP, the main contents of DMP based on electronic data capture (EDC) and some key factors of DMP influencing the quality of clinical study were elaborated in this paper. Specifically, DMP generally consists of 15 parts, namely, the approval page, the protocol summary, role and training, timelines, database design, creation, maintenance and security, data entry, data validation, quality control and quality assurance, the management of external data, serious adverse event data reconciliation, coding, database lock, data management reports, the communication plan and the abbreviated terms. Among them, the following three parts are regarded as the key factors: designing a standardized database of the clinical study, entering data in time and cleansing data efficiently. In the last part of this article, the authors also analyzed the problems in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine using the EDC system and put forward some suggestions for improvement.

  3. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  4. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  5. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  6. Key Success Factors of Renewable Energy Projects Implementation in Rural Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Hermawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploratory study on renewable energy implementation in the rural areas of Indonesia. The study aim was to investigate the factors contributing to the sustainability of renewable energy projects in the rural areas. It mostly uses a qualitative approach. Primary data was mainly obtained from in-depth interviews conducted in site areas with the project owners, project managers, a key person in each local government, industry representatives, and the local community, including local leaders and users of renewable energy. Secondary data in the form of various official project reports was also used. The results indicated that the success of energy project implementation lay not only in good technology performance and long-term maintenance, but was also highly dependent on six key factors, namely: (1 project planning and development; (2 community participation; (3 active communication and beneficiaries; (4 availability of maintenance program, workshop and technician; (5 project management and institutionalization; (6 local government support and networks. The findings from this study provide useful insights to all stakeholders involved in the implementation of renewable energy technology for the rural areas in Indonesia.

  7. Key factors influencing the intention of telecare adoption: an institutional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore key factors of influence on the adoption of telecare by care institutions. This investigation was based on an extensive Technology-Organization-Environment framework comprising the four constructs of technology, organization, environment, and the project planning as well as corresponding variables. This study utilized a self-administered questionnaire for data collection, focusing on the managers of all 339 nursing homes in Taiwan for the census survey. A total of 70 valid questionnaires yielded a response rate of 20.65%. After analyzing the responses through the Partial Least Squares approach, government support, technological knowledge, supplier support, team skills, and compatibility were found to be the five key factors that positively impact intention to adopt telecare from an institutional perspective. The results of this study indicated that care institutions, for the most part, are willing to develop telecare and are already incorporating preliminary applications of telecare, such as distance learning and resident positioning. Solutions to potential issues related to implementing telecare in practice are also proposed in this study.

  8. Inhibition of VEGF: a novel mechanism to control angiogenesis by Withania somnifera's key metabolite Withaferin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential

  9. Prognosis in advanced lung cancer--A prospective study examining key clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Claribel P; Koinis, Filippos; Fallon, Marie T; Fearon, Kenneth C; Bowden, Jo; Solheim, Tora S; Gronberg, Bjorn Henning; McMillan, Donald C; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Laird, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    In patients with advanced incurable lung cancer deciding as to the most appropriate treatment (e.g., chemotherapy or supportive care only) is challenging. In such patients the TNM classification system has reached its ceiling therefore other factors are used to assess prognosis and as such, guide treatment. Performance status (PS), weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers (Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)) predict survival in advanced lung cancer however these have not been compared. This study compares key prognostic factors in advanced lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer were recruited and demographics, weight loss, other prognostic factors (mGPS, PS) were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to compare these prognostic factors. 390 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer were recruited; 341 were male, median age was 66 years (IQR 59-73) and patients had stage IV non-small cell (n=288) (73.8%) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (n=102) (26.2%). The median survival was 7.8 months. On multivariate analysis only performance status (HR 1.74 CI 1.50-2.02) and mGPS (HR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00) predicted survival (padvanced lung cancer. In combination, these improved survival prediction compared with either alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Key technologies of the server monitor and control system based on GSM short messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Taiwei; Zhou Zhenliu; Liu Baoxu

    2007-01-01

    The network management based on SNMP protocol cannot effectively monitor and control application-system states and key-process states on the computer server. Furthermore, it needs the administrator's longtime surveillance. When the administrator leaves the computer, he can't receive the malfunction message in time. In this paper we present a server monitor and control system based on monitor agents and GSM short messages, introduce the key technology to realize it, and implement a model system in the real network environment. (authors)

  11. Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro

    The hypothesis of this work is that there are social, financial, technical, managerial institutional and political key factors that may either support or prevent the success of small stand alone energy systems in rural areas. This research work aims at contributing to the identification of such factors and study their relevance to the performance and sustainability of stand alone energy systems in rural areas; to meet its purpose, a wide range of literature was reviewed including rural electrification programmes and projects, research and development projects on access to electricity in rural areas, impact studies and others, and a field research survey was done the Andes and Upper Jungle regions in Peru. Nineteen possible critical factors were identified, thirteen with relevance at the local context (the community or village), and six with relevance at the national (or wider) context. From literature review it was found that the possible local critical factors were relevant only to four categories of factors instead of the six considered initially (i.e. social, financial, technological and managerial): the other two categories, political and institutional were found to be more relevant to the national context, therefore those were included in the group of possible critical factors of wider context. A series of questionnaires were designed to collect field data information, which was later used to analyse and establish the relation of each identified factor with the success of the systems studied. The survey research was implemented in 14 villages, 7 with small diesel sets and 7 with small hydropower schemes, all spread in the Andes and Upper Jungle of Peru, which were carefully selected to be representative of regions with isolated stand alone systems and with different socioeconomic background. Out of the 13 possible critical factors of local context, it was found that only 3 are really critical, the others are important but not critical; one of them (technical

  12. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  13. Drought Response in Wheat: Key Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Root System Architecture and Transpiration Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kulkarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as, drought, heat, salinity, and flooding threaten global food security. Crop genetic improvement with increased resilience to abiotic stresses is a critical component of crop breeding strategies. Wheat is an important cereal crop and a staple food source globally. Enhanced drought tolerance in wheat is critical for sustainable food production and global food security. Recent advances in drought tolerance research have uncovered many key genes and transcription regulators governing morpho-physiological traits. Genes controlling root architecture and stomatal development play an important role in soil moisture extraction and its retention, and therefore have been targets of molecular breeding strategies for improving drought tolerance. In this systematic review, we have summarized evidence of beneficial contributions of root and stomatal traits to plant adaptation to drought stress. Specifically, we discuss a few key genes such as, DRO1 in rice and ERECTA in Arabidopsis and rice that were identified to be the enhancers of drought tolerance via regulation of root traits and transpiration efficiency. Additionally, we highlight several transcription factor families, such as, ERF (ethylene response factors, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ZFP (zinc finger proteins, WRKY, and MYB that were identified to be both positive and negative regulators of drought responses in wheat, rice, maize, and/or Arabidopsis. The overall aim of this review is to provide an overview of candidate genes that have been identified as regulators of drought response in plants. The lack of a reference genome sequence for wheat and non-transgenic approaches for manipulation of gene functions in wheat in the past had impeded high-resolution interrogation of functional elements, including genes and QTLs, and their application in cultivar improvement. The recent developments in wheat genomics and reverse genetics, including the availability of a

  14. Key factors of project success in family small and medium-sized companies: the theoretical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Arsic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a systematization of the key success factors of projects, through the theoretical review of family-owned companies operating in the EU market. It is the small and medium companies that in their own way contribute to the overall success of the national economy in terms of economic activity, increased employment, development activities and defining better business environment. The theoretical review observed numerous studies of family businesses, and the contribution of this work is in the systematization of the results of previous research – over three horizons, i.e., over the role of managers in the creation of successful projects (or owner if it is a family enterprise, institutional support for companies in Serbia and the EU, specific industries and the parent (regional markets where a family company operates. Project management, as a general representation of the concept of implementation of strategic and operational endeavors, contains many specifics in terms of critical success factors of projects depending on the environment in which they are implemented. The goal of the paper is reflected in the identification and presentation of critical success factors of projects implemented in family companies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the research results in relation to the existing, similar research studies, as well as with the announcement of future research, which will examine the conclusions drawn on a real sample.

  15. A Secure Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for TMIS With User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) and doctor(s) over the insecure internet. Therefore, data security, privacy and user authentication are enormously important for accessing important medical data over insecure communication. Recently, many user authentication protocols for TMIS have been proposed in the literature and it has been observed that most of the protocols cannot achieve complete security requirements. In this paper, we have scrutinized two (Mishra et al., Xu et al.) remote user authentication protocols using smart card and explained that both the protocols are suffering against several security weaknesses. We have then presented three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol usable for TMIS, which fix the security pitfalls of the above mentioned schemes. The informal cryptanalysis makes certain that the proposed protocol provides well security protection on the relevant security attacks. Furthermore, the simulator AVISPA tool confirms that the protocol is secure against active and passive attacks including replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The security functionalities and performance comparison analysis confirm that our protocol not only provide strong protection on security attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase as well as session key verification property.

  16. Adjuvants are key factors for the development of future vaccines: Lessons from the Finlay Adjuvant platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver ePérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective vaccines against neglected diseases, especially those associated with poverty and social deprivation, is urgently needed. Modern vaccine technologies and a better understanding of the immune response have provided scientists with the tools for rational and safer design of subunit vaccines. Often, however, subunit vaccines do not elicit strong immune responses, highlighting the need to incorporate better adjuvants; this step therefore becomes a key factor for vaccine development. In this review we outline some key features of modern vaccinology that are linked with the development of better adjuvants. In line with the increased desire to obtain novel adjuvants for future vaccines, the Finlay Adjuvant Platform offers a novel approach for the development of new and effective adjuvants. The Finlay Adjuvants (AFs, AFPL (proteoliposome and AFCo (cochleate, were initially designed for parenteral and mucosal applications, and constitute potent adjuvants for the induction of Th1 responses against several antigens. This review summarizes the status of the Finlay technology in producing promising adjuvants for unsolved-vaccine diseases including mucosal approaches and therapeutic vaccines. Ideas related to adjuvant classification, adjuvant selection, and their possible influence on innate recognition via multiple toll-like receptors are also discussed.

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha has a key role in hypoxic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Satoshi; Ono, Junichiro; Iwanaga, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Shuhei; Asaga, Takehiko; Chujo, Kosuke; Ueki, Masaaki

    2009-08-01

    Sublethal hypoxia induces tolerance to subsequent hypoxic insults in a process known as hypoxic preconditioning (HP). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key transcription protein involved in the mechanism of HP. In this study, we investigated the effects of HP on tissue oxygenation and expression of HIF-1 alpha gene targets in the brain using neural cell-specific HIF-1 alpha-deficient mice. The animals were exposed to 8% oxygen for 3 hours. Twenty-four hours later, the oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) of brain tissue and gene expression were measured during hypoxia. HP improved the pO(2) of brain tissue during subsequent hypoxia with upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase in wild-type mice, whereas HP had no detectable effect in the mutant mice. Our results indicate that the protective effects of HP may be partially mediated by improving tissue oxygenation via HIF-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  18. Resources changes: a key factor in a new uranium production economic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Caumartin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of 1994, a change has been underway in the uranium market. As usual in such cases, surprise and disbelief first dominated, but the market actors have been adjusting quickly to what now appears to be a return to primary production as the predominant factor in uranium supply. It is a matter of fact that the fundamentals will determine the course of the uranium market, as with other cyclical commodity markets. Comparing 1995 with 1975, a time of rocketing prices and production, and forecasting another cycle with similar characteristics to the last one is tempting, but illusory. However, examining the relative conditions prevailing at these times provides keys that may be helpful in understanding future developments. (author)

  19. Competences and knowledge: Key-factors in the smart city of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective and modern management of competence development, which represents a distinguishing key-factor in future Smart Cities, cannot be limited to the Learning Management exclusively, but rather be inclusive of aspects pertaining to Human Capital and Performance Management in a holistic vision that encompasses not only the sphere of operations but also the tactical and strategic levels. In particular, organizations need solutions that especially integrate Learning Management, Performance Management, and Human Resource Management (HRM. We propose an approach considering the competences as key-factors in the management and valorization of Human Capital and making use of a socio-constructivist learning model, based on the explicit (ontological modeling of domain competences as well as a learner and didactic oriented approach. Unlike most of the current solutions, far from the proposed vision and concentrated on specific functionalities and not on the processes as a whole, the solution offered by MOMA, spin-off of the Research Group of the University of Salerno led by Prof. Salerno, is here presented as a demonstrative case of the proposed methodology and approach. A distinctive feature of our proposal, supported by the MOMA solution is the adoption of semantic technologies that for instance allows for the discovery of unpredictable paths linking them in the Knowledge Graph. Finally, we discuss how this framework can be applied in the context of the Smart Cities of the future, taking advantage of the features, enabled especially by semantics, of researching, creating, combining, delivering and using in a creative manner the resources of superior quality offered by Smart Cities.

  20. Hyperosmotic stress regulates the distribution and stability of myocardin-related transcription factor, a key modulator of the cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Donald L.; Waheed, Faiza; Lodyga, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin-regulated coactiv......Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin......-regulated coactivator of serum response factor, is a major link between the actin skeleton and transcriptional control. We therefore investigated whether MRTF is regulated by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that hypertonicity induces robust, rapid, and transient translocation of MRTF from the cytosol to the nucleus...... in kidney tubular cells. We found that the hyperosmolarity-triggered MRTF translocation is mediated by the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway. Moreover, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress, and it is a key contributor to the ensuing RhoA activation and MRTF...

  1. Strategy and implementation of resources control of key equipments in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Qing

    2014-01-01

    The strategic resources of the construction of nuclear power plant, which include the main equipment of nuclear island, heavy forgings, the bottleneck equipment and strategic materials, is one of the key issues in the construction of nuclear power projects. The control of these strategic resources has become the focus of competition in industry and the major nuclear power groups are willing to fight for this huge advantages. The resource control strategies of key equipment of nuclear power projects are analyzed in this paper. This paper put forward specific measures and methods for the strategic resources control. By the application to a plurality of nuclear power engineering construction projects, these specific measures and methods achieved good results and will be with important guidance and reference for the construction of future nuclear power projects in China. (author)

  2. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  3. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex as a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Koizume

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF–fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF–fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF–fVII function.

  4. Public/private partners. Key factors in creating a strategic alliance for community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J C; Rashid, H; Galvin, V G; Essien, J D; Levine, L M

    1999-04-01

    The rapidly evolving American health system creates economic and societal incentives for public and private health organizations to collaborate. Despite the apparent benefits of collaboration, there is a paucity of information available to help local agencies develop partnerships. This study, itself a collaboration between a school of public health (SPH) and a Georgia health district, was undertaken to identify critical factors necessary to successfully initiate and sustain a public/private community health collaboration. Professional staff at the SPH conducted 26 standardized interviews involving participants from Cobb and Douglas counties Boards of Health; Promina Northwest (now known as Wellstar), a not-for-profit health system; and community stakeholders. Content analysis of each interview question was performed and comparisons were made both within each group and across groups. Trends were identified in the following key areas: vision of health care for Cobb and Douglas counties, forces driving collaboration, strengths of each organization, critical negotiating issues, and potential community gain resulting from the partnership. A shared vision between potential collaborators facilitates communication regarding strategies to achieve common goals. A previous history of working together in limited capacities allowed the partners to develop trust and respect for one another prior to entering negotiations. These factors, when taken in conjunction with each organization's strong leadership and knowledge of the community, build a strong foundation for a successful partnership.

  5. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  6. Organization of anti-phase synchronization pattern in neural networks: what are the key factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eLi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neuralnetwork. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization ofanti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding morecomplicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamicalsystems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation patternhas usually been considered to relate to time-delay in coupling.This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks inthe brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials.However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, suchas modular organization (connection density and the coupling types(excitatory or inhibitory, could also play an important role. Inthis work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation patternorganized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model orneural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delaytimes, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our resultsshow that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in thisorganization. The connection densities may have an influence on thestability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors.Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slowoscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there isinteraction between slow and fast oscillations. These results aresignificant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporaldynamics of cortico-cortical communications.

  7. A key inactivation factor of HeLa cell viability by a plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Mayo [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Recently, a plasma flow has been applied to medical treatment using effects of various kinds of stimuli such as chemical species, charged particles, heat, light, shock wave and electric fields. Among them, the chemical species are known to cause an inactivation of cell viability. However, the mechanisms and key factors of this event are not yet clear. In this study, we focused on the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in plasma-treated culture medium because it is generated in the culture medium and it is also chemically stable compared with free radicals generated by the plasma flow. To elucidate the significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we assessed the differences in the effects of plasma-treated medium and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium against inactivation of HeLa cell viability. These two media showed comparable effects on HeLa cells in terms of the survival ratios, morphological features of damage processes, permeations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the cells, response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition by catalase and comprehensive gene expression. The results supported that among chemical species generated in a plasma-treated culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the main factors responsible for inactivation of HeLa cell viability. (fast track communication)

  8. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: Key distal household and community factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Whitney B.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7,266 children in the Youn...

  9. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO 2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review

  10. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a

  11. [Strategy of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis and its effect in key areas of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Ping; Tian, Zeng-Xi; Yang, Kun; Hong, Qing-Biao; Gao, Yang; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Lian-Heng; Yang, Guo-Jing; Min, Jie; Ge, Jun; Wu, Hong-Hui; Huang, Yi-Xin; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis in key areas of Jiangsu Province. The basic data and the data of implementation of comprehensive control measures were collected from the key areas of Jiangsu Province, including 30 townships, 87 marshlands and 78 anchor points. A field survey was carried out to investigate the Oncomelania snail status by using the systematic sampling method and schistosomiasis morbidity in humans and animals in the 12 key counties (districts). The changes of snail status and morbidity of humans and animals were statistically analyzed in key counties (districts) where comprehensive control measures was implemented, and the effects of schistosomiasis control before and after the implementation of the comprehensive control were compared. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 84 100 harmless latrines were constructed, 339 600 persons were examined, 2.6938 million people received health education, 112 000 protective creams and 798 000 publicity materials were allocated, 9 085 domestic animals were reared in pens, 11 800 domestic animals were examined, 130 high-risk cattle were eliminated in 30 key townships of 12 countries (districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 19 640.78 hm2 were controlled with molluscicides, 798 warning tablets were placed, 116.07 hm2 of farmlands were ploughed up and planted, 306.80 hm2 were dug for fish culture, and 506.74 hm2 were planted with trees for snail control in 87 high-risk marshlands. A total of 118.83 million Yuan were invested into the water resources development projects, 39.82 km-long rivers were dredged, 70.04 km-long bank were concreted, 30 culvert gates were re-constructed, and 22 snail sedimentation tanks were built. In the 78 anchor points, 95 harmless public toilets were built, 3 192 stool container were allocated, 28 700 boatmen were examined, 71 600 protective creams and 53 200 publicity materials were allocated, and 46 600 persons received health education. Following the

  12. The vision of immigrant students about key factors and skills for access to college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cano García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important challenges in education is working against absenteeism and school dropout. Especially relevant is the case of immigrant students who are a vulnerable group, fact that causes a high difference in results between immigrants and native students, so that only a very small percentage reaches college.For this reason, the study “Competencies and keys for an educational success from the perspective of college students’ children of immigrants” (2009 ARAF1 00010 has sought to identify the key factors and skills that college students from immigrant families in Catalonia (Spain feel have been useful for their educational success, educational success seen as the enrolment in programs beyond compulsory education.The study methodology has been predominantly qualitative using three different sources of data collection: life stories, audiovisual narratives and questionnaires. Specifically for this article we refer to the results analyzed through the life stories of 13 college students from immigrant backgrounds who had done all or part of their primary school in the Spanish education system, considering for their selecting the age of arrival, their nationality and the variety of universities and degrees where they were enrolled.The results of the study support the findings of previous researches (Aja et al.; Huguet & Navarro, 2006; Ferrer, 2009; OECD, 2010; Instituto de Evaluación, 2010. Student participants have referred to the importance of family expectations and support, especially when it has been given in conjunction with the school. They especially emphasized the role of mothers as a basic figure to encourage perseverance and dedication to studies. Moreover, in the educational environment it has been particularly appreciated the role the high school teachers who in many cases were the key on having great expectations for them and communicating these explicitly. Finally, regarding the competences, which have been the focus

  13. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  14. Granuloma encapsulation is a key factor for containing tuberculosis infection in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Díaz, Ivan; Vilaplana, Cristina; Tapia, Gustavo; Díaz, Jorge; Fort, María; Cáceres, Neus; Pinto, Sergio; Caylà, Joan; Corner, Leigh; Domingo, Mariano; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2010-04-06

    A transthoracic infection involving a low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been used to establish a new model of infection in minipigs. The 20-week monitoring period showed a marked Th1 response and poor humoral response for the whole infection. A detailed histopathological analysis was performed after slicing the formalin-fixed whole lungs of each animal. All lesions were recorded and classified according to their microscopic aspect, their relationship with the intralobular connective network and their degree of maturity in order to obtain a dissemination ratio (DR) between recent and old lesions. CFU counts and evolution of the DR with time showed that the proposed model correlated with a contained infection, decreasing from week 9 onwards. These findings suggest that the infection induces an initial Th1 response, which is followed by local fibrosis and encapsulation of the granulomas, thereby decreasing the onset of new lesions. Two therapeutic strategies were applied in order to understand how they could influence the model. Thus, chemotherapy with isoniazid alone helped to decrease the total number of lesions, despite the increase in DR after week 9, with similar kinetics to those of the control group, whereas addition of a therapeutic M. tuberculosis fragment-based vaccine after chemotherapy increased the Th1 and humoral responses, as well as the number of lesions, but decreased the DR. By providing a local pulmonary structure similar to that in humans, the mini-pig model highlights new aspects that could be key to a better understanding tuberculosis infection control in humans.

  15. Plutonium in the environment: key factors related to impact assessment in case of an accidental atmospheric release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, P. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Moulin, V.; Reiller, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 (FR)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with plutonium and key factors related to impact assessment. It is based on recent work performed by CEA which summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installations to the environment and man, and to report current knowledge on the different parameters used in models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. These key factors are illustrated through a case study based on an accidental atmospheric release of Pu in a nuclear facility. (orig.)

  16. Study of the key factors affecting the triple grid lifetime of the LIPS-300 ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingming, SUN; Liang, WANG; Juntai, YANG; Xiaodong, WEN; Yongjie, HUANG; Meng, WANG

    2018-04-01

    In order to ascertain the key factors affecting the lifetime of the triple grids in the LIPS-300 ion thruster, the thermal deformation, upstream ion density and component lifetime of the grids are simulated with finite element analysis, fluid simulation and charged-particle tracing simulation methods on the basis of a 1500 h short lifetime test. The key factor affecting the lifetime of the triple grids in the LIPS-300 ion thruster is obtained and analyzed through the test results. The results show that ion sputtering erosion of the grids in 5 kW operation mode is greater than in the case of 3 kW. In 5 kW mode, the decelerator grid shows the most serious corrosion, the accelerator grid shows moderate corrosion, and the screen grid shows the least amount of corrosion. With the serious corrosion of the grids in 5 kW operation mode, the intercept current of the acceleration and deceleration grids increases substantially. Meanwhile, the cold gap between the accelerator grid and the screen grid decreases from 1 mm to 0.7 mm, while the cold gap between the accelerator grid and the decelerator grid increases from 1 mm to 1.25 mm after 1500 h of thruster operation. At equilibrium temperature with 5 kW power, the finite element method (FEM) simulation results show that the hot gap between the screen grid and the accelerator grid reduces to 0.2 mm. Accordingly, the hot gap between the accelerator grid and the decelerator grid increases to 1.5 mm. According to the fluid method, the plasma density simulated in most regions of the discharge chamber is 1 × 1018‑8 × 1018 m‑3. The upstream plasma density of the screen grid is in the range 6 × 1017‑6 × 1018 m‑3 and displays a parabolic characteristic. The charged particle tracing simulation method results show that the ion beam current without the thermal deformation of triple grids has optimal perveance status. The ion sputtering rates of the accelerator grid hole and the decelerator hole are 5.5 × 10‑14 kg s‑1 and

  17. HIF-1 α as a Key Factor in Bile Duct Ligation-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczydlowska, Joanna; Miltyk, Wojciech; Hermanowicz, Adam; Lebensztejn, Dariusz M; Palka, Jerzy A; Debek, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    Although several studies suggested hypoxia as an important microenvironmental factor contributing to inflammation and fibrosis in chronic liver diseases, the mechanism of this process is not fully understood. We considered hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) as a key transcription factor in liver fibrosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mechanisms of signaling pathway during bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. BDL animal model of liver fibrosis was used in the study. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two experimental groups: sham group (n = 15), BDL group (n = 30). Hydroxyproline (Hyp) content as a marker of collagen accumulation in liver of rats subjected to BDL was evaluated according to the method described by Gerling B et al. Expression of signaling proteins [integrin β 1 receptor, HIF-1α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and transforming growth factor (TGF-β)] was evaluated applying Western-immunoblot analysis. In all experiments, the mean values for six assays ± standard deviations (SD) were calculated. The results were submitted to the statistical analysis using the Student's "t" test, accepting p bile ducts was found to increase Hyp content in rat liver, accompanied by increase of HIF-1α expression during 10 weeks after BDL. The Hyp level was time dependent. There was not such a difference in control group (p livers were increased 1 week after surgery and remained increased until the end of the experiment. The mechanism of development of liver fibrosis involves activation of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), upregulation of HIF-1α transcriptional activity and its related factors, NF-κB and TGF-β. It suggests that they may represent targets for the treatment of the disease.

  18. Smoking in pregnancy a key factor for sudden infant death among Māori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, M; Mitchell, E A; Thompson, J M D; Lawton, B; Zuccollo, J; Elder, D; Taylor, B; McDonald, G; Stewart, A W; Percival, T; Baker, N; Schlaud, M; Fleming, P

    2018-06-05

    To examine the Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) disparity between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. A nationwide prospective case-control study ran from March 2012-February 2015. Exposure to established SUDI risk factors was analysed to investigate the disparity experienced by Māori. Infant ethnicity was based on mother's ethnicity. Māori ethnicity was prioritised. Non-Māori includes Pacific, Asian, NZ European and Other. There were 137 cases and 649 controls. The Māori SUDI rate was 1.41/1,000 live births compared to 0.53/1,000 for non-Māori. Parents/caregivers of 133 cases (97%) and 258 controls (40%) were interviewed. Smoking in pregnancy was associated with an equally-increased SUDI risk for Māori (adjusted OR=8.11, 95%CI=2.64, 24.93) and non-Māori (aOR=5.09, 95% CI=1.79, 14.47), as was bed-sharing (aOR=3.66, 95% CI=1.49, 9.00 versus aOR=11.20, 95% CI=3.46, 36.29). Bed-sharing prevalence was similar, however more Māori controls smoked during pregnancy (46.7%) than non-Māori (22.8%). The main contributor relating to increased SUDI risk for Māori/non-Māori infants is the combination of smoking in pregnancy and bed-sharing. The association between known SUDI risk factors, including bed-sharing and/or smoking in pregnancy and SUDI risk, is the same regardless of ethnicity. Māori infants are exposed more frequently to both behaviours because of the higher Māori smoking rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Overall analysis of the cost key factors for the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caero, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, 25,8 % of the world electricity consumption was of nuclear origin, while in the EU this figure is increased up to 50,6 %. In order to maintain and even to increase its share in the electricity generation, Nuclear Energy needs to achieve a good economic performance as a base load source when compared with its competitors, basically coal and gas fired plants. Fossil-fired generation costs have declined over the past ten years, mainly due to lower fossil fuel prices. This factor together with the recently observed tendency of higher discount rates to be applied are challenging the attractiveness of the nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is a capital intensive option. Taken into account extensive standardization programs has been established aiming at cost reductions as well as to increase efficiency of nuclear energy utilization, among their main purposes. Externalities play an important role, as they are already internalized in nuclear generation costs. This is not true for many existing coal-fired plants. Even a great uncertainly exists on greenhouse gas effects. Also decisions on greenhouse gas control and their impact on carbonaceous fuel generation costs cannot be clearly predicted, even in the immediate future. Macroeconomic factors like employment, competitiveness, energy conservation, energy availability, energy demand control, etc are positively influenced by the use of nuclear energy. A sustainable economic development cannot be achieved only relying on fossil fuel generation. As a wrap up sustainable development demands nuclear energy in order to cover the future objectives of energy availability, environmental control and energy cost control. (author)

  20. Original article Key factors for successful solving of mathematical word problems in fifth-grade learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kavkler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Difficulties in solving mathematical word problems (MWP are one of the most common reasons for weak mathematics performance, and poor mathematical literacy has important implications for an individual’s further education, employment opportunities, mental health and quality of life in today’s modern technological society. The purpose of the study was to examine whether Slovenian good and poor MWP solvers differ in arithmetic knowledge and skills, non-verbal reasoning, pupils’ self-evaluations of MWP abilities, teachers’ assessment of their mathematical knowledge and what strategies fifth- grade learners use in solving MWP. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The larger sample included 233 pupils from 14 fifth-grade classes (mean age 10 years 3 months and 14 teachers. On the basis of the teachers’ opinions and the results of MWP solving two sub-samples of 24 students were formed, good and poor MWP solvers. Several tests were used to determine MWP solving ability, automation of arithmetic facts and procedures as well as Raven’s SPM. Questionnaires for pupils were used to assess pupils’ estimations of MWP tasks’ difficulty, their own ability to solve them and the strategies used. To assess pupils’ knowledge a questionnaire for teachers was used. RESULTS Slovenian 5 th graders in the larger sample generally used very few empirically proven effective cognitive and metacognitive strategies to solve MWP. Pupils with lower achievement in solving MWP, compared to pupils with higher achievement demonstrated significantly less automated arithmetic facts and procedures of the algorithm, less flexible use of arithmetic skills, as well as qualitatively different MWP solving, which is also related to their lower non-verbal reasoning. Teachers’ assessments and pupils’ self-assessments matched the achieved test results. CONCLUSIONS The results exposed important key factors for successful solving of mathematical word problems with

  1. Dome effect of black carbon and its key influencing factors: a one-dimensional modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilin; Huang, Xin; Ding, Aijun

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been identified to play a critical role in aerosol-planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction and further deterioration of near-surface air pollution in megacities, which has been referred to as the dome effect. However, the impacts of key factors that influence this effect, such as the vertical distribution and aging processes of BC, as well as the underlying land surface, have not been quantitatively explored yet. Here, based on available in situ measurements of meteorology and atmospheric aerosols together with the meteorology-chemistry online coupled model WRF-Chem, we conduct a set of parallel simulations to quantify the roles of these factors in influencing the BC dome effect and surface haze pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the main implications of the results to air pollution mitigation in China. We found that the impact of BC on the PBL is very sensitive to the altitude of aerosol layer. The upper-level BC, especially that near the capping inversion, is more essential in suppressing the PBL height and weakening the turbulent mixing. The dome effect of BC tends to be significantly intensified as BC mixed with scattering aerosols during winter haze events, resulting in a decrease in PBL height by more than 15 %. In addition, the dome effect is more substantial (up to 15 %) in rural areas than that in the urban areas with the same BC loading, indicating an unexpected regional impact of such an effect to air quality in countryside. This study indicates that China's regional air pollution would greatly benefit from BC emission reductions, especially those from elevated sources from chimneys and also domestic combustion in rural areas, through weakening the aerosol-boundary layer interactions that are triggered by BC.

  2. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  3. Post-Mergers and Acquisitions: The Motives, Success Factors and Key Success Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem El Zuhairy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide body of evidence showing a significant increase in the adoption of mergers and acquisitions (M&A worldwide. Moreover, research confirms that the integration and implementation stage (post-M&A has a major impact on the success or failure of a merger or acquisition. Therefore it has become increasingly important to explore the post-M&A phase further in order to support the management teams of organizations pursuing a merger or acquisition in meeting all their desired objectives. This paper proposes a framework to help in the successful execution of M&A. The framework contains three main elements: the motives, success factors and key success indicators (KSI. A qualitative research approach using the multiple case study methodology was conducted to test the framework. Ten case studies were selected from the industrial sector in Egypt and used to validate the research. The final version of the M&A framework was provided after applying the research results. Considering the practical implications of the M&A framework, a tool was proposed for its application in light of the balanced scorecard (BSC methodology. The proposed M&A scorecard tool should be used in the strategic planning and execution of M&A. Both the proposed M&A framework and the M&A scorecard tool should be used to guide the implementation of M&A in order to increase the success rate enjoyed by organizations.

  4. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  5. Key Factors Affecting the Price of Airbnb Listings: A Geographically Weighted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Airbnb has been increasingly gaining popularity since 2008 due to its low prices and direct interactions with the local community. This paper employed a general linear model (GLM and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model to identify the key factors affecting Airbnb listing prices using data sets of 794 samples of Airbnb listings of business units in Metro Nashville, Tennessee. The results showed that the GWR model performs better than the GLM in terms of accuracy and affected variable selections. Statistically significant differences varied across regions in Metro Nashville. The coefficients illustrate a decreasing trend while there is an increase in the distance from the listed units to the convention center, which indicates that Airbnb listing prices are more sensitive to the distance from the convention center in the central area than in other areas. These findings can also provide implications for stakeholders such as Airbnb hosts to gain a better understanding of the market situation and formulate a suitable pricing strategy.

  6. Effects of key factors on solar aided methane steam reforming in porous medium thermochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Ma, Lanxin; Leng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of key factors on chemical reaction for solar methane reforming are studied. • MCRT and FVM method coupled with UDFs is used to establish numerical model. • Heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction is established. • LTNE model coupled with P1 approximation is used for porous matrix solar reactor. • A formula between H 2 production and conductivity of porous matrix is put forward. - Abstract: With the aid of solar energy, methane reforming process can save up to 20% of the total methane consumption. Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method and Finite Volume Method (FVM) combined method are developed to establish the heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction kinetics for porous medium solar thermochemical reactor. In order to provide more temperature information, local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model coupled with P1 approximation is established to investigate the thermal performance of porous medium solar thermochemical reaction. Effects of radiative heat loss and thermal conductivity of porous matrix on temperature distribution and thermochemical reaction for solar driven steam methane reforming process are numerically studied. Besides, the relationship between hydrogen production and thermal conductivity of porous matrix are analyzed. The results illustrate that hydrogen production shows a 3 order polynomial relation with thermal conductivity of porous matrix

  7. On key factors influencing ductile fractures of dual phase (DP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Choi, K.S.; Soulami, A.; Liu, W.N.; Khaleel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the key factors influencing ductile failure of various grades of dual phase (DP) steels using the microstructure-based modeling approach. Various microstructure-based finite element models are generated based on the actual microstructures of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions. These models are, then, used to investigate the influence of ductility of the constituent ferrite phase and also the influence of voids introduced in the ferrite phase on the overall ductility of DP steels. It is found that with volume fraction of martensite in the microstructure less than 15%, the overall ductility of the DP steels strongly depends on the ductility of the ferrite matrix, hence pre-existing micro-voids in the microstructure significantly reduce the overall ductility of the steel. When the volume fraction of martensite is above 15%, the pre-existing voids in the ferrite matrix does not significantly reduce the overall ductility of the DP steels, and the overall ductility is more influenced by the mechanical property disparity between the two phases. The applicability of the phase inhomogeneity driven ductile failure of DP steels is then discussed based on the obtained computational results for various grades of DP steels, and the experimentally obtained scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of the corresponding grades of DP steels near fracture surface are used as evidence for result validations.

  8. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor AtTCP15 Regulates Endoreduplication by Modulating Expression of Key Cell-cycle Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yu Li; Bin Li; Ai-Wu Dong

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication,a modified cell cycle in which genome is repeatedly replicated without cytokinesis.As the key step to achieve final size and function for cells,endoreduplication is prevalent during plant development.However,mechanisms to control the balance between endoreduplication and mitotic cell division are still poorly understood.Here,we show that the Arabidopsis TCP (CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF)-family transcription factor gene AtTCP15 is expressed in trichomes,as well as in rapidly dividing and vascular tissues.Expression of AtTCP15SRDX,AtTCP15 fused with a SRDX repressor domain,induces extra endoreduplication in trichomes and cotyledon cells in transgenic Arabidopsis.On the contrary,overexpression of AtTCP15 suppresses endoreduplication in trichomes and other examined cells.Misregulation of AtTCP15 affects the expression of several important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.AtTCP15 protein binds directly to the promoter regions of CYCA2;3 and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) genes,which play key roles in endoreduplication.Taken together,AtTCP15 plays an important role in regulating endoreduplication during Arabidopsis development.

  9. Turbidity in oil-in-water-emulsions - Key factors and visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, C; Drusch, S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to systematically describe the factors affecting turbidity in beverage emulsions and to get a better understanding of visual perception of turbidity. The sensory evaluation of the human visual perception of turbidity showed that humans are most sensitive to turbidity differences between two samples in the range between 1000 and 1500 NTU (ratio) (nephelometric turbidity units). At very high turbidity values >2000 TU in NTU (ratio) were needed to distinguish between samples that they were perceived significantly different. Particle size was the most important factor affecting turbidity. It was shown that a maximum turbidity occurs at a mean volume - surface diameter of 0.2μm for the oil droplet size. Additional parameters were the refractive index, the composition of the aqueous phase and the presence of excess emulsifier. In a concentration typical for a beverage emulsion a change in the refractive index of the oil phase may allow the alteration of turbidity by up to 30%. With the knowledge on visual perception of turbidity and the determining factors, turbidity can be tailored in product development according to the customer requirements and in quality control to define acceptable variations in optical appearance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Key Success Factors in the Brazilian Coffee Agrichain: Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Florêncio de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production has grown 100% in volume over the past 30 years, accounting for 144 million coffee bags produced in 2015. Brazil responded to 42% of this production, along with Vietnam (19%, Colombia (9%, Indonesia (8%, and Ethiopia (4% (OIC, 2016. Following this pace, the consumption expanded not only in such traditional markets as the United States (4.2 kg/year, Germany (6.9 kg/year, and France (5.7 kg/year but also in tea-driven markets, such as Japan, Korea, Russia, and China (CECAFE, 2013. In 2015, Brazil harvested 43.2 million 60-kg bags of green coffee, 32 million of which were of Arabica coffee and 11.2 million of a Conilon species (CONAB, 2016. The planted area in Brazil is 2.3 million hectares, and there are about 287,000 producers, predominantly mini- and small farmers. Having continental dimensions, the country presents a variety of climates, reliefs, altitudes, and latitudes that allow the production of a wide range of types and qualities of coffee (MAPA, 2016. This research aimed to clarify present and future challenges for the Brazilian coffee agrichain, considering the growing demand and also competitiveness between the coffee countries’ producers. To capture the vivid perception of the actors in the coffee chain, a qualitative approach was employed. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 10 coffee specialists were interviewed to identify the coffee sector’s main milestones for Brazil over the next 30 years. The findings culminated in eight key success factors for coffee-farming management. Finally, in the second phase, the results of phase two were submitted for analysis by 39 coffee farmers through three discussion panels held in the major producing regions: Sul de Minas (corresponding to 25% of the national production, Cerrado Mineiro (with 10%, and Matas de Minas (with 16% (MAPA, 2016. The third phase comprised the data analysis, aggregating the patterns by regions and by critical factors. The

  11. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    , ignoring sensitive history life stages of organisms and transgenerational effects. To link sources, ecosystem transfer and biological effects to future impact and risks, a series of models are usually interfaced, while uncertainty estimates are seldom given. The model predictions are, however, only valid within the boundaries of the overall uncertainties. Furthermore, the model predictions are only useful and relevant when uncertainties are estimated, communicated and understood. Among key factors contributing most to uncertainties, the present paper focuses especially on structure uncertainties (model bias or discrepancies) as aspects such as particle releases, ecosystem dynamics, mixed exposure, sensitive life history stages and transgenerational effects, are usually ignored in assessment models. Research focus on these aspects should significantly reduce the overall uncertainties in the impact and risk assessment of radioactive contaminated ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrology and human behavior: two key factors of diarrhea incidence in montane tropical humid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boithias, Laurie; Choisy, Marc; Souliyaseng, Noy; Jourdren, Marine; Quet, Fabrice; Buisson, Yves; Thammahacksa, Chanthamousone; Silvera, Norbert; Latsachack, Keooudone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Pierret, Alain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Becerra, Sylvia; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. In this study we hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. For this mixed methods approach, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature), hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature) at the outlet of 2 catchments in Northern Lao PDR, and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported in 6 health centers located in the Luang Prabang Province. We also examined the socio-behavioral factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources and hygiene habits. We found the FIB Escherichia coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 MPN 100 mL-1) indicating that fecal contamination is ubiquitous and constant. We found that populations switch their water supply from wells to surface water during drought periods, the latter of which appear to be at higher risk of bacterial contamination than municipal water fountains. We thus found that water shortage in the Luang Prabang area triggers diarrhea peaks during the dry and hot season and that rainfall and aquifer refill ends the epidemic during the wet season. We thus found that anthropogenic drivers, such as hygiene practices, were at least as important as environmental drivers in determining the seasonal pattern of a

  13. Key issues in the persistence of poliomyelitis in Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Mwanza, Michael; Gasasira, Alex; Abanida, Emmanuel; Pate, Muhammed A; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32.1%, 95% CI 26.1-38.1) and bivalent OPV (29.5%, 20.1-38.4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19.4%, 16.1-22.8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43.2% (23.1-61.1) and 23.8% (5.3-44.9) compared with 18.0% (14.1-22.1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0.05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21

  14. Finding of key factors in creating small business system’s success : The case study in Thai restaurants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Maleekaew, Chiraluck; Sudthamnong, Sirinun

    2007-01-01

    Research Questions: Which factors are the actual impacts for the success of Thai restaurant in Sweden? Aims of Research: To investigate the key factors that may cause the success within a restaurant. The success of the restaurant in this research is a restaurant that has positive financial result, revenue more than cost. Positive financial result shows that they manage the quality of the restaurant effectively. Methodology: This thesis studies and analyzes the variables and factors in process...

  15. Evolving Systems: Adaptive Key Component Control and Inheritance of Passivity and Dissipativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. Autonomous assembly of large, complex flexible structures in space is a target application for Evolving Systems. A critical requirement for autonomous assembling structures is that they remain stable during and after assembly. The fundamental topic of inheritance of stability, dissipativity, and passivity in Evolving Systems is the primary focus of this research. In this paper, we develop an adaptive key component controller to restore stability in Nonlinear Evolving Systems that would otherwise fail to inherit the stability traits of their components. We provide sufficient conditions for the use of this novel control method and demonstrate its use on an illustrative example.

  16. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was

  17. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    , ignoring sensitive history life stages of organisms and transgenerational effects. To link sources, ecosystem transfer and biological effects to future impact and risks, a series of models are usually interfaced, while uncertainty estimates are seldom given. The model predictions are, however, only valid within the boundaries of the overall uncertainties. Furthermore, the model predictions are only useful and relevant when uncertainties are estimated, communicated and understood. Among key factors contributing most to uncertainties, the present paper focuses especially on structure uncertainties (model bias or discrepancies) as aspects such as particle releases, ecosystem dynamics, mixed exposure, sensitive life history stages and transgenerational effects, are usually ignored in assessment models. Research focus on these aspects should significantly reduce the overall uncertainties in the impact and risk assessment of radioactive contaminated ecosystems. - Highlights: • Source term uncertainties: ignoring radionuclide speciation radioactive particles, the inventory can be underestimated. • Ecosystem transfer uncertainties: Ignoring time dependent interactions, transfer rates and pathways can be wrongly assessed. • Exposure uncertainties: ignoring stressor interactions and effects, effects cannot be judged. • Response uncertainties: ignoring sensitive stages transgenerational effects impact and risks can be underestimated.

  18. Distributed Factorization Computation on Multiple Volunteered Mobile Resource to Break RSA Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Zamzami, E. M.; Sihombing, P.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to common asymmeric encryption, RSA can be cracked by usmg a series mathematical calculation. The private key used to decrypt the massage can be computed using the public key. However, finding the private key may require a massive amount of calculation. In this paper, we propose a method to perform a distributed computing to calculate RSA’s private key. The proposed method uses multiple volunteered mobile devices to contribute during the calculation process. Our objective is to demonstrate how the use of volunteered computing on mobile devices may be a feasible option to reduce the time required to break a weak RSA encryption and observe the behavior and running time of the application on mobile devices.

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is a key factor related to depression and physiological homeostasis in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a common psychiatric disorder that involves marked disabilities in global functioning, anorexia, and severe medical comorbidities. MDD is associated with not only psychological and sociocultural problems, but also pervasive physical dysfunctions such as metabolic, neurobiological and immunological abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these factors have yet to be determined in detail. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and dysregulation of physiological homeostasis, including immunological function as well as lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity in the brain. We generated depression-like behavior in mice using chronic mild stress (CMS as a model of depression. We compared the gene expression profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of CMS and control mice using microarrays. We subsequently categorized genes using two web-based bioinformatics applications: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. We then confirmed significant group-differences by analyzing mRNA and protein expression levels not only in the PFC, but also in the thalamus and hippocampus. These web tools revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a may exert direct effects on various genes specifically associated with amine synthesis, such as genes involved in serotonin metabolism and related immunological functions. Moreover, these genes may influence lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity. We also confirmed the significant effects of Hnf4a on both mRNA and protein expression levels in the brain. These results suggest that Hnf4a may have a critical influence on physiological homeostasis under depressive states, and may be associated with the mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and the dysregulation of

  20. Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and subsurface drainage systems: Key factors for determining drainage setback distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2018-01-01

    Use of agricultural subsurface drainage systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America continues to increase, prompting concerns over potential negative effects to the Region's vital wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects a large number of wetlands through conservation easements that often utilize standard lateral setback distances to provide buffers between wetlands and drainage systems. Because of a lack of information pertaining to the efficacy of these setback distances for protecting wetlands, information is required to support the decision making for placement of subsurface drainage systems adjacent to wetlands. We used qualitative graphical analyses and data comparisons to identify characteristics of subsurface drainage systems and wetland catchments that could be considered when assessing setback distances. We also compared setback distances with catchment slope lengths to determine if they typically exclude drainage systems from the catchment. We demonstrated that depth of a subsurface drainage system is a key factor for determining drainage setback distances. Drainage systems located closer to the surface (shallow) typically could be associated with shorter lateral setback distances compared with deeper systems. Subsurface drainage systems would be allowed within a wetland's catchment for 44–59% of catchments associated with wetland conservation easements in North Dakota. More specifically, results suggest that drainage setback distances generally would exclude drainage systems from catchments of the smaller wetlands that typically have shorter slopes in the adjacent upland contributing area. For larger wetlands, however, considerable areas of the catchment would be vulnerable to drainage that may affect wetland hydrology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easements are associated with > 2,000 km2 of wetlands in North Dakota, demonstrating great potential to protect these systems from drainage depending on policies for installing

  1. Culture conditions for equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and expression of key transcription factors during their differentiation into osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of equine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) is a novel method to improve fracture healing in horses. However, additional research is needed to identify optimal culture conditions and to determine the mechanisms involved in regulating BMSC differentiation into osteoblasts. The objectives of the experiments were to determine: 1) if autologous or commercial serum is better for proliferation and differentiation of equine BMSC into osteoblasts, and 2) the expression of key transcription factors during the differentiation of equine BMSC into osteoblasts. Equine BMSC were isolated from the sterna of 3 horses, treated with purchased fetal bovine serum (FBS) or autologous horse serum (HS), and cell proliferation determined. To induce osteoblast differentiation, cells were incubated with L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate and glycerol-2-phosphate in the presence or absence of human bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP2), dexamethasone (DEX), or combination of the two. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, was determined by ELISA. Total RNA was isolated from differentiating BMSC between d 0 to 18 to determine expression of runt-related transcription factor2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), and T-box3 (Tbx3). Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results Relative to control, FBS and HS increased cell number (133 ± 5 and 116 ± 5%, respectively; P  0.8). Runt-related transcription factor2 expression increased 3-fold (P equine BMSC into osteoblasts. In addition, expression of Runx2 and osterix increased and expression of Tbx3 is reduced during differentiation. PMID:24169030

  2. Backward compatibility as a key measure for smooth upgrades to the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggiolini, V.; Csikos, D.; Tarasenko, P.; Zaharieva, Z.; Arruat, M.; Gorbosonov, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is a big challenge to smoothly upgrade the control system of a large operational accelerator such as the LHC without causing unnecessary downtime. We have identified backward compatibility as a key measure to achieve this, because a backward compatible component can be easily upgraded. This document describes the work the CERN Accelerator Controls group does to provide methods and tools supporting backward compatibility. We have identified four areas for which we want to provide tools: (1) dependency analysis to identify incoming dependencies, (2) backward compatibility validation to verify that API (Application Program Interface) changes are really backward compatible, (3) version upgrading with rules to clearly inform the dependent clients if a modification is backward compatible, and (4) API consolidation to clearly specify classes and methods belonging to the API and to enforce their appropriate usage

  3. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  4. Physical factors controlling the ductility of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Central South University, China; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify key physical factor controlling the deformation and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), we compiled and analyzed the elastic moduli and compressive ductility for BMGs. In addition, new modulus data were generated in the critical ranges in order to facilitate the analysis. We have found that the intrinsic ductility of BMGs can be correlated with the bulk-to-shear modulus ratio B/G according to Pugh's [Philos. Mag. 45, 823 (1954) ] rule. In some individual BMG systems, for example, Fe based, the relationship seems to be very clear. The physical meaning of this correlation is discussed in terms of atomic bonding and connectivity.

  5. On the Security of a Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Teymoori, Vahid; Nikooghadam, Morteza; Abbassi, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Telecare medicine information systems (TMISs) aim to deliver appropriate healthcare services in an efficient and secure manner to patients. A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is required to provide proper security in these systems. Recently, Bin Muhaya demonstrated some security weaknesses of Zhu's authentication and key agreement scheme and proposed a security enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for TMISs. However, we show that Bin Muhaya's scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and does not provide perfect forward secrecy. Furthermore, in order to overcome the mentioned weaknesses, we propose a new two-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme using the elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security and performance analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only overcomes the weaknesses of Bin Muhaya's scheme, but also is about 2.73 times faster than Bin Muhaya's scheme.

  6. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and ani-mals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemi-sphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nano-particles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the“lure and kill”approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  7. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes(Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens,including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean,represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above,it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation(i.e. the "lure and kill"approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular,detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  8. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the “lure and kill” approach, pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  9. Identify and rank key factors influencing the adoption of cloud computing for a healthy Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shukuhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing as a new technology with Internet infrastructure and new approaches can be significant benefits in providing medical services electronically. Aplying this technology in E-Health requires consideration of various factors. The main objective of this study is to identify and rank the factors influencing the adoption of e-health cloud. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework and Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit model, 16 sub-factors were identified in four major factors. With survey of 60 experts, academics and experts in health information technology and with the help of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process had ranked these sub-factors and factors. In the literature, considering newness this study, no internal or external study, have not alluded these number of criteria. The results show that when deciding to adopt cloud computing in E-Health, respectively, must be considered technological, human, organizational and environmental factors.

  10. A review of international biobanks and networks: success factors and key benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jim; Kelly, Andrea; Hewitt, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Biobanks and biobanking networks are involved in varying degrees in the collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of biological specimens. This review outlines the approaches that 16 of the largest biobanks and biobanking networks in Europe, North America, Australia, and Asia have taken to collecting and distributing human research specimens and managing scientific initiatives while covering operating costs. Many are small operations that exist as either a single or a few freezers in a research laboratory, hospital clinical laboratory, or pathology suite. Larger academic and commercial biobanks operate to support large clinical and epidemiological studies. Operational and business models depend on the medical and research missions of their institutions and home countries. Some national biobanks operate with a centralized physical biobank that accepts samples from multiple locations. Others operate under a "federated" model where each institution maintains its own collections but agrees to list them on a central shared database. Some collections are "project-driven" meaning that specimens are collected and distributed to answer specific research questions. "General" collections are those that exist to establish a reference collection, that is, not to meet particular research goals but to be available to respond to multiple requests for an assortment of research uses. These individual and networked biobanking systems operate under a variety of business models, usually incorporating some form of partial cost recovery, while requiring at least partial public or government funding. Each has a well-defined biospecimen-access policy in place that specifies requirements that must be met-such as ethical clearance and the expertise to perform the proposed experiments-to obtain samples for research. The success of all of these biobanking models depends on a variety of factors including well-defined goals, a solid business plan, and specimen collections that are

  11. Drug packaging. A key factor to be taken into account when choosing a treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A drug's packaging contributes to its harm-benefit balance. Highlighting the key practical information and identifying potential sources of error or mix-ups is part and parcel of the correct use of medicines. Select labelling that clearly and prominently displays the important information, including the international nonproprietary name (INN).

  12. Identifying key factors for mobilising under-utilised low carbon land resources : A case study on Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Potter, Lesley; Faaij, André; Wicke, Birka

    2018-01-01

    Mobilising under-utilised low carbon (ULC) land for future agricultural expansion helps minimising further carbon stock loss. This study examined the regency cases in Kalimantan, a carbon loss hotspot, to understand the key factors for mobilising ULC land via narrative interviews with a range of

  13. Management competences become key factor for success. Competition market energy; Managementkompetenzen werden Schluesselfaktor fuer Erfolg. Wettbewerbsmarkt Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausch, A. [Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftlehre/Internationales Management, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Strategisches Management und Controlling, Jacobs Univ. Bremen (Germany); Fritz, T. [Jacobs University Bremen (Germany); Werthschulte, S.; Schumacher, T.; Holst, A.; Schiegg, T. [Accenture GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-09

    In view of deregulation, enhanced competition and a multitude of options for action, clear strategic positioning and a strong operative management have become key factors of success. The authors of the study 'Value Creator III' investigated the approaches that made current industrial leaders successful and the challenges to be met in the future. (orig.)

  14. Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at

  15. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose as an eco-friendly flocculant: Key factors optimization of flocculation to surfactant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of effluents from surfactant manufacturers is giving rise to increasingly serious environmental problems. In order to develop the eco-friendly flocculation materials to achieve effective removal of pollutants from the surfactant effluents, the bamboo pulp cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla is employed as the skeleton material to synthesize an eco-friendly bamboo pulp cellulose-g-polyacrylamide (BPC-g-PAM) for flocculation. The BPC-g-PAM is used with the metal ions as the coagulant to treat the effluent from a surfactant manufacturer. The response surface methodology coupled with Box-behnken design is employed to optimize the key factors of coagulation-flocculation. The results show that the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM achieves the best coagulation-flocculation performance like, the fast treatment time, minimum coagulant and BPC-g-PAM dosages compared with the other two combinations of Al(3+) with BPC-g-PAM and Ca(2+) with BPC-g-PAM. Therefore, the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM is expected to promote its application for the pollution control in the surfactant manufacturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison study on detection of key geochemical variables and factors through three different types of factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzade, Zohre; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Large numbers of variables have been measured to explain different phenomena. Factor analysis has widely been used in order to reduce the dimension of datasets. Additionally, the technique has been employed to highlight underlying factors hidden in a complex system. As geochemical studies benefit from multivariate assays, application of this method is widespread in geochemistry. However, the conventional protocols in implementing factor analysis have some drawbacks in spite of their advantages. In the present study, a geochemical dataset including 804 soil samples collected from a mining area in central Iran in order to search for MVT type Pb-Zn deposits was considered to outline geochemical analysis through various fractal methods. Routine factor analysis, sequential factor analysis, and staged factor analysis were applied to the dataset after opening the data with (additive logratio) alr-transformation to extract mineralization factor in the dataset. A comparison between these methods indicated that sequential factor analysis has more clearly revealed MVT paragenesis elements in surface samples with nearly 50% variation in F1. In addition, staged factor analysis has given acceptable results while it is easy to practice. It could detect mineralization related elements while larger factor loadings are given to these elements resulting in better pronunciation of mineralization.

  17. The physical and mental health of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults: the role of key health indicators and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2013-08-01

    Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.

  18. Key factors in the use of DDES for the flow around a simplified car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, N.; Revell, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic sensitivity study to investigate accuracy of DDES with varying grid, numerics and underlying RANS model. • Demonstrated the potential for a loss of accuracy when using DDES with insufficient mesh refinement or too dissipative numerical scheme. • Highlighted that common user-controlled parameters can yield differences on the same scale as using different approaches. • Indentified ‘grey-area’ behaviour of DDES at point of separation which leads to erroneous prediction of flow. • Demonstrated that this can be overcome via the injection of synthetic fluctuations upstream of the onset of separation. - Abstract: The Ahmed car body represents a generic vehicle exhibiting key aspects of the 3D flow arising due to standard automobile designs. It is recognised to be a challenging test case for the turbulence modelling community; combining strong separation with a pair of counter-rotating vortices, which interact to produce a downstream recirculation region. In recent years this case has been extensively studied using a range of methods, with varying success. In general, conclusions have been made on the basis of the standard form of each model, while in the present work we focus on variants of the common Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation (DDES) approach, in order to demonstrate its sensitivity to commonly varied aspects of its usage. We demonstrate that variations in the usage of a single approach can easily be of the order of those observed when using different approaches. Previous studies, reconfirmed here, indicate that the majority of standard single point closure turbulence models are unable to provide a satisfactory prediction of the recirculating flow region aft of the body. This holds regardless of mesh resolution, model selection or numerical scheme. These models under-predict levels of turbulence over the slanted back, leading to over-prediction of the size of the separation region. DDES can offer an improved prediction

  19. Aerial and tidal transport of mosquito control pesticides into the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.H.; Henry, M.S.; Blum, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    This project was undertaken as the initial monitoring program to determine if mosquito adulticides applied along the Florida Keys cause adverse ecological effects in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). The study monitored the distribution and persistente of two mosquito adulticides, permethrin and dibrom (naled), during three separate routine applications by the Florida Keys Mosquito Control District. The approach was to determine if toxic concentrations of the pesticides entered the FKNMS by aerial drift or tidal transport. The amount of pesticide entering the FKNMS by way of aerial drift was monitored by collection on glass fiber filter pads, set on floats in a grid pattern on either side of the FKNMS. Permethrin was recovered from filter pads on the leeward side for each of the three applications, ranging from 0.5 to 50.1 μg/m2 throughout the study. Tidal current transport was monitored by collection of surface and subsurface water samples at each grid site. Tidal transport of naled and dichlorvos (naled degradation product) was apparent in the adjacent waters of the FKNMS. These compounds were detected in subsurface, offshore water at 0.1 to 0.6 gg/l, 14 hr after application. Permethrin was not detected in offshore water samples; however, concentrations ranging from 5.1 to 9.4 μg/1 were found in surface water from the canal system adjacent to the application route. Comparison of the observed environmental concentrations with toxicity data (permethrin LC-50, 96 hr for Mysidopsis bahia = 0.02 μg/1) indicated a potential hazard to marine invertebrates in the canals with possible tidal transport to other areas [es

  20. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  1. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  2. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  3. Safety factor profile control in a tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Prieur, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Control of the Safety Factor Profile in a Tokamak uses Lyapunov techniques to address a challenging problem for which even the simplest physically relevant models are represented by nonlinear, time-dependent, partial differential equations (PDEs). This is because of the  spatiotemporal dynamics of transport phenomena (magnetic flux, heat, densities, etc.) in the anisotropic plasma medium. Robustness considerations are ubiquitous in the analysis and control design since direct measurements on the magnetic flux are impossible (its estimation relies on virtual sensors) and large uncertainties remain in the coupling between the plasma particles and the radio-frequency waves (distributed inputs). The Brief begins with a presentation of the reference dynamical model and continues by developing a Lyapunov function for the discretized system (in a polytopic linear-parameter-varying formulation). The limitations of this finite-dimensional approach motivate new developments in the infinite-dimensional framework. The t...

  4. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  5. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Yanwei; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Dai, Di; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Junqing; Xiang, Haiqing

    2007-09-18

    The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to policymaking and legislation for tobacco control in China.

  6. BPR implementation process: an analysis of key success and failure factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khoshlafz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors influencing on the successful implementation of the business process re-engineering (BPR in Iran. The study selects 386 experts randomly and using some statistical tests examines the effects of four groups of factors including strategic, organizational, methodologic and technological & educational issues on the success of the BPR implementation in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts where Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.71. The implementation of Pearson correlation ratio has confirmed that technological and educational factors marinated the highest effects (r = 0.523, Sig. = 0.000 followed by strategic (r = 0.505, Sig. = 0.000, organizational (r = 0.352, Sig. = 0.000 and methodologic issues (r = 0.267, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, the implementation of Stepwise regression has confirmed that technological & educational, strategic and methodologic factors influence on BPR in Iran.

  7. Key steps in unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 reconstituted with purified components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steringer, J. P.; Lange, S.; Čujová, Sabína; Šachl, Radek; Poojari, C.; Lolicato, F.; Beutel, O.; Müller, H.-M.; Unger, S.; Coskun, U.; Honigmann, A.; Vattulainen, I.; Hof, Martin; Freund, Ch.; Nickel, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku e28985. ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-03141J Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Unconventional protein secretion * Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 * Protein translocation across membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016

  8. Human resource development – A key factor for the sustainable development of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlat Lame

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.

  9. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  10. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants.

  11. Social Cognition and Executive Functions As Key Factors for Effective Pedagogy in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rut; Navarrete, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    Higher education (HE) faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience's needs. In learners, social cognition (SC) has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions. Since these interactions are bidirectional, SC could also help to explain teachers' receptiveness to the information available in feedback situations. However, little is known about how SC is related to teacher development, and therefore teaching effectiveness, in HE. In addition, executive functions (EFs), closely related to SC, could play a key role in the ability to self-regulate their own teaching to better answering their students emerging needs. Although there is wide evidence regarding the association of EFs to performance in high demanding settings, as far as we know, there are no studies exploring the relationship between teachers' EFs and teaching effectiveness in HE. Establishing a positive association between teaching effectiveness and these socio-cognitive functions could be a promising first step in designing professional development programs that promote HE academics' ability to understand and care about students thoughts and emotions, to eventually adapt their teaching to their students needs for a better learning.

  12. The key factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The present study aimed to address this gap, using a mixed methods design. Qualitative interview data were collected from 60 Hong Kong junior secondary school students, who were asked to describe the nature of their interest in science lessons and the factors to which they attribute this. Teacher interviews, parent interviews, and classroom observations were conducted to triangulate student interview data. Five factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons were identified: situational influences in science lessons, individual interest in science, science self-concept, grade level, and gender. Quantitative data were then collected from 591 students using a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was applied to test a hypothesised model, which provided an acceptable fit to the student data. The strongest factor affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons was science self-concept, followed by individual interest in science and situational influences in science lessons. Grade level and gender were found to be nonsignificant factors. These findings suggest that teachers should pay special attention to the association between academic self-concept and interest if they want to motivate students to learn science at school.

  13. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  14. A large-scale, in vivo transcription factor screen defines bivalent chromatin as a key property of regulatory factors mediating Drosophila wing development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertel, Claus; Albarca, Monica; Rockel-Bauer, Claudia; Kelley, Nicholas W; Bischof, Johannes; Hens, Korneel; van Nimwegen, Erik; Basler, Konrad; Deplancke, Bart

    2015-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of cell fate. The estimated 755 genes that encode DNA binding domain-containing proteins comprise ∼ 5% of all Drosophila genes. However, the majority has remained uncharacterized so far due to the lack of proper genetic tools. We generated 594 site-directed transgenic Drosophila lines that contain integrations of individual UAS-TF constructs to facilitate spatiotemporally controlled misexpression in vivo. All transgenes were expressed in the developing wing, and two-thirds induced specific phenotypic defects. In vivo knockdown of the same genes yielded a phenotype for 50%, with both methods indicating a great potential for misexpression to characterize novel functions in wing growth, patterning, and development. Thus, our UAS-TF library provides an important addition to the genetic toolbox of Drosophila research, enabling the identification of several novel wing development-related TFs. In parallel, we established the chromatin landscape of wing imaginal discs by ChIP-seq analyses of five chromatin marks and RNA Pol II. Subsequent clustering revealed six distinct chromatin states, with two clusters showing enrichment for both active and repressive marks. TFs that carry such "bivalent" chromatin are highly enriched for causing misexpression phenotypes in the wing, and analysis of existing expression data shows that these TFs tend to be differentially expressed across the wing disc. Thus, bivalently marked chromatin can be used as a marker for spatially regulated TFs that are functionally relevant in a developing tissue. © 2015 Schertel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Analysis of key hardware factors and countermeasure for restricting 49-2 swimming pool reactor lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yadong; Guo Yue; Yang Xiao; Wang Yiwei; Wang Zhanwen

    2013-01-01

    Safe operation is the most important factor to determine the lifetime of aged 49-2 swimming pool reactor. In this paper, the hardware factors of lifetime were analyzed, such as the pool concrete aging, corrosion of aluminum container and primary coolant system, and graphite swelling etc., and then the corresponding measures such as surveillance, prevention and maintenance were purposed. The results show that 49-2 swimming pool reactor can continue to operate safely due to that container is safe under 8 degree earthquake, the reactor is safe on flood level of once per millennium, adding dam break, and the ageing condition of primary coolant system and container is acceptable. (authors)

  16. Identification of key factors in Accelerated Low Water Corrosion through experimental simulation of tidal conditions: influence of stimulated indigenous microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Gueuné, H.; Malard, E.; Sánchez-Amaya, J.M.; Sjögren, L.; Abbas, B.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion

  17. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agri-food Prospector Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation

  18. Key factors affecting the predation risk on insects on leaves in temperate floodplain forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drozdová, M.; Šipoš, Jan; Drozd, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2013), s. 469-476 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Diptera * Calliphoridae * Calliphora vicina * insect predators * living prey * temporal and spatial differences * clumped dispersal of attacks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013

  19. Key Factors in Smoking Cessation Intervention among 15-16-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Broms, Ulla; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate factors associated with smoking cessation among adolescents after tobacco intervention. They examined smokers (n = 127) from one birth cohort (n = 545) in the city of Kotka in Finland. These smokers were randomized in 3 intervention groups the dentist (n = 44) and the school nurse (n = 42 groups), and a control…

  20. The Key Factors Affecting Students' Individual Interest in School Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Individual interest in school science lessons can be defined as a relatively stable and enduring personal emotion comprising affective and behavioural reactions to events in the regular science lessons at school. Little research has compared the importance of different factors affecting students' individual interest in school science lessons. The…

  1. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by

  2. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  3. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  4. Examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into assisted living: A sample funding proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ashleigh Leah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project presents a conceptually grounded, methodologically appropriate and logistically feasible Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding proposal. By examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into an assisted living facility (ALF), the proposed study will provide insight into and a rich description of the decision making process as it unfolds. Presented in the format of a CIHR pilot study grant, the proposal details a qualita...

  5. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Jeroen; Reemer, Menno; van Kats, Ruud; Ozinga, Wim A.; van der Linden, Giel T. J.; Schaminée, Joop H. J.; Siepel, Henk; Kleijn, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of bee decline because accurate assessment of host plant preferences is difficult, particularly for species that have become rare. Here we examine whether population trends of wild bees in The Netherlands can be explained by trends in host plants, and how this relates to other factors such as climate change. We determined host plant preference of bee species using pollen loads on specimens in entomological collections that were collected before the onset of their decline, and used atlas data to quantify population trends of bee species and their host plants. We show that decline of preferred host plant species was one of two main factors associated with bee decline. Bee body size, the other main factor, was negatively related to population trend, which, because larger bee species have larger pollen requirements than smaller species, may also point toward food limitation as a key factor driving wild bee loss. Diet breadth and other potential factors such as length of flight period or climate change sensitivity were not important in explaining twentieth century bee population trends. These results highlight the species-specific nature of wild bee decline and indicate that mitigation strategies will only be effective if they target the specific host plants of declining species. PMID:25422416

  6. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  7. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (p<0.05). These findings can be applied in the design and implementation of a comprehensive safety and health risk management system to reduce ASR.

  8. EXO70C2 is a key regulatory factor for optimal tip growth of pollen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synek, Lukáš; Vukašinović, Nemanja; Kulich, I.; Hála, Michal; Aldorfová, Klára; Fendrych, Matyáš; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 1 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24711S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1417 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ARABIDOPSIS EXOCYST COMPLEX * CELL-WALL * VESICLE TRAFFICKING Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  9. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agri-food Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation projects, 11 successfully concluded and 6 failed projects, as well as 29 running projects in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France, two innovation consortia ...

  10. Key factors influencing the incidence of hemolysis: A critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Euan James; Vecellio, Elia; Lake, Rebecca; Li, Ling; Burnett, Leslie; Chesher, Douglas; Braye, Stephen; Mackay, Mark; Gay, Stephanie; Badrick, Tony; Westbrook, Johanna; Georgiou, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Hemolysis is a leading cause of pre-analytical laboratory errors. The identification of contributing factors is an important step towards the development of effective practices to reduce and prevent hemolysis. We performed a review of PUBMED, Embase, Medline and CINAHL to identify articles published between January 2000 and August 2016 that identified factors influencing in vitro hemolysis rates. The 40 studies included in this review provide excellent evidence that hemolysis rates are higher in Emergency Departments (EDs), for non-antecubital draws, for specimens drawn using an intravenous catheter compared to venipuncture and for samples transported by pneumatic tube compared to by hand. There is also good evidence that hemolysis rates are higher when specimens are not collected by professional phlebotomists, larger volume specimen tubes are used, specimen tubes are filled less than halfway and tourniquet time is greater than one minute. The results of this review suggest that hospitals and clinical laboratories should consider deploying phlebotomists in EDs, drawing all blood through a venipuncture, using the antecubital region as the optimum blood collection site and transporting specimens by laboratory assistant/other personnel, or if this in not practical, ensuring that pneumatic transport systems are validated, maintained and monitored. Studies also recommend making hemolysis a hospital-wide issue and ensuring high-quality staff training and adherence to standard operating procedures to reduce hemolysis rates. Awareness of the factors that influence hemolysis rates, and adoption of strategies to mitigate these risk factors, is an important step towards creating quality practices to reduce hemolysis rates and improve the quality of patient care.

  11. Key factors determining success of primary eye care through vision centres in rural India: Patients′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas Kovai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This paper intends to discuss the patients′ perspective on the determinants of primary eye care services from vision centers (VC in rural India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study design and interview method was used on 127 randomly selected patients who accessed the 4 VCs in 2007. Factor analyses and linear regression models were used to predict the associations with patient satisfaction. Results : The three factors derived from factor analyses were: (1-vision technician (VT, (2-location of VC, and (3-access to VC; explaining 60% of the variance in total patients′ satisfaction with VC. The first model (R2 : 0.61; F 1,124=144.36, P <0.001, indicated that respondents who had ′difficulty to travel to the place of VC′ and those who can afford to pay had less satisfaction with VT services. The second model (R2 =0.18; F 1,124=29.5, P <0.001 explained that respondents′ difficulty to identify the building of VC had decreased patients′ satisfaction and the third model (R2 =0.36; F 1,124=45.6, P <0.001 indicated that those who had to travel<5 km to the VC and had 0.38 units of increased satisfaction level with the services of VC. Conclusion : A good VT can enhance patient satisfaction. However, patient expectations are not only confined to the provider but also other factors such as ability to pay and convenient transportation that helps patients reach the location of the VC with ease.

  12. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  13. Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-07-01

    Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.

  14. Human and organisational factors as key levers of performance in D and D project management - 59323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, Thierry; Willmann, Bertrand; Laval, Gregoire de; Lemarch, Jean-Louis; Cordoba, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In a number pf D and D projects, the type of installations to be dismantled and the variety of their equipments (glove-boxes, tanks..) and the products present on site (plutonium, uranium) in the form of powder are making many operations manual ones. Key phases in HR and organisation management: - The first D and D experience, the learning curve ramp-up - To begin any project, you usually try to benefit from benchmark of similar projects to be able to build up the first scenario, by using the best practices. The first experimental team consisted of operators who already had experienced dismantling at least once in the course of their career. This first dismantling operation is preferably to be conducted on an installation relatively poorly contaminated. This was to implement the correct techniques thus reducing the consequences of a possible unforeseen event. The capitalisation on the return on experience The success of this first dismantling site operation allowed us to implement a process of experience feedback to build the scenarios and the operating procedures of the following sites. In particular, targeted safety-security stop points are positioned for validation on the operations by people responsible for safety and security

  15. Structural imbalances as a key factor of unemployment in the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.

  16. Logic programming reveals alteration of key transcription factors in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miannay, Bertrand; Minvielle, Stéphane; Roux, Olivier; Drouin, Pierre; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Attal, Michel; Facon, Thierry; Munshi, Nikhil C; Moreau, Philippe; Campion, Loïc; Magrangeas, Florence; Guziolowski, Carito

    2017-08-23

    Innovative approaches combining regulatory networks (RN) and genomic data are needed to extract biological information for a better understanding of diseases, such as cancer, by improving the identification of entities and thereby leading to potential new therapeutic avenues. In this study, we confronted an automatically generated RN with gene expression profiles (GEP) from a cohort of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and normal individuals using global reasoning on the RN causality to identify key-nodes. We modeled each patient by his or her GEP, the RN and the possible automatically detected repairs needed to establish a coherent flow of the information that explains the logic of the GEP. These repairs could represent cancer mutations leading to GEP variability. With this reasoning, unmeasured protein states can be inferred, and we can simulate the impact of a protein perturbation on the RN behavior to identify therapeutic targets. We showed that JUN/FOS and FOXM1 activities are altered in almost all MM patients and identified two survival markers for MM patients. Our results suggest that JUN/FOS-activation has a strong impact on the RN in view of the whole GEP, whereas FOXM1-activation could be an interesting way to perturb an MM subgroup identified by our method.

  17. Remotely controlled fusion of selected vesicles and living cells: a key issue review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Azra; Moreno-Pescador, Guillermo; Oddershede, Lene B.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2018-03-01

    Remote control over fusion of single cells and vesicles has a great potential in biological and chemical research allowing both transfer of genetic material between cells and transfer of molecular content between vesicles. Membrane fusion is a critical process in biology that facilitates molecular transport and mixing of cellular cytoplasms with potential formation of hybrid cells. Cells precisely regulate internal membrane fusions with the aid of specialized fusion complexes that physically provide the energy necessary for mediating fusion. Physical factors like membrane curvature, tension and temperature, affect biological membrane fusion by lowering the associated energy barrier. This has inspired the development of physical approaches to harness the fusion process at a single cell level by using remotely controlled electromagnetic fields to trigger membrane fusion. Here, we critically review various approaches, based on lasers or electric pulses, to control fusion between individual cells or between individual lipid vesicles and discuss their potential and limitations for present and future applications within biochemistry, biology and soft matter.

  18. LOOP- SIMULATION OF THE AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SUBSYSTEM OF A DIFFERENTIAL MINIMUM SHIFT KEYING RECEIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.

    1994-01-01

    The LOOP computer program was written to simulate the Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) subsystem of a Differential Minimum Shift Keying (DMSK) receiver with a bit rate of 2400 baud. The AFC simulated by LOOP is a first order loop configuration with a first order R-C filter. NASA has been investigating the concept of mobile communications based on low-cost, low-power terminals linked via geostationary satellites. Studies have indicated that low bit rate transmission is suitable for this application, particularly from the frequency and power conservation point of view. A bit rate of 2400 BPS is attractive due to its applicability to the linear predictive coding of speech. Input to LOOP includes the following: 1) the initial frequency error; 2) the double-sided loop noise bandwidth; 3) the filter time constants; 4) the amount of intersymbol interference; and 5) the bit energy to noise spectral density. LOOP output includes: 1) the bit number and the frequency error of that bit; 2) the computed mean of the frequency error; and 3) the standard deviation of the frequency error. LOOP is written in MS SuperSoft FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC operating under PC DOS with a memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  19. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  20. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  1. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Hudjetz, Sebastian [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Cofalla, Catrina [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Schüttrumpf, Holger [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Preuss, Thomas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt- Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios.

  2. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios

  3. Key role of the kidney in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    was significantly increased in BNX rats. The rapid rise in FGF23 after BNX was independent of parathyroid hormone or FGF receptor signaling. No evidence of early stimulation of FGF23 gene expression in the bone was found. Furthermore, acute severe hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia had no impact on intact FGF23......High circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have been demonstrated in kidney failure, but mechanisms of this are not well understood. Here we examined the impact of the kidney on the early regulation of intact FGF23 in acute uremia as induced by bilateral or unilateral...

  4. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  5. Regulation of Neph3 gene in podocytes - key roles of transcription factors NF-kappaB and Sp1

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ristola, Mervi

    2009-08-24

    Abstract Background Neph3 (filtrin) is expressed in the glomerular podocytes where it localizes at the specialized cell adhesion structures of the foot processes called slit diaphragms which form the outermost layer of the glomerular filtration barrier. Neph3 protein shows homology and structural similarity to Neph1, Neph2 and nephrin, which all are crucial for maintaining the normal glomerular ultrafiltration function. The exact function of Neph3 in the kidney is not known but we have previously shown that the level of Neph3 mRNA is decreased in proteinuric diseases. This suggests that Neph3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney damage, and emphasizes the need to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of Neph3 gene. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of Neph3 gene by identifying transcription factors that control Neph3 expression. Results We cloned and characterized approximately 5 kb fragment upstream of the Neph3 gene. Neph3 proximal promoter near the transcription start site was found to be devoid of TATA and CAAT boxes, but to contain a highly GC-rich area. Using promoter reporter gene constructs, we localized the main activating regulatory region of Neph3 gene in its proximal promoter region from -105 to -57. Within this region, putative transcription factor binding sites for NF-κB and Sp1 were found by computational analysis. Mutational screening indicated that NF-κB and Sp1 response elements are essential for the basal transcriptional activity of the Neph3 promoter. Co-transfection studies further showed that NF-κB and Sp1 regulate Neph3 promoter activity. In addition, overexpression of NF-κB increased endogenous Neph3 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using cultured human podocytes demonstrated that both NF-κB and Sp1 interact with the Neph3 promoter. Conclusion Our results show that NF-κB and Sp1 are key regulators of Neph3 expression at the basal level in podocytes, therefore providing new insight

  6. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in active seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Laieikawai Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  7. Hiring and Retention: Key Factors in Increasing Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.

    2004-12-01

    Graduation and hiring data of geoscientists over the last ten years indicate that the largest leak in the academic pipeline for women geoscientists is at hiring into tenure-track positions. Anecdotal explanations for this leak generally cite a lack of females in the applicant pool, but women in tenure-track positions anecdotally cite a lack of family-friendly practices by academic departments. Both ideas are currently being tested via surveys of geoscience departments. Is there a way to attract more women to the field to increase the applicant pool? Results of focus groups of geoscientists indicate that both men and women are attracted into the field of geosciences by the same types of events: over one-third became a geoscientist by randomly walking into an undergraduate class and finding themselves captivated by the topic and/or a dynamic instructor. The subject matter itself attracts another one-fourth, and family members encourage another one-fifth of geoscientists to initially enter the field. Slightly more women cite the first attractor of undergraduate class, but the principal draw for our future workforce, male and female, is good instruction of freshman courses. Retention of women in academia is another key issue. The proportion that considers leaving after working towards one or more degrees is highly skewed by gender: one-half of female and only one-third of male geoscientists considered leaving the field at some time in their career. The reasons for considering leaving also differ by gender. Males cite financial issues, including an uncertain job market. Females cite two principal reasons for considering leaving: family issues and difficulties with a graduate advisor. Strategies currently exist for "family issues", including stop-the-clock (of tenure for family needs), assignment shift, on-campus daycare facilities, and unflinching administrative support for such practices. Graduate advising is a learnable skill, and more attention needs to be paid to

  8. Microenvironmental pH Is a Key Factor for Exosome Traffic in Tumor Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Isabella; Federici, Cristina; Raggi, Carla; Lugini, Luana; Palleschi, Simonetta; De Milito, Angelo; Coscia, Carolina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Molinari, Agnese; Colone, Marisa; Tatti, Massimo; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Exosomes secreted by normal and cancer cells carry and deliver a variety of molecules. To date, mechanisms referring to tumor exosome trafficking, including release and cell-cell transmission, have not been described. To gain insight into this, exosomes purified from metastatic melanoma cell medium were labeled with a lipid fluorescent probe, R18, and analyzed by spectrofluorometry and confocal microscopy. A low pH condition is a hallmark of tumor malignancy, potentially influencing exosome release and uptake by cancer cells. Using different pH conditions as a modifier of exosome traffic, we showed (i) an increased exosome release and uptake at low pH when compared with a buffered condition and (ii) exosome uptake by melanoma cells occurred by fusion. Membrane biophysical analysis, such as fluidity and lipid composition, indicated a high rigidity and sphingomyelin/ganglioside GM3 (N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide) content in exosomes released at low pH. This was likely responsible for the increased fusion efficiency. Consistent with these results, pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors led to an inhibition of exosome uptake by melanoma cells. Fusion efficiency of tumor exosomes resulted in being higher in cells of metastatic origin than in those derived from primary tumors or normal cells. Furthermore, we found that caveolin-1, a protein involved in melanoma progression, is highly delivered through exosomes released in an acidic condition. The results of our study provide the evidence that exosomes may be used as a delivery system for paracrine diffusion of tumor malignancy, in turn supporting the importance of both exosomes and tumor pH as key targets for future anti-cancer strategies. PMID:19801663

  9. Microenvironmental pH is a key factor for exosome traffic in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Isabella; Federici, Cristina; Raggi, Carla; Lugini, Luana; Palleschi, Simonetta; De Milito, Angelo; Coscia, Carolina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Molinari, Agnese; Colone, Marisa; Tatti, Massimo; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Fais, Stefano

    2009-12-04

    Exosomes secreted by normal and cancer cells carry and deliver a variety of molecules. To date, mechanisms referring to tumor exosome trafficking, including release and cell-cell transmission, have not been described. To gain insight into this, exosomes purified from metastatic melanoma cell medium were labeled with a lipid fluorescent probe, R18, and analyzed by spectrofluorometry and confocal microscopy. A low pH condition is a hallmark of tumor malignancy, potentially influencing exosome release and uptake by cancer cells. Using different pH conditions as a modifier of exosome traffic, we showed (i) an increased exosome release and uptake at low pH when compared with a buffered condition and (ii) exosome uptake by melanoma cells occurred by fusion. Membrane biophysical analysis, such as fluidity and lipid composition, indicated a high rigidity and sphingomyelin/ganglioside GM3 (N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide) content in exosomes released at low pH. This was likely responsible for the increased fusion efficiency. Consistent with these results, pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors led to an inhibition of exosome uptake by melanoma cells. Fusion efficiency of tumor exosomes resulted in being higher in cells of metastatic origin than in those derived from primary tumors or normal cells. Furthermore, we found that caveolin-1, a protein involved in melanoma progression, is highly delivered through exosomes released in an acidic condition. The results of our study provide the evidence that exosomes may be used as a delivery system for paracrine diffusion of tumor malignancy, in turn supporting the importance of both exosomes and tumor pH as key targets for future anti-cancer strategies.

  10. Social learning as a key factor in sustainability transitions: The case of Okayama City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didham, Robert J.; Ofei-Manu, Paul; Nagareo, Masaaki

    2017-12-01

    The Okayama Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Project is an ongoing initiative in Okayama City, Japan, established in 2005 by the Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Okayama and the Okayama Municipal Government with the aim "to create a community where people learn, think and act together towards realising a sustainable society". With a diverse participant base of over 240 organisations - including community learning centres ( kominkans), schools, universities and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) - this initiative has administered numerous programmes. It has engaged a large and diverse group of citizens from Okayama City in exploring sustainability issues through collective discussion, envisioning and practice with the aim of living more sustainable lives. The decade-long experience of the Okayama ESD Project has gained international attention, and the "Okayama Model" is considered an inspiring example of community-based ESD due to the positive changes it has supported. In this article, the Okayama ESD Project is presented as a case study on effective social learning for sustainability. In particular, the practical efforts made are examined to provide insights into how various elements of a social learning process were strengthened and linked to create active learning cycles among community members. In addition, the conditions for creating an effective learning community are investigated, while the practical actions taken are examined in relation to creating an effective social learning process. Finally, this article presents the important role which social learning has played in Okayama City's transition to sustainability and identifies the key efforts made to address and link each of these elements of social learning into a dynamic cycle.

  11. Key factors impacting on diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer for Indigenous women: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Rawson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    To date, there has been limited research on the topic of vulvar cancer. This paper provides findings from a qualitative study conducted with Indigenous women in East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia on the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment for vulvar cancer. The insights from the study outlined in this paper not only make a contribution to deepening our understanding of the experience of vulvar cancer for Indigenous women, but provide practical recommendations to ensure effective and early engagement for diagnosis and treatment. A qualitative research method was employed through in-depth, open-ended interviews. The participants of the study were a purposive sample of Indigenous women with the condition, health professionals, and Aboriginal health workers. There were a total of 40 participants; with twelve (n = 12) Indigenous women affected with the condition, fourteen (n = 14) Aboriginal Health Workers, ten (n = 10) nurses, three (n = 3) doctors, and one (n = 1) community member. This paper addresses three key issues highlighted by the participants which include the fact that the private nature of the disease makes the condition 'women's business', that there is a sense of shame associated with the condition, and that there is fear and worry generated by the seriousness of the condition. The private nature of the disease and the sense of shame associated with the condition impact upon the diagnosis and treatment for many Indigenous women. In addition, the limitation of resources for health service delivery for East Arnhem Land exacerbates the problems faced by these communities. This paper puts forward suggestions to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment for women affected with the condition.

  12. Large research infrastrucures and networking. Two key factors for maintaining nuclear expertise in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Iracane, D.

    2004-01-01

    Large research infrastructures are of key importance to improve the efficiency and the safety of nuclear energy production. To support present and coming power reactors and fuel cycle facilities and to develop future systems, it is necessary to optimise these infrastructures and their use by taking into account the networking of existing facilities, the access by the European researchers to conduct their own research projects and the creation of new installations when facing ageing issues. Large infrastructures include material testing reactor, hot laboratories for material and fuel under irradiation studies, fuel cycle researches and facilities dedicated to severe accident studies. For example, the CEA severe accident study platform has been recently used by a Bulgarian team to conduct its own research project with a grant provided by the European Commission. Furthermore, because present European material testing reactors are ageing, renewing the irradiation capability is an important and structuring stake for the fission research in Europe in order to continue safe and optimised operations of existing reactors, to support Generation 4 RTD and to keep alive competences. Considering that, CEA has decided to launch the project Jules Horowitz aiming at building a new research reactor. The access to the CEA facilities, including the Jules Horowitz reactor, combined with equivalent possibilities of access to other European facilities through a specific platform would help to develop a long-term vision, to create a coherent and dynamic strategy, to contribute to the stimulation of a large cooperation on nuclear fission, to enable a common approach of safety issues, to gather competencies, to promote the attractiveness of nuclear research to young scientists and to maintain European nuclear expertise at the highest level. This paper intends to provide a view of the existing and needed infrastructures, discuss the ways of access and finally open the discussion on the

  13. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  14. Education of staff--a key factor for a safe environment in day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellström, E; Bremberg, S

    2000-05-01

    In order to create a safe environment in day-care settings, an understanding of factors within the organization of day care, factors which influence safety, is essential. Day-care directors in 83 daycare centres completed a mail-in survey that contained questions about professional experience, the day-care centre's organization of child safety measures and a battery of questions designed to evaluate the directors' perceptions and beliefs about child safety. The day-care directors also carried out a safety inspection at their centre. The results were analysed using the multivariate logistic regression technique. The existence of a continuing plan for continued staff education in child safety was shown to be the strongest predictor of few safety hazards in day-care centres. The day-care directors' perceptions and beliefs about injury prevention were of less importance. This study indicates that in order to promote safety in day-care settings, an on-going plan for continued staff education in child safety should be a matter of routine. The introduction of such a plan should be the concern of the individual day-care directors, policy-makers and managers at the local and national level, and health professionals working in this field.

  15. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, L.; MartInez-AbraIn, A.; Mayol, J.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Mañas, F.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, J.A.; Oro, D.

    2016-07-01

    Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)

  16. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rummel, L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration. After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years.

  17. Organisation as a key factor in Localised Agri-Food Systems (LAFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Giacomini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of Localised Agri-Food Systems (LAFS focus on the localised concentration of members and firms, and pay less attention to organisational factors, particularly those of an exogenous nature. This paper focuses on the role of organisation in a LAFS, assessing the efficacy of EU organisational measures aimed at strengthening the concentration of supply from the recent CAP reform 2014-2020. The paper has three sections. Part One describes the evolution of the concept of LAFS. Part Two examines the leading role played by institutions in organising relationships between firms in a LAFS. The example provided is that of the measures affecting the organisation of supply introduced by the recent CAP reform, 2014-2020. It makes particular reference to the Distretto del pomodoro da industria – Nord Italia (‘Industrial Tomato District – Northern Italy’. Part Three describes how organisational factors can lead to the creation of a LAFS, while the criterion of proximity is necessary but not sufficient.

  18. Developing Talented Soccer Players: An Analysis of Socio-Spatial Factors as Possible Key Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra-Olivares Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821 and countries (n = 59 in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05, and also between countries (p < .05. The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.

  19. Key factors to understanding the conflictive situation in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Urgell García

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to help expand our understanding of the armed conflicts and social tensions that exist in the Northeast of India, by examining the different levels at which conflict takes place, as well as by analysing some of the causes and factors involved in these contexts. To this end, the article is structured into three parts. In the first, the authors describe briefly the antecedents of the different conflicts and tensions, in order to establish a map of same and to contextualise them historically and socially. In the second part, five issues are analysed: armed conflicts as multifactorial realities that require examination in both regional and individual terms; the issue of demography as the constitutive factor of many discourses and accounts of the causes of disputes in the region; the Indian government’s responses to the conflicts; the role played by international regional actors and, finally, the dimension of gender in the conflicts. The third and final part includes some closing reflections, by way of a conclusion.

  20. Syntactic computation in the human brain: the degree of merger as a key factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinri Ohta

    Full Text Available Our goal of this study is to characterize the functions of language areas in most precise terms. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that more complex sentences elicit larger activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L. F3op/F3t, although the most critical factor still remains to be identified. We hypothesize that pseudowords with grammatical particles and morphosyntactic information alone impose a construction of syntactic structures, just like normal sentences, and that "the Degree of Merger" (DoM in recursively merged sentences parametrically modulates neural activations. Using jabberwocky sentences with distinct constructions, we fitted various parametric models of syntactic, other linguistic, and nonlinguistic factors to activations measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We demonstrated that the models of DoM and "DoM+number of Search (searching syntactic features" were the best to explain activations in the L. F3op/F3t and supramarginal gyrus (L. SMG, respectively. We further introduced letter strings, which had neither lexical associations nor grammatical particles, but retained both matching orders and symbol orders of sentences. By directly contrasting jabberwocky sentences with letter strings, localized activations in L. F3op/F3t and L. SMG were indeed independent of matching orders and symbol orders. Moreover, by using dynamic causal modeling, we found that the model with a inhibitory modulatory effect for the bottom-up connectivity from L. SMG to L. F3op/F3t was the best one. For this best model, the top-down connection from L. F3op/F3t to L. SMG was significantly positive. By using diffusion-tensor imaging, we confirmed that the left dorsal pathway of the superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi consistently connected these regions. Lastly, we established that nonlinguistic order-related and error-related factors significantly activated the right (R. lateral premotor cortex and R. F3op/F3t

  1. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  2. Key Factors That Influence The Performance Properties Of ARP/MCU Saltstone Mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-01-01

    At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), decontaminated salt solution (DSS) is combined with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) Saltstone. After transfer to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) the hydration reactions initiated during the contact of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period to produce the hardened waste form product. The amount of heat generated from hydration and the resultant temperature increase in the vaults depend on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned as well as the grout formulation (mix design). This report details the results from Task 3 of the Saltstone Variability Study for FY09 which was performed to identify, and quantify when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected ARP/MCU Batches. A baseline ARP/MCU mix (at 0.60 water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio) was established and consisted of the normal premix composition and a salt solution that was an average of the projected compositions of the last three ARP/MCU batches developed by T. A. Le. This task introduced significant variation in (1) wt % slag, w/cm ratio, and wt % portland cement about the baseline mix and (2) the temperature of curing in order to better assess the dependence of the performance properties on these factors. Two separate campaigns, designated Phase 10 and Phase 11, were carried out under Task 3. Experimental designs and statistical analyses were used to search for correlation among properties and to develop linear models to predict property values based on factors such as w/cm ratio, slag concentration, and portland cement concentration. It turns out that the projected salt compositions contained relatively high amounts of aluminate (0.22 M) even though no aluminate was introduced due to caustic aluminate removal from High Level Waste. Previous

  3. Quality services as a key factor of competitiveness of transport companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogetić Srđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of the service quality as an important factor of transport companies in the process of improving competitiveness. Due to global competition and great opportunities that are offered to customers, transporting enterprises need to change their current relationship with the end consumer in order to improve the quality of offered services. Traffic enterprises have realized that improvement of the business processes comes with the use of modern ICT solutions and applications that will ensure that protection of the environment has been taken into account and the quality of service improved as well. Domestic traffic enterprises are not yet ready to accept the change of the way of conducting their business, which furtherly affects the quality of services, and they are still not prepared for the arrival of competition in the transport market.

  4. Study on the Key Factor Parameters to Increase Productivity in Construction and Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyed, K.; Alaswad, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Proper management of human and non-human resources in construction and manufacturing projects can give-in considerable savings in time and cost. Construction and Manufacturing industry faces issues in connection with problems related with productivity and the problems are usually connected with performance of employees. The performance of employees is affected by many factors. In this paper a survey was made on respondents who are employed various projects of Saudi Arabia. The researcher developed a theoretical framework from the existing research which was used as a Model to collect and analyze the field data to test the hypothesis. In this research activity three predictors (commitment, job satisfaction and job performance) for determining the change in productivity. The results highlight that commitment and job performance (respectively) are the two predictors which are explaining 37% of variation in the productivity of the companies. The results also show that Job Satisfaction has no role in the prediction of productivity.

  5. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  6. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update of Key Imaging Techniques, Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart, B; Kindem, S; Chust, M

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma, though rare, is one of the most aggressive tumors a dermatologist faces. More than a third of patients with this diagnosis die from the disease. Numerous researchers have attempted to identify clinical and pathologic predictors to guide prognosis, but their studies have produced inconsistent results. Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma is low and it appears in patients of advanced age, prospective studies have not been done and no clear treatment algorithm has been developed. This review aims to provide an exhaustive, up-to-date account of Merkel cell carcinoma for the dermatologist. We describe prognostic factors and the imaging techniques that are most appropriate for evaluating disease spread. We also discuss current debates on treating Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of transcriptional factors and key genes in primary osteoporosis by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wengui; Ji, Lixin; Zhao, Teng; Gao, Pengfei

    2015-05-09

    A number of genes have been identified to be related with primary osteoporosis while less is known about the comprehensive interactions between regulating genes and proteins. We aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regulatory effects of transcription factors (TFs) involved in primary osteoporosis. The gene expression profile GSE35958 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 5 primary osteoporosis and 4 normal bone tissues. The differentially expressed genes between primary osteoporosis and normal bone tissues were identified by the same package in R language. The TFs of these DEGs were predicted with the Essaghir A method. DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) was applied to perform the GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs. After analyzing regulatory effects, a regulatory network was built between TFs and the related DEGs. A total of 579 DEGs was screened, including 310 up-regulated genes and 269 down-regulated genes in primary osteoporosis samples. In GO terms, more up-regulated genes were enriched in transcription regulator activity, and secondly in transcription factor activity. A total 10 significant pathways were enriched in KEGG analysis, including colorectal cancer, Wnt signaling pathway, Focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, total 7 TFs were enriched, of which CTNNB1, SP1, and TP53 regulated most up-regulated DEGs. The discovery of the enriched TFs might contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of primary osteoporosis. Further research on genes and TFs related to the WNT signaling pathway and MAPK pathway is urgent for clinical diagnosis and directing treatment of primary osteoporosis.

  8. Sexual Education of Young University Students: Some Key Factors and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, higher education institutions not only face the challenge of teaching some discipline to their students, but also of strengthening their life skills. Since university students are majorly young, the desire to provide them with comprehensive training is particularly relevant, since it is at this stage of life when they model their behavior for adulthood. In this training challenge, sex education plays a decisive role. This research paper aims to show that factors such as information gaps, unsafe sexual practices, myths, prejudices and stereotypes persist in the university student population and do not allow them to live sexuality safely and pleasurable. Moreover, these factors show Costa Rica’s need for higher education institutions to strengthen their actions in sex education. A brief tour is made from various angles through the sexual experiences of the university student population, namely: their perceptions about the training requirements they face, their main concerns, their unsafe sexual practices, their inability to negotiate sexual and reproductive health care, their knowledge and preventive practices in terms of sexual and reproductive health, the existence of forms of violence within university life, among others. The findings set out are part of a larger research, based on contributions from the theory of gender and social constructionism. Such data derives from the application of a questionnaire to a sample stratified by unequal conglomerates composed of 766 regular students of undergraduate courses, enrolled in the first cycle of 2011, at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The margin of error is 1.5% and the confidence level, 95%. The data was tabulated using the software CSPRO and analyzed with software R. After obtaining the results of the instrument’s application, a focus group was created with the participation of professionals who teach sexuality courses in this university, and two other groups with

  9. Hydrophobic environment is a key factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Pathak, Manish C; Saraboji, Kadhirvel; Ortlund, Eric A; Gaucher, Eric A

    2013-04-01

    The stability of thermophilic proteins has been viewed from different perspectives and there is yet no unified principle to understand this stability. It would be valuable to reveal the most important interactions for designing thermostable proteins for such applications as industrial protein engineering. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the importance of various interactions by computing different parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, inter-residue interactions, ion-pairs and hydrogen bonds. The importance of each interaction has been determined by its predicted relative contribution in thermophiles versus the same contribution in mesophilic homologues based on a dataset of 373 protein families. We predict that hydrophobic environment is the major factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins and found that 80% of thermophilic proteins analyzed showed higher hydrophobicity than their mesophilic counterparts. Ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy are also important and favored in 68%, 50%, and 62% of thermophilic proteins, respectively. Interestingly, thermophilic proteins with decreased hydrophobic environments display a greater number of hydrogen bonds and/or ion pairs. The systematic elimination of mesophilic proteins based on surrounding hydrophobicity, interaction energy, and ion pairs/hydrogen bonds, led to correctly identifying 95% of the thermophilic proteins in our analyses. Our analysis was also applied to another, more refined set of 102 thermophilic-mesophilic pairs, which again identified hydrophobicity as a dominant property in 71% of the thermophilic proteins. Further, the notion of surrounding hydrophobicity, which characterizes the hydrophobic behavior of residues in a protein environment, has been applied to the three-dimensional structures of elongation factor-Tu proteins and we found that the thermophilic proteins are enriched with a hydrophobic environment. The results obtained in this work highlight the

  10. Thioredoxin reductase is a key factor in the oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teusink Bas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thioredoxin (TRX is a powerful disulfide oxido-reductase that catalyzes a wide spectrum of redox reactions in the cell. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the TRX system in the oxidative stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Results We have identified the trxB1-encoded thioredoxin reductase (TR as a key enzyme in the oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Overexpression of the trxB1 gene resulted in a 3-fold higher TR activity in comparison to the wild-type strain. Subsequently, higher TR activity was associated with an increased resistance towards oxidative stress. We further determined the global transcriptional response to hydrogen peroxide stress in the trxB1-overexpression and wild-type strains grown in continuous cultures. Hydrogen peroxide stress and overproduction of TR collectively resulted in the up-regulation of 267 genes. Additionally, gene expression profiling showed significant differential expression of 27 genes in the trxB1-overexpression strain. Over expression of trxB1 was found to activate genes associated with DNA repair and stress mechanisms as well as genes associated with the activity of biosynthetic pathways for purine and sulfur-containing amino acids. A total of 16 genes showed a response to both TR overproduction and hydrogen peroxide stress. These genes are involved in the purine metabolism, energy metabolism (gapB as well as in stress-response (groEL, npr2, and manganese transport (mntH2. Conclusion Based on our findings we propose that overproduction of the trxB1-encoded TR in L. plantarum improves tolerance towards oxidative stress. This response coincides with simultaneous induction of a group of 16 transcripts of genes. Within this group of genes, most are associated with oxidative stress response. The obtained crossover between datasets may explain the phenotype of the trxB1-overexpression strain, which appears to be prepared for encountering

  11. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  12. Key Success Factors and Future Perspective of Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, after more than 70 years of continued progress on silicon technology, about 85% of cumulative installed photovolatic (PV modules are based on crystalline silicon (c-Si. PV devices based on silicon are the most common solar cells currently being produced, and it is mainly due to silicon technology that the PV has grown by 40% per year over the last decade. An additional step in the silicon solar cell development is ongoing, and it is related to a further efficiency improvement through defect control, device optimization, surface modification, and nanotechnology approaches. This paper attempts to briefly review the most important advances and current technologies used to produce crystalline silicon solar devices and in the meantime the most challenging and promising strategies acting to increase the efficiency to cost/ratio of silicon solar cells. Eventually, the impact and the potentiality of using a nanotechnology approach in a silicon-based solar cell are also described.

  13. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5-7 years earlier than their male peers. This age-sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim

  14. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  15. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions-The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Cornelia M; Jansch, Mirko; Müller, Rainer H

    2012-12-21

    Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern), typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface). The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  16. Sonic hedgehog from both nerves and epithelium is a key trophic factor for taste bud maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Azofeifa, David; Losacco, Justin T; Salcedo, Ernesto; Golden, Erin J; Finger, Thomas E; Barlow, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    The integrity of taste buds is intimately dependent on an intact gustatory innervation, yet the molecular nature of this dependency is unknown. Here, we show that differentiation of new taste bud cells, but not progenitor proliferation, is interrupted in mice treated with a hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (HPI), and that gustatory nerves are a source of sonic hedgehog (Shh) for taste bud renewal. Additionally, epithelial taste precursor cells express Shh transiently, and provide a local supply of Hh ligand that supports taste cell renewal. Taste buds are minimally affected when Shh is lost from either tissue source. However, when both the epithelial and neural supply of Shh are removed, taste buds largely disappear. We conclude Shh supplied by taste nerves and local taste epithelium act in concert to support continued taste bud differentiation. However, although neurally derived Shh is in part responsible for the dependence of taste cell renewal on gustatory innervation, neurotrophic support of taste buds likely involves a complex set of factors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Preparedness for physiotherapy in private practice: Novices identify key factors in an interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robyn; McElroy, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Physiotherapists in Australia deliver services to a diverse range of clients, across many settings, however little research exists examining graduate preparedness for practice, even in the populous field of private practice. To explore novice physiotherapist perspectives on preparedness for work in private practice. The qualitative approach of interpretive description was used to guide in-depth interviews with 8 novice physiotherapists from 3 universities working in 5 private practices in Melbourne. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Four main themes influencing graduate preparedness for work in private practice were identified: 1) non-curricular experiences (e.g. sports training) 2) elective curricular: practicum experiences; 3) curricular: attainment of skills specific to private practice; and 4) the private practice setting: supportive colleagues. This combination of non-curricular, curricular, and practice setting factors offered the necessary scaffolding for the graduates to report feeling prepared for work in private practice. Non-curricular activities, radiological instruction, clinical placements, building supportive colleague relations and professional development in private practice are recommended as potential means of building preparedness in novice therapists. Findings have implications for physiotherapy students, educators and private practice clinics looking to recruit new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  19. Health, Islam and Alternative Capitalism. Three possible Key Factors in Developing Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zizzola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the socio, political and economic dynamics that have occurred in Somaliland in the last decades. Even though this country is still unrecognized by the international community, Somaliland’s economy has undertaken an enduring growth, above all in the private entrepreneurial sector. The author argues that religion has had an important role in the Somali cultural and social identification. According to this assumption, the article analyzes the Islamic factor by showing how it has led to the creation of many alternative connections supported by mutual trust and religious solidarity among involved communities. These connections are somehow fulfilling the absence of political legitimacy while progressively substituting conventional routes of intra-national negotiation, like diplomacy. To confirm this tendency, specific arguments are drawn from Somaliland’s health sector. The health care system is considered a preferential index to evaluate the level of national development. Above all, the private non-profit sector gives some evidence of the Somali capacity of running competitive private businesses while multiplying simultaneously their resources and suppliers with a consequent increase in autonomy and efficiency. This successful compromise bears the fruits of Somali engagement and can be identified by their inexhaustible adaptability to adverse conditions and their ability to avoid, not deny, the rational rules imposed by external actors and their ostensible, insurmountable interests.

  20. Trench angle: a key design factor for a deep trench superjunction MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyemin; Lee, Jaegil; Lee, Kwangwon; Choi, Youngchul

    2015-01-01

    Why is the development of a deep trench superjunction (SJ) MOSFET above 600 V and under 8.0 mohm · cm 2 difficult? A deep trench SJ MOSFET is expected to have a low turn-on resistance because the post thermal process after the epitaxial process, which is normally used in a multi-step epitaxy structure, is unnecessary. When designing a deep trench SJ MOSFET, the trench angle is the most important factor because this determines the breakdown voltage (BV) and BV variations. In this paper, we investigated how the trench angle affects the BV and BV window as a condition of the possible thermal process. By employing a physical concept, ΔCharge, we explained why the maximum BV is decreased and the BV window is increased as the trench angle decreases. Also, we systematically scrutinized the transition of the vertical electric field by varying the trench angle. Furthermore, in a real case, the principle of the trench angle which contributes to the deviation of the charge imbalance and specific resistance of SJ is described. Finally, we discuss the challenge of SJ MOSFET development in the industry. (paper)

  1. A Robust and Anonymous Two Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hu; Tao, Junyi; Chen, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays people can get many services including health-care services from distributed information systems remotely via public network. By considering that these systems are built on public network, they are vulnerable to many malicious attacks. Hence it is necessary to introduce an effective mechanism to protect both users and severs. Recently many two-factor authentication schemes have been proposed to achieve this goal. In 2016, Li et al. demonstrated that Lee et al.'s scheme was not satisfactory to be deployed in practice because of its security weaknesses and then proposed a security enhanced scheme to overcome these drawbacks. In this paper, we analyze Li et al.'s scheme is still not satisfactory to be applied in telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) because it fails to withstand off-line dictionary attack and known session-specific temporary information attack. Moreover, their scheme cannot provide card revocation services for lost smart card. In order to solve these security problems, we propose an improved scheme. Then we analyze our scheme by using BAN-logic model and compare the improved scheme with related schemes to prove that our scheme is advantageous to be applied in practice.

  2. Key factors in work engagement and job motivation of teaching faculty at a university medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B A M; Bakker, Arnold B; Ten Cate, Th J

    2013-11-01

    This study reports about teacher motivation and work engagement in a Dutch University Medical Centre (UMC). We examined factors affecting the motivation for teaching in a UMC, the engagement of UMC Utrecht teaching faculty in their work, and their engagement in teaching compared with engagement in patient care and research. Based on a pilot study within various departments at the UMCU, a survey on teaching motivation and work engagement was developed and sent to over 600 UMCU teachers. About 50 % responded. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, included in this survey. From a list of 22 pre-defined items, 5 were marked as most motivating: teaching about my own speciality, noticeable appreciation for teaching by my direct superior, teaching small groups, feedback on my teaching performance, and freedom to determine what I teach. Feedback on my teaching performance showed the strongest predictive value for teaching engagement. Engagement scores were relatively favourable, but engagement with patient care was higher than with research and teaching. Task combinations appear to decrease teaching engagement. Our results match with self-determination theory and the job demands-resources model, and challenge the policy to combine teaching with research and patient care.

  3. THE QUALITY OF THE TOURIST DESTINATIONS A KEY FACTOR FOR INCREASING THEIR ATTRACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliborka Blazeska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the tourism is extremely important for any country including Republic of Macedonia, it is necessary to pay attention to the quality of the tourist destinations and increasing of their attractiveness. So winners in the field of tourism will be those countries that have attractive tourist destination that will attract a lot of visitors. In this paper is defined the relationship between the factors of attractiveness of the destination and the achieving of competitiveness. In order to become competitive in the global market, the tourist destination has to be innovative and to continually search for new competitive advantages. Those kind of competitive advantages enable stable and long-term sustainable development of the tourist destination. In this paper special emphasis is put to the monitoring of the quality of the tourist destination with constant inquiries of the tourists (domestic and foreign regarding the most important segments of the quality of the tourist product which they are using, in order to perceive the satisfaction or the eventual dissatisfaction in order to be taken concrete strategies for the following period. The obtained results clearly confirm the dissatisfaction with the road infrastructure and signalization, the price of the services and the conditions for the stay, as well as the additional attractions that were expected to get.

  4. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Security analysis and improvements of two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Lee, Donghoon; Jeon, Woongryul; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-04-09

    User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker's own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  6. CHANGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARISON OF KEY FACTORS CONCERNING UNIVERSITIES IN AUSTRIA AND SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rybnicek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Society has changed sustainably and universities have thus faced new requirements. As a result of competition and globalization, education and knowledge management had to be adapted. Universities were forced to establish a modern management system primarily known from the private sector and governments had to reconsider their legal and economic relationship to universities. In recent years, many countries have implemented new rules for their universities. Two of these countries were Austria and Switzerland. But even when they pursued the same goals, they have chosen quite different approaches and as a matter of fact achieved very differing results. The objective of this study was twofold. Firstly, we analyzed the challenges and contradictions when implementing a modern university model. Secondly, we investigated specific characteristics of the university systems of Austria and Switzerland to identify factors that may have impacted the performance and success of the universities. Referring to our first objective, a literature review has revealed severe contradictions between modern university management and the traditional understanding of it. While the traditional scheme has focused mainly on research, teaching is becoming more relevant in the new demand orientated university. Also, the freedom of science and teaching is limited by the strong orientation on goals that have been agreed upon with the government. Further contradictions can be identified in autonomy, budgeting, leadership, hierarchy, and employee participation. To examine the second research aim, we reviewed national and international databases and reports. Our results emphasize the importance of monetary aspects, the student-teacher-ratio, autonomy, and the relevance of the universities’ reputation and acceptance within society and politics. Our findings can help to understand the different approaches which have been chosen to cope with global changes in higher education. They

  7. HDAC4: a key factor underlying brain developmental alterations in CDKL5 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trazzi, Stefania; Fuchs, Claudia; Viggiano, Rocchina; De Franceschi, Marianna; Valli, Emanuele; Jedynak, Paulina; Hansen, Finn K; Perini, Giovanni; Rimondini, Roberto; Kurz, Thomas; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase predominantly expressed in the brain. Mutations of the CDKL5 gene lead to CDKL5 disorder, a neurodevelopmental pathology that shares several features with Rett Syndrome and is characterized by severe intellectual disability. The phosphorylation targets of CDKL5 are largely unknown, which hampers the discovery of therapeutic strategies for improving the neurological phenotype due to CDKL5 mutations. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a direct phosphorylation target of CDKL5 and that CDKL5-dependent phosphorylation promotes HDAC4 cytoplasmic retention. Nuclear HDAC4 binds to chromatin as well as to MEF2A transcription factor, leading to histone deacetylation and altered neuronal gene expression. By using a Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 -/Y) mouse model, we found that hypophosphorylated HDAC4 translocates to the nucleus of neural precursor cells, thereby reducing histone 3 acetylation. This effect was reverted by re-expression of CDKL5 or by inhibition of HDAC4 activity through the HDAC4 inhibitor LMK235. In Cdkl5 -/Y mice treated with LMK235, defective survival and maturation of neuronal precursor cells and hippocampus-dependent memory were fully normalized. These results demonstrate a critical role of HDAC4 in the neurodevelopmental alterations due to CDKL5 mutations and suggest the possibility of HDAC4-targeted pharmacological interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Understanding key factors affecting electronic medical record implementation: a sociotechnical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta; Pagliari, Claudia

    2015-07-17

    Recent health care policies have supported the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) but examples of failed ICT projects in this sector have highlighted the need for a greater understanding of the processes used to implement such innovations in complex organizations. This study examined the interaction of sociological and technological factors in the implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system by a major national hospital. It aimed to obtain insights for managers planning such projects in the future and to examine the usefulness of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a research tool in this context. Case study using documentary analysis, interviews and observations. Qualitative thematic analysis drawing on ANT. Qualitative analyses revealed a complex network of interactions between organizational stakeholders and technology that helped to shape the system and influence its acceptance and adoption. The EMR clearly emerged as a central 'actor' within this network. The results illustrate how important it is to plan innovative and complex information systems with reference to (i) the expressed needs and involvement of different actors, starting from the initial introductory phase; (ii) promoting commitment to the system and adopting a participative approach; (iii) defining and resourcing new roles within the organization capable of supporting and sustaining the change and (iv) assessing system impacts in order to mobilize the network around a common goal. The paper highlights the organizational, cultural, technological, and financial considerations that should be taken into account when planning strategies for the implementation of EMR systems in hospital settings. It also demonstrates how ANT may be usefully deployed in evaluating such projects.

  9. EXO70C2 is a key regulatory factor for optimal tip growth of pollen

    KAUST Repository

    Synek, Lukas

    2017-03-30

    The exocyst, an eukaryotic tethering complex, co-regulates targeted exocytosis as an effector of small GTPases in polarized cell growth. In land plants, several exocyst subunits are encoded by double or triple paralogs, culminating in tens of EXO70 paralogs. Out of 23 Arabidopsis EXO70 isoforms, we analyzed seven isoforms expressed in pollen. Genetic and microscopic analyses of single mutants in EXO70A2, C1, C2, F1, H3, H5, and H6 genes revealed that only a loss-of-function EXO70C2 allele resulted in a significant male-specific transmission defect (segregation 40%:51%:9%) due to aberrant pollen tube growth. Mutant pollen tubes grown in vitro exhibited enhanced growth rate and a decreased thickness of the tip cell wall, causing tip bursts. However, exo70C2 pollen tubes could frequently recover and restart their speedy elongation, resulting in a repetitive stop-and-go growth dynamics. A pollen-specific depletion of the closest paralog, EXO70C1, using ami-RNA in the exo70C2 mutant background resulted in a complete pollen-specific transmission defect, suggesting redundant functions of EXO70C1 and EXO70C2. Both EXO70C1 and EXO70C2, GFP-tagged and expressed under their native promoters, localized in the cytoplasm of pollen grains, pollen tubes, and also root trichoblast cells. Expression of EXO70C2-GFP complemented aberrant growth of exo70C2 pollen tubes. The absent EXO70C2 interactions with core exocyst subunits in the yeast two-hybrid assay, cytoplasmic localization, and genetic effect suggest an unconventional EXO70 function possibly as a regulator of exocytosis outside the exocyst complex. In conclusion, EXO70C2 is a novel factor contributing to the regulation of optimal tip growth of Arabidopsis pollen tubes.

  10. Reduced lung cancer mortality in dairy farmers: is endotoxin exposure the key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Marzia, V; Marcer, G

    1996-11-01

    From two areas in the Province of Padova, we selected 2,283 male farmers who worked either in cattle raising or in crop/orchard cultivation. There were 422 cohort deaths from 1970 to 1992. Using the regional population as a reference, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the Poisson distribution. Cancer mortality was significantly reduced among the 1,561 dairy farmers (SMR = 0.65; CI = 0.53-0.81); there was a significant decrease in lung cancer (SMR = 0.49; CI = 0.31-0.74), whereas a significant increase from brain tumors was found (SMR = 2.83; CI = 1.04-6.17). Neither overall cancer mortality nor the lung cancer SMR deviated significantly from unity for the 722 crop/orchard farmers. Among dairy farmers, moreover, lung cancer SMRs showed a significant downward trend across the quartiles of increasing length of work, 0.96 in the first quartile, and 0.48, 0.40, and 0.25 in the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. Moreover, lung cancer risk decreased with increasing farm land area, with SMRs in the quartiles of 0.89, 0.37, 0.41 and 0.19. This decrease cannot be attributed to either a selection (healthy worker effect) or a confounding (lower percentage of smokers) bias. Nor was it due to an artifact introduced by differences in age distribution among the quartiles. Dairy farmers are known to be exposed to higher airborne endotoxin concentrations; reasonably, this cumulative exposure increases further with years of work and area of farm. Endotoxins may have protected the dairy farmers against lung cancer through the tumor necrosis factor produced by alveolar macrophages.

  11. Predicting Arrest in a Sample of Youth Perinatally Exposed to HIV: The Intersection of HIV and Key Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S; Peters, Zachary; Choi, C Jean; Bucek, Amelia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Abrams, Elaine J; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-11-22

    We examined the role of youth HIV status and other key factors on past-year arrest in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHIV-) and perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth using data from a multi-site study of psychosocial behaviors in PHIV-exposed urban youth (N = 340; 61% PHIV+; 51% female; ages 9-16 at baseline). Youth and caregivers were administered 5 interviews, spanning approximately 7.5 years. Using longitudinal logistic mixed-effect models, we explored the association between past year arrest, internal [e.g., substance use disorder (SUD)] and external (e.g., neighborhood arrest rates) contextual factors, and social-regulation processes (e.g., in-school/work). Arrest rates increased from 2.6 to 19.7% across follow-ups; there were no differences in arrest over time by HIV status. In the final model, odds of arrest were greater for youth who were male, with SUD, ≥ 18 years old, with high levels of city stress, and neither in school nor employed. PHIV-exposed, urban youth have much higher rates of arrest than national samples. Lack of differences in arrest by HIV status suggests key contextual factors are more important in promoting arrest.

  12. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  13. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necessity of better controlling soil, water and organic matter to improve agrosystem sustainability in sub Saharan Africa.

  14. Psychophysics of a nociceptive test in the mouse: ambient temperature as a key factor for variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanne Pincedé

    Full Text Available The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process.Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO(2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making.We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as "pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice.

  15. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F.; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Although soil characteristics modulate metal mobility and bioavailability to organisms, they are often ignored in the risk assessment of metal transfer. This paper aims to determine the ability of chemical methods to assess and predict cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) environmental bioavailability to the land snail Cantareus aspersus. Snails were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 17 soils from around a former smelter. The soils were selected for their range of pH, organic matter, clay content, and Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations. The influence of soil properties on environmental availability (estimated using HF-HClO 4 , EDTA, CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , NaNO 3 , free ion activity and total dissolved metal concentration in soil solution) and on environmental bioavailability (modelled using accumulation kinetics) was identified. Among the seven chemical methods, only the EDTA and the total soil concentration can be used to assess Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability to snails (r² adj = 0.67 and 0.77, respectively). For Zn, none of the chemical methods were suitable. Taking into account the influence of the soil characteristics (pH and CEC) allows a better prediction of Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability (r² adj = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Even though alone none of the chemical methods tested could assess Zn environmental bioavailability to snails, the addition of pH, iron and aluminium oxides allowed the variation of assimilation fluxes to be predicted. A conceptual and practical method to use soil characteristics for risk assessment is proposed based on these results. We conclude that as yet there is no universal chemical method to predict metal environmental bioavailability to snails, and that the soil factors having the greatest impact depend on the metal considered. - Highlights: ► New approach to identify chemical methods able to predict metal bioavailability to snails. ► Bioavailability of cadmium, lead and zinc to snails was determined by

  16. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F., E-mail: frederic.gimbert@univ-fcomte.fr; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-08-01

    Although soil characteristics modulate metal mobility and bioavailability to organisms, they are often ignored in the risk assessment of metal transfer. This paper aims to determine the ability of chemical methods to assess and predict cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) environmental bioavailability to the land snail Cantareus aspersus. Snails were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 17 soils from around a former smelter. The soils were selected for their range of pH, organic matter, clay content, and Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations. The influence of soil properties on environmental availability (estimated using HF-HClO{sub 4}, EDTA, CaCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, free ion activity and total dissolved metal concentration in soil solution) and on environmental bioavailability (modelled using accumulation kinetics) was identified. Among the seven chemical methods, only the EDTA and the total soil concentration can be used to assess Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability to snails (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.67 and 0.77, respectively). For Zn, none of the chemical methods were suitable. Taking into account the influence of the soil characteristics (pH and CEC) allows a better prediction of Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Even though alone none of the chemical methods tested could assess Zn environmental bioavailability to snails, the addition of pH, iron and aluminium oxides allowed the variation of assimilation fluxes to be predicted. A conceptual and practical method to use soil characteristics for risk assessment is proposed based on these results. We conclude that as yet there is no universal chemical method to predict metal environmental bioavailability to snails, and that the soil factors having the greatest impact depend on the metal considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach to identify chemical methods able to predict metal bioavailability

  17. Computer-aided study of key factors determining high mechanical properties of nanostructured surface layers in metal-ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the movable cellular automaton method. It is based on numerical models of surface layers of the metal-ceramic composite NiCr-TiC modified under electron beam irradiation in inert gas plasmas. The models take into account different geometric, concentration and mechanical parameters of ceramic and metallic components. The authors study the contributions of key structural factors in mechanical properties of surface layers and determine the ranges of their variations by providing the optimum balance of strength, strain hardening and fracture toughness.

  18. THE STUDY OPPORTUNITIES OF SELF-OSCILLATIONS IN THE SYSTEM OF AUTOMATIC REGULATION OF THE VOLTAGE OF THE RINGS CONTROL WITH RELAY CONTROLLER BASED ON POWER KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Biluhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of the modern power semiconductor keys is considered for realization of asynchronous method of control of voltage level for circuits of on-board feeding of electric locomotives.

  19. Response regulator heterodimer formation controls a key stage in Streptomyces development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M Al-Bassam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orphan, atypical response regulators BldM and WhiI each play critical roles in Streptomyces differentiation. BldM is required for the formation of aerial hyphae, and WhiI is required for the differentiation of these reproductive structures into mature spores. To gain insight into BldM function, we defined the genome-wide BldM regulon using ChIP-Seq and transcriptional profiling. BldM target genes clustered into two groups based on their whi gene dependency. Expression of Group I genes depended on bldM but was independent of all the whi genes, and biochemical experiments showed that Group I promoters were controlled by a BldM homodimer. In contrast, Group II genes were expressed later than Group I genes and their expression depended not only on bldM but also on whiI and whiG (encoding the sigma factor that activates whiI. Additional ChIP-Seq analysis showed that BldM Group II genes were also direct targets of WhiI and that in vivo binding of WhiI to these promoters depended on BldM and vice versa. We go on to demonstrate that BldM and WhiI form a functional heterodimer that controls Group II promoters, serving to integrate signals from two distinct developmental pathways. The BldM-WhiI system thus exemplifies the potential of response regulator heterodimer formation as a mechanism to expand the signaling capabilities of bacterial cells.

  20. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  1. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  2. Automatic generation of predictive dynamic models reveals nuclear phosphorylation as the key Msn2 control mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnåker, Mikael; Zamora-Sillero, Elias; Dechant, Reinhard; Ludwig, Christina; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Wagner, Andreas; Stelling, Joerg

    2013-05-28

    Predictive dynamical models are critical for the analysis of complex biological systems. However, methods to systematically develop and discriminate among systems biology models are still lacking. We describe a computational method that incorporates all hypothetical mechanisms about the architecture of a biological system into a single model and automatically generates a set of simpler models compatible with observational data. As a proof of principle, we analyzed the dynamic control of the transcription factor Msn2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specifically the short-term mechanisms mediating the cells' recovery after release from starvation stress. Our method determined that 12 of 192 possible models were compatible with available Msn2 localization data. Iterations between model predictions and rationally designed phosphoproteomics and imaging experiments identified a single-circuit topology with a relative probability of 99% among the 192 models. Model analysis revealed that the coupling of dynamic phenomena in Msn2 phosphorylation and transport could lead to efficient stress response signaling by establishing a rate-of-change sensor. Similar principles could apply to mammalian stress response pathways. Systematic construction of dynamic models may yield detailed insight into nonobvious molecular mechanisms.

  3. Key Factors for the Linkage Strategy between R and D and Commercialization for Gen-ΙV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoungmi; Hong, Jung Suk

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has leaded to enhance the safety and the cost-effectiveness of technology for the future so that advanced countries such as United Sates and France have concerned about a next generation nuclear power plant, Gen-IV(Generation-IV Reactor). Considering various characteristics of nuclear R and D, it is necessary to have more elaborated strategies for the effective development of the next generation of nuclear technology. In this study, we suggest 5 key factors for the successful commercialization of Gen-IV by analyzing the distinct characteristics of nuclear R and D with Gen-IV and CSF(Critical Success Factor)s of several cases in these field and conducting the FGI(Focus Group Interview). Considering these results, we could find and suggest some important points for further strategy for Gen-IV. That is, following five key factors for the linkage improvement between R and D and commercialization of Gen-IV should be considered: the participation of nuclear power plant operators from the beginning, the establishment of consistent and comprehensive plan/roadmap/detailed strategy, the technology development based on global energy issues and international cooperation, the stable and clear funding plans for long-term projects, the cooperation of relative ministries. Gen-IV system is getting a positive response in that it accompanies long-term R and D plans in Korea. We think that the standard of Gen-IV would lead the next generation of nuclear industry if the proper strategy for the cooperation between the private sector and the regulation from the beginning. Moreover, we expect that this study will facilitate its development process from R and D to commercialization

  4. Key Factors for the Linkage Strategy between R and D and Commercialization for Gen-ΙV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoungmi; Hong, Jung Suk [Korean Institute of S and T Evaluation and Planning, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has leaded to enhance the safety and the cost-effectiveness of technology for the future so that advanced countries such as United Sates and France have concerned about a next generation nuclear power plant, Gen-IV(Generation-IV Reactor). Considering various characteristics of nuclear R and D, it is necessary to have more elaborated strategies for the effective development of the next generation of nuclear technology. In this study, we suggest 5 key factors for the successful commercialization of Gen-IV by analyzing the distinct characteristics of nuclear R and D with Gen-IV and CSF(Critical Success Factor)s of several cases in these field and conducting the FGI(Focus Group Interview). Considering these results, we could find and suggest some important points for further strategy for Gen-IV. That is, following five key factors for the linkage improvement between R and D and commercialization of Gen-IV should be considered: the participation of nuclear power plant operators from the beginning, the establishment of consistent and comprehensive plan/roadmap/detailed strategy, the technology development based on global energy issues and international cooperation, the stable and clear funding plans for long-term projects, the cooperation of relative ministries. Gen-IV system is getting a positive response in that it accompanies long-term R and D plans in Korea. We think that the standard of Gen-IV would lead the next generation of nuclear industry if the proper strategy for the cooperation between the private sector and the regulation from the beginning. Moreover, we expect that this study will facilitate its development process from R and D to commercialization.

  5. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  6. Key factors influencing adoption of an innovation in primary health care: a qualitative study based on implementation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlfjord Siw

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bridging the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care is an important issue that has gained interest in recent years. Implementing new methods, guidelines or tools into routine care, however, is a slow and unpredictable process, and the factors that play a role in the change process are not yet fully understood. There is a number of theories concerned with factors predicting successful implementation in various settings, however, this issue is insufficiently studied in primary health care (PHC. The objective of this article was to apply implementation theory to identify key factors influencing the adoption of an innovation being introduced in PHC in Sweden. Methods A qualitative study was carried out with staff at six PHC units in Sweden where a computer-based test for lifestyle intervention had been implemented. Two different implementation strategies, implicit or explicit, were used. Sixteen focus group interviews and two individual interviews were performed. In the analysis a theoretical framework based on studies of implementation in health service organizations, was applied to identify key factors influencing adoption. Results The theoretical framework proved to be relevant for studies in PHC. Adoption was positively influenced by positive expectations at the unit, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceived advantages. An explicit implementation strategy and positive opinions on change and innovation were also associated with adoption. Organizational changes and staff shortages coinciding with implementation seemed to be obstacles for the adoption process. Conclusion When implementation theory obtained from studies in other areas was applied in PHC it proved to be relevant for this particular setting. Based on our results, factors to be taken into account in the planning of the implementation of a new tool in PHC should include assessment of staff expectations, assessment of the

  7. Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in the molecular control of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, J H W; Hirth, A; Kurowska-Stolarska, M; Gay, R E; Gay, S; Distler, O

    2003-09-01

    The vascular system that ensures an adequate blood flow is required to provide the cells with sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. Two different mechanisms of the formation of new vessels can be distinguished: vasculogenesis, the formation of the first primitive vascular plexus de novo and angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from preexisting ones. Both processes are regulated by a delicate balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Physiologically, angiostatic mediators outweigh the angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis does not occur. Under certain conditions such as tumor formation or wound healing, the positive regulators of angiogenesis predominate and the endothelium becomes activated. Angiogenesis is initiated by vasodilatation and an increased permeability. After destabilization of the vessel wall, endothelial cells proliferate, migrate and form a tube, which is finally stabilized by pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines and proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules strictly control this multi-step process. The properties and interactions of angiogenic molecules such as VEGFs, FGFs, angiopoietins, PDGF, angiogenin, angiotropin, HGF, CXC chemokines with ELR motif, PECAM-1, integrins and VE-cadherin as well as angiostatic key players such as angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondin, CXC chemokines without ELR motif, PEDF are discussed in this review with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis.

  8. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P

    2008-12-01

    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  9. Key Issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Claude

    2002-01-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM1 project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories Design, Maintenance and Logistic Support, Outage Management. Most of the key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  10. Key issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2000-01-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories: Design; Maintenance and Logistic Support; Outage Management. Most key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  11. Key role of integrin α(IIb)β (3) signaling to Syk kinase in tissue factor-induced thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Paola E J; Feijge, Marion A H; Swieringa, Frauke; Gilio, Karen; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan; Hamulyák, Karly; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2012-10-01

    The fibrin(ogen) receptor, integrin α(IIb)β(3), has a well-established role in platelet spreading, aggregation and clot retraction. How α(IIb)β(3) contributes to platelet-dependent coagulation is less well resolved. Here, we demonstrate that the potent suppressing effect of clinically used α(IIb)β(3) blockers on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation is linked to diminished platelet Ca(2+) responses and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. The same blockers suppress these responses in platelets stimulated with collagen and thrombin receptor agonists, whereas added fibrinogen potentiates these responses. In platelets spreading on fibrinogen, outside-in α(IIb)β(3) signaling similarly enhances thrombin-induced Ca(2+) rises and PS exposure. These responses are reduced in α(IIb)β(3)-deficient platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Furthermore, the contribution of α(IIb)β(3) to tissue factor-induced platelet Ca(2+) rises, PS exposure and thrombin generation in plasma are fully dependent on Syk kinase activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation analysis confirms a key role of Syk activation, which is largely but not exclusively dependent on α(IIb)β(3) activation. It is concluded that the majority of tissue factor-induced procoagulant activity of platelets relies on Syk activation and ensuing Ca(2+) signal generation, and furthermore that a considerable part of Syk activation relies on α(IIb)β(3) signaling. These results hence point to a novel role of Syk in integrin-dependent thrombin generation.

  12. Key factors influencing the stability of silane solution during long-term surface treatment on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Xiaochao; Chen, Minglu; Li, Lixin; Lin, Zhen; Xiang, Jun; Zhao, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The corrosion-resistance time of silane films decreases with increasing cycle numbers. •The morphology of silane films prepared from aged solution is inhomogeneous. •Introduction of contamination ions is one reason for the poor property of aged solution. •Consumption of silane is the other reason for the poor property of aged solution. •Fe 3+ accumulated is the key factor influencing the property of silane solution. -- Abstract: The mixtures of bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine and vinyltriacetoxysilane were used for surface treatment of carbon steel, aiming to investigate the factors influencing the stability of silane solution during long-term experiment from two aspects. One is the concentrations of contamination ions, and the other is mass of silane consumed per cycle which is calculated according to concentration of Si measured by silicon molybdenum blue photometry. The results indicate that the accumulation of contamination ions, especially Fe 3+ , is the main factor leading to the condensation between the Si–OH groups in silane solution, which is responsible for the downward stability of silane solution

  13. Security Analysis and Improvements of Two-Factor Mutual Authentication with Key Agreement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme with key agreement in WSNs is vulnerable to gateway node bypassing attacks and user impersonation attacks using secret data stored in sensor nodes or an attacker’s own smart card. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme to overcome these security weaknesses by storing secret data in unique ciphertext form in each node. In addition, our proposed scheme should provide not only security, but also efficiency since sensors in a WSN operate with resource constraints such as limited power, computation, and storage space. Therefore, we also analyze the performance of the proposed scheme by comparing its computation and communication costs with those of other schemes.

  14. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    on their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development activities......, three direct determinants lead to high perceived value: attractive packaging, high product quality, and extensive marketing activities. High product quality is in turn determined by high raw material quality, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and competent management and indicating....../high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions...

  15. Factors influencing the profitability of optimizing control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)

  16. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  17. An autobias control system for the electro—optic modulator used in a quantum key distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wen-Fen; Wei Zheng-Jun; Guo Li; Hou Li-Yan; Wang Geng; Wang Jin-Dong; Zhang Zhi-Ming; Guo Jian-Ping; Liu Song-Hao

    2014-01-01

    In a quantum key distribution system, it is crucial to keep the extinction ratio of the coherent pulses stable. This means that the direct current bias point of the electro—optic modulator (EOM) used for generating coherent pulses must be locked. In this paper, an autobias control system based on a lock-in-amplifier for the EOM is introduced. Its drift information extracting theory and control method are analyzed comprehensively. The long term drift of the extinction ratio of the coherent pulses is measured by a single photon detector, which indicates that the autobias control system is effective for stabilizing the bias point of the EOM. (general)

  18. An Effective Key Management Approach to Differential Access Control in Dynamic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh Karandikar; Xukai Zou; Yuanshun Dai

    2006-01-01

    Applications like e-newspaper or interactive online gaming have more than one resource and a large number of users. There is a many-to-many relationship between users and resources; each user can access multiple resources and multiple users can access each resource. The resources are independent and each resource needs to be encrypted by a different Resource Encryption Key (REK). Each REK needs to be distributed to all subscribers of the resource and each subscriber must get all the REKs he/s...

  19. The transcriptional co-factor RIP140 regulates mammary gland development by promoting the generation of key mitogenic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jaya; Steel, Jennifer H; Mane, Meritxell Rosell; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Poliandri, Ariel; Alexi, Xanthippi; Wood, Nicholas; Poutanen, Matti; Zwart, Wilbert; Stingl, John; Parker, Malcolm G

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear receptor interacting protein (Nrip1), also known as RIP140, is a co-regulator for nuclear receptors that plays an essential role in ovulation by regulating the expression of the epidermal growth factor-like family of growth factors. Although several studies indicate a role for RIP140 in breast cancer, its role in the development of the mammary gland is unclear. By using RIP140-null and RIP140 transgenic mice, we demonstrate that RIP140 is an essential factor for normal mammary gland development and that it functions by mediating oestrogen signalling. RIP140-null mice exhibit minimal ductal elongation with no side-branching, whereas RIP140-overexpressing mice show increased cell proliferation and ductal branching with age. Tissue recombination experiments demonstrate that RIP140 expression is required in both the mammary epithelial and stromal compartments for ductal elongation during puberty and that loss of RIP140 leads to a catastrophic loss of the mammary epithelium, whereas RIP140 overexpression augments the mammary basal cell population and shifts the progenitor/differentiated cell balance within the luminal cell compartment towards the progenitors. For the first time, we present a genome-wide global view of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) binding events in the developing mammary gland, which unravels 881 ERα binding sites. Unbiased evaluation of several ERα binding sites for RIP140 co-occupancy reveals selectivity and demonstrates that RIP140 acts as a co-regulator with ERα to regulate directly the expression of amphiregulin (Areg), the progesterone receptor (Pgr) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a), factors that influence key mitogenic pathways that regulate normal mammary gland development.

  20. An Overview of the Application of Human Factors Guidance to Control Room Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yondola, Paul R.; Karlewicz, George T.

    2002-01-01

    A new power plant design has the goal of making major improvements in cost and ease of operation over previous designs. Improvements in the way information is organized and presented to control room operators based on established Human Factors Engineering (HFE) criteria is key to achieving these goals. An overview of the process and methods being employed in an ongoing design effort will be discussed, including the ways in which current Human Factors guidance is being applied in a unique operating environment

  1. Factors controlling superelastic damping capacity of SMAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr; Pilch, Jan; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5-6 (2009), 603-611 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys * superelastic damping * thermomechanical testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2009

  2. Identification of Key Factors Involved in the Biosorption of Patulin by Inactivated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors involved in patulin adsorption by heat-inactivated lactic acid bacteria (LAB cells. For preventing bacterial contamination, a sterilization process was involved in the adsorption process. The effects of various physical, chemical, and enzymatic pre-treatments, simultaneous treatments, and post-treatments on the patulin adsorption performances of six LAB strains were evaluated. The pre-treated cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results showed that the removal of patulin by viable cells was mainly based on adsorption or degradation, depending on the specific strain. The adsorption abilities were widely increased by NaOH and esterification pre-treatments, and reduced by trypsin, lipase, iodate, and periodate pre-treatments. Additionally, the adsorption abilities were almost maintained at pH 2.2-4.0, and enhanced significantly at pH 4.0-6.0. The effects of sodium and magnesium ions on the adsorption abilities at pH 4 were slight and strain-specific. A lower proportion of patulin was released from the strain with higher adsorption ability. Analyses revealed that the physical structure of peptidoglycan was not a principal factor. Vicinal OH and carboxyl groups were not involved in patulin adsorption, while alkaline amino acids, thiol and ester compounds were important for patulin adsorption. Additionally, besides hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction also participated in patulin adsorption, which was enhanced with the increase in pH (4.0-6.0.

  3. Identification of Key Factors Involved in the Biosorption of Patulin by Inactivated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Cai, Rui; Niu, Chen; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors involved in patulin adsorption by heat-inactivated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cells. For preventing bacterial contamination, a sterilization process was involved in the adsorption process. The effects of various physical, chemical, and enzymatic pre-treatments, simultaneous treatments, and post-treatments on the patulin adsorption performances of six LAB strains were evaluated. The pre-treated cells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the removal of patulin by viable cells was mainly based on adsorption or degradation, depending on the specific strain. The adsorption abilities were widely increased by NaOH and esterification pre-treatments, and reduced by trypsin, lipase, iodate, and periodate pre-treatments. Additionally, the adsorption abilities were almost maintained at pH 2.2-4.0, and enhanced significantly at pH 4.0-6.0. The effects of sodium and magnesium ions on the adsorption abilities at pH 4 were slight and strain-specific. A lower proportion of patulin was released from the strain with higher adsorption ability. Analyses revealed that the physical structure of peptidoglycan was not a principal factor. Vicinal OH and carboxyl groups were not involved in patulin adsorption, while alkaline amino acids, thiol and ester compounds were important for patulin adsorption. Additionally, besides hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction also participated in patulin adsorption, which was enhanced with the increase in pH (4.0-6.0).

  4. Citizen science participation in research in the environmental sciences: key factors related to projects' success and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi G F; Marques, Jonatas F; Resende, Juliana C DE; Falco, Patrícia B DE; Souza, Chrislaine M DE; Loiselle, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of citizen science initiatives are increasing across the globe, albeit in an imbalanced manner. In general, there is a strong element of trial and error in most projects, and the comparison of best practices and project structure between different initiatives remains difficult. In Brazil, the participation of volunteers in environmental research is limited. Identifying the factors related to citizen science projects' success and longevity within a global perspective can contribute for consolidating such practices in the country. In this study, we explore past and present projects, including a case study in Brazil, to identify the spatial and temporal trends of citizen science programs as well as their best practices and challenges. We performed a bibliographic search using Google Scholar and considered results from 2005-2014. Although these results are subjective due to the Google Scholar's algorithm and ranking criteria, we highlighted factors to compare projects across geographical and disciplinary areas and identified key matches between project proponents and participants, project goals and local priorities, participant profiles and engagement, scientific methods and funding. This approach is a useful starting point for future citizen science projects, allowing for a systematic analysis of potential inconsistencies and shortcomings in this emerging field.

  5. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  6. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...

  7. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  8. Research on cognitive reliability model for main control room considering human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianjun; Zhang Li; Wang Yiqun; Zhang Kun; Peng Yuyuan; Zhou Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Facing the shortcomings of the traditional cognitive factors and cognitive model, this paper presents a Bayesian networks cognitive reliability model by taking the main control room as a reference background and human factors as the key points. The model mainly analyzes the cognitive reliability affected by the human factors, and for the cognitive node and influence factors corresponding to cognitive node, a series of methods and function formulas to compute the node cognitive reliability is proposed. The model and corresponding methods can be applied to the evaluation of cognitive process for the nuclear power plant operators and have a certain significance for the prevention of safety accidents in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  9. Factors Affecting Sustainable Animal Trypanosomosis Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub- humid savannah ... livestock farmers in planning and implementation. Across ... help to ensure a better management of livestock in tsetse fly infested areas with minimal loses in .... market and administered by them. This drug ... Table 2 shows the analysis of.

  10. What factors control dimerization of coniferyl alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl J. Houtman

    1999-01-01

    Data suggest that the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol is not under thermodynamic control. In this study, molecular dynamics calculations were used to estimate the effect of the solvent environment. In water, the coniferyl alcohol radicals were forced to associate by the formation of a solvent cage. In glycerol, the solvent cage effect appeared to be absent. These...

  11. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  12. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  13. Physical control of the distributions of a key Arctic copepod in the Northeast Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen M.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Feng, Zhixuan; Jones, Benjamin; Chen, Changsheng; Zhang, Yu

    2017-10-01

    The Chukchi Sea is a highly advective regime dominated by a barotropically driven northward flow modulated by wind driven currents that reach the bottom boundary layer of this shallow environment. A general northward gradient of decreasing temperature and food concentration leads to geographically divergent copepod growth and development rates between north and south. The physics of this system establish the biological connection potential between specific regions. The copepod Calanus glacialis is a key grazer, predator, and food source in Arctic shelf seas. Its summer distribution and abundance have direct effects on much of the food web, from phytoplankton to migrating bowhead whales. In August 2012 and 2013, C. glacialis distributions were quantified over Hanna Shoal in the northeast Chukchi Sea. Here an individual-based model with Lagrangian tracking and copepod life stage development capabilities is used to advect and develop these distributions forward and backward in time to determine the source (production locations) and sink (potential overwintering locations) regions of the transient Hanna Shoal C. glacialis population. Hanna Shoal supplies diapause competent C. glacialis to both the Beaufort Slope and the Chukchi Cap, mainly receives juveniles from the broad slope between Hanna Shoal and Herald Valley and receives second year adults from as far south as the Anadyr Gulf and as near as the broad slope between Hanna Shoal and Herald Valley. The 2013 sink region was shifted west relative to the 2012 region and the 2013 adult source region was shifted north relative to the 2012 adult source region. These connection potentials were not sensitive to precise times and locations of release, but were quite sensitive to depth of release. These patterns demonstrate how interannual differences in the physical conditions well south of Hanna Shoal play a critical role in determining the abundance and distribution of a key food source over Hanna Shoal and in the

  14. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J

    2015-09-30

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  15. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  16. Expression of factors and key components associated with the PI3K signaling pathway in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Gao, Junyi; Du, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuequn; Yang, Fei; Gao, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The pathophysiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. The dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway frequently contributes to the tumorigenesis and progression of human cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of a number of associated factors and key components of the PI3K signaling pathway, including phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit α (p110α), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) Ser473, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Ser2448, cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)4, RELA proto-oncogene, nuclear factor-κβ subunit (p65), Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in human CRC. The expression of target proteins was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 65 CRC cases and 15 colonic adenoma cases. The association between the expression of target proteins and clinical pathological parameters was analyzed using a χ 2 test. IHC results revealed that the expression of all target proteins was significantly increased in CRC tissues compared with in colonic adenoma tissues (P0.05). Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ras were revealed to be expressed significantly higher in poorly differentiated CRC compared with moderately differentiated CRC (Pcancer tissues with lymph node metastasis compared with cancer tissues without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). These results suggest that the target proteins may all participate in the tumorigenesis of CRC. Furthermore, cyclin D1, CDK4, Ras, p65 and ERK1/2 may be important in the progression of CRC. The results of the present study may provide novel predictive factors and therapeutic targets for CRC.

  17. MONETARY CONTROL SYSTEM IN BULGARIA – A KEY TO ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a short retrospection and discuses analytically functional characteristics of a form of financial control, gaining more and more essential meaning, namely monetary control. In conditions of hardly working economy during a crisis, its formal expressions render a serious impact on the financial results for the concrete enterprises, and for the whole economic system. That is the reason as objects of attention to be examined the emergence of the idea, its evolution, the essence of the monetary control and its peculiar goals, tasks and specificity substantiated by the Bulgarian economic reality. The aim of the investigation is to prove that the objective analysis is an effective form of constructive criticism and in the concrete case a purposeful alternative in management of more and more needed economic stability.

  18. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-02-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over -30 ppm K -1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  19. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  20. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K −1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade. (topical review)

  1. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  2. Control of Cellular Morphology by Mechanical Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoumine, Olivier

    1996-11-01

    This short review deals with the influence of mechanical factors on eucaryotic cell morphology and structure. We classify these factors into two types: i) external forces (e.g. gravitational forces or hemodynamic stresses), which when applied experimentally allow characterization of passive mechanical properties; and ii) internal forces, e.g. generated by molecular motors or polymerization processes. Perturbation of one or more of these forces induces significant changes in cell shape, cytoskeleton and pericellular matrix organization. We describe these phenomena in view of current models. Cette brève revue traite de l'influence des facteurs mécaniques sur la morphologie et la structure des cellules eucaryotes. Nous classifions ces facteurs en deux catégories : i) les forces externes (par exemple les forces de gravitation et les contraintes hèmodynamiques) qui, imposées in vitro, permettent de caractériser les propriétés mécaniques passives ; et ii) les forces internes, par exemple celles générées par les moteurs moléculaires ou les processus de polymérisation. La perturbation de l'une ou de l'autre de ces forces provoque des changements significatifs de la morphologie cellulaire ainsi que l'organisation du cytosquelette et de la matrice péricellulaire. Nous décrivons ces phénomènes en fonction de modèles existants.

  3. THE CYBERSECURITY OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin R. Ivanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the current problems raised by the necessity to provide and ensure national cybersecurity. Moreover, it suggests measures for adequate counteraction to present-day cyber threats to automated control systems employed in the sector of national security.

  4. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.

    1999-01-01

    the influence of the following processes on EBPR in biofilms was evaluated: (1) mass transfer limitation for oxygen (2) mass transfer limitation for organic substrate, (3) lack of controlled removal of biomass from the system. It was shown that mass transfer of soluble components (oxygen and organic substrate...

  5. Shipping emission forecasts and cost-benefit analysis of China ports and key regions' control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Zhi-Hang; Shang, Yi; Lv, Zhao-Feng; Jin, Xin-Xin; Fu, Ming-Liang; He, Ke-Bin

    2018-05-01

    China established Domestic Emission Control Area (DECA) for sulphur since 2015 to constrain the increasing shipping emissions. However, future DECA policy-makings are not supported due to a lack of quantitive evaluations. To investigate the effects of current and possible Chinese DECAs policies, a model is presented for the forecast of shipping emissions and evaluation of potential costs and benefits of an DECA policy package set in 2020. It includes a port-level and regional-level projection accounting for shipping trade volume growth, share of ship types, and fuel consumption. The results show that without control measures, both SO 2 and particulate matter (PM) emissions are expected to increase by 15.3-61.2% in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta from 2013 to 2020. However, most emissions can be reduced annually by the establishment of a DECA that depends on the size of the control area and the fuel sulphur content limit. Costs range from 0.667 to 1.561 billion dollars (control regional shipping emissions) based on current fuel price. A social cost method shows the regional control scenarios benefit-cost ratios vary from 4.3 to 5.1 with large uncertainty. Chemical transportation model combined with health model method is used to get the monetary health benefits and then compared with the results from social cost method. This study suggests that Chinese DECAs will reduce the projected emissions at a favorable benefit-cost ratio, and furthermore proposes policy combinations that provide high cost-effective benefits as a reference for future policy-making. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dirt and disgust as key drivers in nurses' infection control behaviours: an interpretative, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Griffiths, P

    2014-06-01

    Infection prevention remains a significant challenge for healthcare systems. Yet despite considerable work to provide clear policies and scientifically proven techniques to reduce infection transmission, beliefs and practices of healthcare workers do not always concur with scientific rationale. To provide explanations for nurses' infection prevention behaviours. An interpretative, qualitative approach was taken using semi-structured interviews. Twenty interviews with registered nurses working in an acute hospital setting were conducted. Analysis was conducted using the Framework method. This paper focuses on the theme 'protection from dirt'. Within the findings clear distinction was made between infection and dirt. Fear of contact with dirt, particularly dirt belonging to those who were unknown, was a key driver in behaviour carried out to reduce threat. Familiarity with the patient resulted in a reduction of the protective behaviours required. These behaviours, which initially appeared as part of an infection prevention strategy, were primarily a form of self-protection from patients, who at first encounter were considered as dirty. Behaviours do not always fit with a rational response to infection, but instead may be responses to dirt. Any programme that simply attempts to address scientific knowledge and behaviour deficits is unlikely to have the desired goals if it does not take into account existing social constructions of dirt and the response it evokes. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  8. An empirical study on key factors for purchasing strategy on project based organizations: A case study of gas field development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Kazazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in development of oil and gas resources is to find the critical success factors associated with different important projects. Purchasing and procurement plays a key role in these projects. There is no doubt that in history of similar studies, there are not much studies to determine key factors. The proposed study of this paper presents an empirical study to find these factors in one of the most important gas filed in Iran is now South Pars Gas Field. The study distributes a questionnaire consists of various questions associated with purchasing activities. We investigate the feedbacks gathered from decision makers using factor analysis. The results of our survey reveal that there are three categories of organizational strategy, the relative importance of strategy and risk according to factor analysis. Each factor consists of many other factors and the relative importance of all factors are investigated.

  9. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control of Secreted Factors for Blood Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies.

  10. The filter fraud: debunking the myth of "Safer" as a key new strategy of tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Blum; Thomas Novotny

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation Although efforts have been made to eliminate the use of misleading descriptors such as "low-tar", "lights" and "mild" from cigarette marketing, the elimination of the cellulose acetate filter-which is on 95% of cigarettes and which does not confer any reduced health risks to smokers--has been largely overlooked as a tobacco control strategy. While manufacturers have avoided making explicit health claims for filtered cigarettes (thus putting the b...

  11. Dealing With A Controllable Risk Factor Like Diet In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a silent killer in Nigeria and many parts of the world. Certain factors increase the risk of CVD. While there are controllable factors that contribute and predispose to the development of CVD like diet, exercise, tobacco use, high blood pressure and obesity, there are uncontrollable factors like ...

  12. The mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel: key component of a plasmalemmal control centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, B. G.; Ding, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channels probably serve to detect not only mechanical stress but also electrical, thermal, and diverse chemical stimuli. Because all stimuli result in a common output, most notably a shift in second messenger calcium concentration, the channels are presumed to serve as signal integrators. Further, insofar as second messenger calcium in turn gives rise to mechanical, electrical, and diverse chemical changes, the channels are postulated to initiate regulatory feedbacks. It is proposed that the channels and the feedback loops play a wide range of roles in regulating normal plant function, as well as in mediating disturbance of normal function by environmental stressors and various pathogens. In developing evidence for the physiological performance of the channel, a model for a cluster of regulatory plasmalemmal proteins and cytoskeletal elements grouped around a set of wall-to-membrane and transmembrane linkers has proved useful. An illustration of how the model might operate is presented. It is founded on the demonstration that several xenobiotics interfere both with normal channel behaviour and with gravitropic reception. Accordingly, the first part of the illustration deals with how the channels and the control system within which they putatively operate might initiate gravitropism. Assuming that gravitropism is an asymmetric expression of growth, the activities of the channels and the plasmalemmal control system are extrapolated to account for regulation of both rate and allometry of cell expansion. Finally, it is discussed how light, hormones, redox agents and herbicides could in principle affect growth via the putative plasmalemmal control cluster or centre.

  13. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  14. Controls on the spatial variability of key soil properties: comparing field data with a mechanistic soilscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Román, A.; Giraldez, J. V.

    2016-12-01

    There is a need for better understanding the processes influencing soil formation and the resulting distribution of soil properties. Soil properties can exhibit strong spatial variation, even at the small catchment scale. Especially soil carbon pools in semi-arid, mountainous areas are highly uncertain because bulk density and stoniness are very heterogeneous and rarely measured explicitly. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in key soil properties (soil carbon stocks, stoniness, bulk density and soil depth) as a function of processes shaping the critical zone (weathering, erosion, soil water fluxes and vegetation patterns). We also compare the potential of a geostatistical versus a mechanistic soil formation model (MILESD) for predicting these key soil properties. Soil core samples were collected from 67 locations at 6 depths. Total soil organic carbon stocks were 4.38 kg m-2. Solar radiation proved to be the key variable controlling soil carbon distribution. Stone content was mostly controlled by slope, indicating the importance of erosion. Spatial distribution of bulk density was found to be highly random. Finally, total carbon stocks were predicted using a random forest model whose main covariates were solar radiation and NDVI. The model predicts carbon stocks that are double as high on north versus south-facing slopes. However, validation showed that these covariates only explained 25% of the variation in the dataset. Apparently, present-day landscape and vegetation properties are not sufficient to fully explain variability in the soil carbon stocks in this complex terrain under natural vegetation. This is attributed to a high spatial variability in bulk density and stoniness, key variables controlling carbon stocks. Similar results were obtained with the mechanistic soil formation model MILESD, suggesting that more complex models might be needed to further explore this high spatial variability.

  15. Determination of key environmental factors responsible for distribution patterns of fiddler crabs in a tropical mangrove ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokhtari

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, different species of fiddler crabs coexist on the mangrove floor, which sometimes makes it difficult to define species-specific habitat by visual inspection. The aim of this study is to find key environmental parameters which affect the distribution of fiddler crabs and to determine the habitats in which each species was most abundant. Crabs were collected from 19 sites within the mudflats of Sepang-Lukut mangrove forest. Temperature, porewater salinity, organic matter, water content, carbon and nitrogen content, porosity, chlorophyll content, pH, redox potential, sediment texture and heavy metals were determined in each 1 m2 quadrate. Pearson correlation indicated that all sediment properties except pH and redox potential were correlated with sediment grain size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that Uca paradussumieri was negatively correlated with salinity and redox potential. Sand dwelling species, Uca perplexa and Uca annulipes, were highly dependent on the abundance of 250 μm and 150 μm grain size particles in the sediment. Canonical Discriminative Analysis (CDA indicated that variation in sediment grain size best explained where each crab species was most abundant. Moreover, U. paradussumieri commonly occupies muddy substrates of low shore, while U. forcipata lives under the shade of mangrove trees. U. annulipes and U. perplexa with the high number of spoon tipped setae on their second maxiliped are specialized to feed on the sandy sediments. U. rosea and U. triangularis are more common on muddy sediment with high sediment density. In conclusion, sediment grain size that influences most sediment properties acts as a main factor responsible for sediment heterogeneity. In this paper, the correlation between fiddler crab species and environmental parameters, as well as the interaction between sediment characteristics, was explained in order to define the important environmental factors in fiddler crab

  16. Analysis of the key factors of the change in the demand of electrical energy in Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Domeett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is a basic input of high diffusion, derived from its capacity to satisfy all type of necessities. It shows that seasonal alterations in the consumptions are motivated by the level of economic activity, climatic changes and demographic dynamics. Since this is an essential good that cannot be stored, it determines the configuration, planning, operation and organization of the electrical energy systems. Its particular feature is forced to perform a multidimensional coverage: technological, economic, political, legal and environmental. The analysis of the factors that determine the levels and structures of the electric energy consumption it allows to identify the supplying problems, and the actions and policies that promote the sustainable usage of the service.Accordingly, the current work tries to make a preliminary analysis of these changes in the capital city of Neuquén, since the 90s until recent years. In order to do this, information from the Population Census, Provincial Registers, Household Surveys, Consumption and Invoicing sector, has been used.                                                                                          Keywords: Electrical energy, demand evolution key factors

  17. Organic matter - A key factor in controlling mercury distribution in estuarine sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Sarkar, A.; Vudamala, K.; Naik, R.; Nath, B.N.

    were analyzed for total carbon (TC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), total nitrogen (TN) content. TC and TN in sediments were determined using Flash 2000 CHN-elemental analyzer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Incorporation). Precision of the analysis... was within ± 5 %. Soil NC was used as certified reference material. TIC was determined by coulometry (UIC coulometrics). Anhydrated calcium carbonate was used as standard material. Relative standard deviation of the analysis was within ± 2 %. Total organic...

  18. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  19. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Mark F; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-09

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular weight lignin polymers and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di-, and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p-electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages (β-β or β-5) react poorly and tend to "cap" the polymer. In general, β-5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  20. Behaviors and housing inertia are key factors in determining the consequences of a shock in transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a sudden increase in transportation costs when household behaviors and building inertia are accounted for. A theoretical framework is proposed, capturing the interactions between behaviors, transportation costs and urban structure. Numerical simulations show that changes in households and landowners' choices reduce significantly the long-term adverse effects of a shock in transportation costs. Indeed, the shock translates, over the long run, into a more concentrated housing that limits households utility losses and maintains landowners' income. But, because of building inertia, the shock leads first to a long transition, during which the adjustment is constrained by a suboptimal housing-supply structure. Then, households support larger losses than in the final stage, though lower than with no behavior adjustment, and landowners experience a large decrease in their aggregate income and an important redistribution of wealth. Thus, behaviors and building inertia are key factors in determining the vulnerability to transportation price variability and to the introduction of climate policies. Our policy conclusions are that: (i) if a long-term increase in transportation costs is unavoidable because of climate change or resource scarcity, a smooth change prevents to some extent the negative transition effects and (ii) fast-growing cities of the developing world can reduce their future vulnerability to shocks in transportation costs through the implementation of policies that limit urban sprawl

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Several Key Factors Affecting Root Biomass Estimation by 1500 MHz Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of coarse roots without disturbance represents a gap in our understanding of belowground ecology. Ground penetrating radar (GPR has shown significant promise for coarse root detection and measurement, however root orientation relative to scanning transect direction, the difficulty identifying dead root mass, and the effects of root shadowing are all key factors affecting biomass estimation that require additional research. Specifically, many aspects of GPR applicability for coarse root measurement have not been tested with a full range of antenna frequencies. We tested the effects of multiple scanning directions, root crossover, and root versus soil moisture content in a sand-hill mixed oak community using a 1500 MHz antenna, which provides higher resolution than the oft used 900 MHz antenna. Combining four scanning directions produced a significant relationship between GPR signal reflectance and coarse root biomass (R2 = 0.75 (p < 0.01 and reduced variability encountered when fewer scanning directions were used. Additionally, significantly fewer roots were correctly identified when their moisture content was allowed to equalize with the surrounding soil (p < 0.01, providing evidence to support assertions that GPR cannot reliably identify dead root mass. The 1500 MHz antenna was able to identify roots in close proximity of each other as well as roots shadowed beneath shallower roots, providing higher precision than a 900 MHz antenna. As expected, using a 1500 MHz antenna eliminates some of the deficiency in precision observed in studies that utilized lower frequency antennas.

  2. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-07-29

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens.

  3. Identifying a key physical factor sensitive to the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation simulation in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Go-Un; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A key physical factor in regulating the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined by using 26 climate model simulations from the World Meteorological Organization's Working Group for Numerical Experimentation/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric System Study (WGNE and MJO-Task Force/GASS) global model comparison project. For this, intraseasonal moisture budget equation is analyzed and a simple, efficient physical quantity is developed. The result shows that MJO skill is most sensitive to vertically integrated intraseasonal zonal wind convergence (ZC). In particular, a specific threshold value of the strength of the ZC can be used as distinguishing between good and poor models. An additional finding is that good models exhibit the correct simultaneous convection and large-scale circulation phase relationship. In poor models, however, the peak circulation response appears 3 days after peak rainfall, suggesting unfavorable coupling between convection and circulation. For an improving simulation of the MJO in climate models, we propose that this delay of circulation in response to convection needs to be corrected in the cumulus parameterization scheme.

  4. Depression and key associated factors in female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).

  5. The Drosophila Duox maturation factor is a key component of a positive feedback loop that sustains regeneration signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumbul Jawed; Abidi, Syeda Nayab Fatima; Skinner, Andrea; Tian, Yuan; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K

    2017-07-01

    Regenerating tissue must initiate the signaling that drives regenerative growth, and sustain that signaling long enough for regeneration to complete. How these key signals are sustained is unclear. To gain a comprehensive view of the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, we performed whole-genome mRNAseq of actively regenerating tissue from damaged Drosophila wing imaginal discs. We used genetic tools to ablate the wing primordium to induce regeneration, and carried out transcriptional profiling of the regeneration blastema by fluorescently labeling and sorting the blastema cells, thus identifying differentially expressed genes. Importantly, by using genetic mutants of several of these differentially expressed genes we have confirmed that they have roles in regeneration. Using this approach, we show that high expression of the gene moladietz (mol), which encodes the Duox-maturation factor NIP, is required during regeneration to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn sustain JNK signaling during regeneration. We also show that JNK signaling upregulates mol expression, thereby activating a positive feedback signal that ensures the prolonged JNK activation required for regenerative growth. Thus, by whole-genome transcriptional profiling of regenerating tissue we have identified a positive feedback loop that regulates the extent of regenerative growth.

  6. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  7. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  8. Development and Application of the Key Technologies for the Quality Control and Inspection of National Geographical Conditions Survey Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ma, W.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, T.

    2018-04-01

    The First National Geographical Condition Survey is a predecessor task to dynamically master basic situations of the nature, ecology and human activities on the earth's surface and it is the brand-new mapping geographic information engineering. In order to ensure comprehensive, real and accurate survey results and achieve the quality management target which the qualified rate is 100 % and the yield is more than 80 %, it is necessary to carry out the quality control and result inspection for national geographical conditions survey on a national scale. To ensure that achievement quality meets quality target requirements, this paper develops the key technology method of "five-in-one" quality control that is constituted by "quality control system of national geographical condition survey, quality inspection technology system, quality evaluation system, quality inspection information management system and national linked quality control institutions" by aiming at large scale, wide coverage range, more undertaking units, more management levels, technical updating, more production process and obvious regional differences in the national geographical condition survey and combining with novel achievement manifestation, complicated dependency, more special reference data, and large data size. This project fully considering the domestic and foreign related research results and production practice experience, combined with the technology development and the needs of the production, it stipulates the inspection methods and technical requirements of each stage in the quality inspection of the geographical condition survey results, and extends the traditional inspection and acceptance technology, and solves the key technologies that are badly needed in the first national geographic survey.

  9. A Key Role for NF-κB Transcription Factor c-Rel in T-Lymphocyte-Differentiation and Effector Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Visekruna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors of the Rel/NF-κB family function as key regulators of innate and adoptive immunity. Tightly and temporally controlled activation of NF-κB-signalling pathways ensures prevention of harmful immune cell dysregulation, whereas a loss of control leads to pathological conditions such as severe inflammation, autoimmune disease, and inflammation-associated oncogenesis. Five family members have been identified in mammals: RelA (p65, c-Rel, RelB, and the precursor proteins NF-κB1 (p105 and NF-κB2 (p100, that are processed into p50 and p52, respectively. While RelA-containing dimers are present in most cell types, c-Rel complexes are predominately found in cells of hematopoietic origin. In T-cell lymphocytes, certain genes essential for immune function such as Il2 and Foxp3 are directly regulated by c-Rel. Additionally, c-Rel-dependent IL-12 and IL-23 transcription by macrophages and dendritic cells is crucial for T-cell differentiation and effector functions. Accordingly, c-Rel expression in T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs controls a delicate balance between tolerance and immunity. This review gives a selective overview on recent progress in understanding of diverse roles of c-Rel in regulating adaptive immunity.

  10. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    evaluation five counties (cities) belong to the plague had a lower risk areas, according to the level of risk score (Pf) Longquan city and Yiwu (Pf was 0.314, 0.292, respectively) plague risk were higher than three other regions (Pf were all 0.292). The main host and media were lower in five key plague surveillance counties (cities) of Zhejiang province; The result of Borda count method and Delphi approach for risk assessment indicated that endogenous plague recrudescence was at lower level, but Longquan city and Yiwu city risk were higher than other counties (cities).

  11. Getting the Dimensions Right - Human Nutrition as Key for the Control of Regional Nitrogen Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessner, M.; Thaler, S.; Ruzicka, K.; Natho, S.

    2009-04-01

    to consider emissions to the air inside and outside the considered region (NH3 volatilisation from manure and NOX-emissions from burning processes as traffic) in addition to the direct losses to the water system (optimised fertiliser application). Basically, the key to improved nutrient management on national/catchment scale is the human nutrition. Nutrition of the population in accordance to health recommendations (50 % less meet consumption, contra balanced by an increasing amount of vegetarian food) would dramatically optimise the national nitrogen balance. Assuming the same basic nitrogen efficiency of agricultural as it is performed at present, this shift in production would lead to a dramatic relief in respect to environmental pressure. It would lead to a reduction of the needed nitrogen input (mineral fertiliser and import fooder) by about 40 % and a reduction of NH3 losses to the atmosphere of about 40 % as well. Assuming that the same reduction of meet production would be realised in neighbouring countries the deposition could be reduced by about 25 %. Finally, this would lead to reduced losses of nitrogen to the water system by about 35 %, which could be counter acted to some extent, if areas no longer needed for food production are used for cultivation of crops for renewable energy production.

  12. Key indicators for the monitoring and evaluation of control programmes of human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, B; Legros, D; Lee, E

    1998-06-01

    Very little research has been devoted to the design of epidemiological tools for the monitoring and evaluation of National Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) Control Programmes and daily management decisions are made in the absence of accurate knowledge of the situation. This paper identifies key indicators necessary to make decisions in the field and constantly adjust control activities to changing situations. Examples are derived from the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) HAT Control Programme in Adjumani, Uganda. Based on the principles of quality assurance, the focus is placed on process indicators. A conceptual framework derived from a system view/planning cycle perspective is also described for the construction of indicators. Finally, some specific challenging aspects of the epidemiology of HAT are presented and the limitations of the interpretation of the indicators discussed.

  13. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  14. Key Factors Influencing the Energy Absorption of Dual-Phase Steels: Multiscale Material Model Approach and Microstructural Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2018-06-01

    The increase in use of dual-phase (DP) steel grades by vehicle manufacturers to enhance crash resistance and reduce body car weight requires the development of a clear understanding of the effect of various microstructural parameters on the energy absorption in these materials. Accordingly, DP steelmakers are interested in predicting the effect of various microscopic factors as well as optimizing microstructural properties for application in crash-relevant components of vehicle bodies. This study presents a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model. In this approach, Digimat and LS-DYNA software were coupled and employed to provide a full micro-macro multiscale material model, which is then used to simulate tensile tests. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were studied. The impact of these microstructural features at different strain rates on energy absorption characteristics of DP steels is investigated numerically using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The model is implemented in a multiscale finite-element framework. A comprehensive statistical parametric study using response surface methodology is performed to determine the optimum microstructural features for a required tensile toughness at different strain rates. The simulation results are validated using experimental data found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be effective for investigating the influence and interaction of key microscopic properties on the energy absorption characteristics of DP steels. Furthermore, it is shown that this method can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain-rate conditions.

  15. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  16. THE IDENTIFICATION OF KEY SUCCESS FACTORS IN SUSTAINABLE COLD CHAIN MANAGEMENT: INSIGHTS FROM THE INDIAN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has emerged as an indispensable research agenda for the government, industry as well as non-profit orientation bodies. As a developing country, cold supply chain management in India is still in infancy. The demand pattern of food products has been dramatically changing since last few years. Nowadays, the customers are more conscious to use products for better health and highly expecting for food safety, toxic free and eco-friendly delivery of food products. However, sustainable cold supply chain has not yet received good heed throughout the world. Hence, in this paper an attempt has been made to address these important issues. A conceptual model was proposed in the consultation of practitioners and literature support to address the important issues in cold supply chain management for food companies. Therefore, in order to identify the key success factors for sustainable cold chain management, in this study a conceptual model developed. The proposed framework is then validated by an empirical research in the Indian food industry. This research has several alarming findings. Explicitly, in India i environmental issues and social responsibility are not as important as other ‎economical supplier selection criteria, ii among 19 food supplier selection criteria, the rank of social responsibility is 18‎, iii low carbon emission is less important value addition trait as compare to ‎other sustainable cold chain value addition (which means in India the buyers focus more on their individual and prompt received ‎benefits rather than long ‎lasting advantages, iv the use of life cycle analysis, renewable energy sources and passive cold chain are the least important ‎implemented sustainable cold chain practices (although this might be because of utilization complexities, v the joint development of product is implemented at the lowest extent judging against other dynamic capacity ‎factors, vii government usually backed

  17. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba. Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches, very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in

  18. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  19. THE FUTURE OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT – VERY LARGE AIRCRAFT AND OUT KEY HUMAN FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION AND SAFETY OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Skolilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some human factors affecting the operation and safety of passenger air transport given the massive increase in the use of the VLA. Decrease of the impact of the CO2 world emissions is one of the key goals for the new aircraft design. The main wave is going to reduce the burned fuel. Therefore, the eco-efficiency engines combined with reasonable economic operation of the aircraft are very important from an aviation perspective. The prediction for the year 2030 says that about 90% of people, which will use long-haul flights to fly between big cities. So, the A380 was designed exactly for this time period, with a focus on the right capacity, right operating cost and right fuel burn per seat. There is no aircraft today with better fuel burn combined with eco-efficiency per seat, than the A380. The very large aircrafts (VLAs are the future of the commercial passenger aviation. Operating cost versus safety or CO2 emissions versus increasing automation inside the new generation aircraft. Almost 80% of the world aircraft accidents are caused by human error based on wrong action, reaction or final decision of pilots, the catastrophic failures of aircraft systems, or air traffic control errors are not so frequent. So, we are at the beginning of a new age in passenger aviation and the role of the human factor is more important than ever.

  20. Factors influencing warfarin control in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Teo, Siew Chong; Chen, Liping; Badrick, Tony; Davey, Andrew K; Crilly, Julia; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is widely used for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Variations in warfarin control, as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR), have been reported across different regions and ethnicities, particularly between Western and Asian countries. However, there is limited data on comparative factors influencing warfarin control in Caucasian and Asian patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine warfarin control and potential factors influencing this in patients with NVAF in Australia and Singapore. Retrospective data was collected for patients receiving warfarin for January to June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. TTR was calculated for individuals with mean patient TTR used for analysis. Possible influential factors on TTR were analysed including age, gender, concurrent co-morbidities, and concurrent medication. The mean TTR was significantly higher in Australia (82%) than Singapore (58%). At both sites, chronic kidney disease significantly lowered this TTR. Further factors influencing control were anaemia and ageWarfarin control was significantly higher in Australia compared to Singapore, however chronic kidney disease reduced control at both sites. The different levels of control in these two countries, together with patient factors further reducing control may impact on anticoagulant choice in these countries with better outcomes from warfarin in Australia compared to Singapore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance ratings and personality factors in radar controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether primary or second-order personality questionnaire factors were related to job performance ratings on the Employee Appraisal Record in a sample of 264 radar controllers. A Pearson correlation matrix wa...

  2. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  3. School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-08-04

    Among many neglected tropical diseases endemic in Honduras, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are of particular importance. However, knowledge gaps remain in terms of risk factors involved in infection transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with STH infections in schoolchildren living in rural Honduras. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Honduran rural schoolchildren in 2011. Demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire and STH infections were determined by the Kato-Katz method. Logistic regression models accounting for school clustering were used to assess putative risk factors for infection. A total of 320 children completed the study. Prevalences for any STH and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were: 72.5%, 30.3%, 66.9% and 15.9%, respectively. A number of risk factors were identified at the individual, household, and school level. Boys were at increased odds of infection with hookworms (OR 2.33, 95% CI = 1.23-4.42). Higher socio-economic status in the family had a protective effect against infections by A. lumbricoides (OR 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99) and T. trichiura (OR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.94).Low school hygiene conditions significantly increased the odds for ascariasis (OR 14.85, 95% CI = 7.29-30.24), trichuriasis (OR 7.32, 95% CI = 3.71-14.45), mixed infections (OR 9.02, 95% CI = 4.66-17.46), and ascariasis intensity of infection (OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.05 -10.52).Children attending schools not providing deworming treatment or that had provided it only once a year were at increased odds of ascariasis (OR 10.40, 95% CI = 4.39-24.65), hookworm (OR 2.92, 95% CI = 1.09-7.85) and mixed infections (OR 10.57, 95% CI = 4.53-24.66). Poverty-reduction strategies will ultimately lead to sustainable control of STH infections in Honduras, but as shorter-term measures, uninterrupted bi

  4. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  5. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  6. Identification of Key Residues in Virulent Canine Distemper Virus Hemagglutinin That Control CD150/SLAM-Binding Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperle, Ljerka; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.; Örvell, Claes; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Morbillivirus cell entry is controlled by hemagglutinin (H), an envelope-anchored viral glycoprotein determining interaction with multiple host cell surface receptors. Subsequent to virus-receptor attachment, H is thought to transduce a signal triggering the viral fusion glycoprotein, which in turn drives virus-cell fusion activity. Cell entry through the universal morbillivirus receptor CD150/SLAM was reported to depend on two nearby microdomains located within the hemagglutinin. Here, we provide evidence that three key residues in the virulent canine distemper virus A75/17 H protein (Y525, D526, and R529), clustering at the rim of a large recessed groove created by β-propeller blades 4 and 5, control SLAM-binding activity without drastically modulating protein surface expression or SLAM-independent F triggering. PMID:20631152

  7. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  8. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE KEY TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS SURVEY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The First National Geographical Condition Survey is a predecessor task to dynamically master basic situations of the nature, ecology and human activities on the earth’s surface and it is the brand-new mapping geographic information engineering. In order to ensure comprehensive, real and accurate survey results and achieve the quality management target which the qualified rate is 100 % and the yield is more than 80 %, it is necessary to carry out the quality control and result inspection for national geographical conditions survey on a national scale. To ensure that achievement quality meets quality target requirements, this paper develops the key technology method of “five-in-one” quality control that is constituted by “quality control system of national geographical condition survey, quality inspection technology system, quality evaluation system, quality inspection information management system and national linked quality control institutions” by aiming at large scale, wide coverage range, more undertaking units, more management levels, technical updating, more production process and obvious regional differences in the national geographical condition survey and combining with novel achievement manifestation, complicated dependency, more special reference data, and large data size. This project fully considering the domestic and foreign related research results and production practice experience, combined with the technology development and the needs of the production, it stipulates the inspection methods and technical requirements of each stage in the quality inspection of the geographical condition survey results, and extends the traditional inspection and acceptance technology, and solves the key technologies that are badly needed in the first national geographic survey.

  10. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  11. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere. In general, P fertilization has low efficiency, as only a fraction of the applied P is acquired by roots, leaving a substantial amount to be accumulated in soil as not readily available P. Breeding for P-efficient cultivars is a relatively low cost alternative and can be done through two mechanisms: i) improving P use efficiency (PUE), and/or ii) P acquisition efficiency (PAE). PUE is related to the internal allocation/mobilization of P, and is usually represented by the amount of P accumulated per biomass. PAE relies on roots ability to acquire P from the soil, and is commonly expressed as the relative difference of P acquired under low and high P availability conditions. In this review, plant adaptations related to improved PAE are described, with emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is generally accepted to enhance plant P acquisition. A state of the art (1980–2018) of AM growth responses and P uptake in wheat and barley is made to discuss about the commonly accepted growth promoting effect and P increased uptake by AM fungi and the contrasting evidence about the generally accepted lack of positive responses in both plant species. Finally, the mechanisms by which AM symbiosis can affect wheat and barley PAE are discussed, highlighting the importance of considering AM functional diversity on future studies and the necessity to improve PAE definition by considering the carbon trading between

  12. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  13. Topography and crop management are key factors for the development of american leaf spot epidemics on coffee in costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Cabut, Sandrine; Barboza, Bernardo; Barquero, Miguel; Alfaro, Ronny; Esquivel, César; Durand, Jean-François; Cilas, Christian

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT We monitored the development of American leaf spot of coffee, a disease caused by the gemmiferous fungus Mycena citricolor, in 57 plots in Costa Rica for 1 or 2 years in order to gain a clearer understanding of conditions conducive to the disease and improve its control. During the investigation, characteristics of the coffee trees, crop management, and the environment were recorded. For the analyses, we used partial least-squares regression via the spline functions (PLSS), which is a nonlinear extension to partial least-squares regression (PLS). The fungus developed well in areas located between approximately 1,100 and 1,550 m above sea level. Slopes were conducive to its development, but eastern-facing slopes were less affected than the others, probably because they were more exposed to sunlight, especially in the rainy season. The distance between planting rows, the shade percentage, coffee tree height, the type of shade, and the pruning system explained disease intensity due to their effects on coffee tree shading and, possibly, on the humidity conditions in the plot. Forest trees and fruit trees intercropped with coffee provided particularly propitious conditions. Apparently, fertilization was unfavorable for the disease, probably due to dilution phenomena associated with faster coffee tree growth. Finally, series of wet spells interspersed with dry spells, which were frequent in the middle of the rainy season, were critical for the disease, probably because they affected the production and release of gemmae and their viability. These results could be used to draw up a map of epidemic risks taking topographical factors into account. To reduce those risks and improve chemical control, our results suggested that farmers should space planting rows further apart, maintain light shading in the plantation, and prune their coffee trees.

  14. Tartaric acid in red wine as one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Keita; Okuda, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Demura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tohru; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem James; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Saito, Fumie; Hisamoto, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the key factor of superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx induced by alcoholic beverages. To understand the reason why red wine shows larger shielding volume fraction than the other alcoholic beverages, the red wine dependence of superconductivity was performed. All the samples heated in red wine made from different grapes shows large shielding volume fraction compared with the samples heated in water and other alcoholic beverages. The shielding volume fraction of the red wine samples is proportional to the concentration of tartaric acid. We found that tartaric acid is one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx.

  15. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  16. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  17. Dietary pattern and lifestyle factors in asthma control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Noufal Poongadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma in adults varied from 0.96% to 11.03% while in children ranged from 2.3% to 11.9% in India. A number of factors including genetic predisposition, environment, and lifestyle factors including dietary habits influence the development and expression of asthma. The goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain clinical control, which can be achieved in a majority of patients with pharmacologic intervention strategy. Objective: To assess the role of diet and lifestyle factors in asthma control in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Diagnosed asthma patients (aged 12-40 years were enrolled from the outpatient clinics. All patients were followed up and reassessed after 4 weeks with asthma control test (ACT and dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. The assessment of dietary pattern was performed by food frequency questionnaire (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations-Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire. The lifestyle factor included body mass index, smoking status, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, duration of travel (h/week, mental stress (visual analog scale: 0-10, sports activity - h/day, television (TV watching/video games - h/day, duration of sleep - h/day. Results: Seventy-five asthma patients (43 males and 32 females were divided into three groups according to ACT, 18 (24% patients in poorly-controlled asthma, 35 (46.7% in well-controlled asthma, and 22 (29.3% patients with totally-controlled asthma. Increased consumption of vegetables and cereals in patients with total-controlled asthma while increased consumption of sugar, nonvegetarian, fast food, salted and fried snacks in patients with poorly-controlled asthma. Poorly-controlled asthma had the highest duration of watching TV and sleep and least duration of travel and sports, though the results failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The dietary and lifestyle factors too contribute to degree of control of asthma in India.

  18. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  19. Concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors effectively disrupts cancer stem cells enriched in side population of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyan Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the failure of chemotherapy, which is likely due to the presence of the cancer stem cells (CSCs.To identify side population (SP cells and characterize s-like properties in human pancreatic cancer cell lines (h-PCCLs and to exploit the efficacy of concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors governing the stemness of pancreatic CSCs in suppressing CSC-like phenotypes.Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 DNA-binding dye efflux assay were used to sort SP and non-SP (NSP cells from three h-PCCLs: PANC-1, SW1990, and BxPc-3. The self-renewal ability, invasiveness, migration and drug resistance of SP cells were evaluated. Expression of CSC marker genes was analyzed. Tumorigenicity was assessed using a xenograft model in nude mice. Effects of a complex decoy oligonucleotide (cdODN-SCO designed to simultaneously targeting Sox2, Oct4 and c-Myc were assessed.CSCs were enriched in the side proportion (SP cells contained in the h-PCCLs and they possessed aggressive growth, invasion, migration and drug-resistance properties, compared with NSP cells. SP cells overexpressed stem cell markers CD133 and ALDH1, pluripotency maintaining factors Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4, oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc, signaling molecule Notch1, and drug resistant gene ABCG2. Moreover, SP cells consistently demonstrated significantly greater tumorigenicity than NSP cells in xenograft model of nude mice. CdODN-SOC efficiently suppressed all CSC properties and phenotypes, and minimized the tumorigenic capability of the SP cells and the resistance to chemotherapy. By comparison, the negative control failed to do so.The findings indicate that targeting the key genes conferring the stemness of CSCs can efficiently eliminate CSC-like phenotypes, and thus may be considered a new approach for cancer therapy. Specifically, the present study establishes the combination of Sox2/Oct4/c-Myc targeting as a

  20. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  1. Identification of Key Success Factors in the Marketing of Cosmetics Based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP Analysis Using Topsis Technique (The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Shirin Hashemi, Faranak Salmannejad, Tayebeh Ghari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cosmetic products are one of the most important fields of consumer market. Strategic marketing plan and creating competitive advantages through recognizing of key success factors has become as a main core competency of active firms in this area. Based on this, the aim of our study was to identify the key success factors of cosmetic products' marketing in the Iran's market. Methods: To do this, knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of consumers in Iran were evaluated and key success factors were identified based on the mix marketing theory. Deep interviews and closed-ended questionnaires were used to collect data. The randomized sample population of this study was 1200 people. Results of KAP analysis were classified in seven clusters and then Topsis technique was used to analysis each cluster. Results: Results showed that there are a significant relationship between attitude and practice and also between knowledge and practice because of t-values greater than 1.96 and path coefficient greater than 0.1. Moreover, the results indicated that the most and the least important factors for success of cosmetics' marketing are place (distribution and dispensing and price, with sorted Cli of 0.9 and 0.1 respectively. Conclusion: It demonstrates that appropriate sales and distribution strategies, scientific and enough information and strong marketing at the point of purchase are the most important key success factors in the marketing of cosmetics, and price has a minimum drawing effect on cosmetics' marketing.

  2. [Consideration about chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) key problems in simplified registration of classical traditional Chinese medicine excellent prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ju-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Wang, De-Qin; Yan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Jin; Gao, Hui-Min; Li, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yu; Li, Chu-Yuan; Ni, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ji-Sheng; Lin, Juan

    2017-05-01

    As an outstanding representative of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions accumulated from famous TCM doctors' clinical experiences in past dynasties, classical TCM excellent prescriptions (cTCMeP) are the most valuable part of TCM system. To support the research and development of cTCMeP, a series of regulations and measures were issued to encourage its simplified registration. There is still a long-way to go because many key problems and puzzles about technology, registration and administration in cTCMeP R&D process are not resolved. Based on the analysis of registration and management regulations of botanical drug products in FDA of USA and Japan, and EMA of Europe, the possible key problems and countermeasures in chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) of simplified registration of cTCMeP were analyzed on the consideration of its actual situation. The method of "reference decoction extract by traditional prescription" (RDETP) was firstly proposed as standard to evaluate the quality and preparation uniformity between the new developing product under simplified registration and traditional original usages of cTCMeP, instead of Standard Decoction method in Japan. "Totality of the evidence" approach, mass balance and bioassay/biological assay of cTCMeP were emphatically suggested to introduce to the quality uniformity evaluation system in the raw drug material, drug substance and final product between the modern product and traditional decoction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. The Evaluation of Vehicle Mass Reduction and Material Choice in Life Cycle Assessments: Key Factors and Dynamic Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developments in the realm of lightweight materials for automotive use continue to be announced by the industry and by academia. This session will provide new and updated information on new generation of materials. Additionally, this session will focus on the key topics involved i...

  4. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Reemer, M.; Kats, van R.J.M.; Ozinga, W.A.; Linden, van der G.T.J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Siepel, H.; Kleijn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of

  5. Community Advisory Boards Guiding Engaged Research Efforts within a Clinical Translational Sciences Award: Key Contextual Factors Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.

  6. Non-metastatic 2 (NME2)-mediated suppression of lung cancer metastasis involves transcriptional regulation of key cell adhesion factor vinculin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ram Krishna; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Singh, Ankita; Pal, Krishnendu; Hoeppner, Luke; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Purohit, Gunjan; Basundra, Richa; Kar, Anirban; Halder, Rashi; Kumar, Pankaj; Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, MJ Mahesh; Baldi, Alfonso; Vincenzi, Bruno; Lorenzon, Laura; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Kumar, Praveen; Shridhar, Viji; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis refers to spread of a tumor from site of its origin to distant organs and causes majority of cancer deaths. Although >30 metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that negatively regulate metastasis have been identified so far, two issues are poorly understood: first, which MSGs oppose metastasis in a tumor type, and second, which molecular function of MSG controls metastasis. Herein, integrative analyses of tumor-transcriptomes (n = 382), survival data (n = 530) and lymph node metastases (n = 100) in lung cancer patients identified non-metastatic 2 (NME2) as a key MSG from a pool of >30 metastasis suppressors. Subsequently, we generated a promoter-wide binding map for NME2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip), and transcriptome profiling. We discovered novel targets of NME2 which are involved in focal adhesion signaling. Importantly, we detected binding of NME2 in promoter of focal adhesion factor, vinculin. Reduced expression of NME2 led to enhanced transcription of vinculin. In comparison, NME1, a close homolog of NME2, did not bind to vinculin promoter nor regulate its expression. In line, enhanced metastasis of NME2-depleted lung cancer cells was found in zebrafish and nude mice tumor models. The metastatic potential of NME2-depleted cells was remarkably diminished upon selective RNA-i-mediated silencing of vinculin. Together, we demonstrate that reduced NME2 levels lead to transcriptional de-repression of vinculin and regulate lung cancer metastasis. PMID:25249619

  7. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  8. Identifying and Prioritizing the Key Factors Influencing Customer Decision Making in Buying Organizational Software (A survey about HAMKARAN Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahryar Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of adopting information systems, specially packed software, facilitate managing the organizational process, hence, identification the factors influence customer buying decision is vital for software providers. This mixed method study tried to identify the factors affecting decision making of buying new organizational software, classify and rank them beside. In-depth interviews with 10 customers of Hamkaran system that had the potential of buying new software have been done and content analysis of these interviews revealed some factors in five categories that became the base of questionnaire design. This study is applied in view of aim, and is descriptive-survey in view of entity. Sample of 177 customers of System Group Co. have been chosen for the study. Kruskal-Wallis test and T test of normality showed all factors to be effective. Then the factors have been prioritized using Frideman test which are as follows: buyer`s internal organizational factors, product feature, factors related to sellers organization, factors related to process and selling promotion, market and environmental factors.

  9. Representing Microbial Dormancy in Soil Decomposition Models Improves Model Performance and Reveals Key Ecosystem Controls on Microbial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Yang, J.; Zhuang, Q.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change and subsequent responses of plant and microbial communities and nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and strategy may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to microbial physiology and community changes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. In this study, we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition model and examined model performance with and without representation of dormancy at six temperate forest sites with observed soil efflux ranged from 4 to 10 years across different forest types. We then extrapolated the model to all temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere (25-50°N) to investigate spatial controls on microbial and soil C dynamics. Both models captured the observed soil heterotrophic respiration (RH), yet no-dormancy model consistently exhibited large seasonal amplitude and overestimation in microbial biomass. Spatially, the total RH from temperate forests based on dormancy model amounts to 6.88PgC/yr, and 7.99PgC/yr based on no-dormancy model. However, no-dormancy model notably overestimated the ratio of microbial biomass to SOC. Spatial correlation analysis revealed key controls of soil C:N ratio on the active proportion of microbial biomass, whereas local dormancy is primarily controlled by soil moisture and temperature, indicating scale-dependent environmental and biotic controls on microbial and SOC dynamics. These developments should provide essential support to modeling future soil carbon dynamics and enhance the avenue for collaboration between empirical soil experiment and modeling in the sense that more microbial physiological measurements are needed to better constrain and evaluate the models.

  10. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  11. Active Power Factor Correction Using a Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KAYIŞLI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a sliding mode controller is designed for active shaping of the input current in the boost converter. Robustness of the designed controller is tested with variable output voltage references, different loads and network voltage variations. For the simulations, MATLAB/Simulink programme is used. From simulation results, the same phase was provided between input current and input voltage and nearly unity power factor was obtained.

  12. On frequency-weighted coprime factorization based controller reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2003-01-01

    We consider the efficient solution of a class of coprime factorization based controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches. It is shown that for some special stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations. The new approach can be used in conjunction with accuracy enhancing square-root and balancing-fr...

  13. An Expressive, Lightweight and Secure Construction of Key Policy Attribute-Based Cloud Data Sharing Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guofen; Hong, Hanshu; Xia, Yunhao; Sun, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an interesting cryptographic technique for flexible cloud data sharing access control. However, some open challenges hinder its practical application. In previous schemes, all attributes are considered as in the same status while they are not in most of practical scenarios. Meanwhile, the size of access policy increases dramatically with the raise of its expressiveness complexity. In addition, current research hardly notices that mobile front-end devices, such as smartphones, are poor in computational performance while too much bilinear pairing computation is needed for ABE. In this paper, we propose a key-policy weighted attribute-based encryption without bilinear pairing computation (KP-WABE-WB) for secure cloud data sharing access control. A simple weighted mechanism is presented to describe different importance of each attribute. We introduce a novel construction of ABE without executing any bilinear pairing computation. Compared to previous schemes, our scheme has a better performance in expressiveness of access policy and computational efficiency.

  14. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  15. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  16. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  17. Key aromatic/hydrophobic amino acids controlling a cross-amyloid peptide interaction versus amyloid self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakou, Maria; Hille, Kathleen; Kracklauer, Michael; Spanopoulou, Anna; Frost, Christina V; Malideli, Eleni; Yan, Li-Mei; Caporale, Andrea; Zacharias, Martin; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of the intrinsically disordered polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide modulates their self-assembly into amyloid fibrils and may link the pathogeneses of these two cell-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular determinants of this interaction remain elusive. Using a systematic alanine scan approach, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other biophysical methods, including heterocomplex pulldown assays, far-UV CD spectroscopy, the thioflavin T binding assay, transmission EM, and molecular dynamics simulations, here we identified single aromatic/hydrophobic residues within the amyloid core IAPP region as hot spots or key residues of its cross-interaction with Aβ40(42) peptide. Importantly, we also find that none of these residues in isolation plays a key role in IAPP self-assembly, whereas simultaneous substitution of four aromatic/hydrophobic residues with Ala dramatically impairs both IAPP self-assembly and hetero-assembly with Aβ40(42). Furthermore, our experiments yielded several novel IAPP analogs, whose sequences are highly similar to that of IAPP but have distinct amyloid self- or cross-interaction potentials. The identified similarities and major differences controlling IAPP cross-peptide interaction with Aβ40(42) versus its amyloid self-assembly offer a molecular basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms. We propose that these insights will aid in designing intervention strategies and novel IAPP analogs for the management of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or other diseases related to IAPP dysfunction or cross-amyloid interactions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  19. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  20. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  1. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  2. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  3. Do the key prognostic factors for non-specific neck pain have moderation effects? - A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Arun Prasad; Robinson, Hilde Stendal; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke

    2018-05-01

    Neck pain is one of the common musculoskeletal conditions prevalent in the general population in Norway. Patients with neck pain, seek treatment from different health professionals such as general practitioners, physiotherapists, chiropractors and alternative medicine practitioners. The interventions for neck pain are typically provided in a primary care or specialised healthcare setting depending on the general practitioners' referral patterns. Clinicians are interested to know the various prognostic factors that can explain the recovery from neck pain. In order to know this, studies have explored and reported on a range of prognostic factors that contribute to the outcomes in patients with neck pain. This information is currently available only for neck pain following whiplash injury that has a traumatic origin. There is limited information on the role of prognostic factors specifically for non-specific neck pain without a traumatic episode. Moreover, there is a lack of data on whether there are interactions (moderation effects) between the prognostic factors. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis to elucidate whether the same set of prognostic factors found in neck pain associated with whiplash injuries are also identified in patients with neck pain without trauma. Additionally, we hypothesize that the association between a prognostic factor and the outcome variable (s) would be dependent on the third variable, thereby confirming the moderation effects. Clinicians could make informed decisions in the clinical management of neck pain with the knowledge of prognostic factors that explain the outcomes. It could also be used for the development of new interventions or for modifying the existing ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  5. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Where to Forage in the Absence of Sea Ice? Bathymetry As a Key Factor for an Arctic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Amélineau

    Full Text Available The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland. We compared foraging and diving behaviour, chick diet and growth and adult body condition between two years, in the presence versus nearby absence of sea ice in the vicinity of their breeding site. Moreover, we sampled zooplankton at sea when sea ice was absent to evaluate prey location and little auk dietary preferences. Little auks foraged in the same areas both years, irrespective of sea ice presence/concentration, and targeted the shelf break and the continental shelf. We confirmed that breeding little auks showed a clear preference for larger copepod species to feed their chick, but caught smaller copepods and nearly no ice-associated amphipod when sea ice was absent. Nevertheless, these dietary changes had no impact on chick growth and adult body condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of bathymetry for profitable little auk foraging, whatever the sea-ice conditions. Our investigations, along with recent studies, also confirm more flexibility than previously predicted for this key species in a warming Arctic.

  7. High gellan gum concentration and secondary somatic embryogenesis: two key factors to improve somatic embryo development in Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lelu-Walter, M.A.; Gautier, J.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Sanchez, L.; Teyssier, C.; Lomenech, A. M.; Le Metté, C.; Hargreaves, R.; Trontin, J.F.; Reeves, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2018), s. 137-155 ISSN 0167-6857 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cell density * Cleavage polyembryony * Douglas-fir * Embryogenic potential * Protein pattern * Vegetative propagation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  8. Factors Impacting Student Service Utilization at Ontario Colleges: Key Performance Indicators as a Measure of Success: A Niagara College View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, David

    2015-01-01

    Student success in Ontario College is significantly influenced by the utilization of student services. At Niagara College there has been a significant investment in student services as a strategy to support student success. Utilizing existing KPI data, this quantitative research project is aimed at measuring factors that influence both the use of…

  9. Analysis of Transcription Factors Key for Mouse Pancreatic Development Establishes NKX2-2 and MNX1 Mutations as Causes of Neonatal Diabetes in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah E.; De Franco, Elisa; Lango Allen, Hana; Zerah, Michele; Abdul-Rasoul, Majedah M.; Edge, Julie A.; Stewart, Helen; Alamiri, Elham; Hussain, Khalid; Wallis, Sam; de Vries, Liat; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Houghton, Jayne A.L.; Edghill, Emma L.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding transcriptional regulation of pancreatic development is required to advance current efforts in developing beta cell replacement therapies for patients with diabetes. Current knowledge of key transcriptional regulators has predominantly come from mouse studies, with rare, naturally occurring mutations establishing their relevance in man. This study used a combination of homozygosity analysis and Sanger sequencing in 37 consanguineous patients with permanent neonatal diabetes to search for homozygous mutations in 29 transcription factor genes important for murine pancreatic development. We identified homozygous mutations in 7 different genes in 11 unrelated patients and show that NKX2-2 and MNX1 are etiological genes for neonatal diabetes, thus confirming their key role in development of the human pancreas. The similar phenotype of the patients with recessive mutations and mice with inactivation of a transcription factor gene support there being common steps critical for pancreatic development and validate the use of rodent models for beta cell development. PMID:24411943

  10. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  11. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  12. Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Pundkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of the study was to find the risk factors leading to Anemia in pregnancy. The main objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia. And to assess the knowledge about anemia among study participants. Material and methods: The present Case control study was carried out at Primary Health Centre, to determine the risk factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 308 pregnant females were registered. Among them two groups were made, group I cases and group II controls. Each group had 50 cases each. Laboratory test were done and females having hemoglobin less than 11mg/dl were considered anemic. Anemic females were considered cases and females having Hb >11mg/dl were considered controls. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen that among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would seem that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida and parity are associated with anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.

  13. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarybel Miranda Mellado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Por las implicaciones sociales de la mortalidad y morbilidad materna es importante determinar los factores de necesidad que influyen en el uso adecuado del control prenatal en gestantes de Sincelejo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, que incluyó 730 gestantes, seleccionadas mediante muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados, de las comunas de la ciudad. La información fue recolectada por medio de una encuesta sociodemográfica, una ficha de uso de control prenatal y un Cuestionario para evaluar los factores de necesidad  propuestos por el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender. Las gestantes fueron contactadas en sus domicilios y diligenciaron los instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados aplicando estadística descriptiva e inferencial para determinar las asociaciones entre variables. Resultados: El 97,7% (713 de las gestantes asistía al control prenatal, con una mediana de 4 controles prenatales. Un 2,3% (17 no lo habían iniciado al momento de la encuesta y 24,4% (178 hizo uso inadecuado. El 80,7% (589 de las gestantes califican su estado de salud como bueno o muy bueno, 94,8% (692 percibieron beneficios del control prenatal. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la percepción de beneficios y el uso adecuado de control prenatal [OR=5,5 (IC 95%: 2,8 - 10,8]. Discusión y Conclusiones: La percepción que las mujeres tienen sobre los buenos resultados que reporta la asistencia al control prenatal, es el principal factor que puede explicar la adherencia al control y el cumplimiento regular de las consultas. Cómo citar este artículo: Miranda C, Castillo IY. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(2: 1345-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i2.340

  14. A critical assessment of the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry / Clarise Letitia Mostert

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Clarise Letitia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically assess the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry. Numerous studies have been done on social media, but none of them were focused on optimising the success of social media in the South African tourism industry. Relationship marketing and social media is interrelated, where relationships form the foundation of social media. Social media has become the world’s latest marketing marvel, dissemina...

  15. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  16. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigV plays a key role in the original model of lysozyme resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Le Jeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading agents of nosocomial infections. To cause diseases, pathogens or opportunistic bacteria have to adapt and survive to the defense systems encountered in the host. One of the most important compounds of the host innate defense response against invading microorganisms is lysozyme. It is found in a wide variety of body fluids, as well as in cells of the innate immune system. Lysozyme could act either as a muramidase and/or as a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Like Staphylococcus aureus, E. faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are completely lysozyme resistant. RESULTS: This study revealed that oatA (O-acetyl transferase and dlt (D-Alanylation of lipoteicoic acids genes contribute only partly to the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis and that a specific transcriptional regulator, the extracytoplasmic function SigV sigma factor plays a key role in this event. Indeed, the sigV single mutant is as sensitive as the oatA/dltA double mutant, and the sigV/oatA/dltA triple mutant displays the highest level of lysozyme sensitivity suggesting synergistic effects of these genes. In S. aureus, mutation of both oatA and dlt genes abolishes completely the lysozyme resistance, whereas this is not the case in E. faecalis. Interestingly SigV does not control neither oatA nor dlt genes. Moreover, the sigV mutants clearly showed a reduced capacity to colonize host tissues, as they are significantly less recovered than the parental JH2-2 strain from organs of mice subjected to intravenous or urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: This work led to the discovery of an original model of lysozyme resistance mechanism which is obviously more complex than those described for other Gram positive pathogens. Moreover, our data provide evidences for a direct link between lysozyme resistance and virulence of E. faecalis.

  17. Determining the key drivers and mitigating factors that influence the role of the Nurse and/or Midwife Consultant: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ritin S; Sheppard-Law, Suzanne; Manning, Vicki

    2017-06-01

    Globally, many nurses and midwives are working at an advanced practice level. The role of a Nurse and/or Midwife Consultant encompasses a diverse and complex interaction between five specified domains namely Clinical Service and Consultancy, Clinical Leadership, Research, Education, and Clinical Services Planning and Management. The objective of this replication study was to identify the key drivers and mitigating factors that impact the role of Australian Nurse and/or Midwife Consultants. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan health district in Sydney, Australia. Participants for this study consisted of all Nurse and/or Midwife Consultants working within a health district in New South Wales (NSW). Data were collected by an anonymous online survey. Key drivers and mitigating factors perceived to influence their role were identified using previously implemented instruments. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Responses were obtained from 122 Nurse and/or Midwife Consultants. The number of years of experience as a Nurse and/or Midwife Consultant ranged from 6 months to 25.5 years. Personal attributes which included personal motivation and own communication skills were identified as key drivers to role performance with a mean score of 7.7±0.6. Other key drivers included peer support, organisational culture, personal attributes, professional learning, Nurse and/or Midwife Consultant experience, and collaborative relationships. Of the 14 mitigating factors to the role, the most common factors were lack of resources to set up and develop the role (2.6 ± 0.9), lack of secretarial support (2.6 ± 1.1), lack of managerial support (2.45 ± 1.1), and lack of understanding of the role by other health professionals (2.40 ± 0.8). Understanding the key drivers and mitigating factors that influence the role of the Nurse and/or Midwife Consultant is important for healthcare managers. Given the changing landscape of nursing

  18. Turn-key supply for the power supplies of the control coils of wendelstein 7-X experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregi, E.; Ganuza, D.; Garcia, I.; Rio, J.M. del; Rummel, T.; Fuellenbach, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, IPP, in Greifswald, a new stellerator is being built for fusion research experiments, the so called Wendelstein 7-X Experiment. JEMA Company has designed, manufacture and supply the turnkey system which energises the ten control coils in the stellerator. The system comprises ten independent Switch-mode power supplies, and the central distribution stations for power, cooling and control facilities. Each power supply must provide a controlled current compounded of direct current and 0-20 Hz bandwidth ac current in a range of almost 3 kA at low voltage, 30 V, in four quadrants. Positive and negative voltage and sinusoidal current with low harmonic distortion is required by load. The selected design is based on Switch-mode-power supply technology (SMPS) providing the system with a very high regulation response (very low current and voltage ripple) and excellent input power factor, keeping the grid total harmonic distortion (THD) under minimum values. The sources can be operated locally as independent systems or they can be co-ordinated from a main control keeping current synchronisation requirements. The system in its entirety requires a high efficiency due to thermal considerations and reduced space. The system presented here introduces a decisive solution for the future power supplies to superconducting or regular coils, where the regulation, precision and ripple are the basic requirements for the design. During year 2000 the design stage was covered and in 2001 a first prototype for the power supplies was manufactured and successfully tested at factory. The entire system has been installed over this year after the series fabrication and it is currently working at IPP facilities, waiting for the acceptance tests scheduled before end of the year. This paper aims to explain the different stages the company went through in order to get validation of the power supply system and make it running at its last location

  19. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  20. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    , such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more......Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...

  1. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...... to investigate the conformational effects of site-directed mutagenesis at key positions in FVIIa and the origins of enhanced intrinsic activity of FVIIa analogs. The differences in hydrogen exchange of two highly active variants, FVIIa(DVQ) and FVIIa(VEAY), imply that enhanced catalytic efficiency was attained...

  2. The Identification of Interferon-gamma as a Key Supportive Factor for Retinal Differentiation of Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heřmánková, Barbora; Kössl, Jan; Javorková, Eliška; Boháčová, Pavla; Hájková, Michaela; Zajícová, Alena; Krulová, Magdaléna; Holáň, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 19 (2017), s. 1399-1408 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04800S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : mesenchymal stem cell * differentiation * retina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2016

  3. On the effects of hydrogenation of thin film polycrystalline silicon: A key factor to improve heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, Y.; Kunz, O.; Fejfar, Antonín; Ledinský, Martin; Teik Chan, B.; Gordon, I.; Van Gestel, D.; Venkatachalm, S.; Egan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, MAR (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon * thin films * polycrystalline * hydrogenation * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024813006016

  4. Early stage of weathering of medieval-like potash-lime model glass: evaluation of key factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentaz, Lucile; Lombardo, Tiziana; Loisel, Claudine; Chabas, Anne; Vallotto, Marta

    2011-02-01

    Throughout history, a consequent part of the medieval stained glass windows have been lost, mostly because of deliberate or accidental mechanic destruction during war or revolution, but, in some cases, did not withstand the test of time simply because of their low durability. Indeed, the glasses that remain nowadays are for many in a poor state of conservation and are heavily deteriorated. Under general exposure conditions, stained glass windows undergo different kinds of weathering processes that modify their optical properties, chemistry, and structure: congruent dissolution, leaching, and particle deposition (the combination of those two leading together to the formation of neocrystallisations and eventually crusts). Previous research has studied the weathering forms and the mechanisms from which they are originated, some others identified the main environmental parameters responsible for the deterioration and highlighted that both intrinsic (glass composition) and extrinsic (environmental parameters) factors influence glass degradation. Nevertheless, a clear quantification of the impact of the different deterioration extrinsic factors has not been performed. By analysing the results obtained with model glass (durable and nondurable) exposed in the field, this paper proposes a simple mathematical computation evaluating the contribution of the different weathering factors for the early stages of exposure of the stained glasses. In the case of non durable glass, water runoff was identified as the main factor inducing the leaching (83.4 ± 2.6% contribution), followed by gas (6.4 ± 1.5%) and particle deposition (6.8 ± 2.2%) and adsorbed water (3.4 ± 0.6%). Moreover, it was shown that the extrinsic stimuli superimposes with the impact of glass composition to the weathering. Those results show that the role played by dry deposition, even if less important than that of the wet deposition, cannot be neglected.

  5. The postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM questionnaire identifies quality of instruction as a key factor predicting academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Edson Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents' perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS: The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%. Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%. Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology. Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire.

  6. Rehabilitation of the Banking System as a Key Factor in the Resumption of Corporate Crediting in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hladkykh Dmytro M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to study the factors of negative dynamics of corporate crediting in Ukraine and justify proposals for further actions of the state in the direction of activating corporate crediting. The actions of the state in the field of activation of corporate crediting in Ukraine should include the steps mentioned below. As part of the overall rehabilitation and recovery of the economy – actions aimed at de-shadowization of the economy; restoration of foreign exchange earnings f...

  7. A Key Opinion Leaders Analysis of the Critical Success Factors for the Market Potential of Genetically Modified Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezanpour, B.; Kamphuis, Pim; Claassen, H.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional vaccines have been very successful in preventing and controlling many diseases. One of the next steps in vaccine innovation is the introduction of genetic modification, which provides various novel opportunities in the vaccine field. Although the market potential for conventional

  8. Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

  9. Improvement of the performances of a tandem simulated moving bed chromatography by controlling the yield level of a key product of the first simulated moving bed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungyong; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2017-03-10

    One of the trustworthy processes for ternary separation is a tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) process, which consists of two subordinate four-zone SMB units (Ring I and Ring II). To take full advantage of a tandem SMB as a means of recovering all three products with high purities and high economical efficiency, it is important to understand how the separation condition in Ring II is affected by that in Ring I, and further to reflect such point in the stage of designing a tandem SMB. In regard to such issue, it was clarified in this study that the Ring I factors affecting the Ring II condition could be represented by the yield level of a key product of Ring I (Y key RingI ). As the Y key RingI level became higher, the amount of the Ring I key-product that was reloaded into Ring II was reduced, which affected favorably the Ring II separation condition. On the other hand, the higher Y key RingI level caused a larger dilution for the stream from Ring I to Ring II, which affected adversely the Ring II separation condition. As a result, a minimum in the desorbent usage of a tandem SMB occurred at the Y key RingI level where the two aforementioned factors could be balanced with each other. If such an optimal Y key RingI level was adopted, the desorbent usage could be reduced by up to 25%. It was also found that as the throughput of a tandem SMB became higher, the factor related to the migration of the Ring I key-product into Ring II was more influential in the performances of a tandem SMB than the factor related to the dilution of the stream from Ring I to Ring II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  11. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  12. The human factors specialist in nuclear control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.; Beattie, J.D.

    The main focus at Ontario Hydro for man-machine interface design is in the design of control centres. Because the control of a nuclear generating unit is highly centralized there is an increasing need for effective information display and control layout. Control panel design innovations such as the use of CRT displays and the extended use of computerized control in the Darlington station have made it possible for Ontario Hydro to continue to have one first operator for each generating unit. The human factors specialist involved in control panel design must deal with people who know much more about the specific systems being controlled, and must become a generalist in all these systems as well. Designers have to use conceptual techniques such as task analysis, systems design, panel mock-ups, anthropometric data, and personal judgement based on experience as they design panels. They must find a balance between becoming locked into existing technology and methods, slavishly following the latest technological trends, and forgetting that real people will be using what they design

  13. Heat-shock protein 40 is the key farnesylation target in meristem size control, abscisic acid signaling, and drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghetti, Andrea; Sjögren, Lars; Floris, Maïna; Paredes, Esther Botterweg; Wenkel, Stephan; Brodersen, Peter

    2017-11-15

    Protein farnesylation is central to molecular cell biology. In plants, protein farnesyl transferase mutants are pleiotropic and exhibit defective meristem organization, hypersensitivity to the hormone abscisic acid, and increased drought resistance. The precise functions of protein farnesylation in plants remain incompletely understood because few relevant farnesylated targets have been identified. Here, we show that defective farnesylation of a single factor-heat-shock protein 40 (HSP40), encoded by the J2 and J3 genes-is sufficient to confer ABA hypersensitivity, drought resistance, late flowering, and enlarged meristems, indicating that altered function of chaperone client proteins underlies most farnesyl transferase mutant phenotypes. We also show that expression of an abiotic stress-related microRNA (miRNA) regulon controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 requires HSP40 farnesylation. Expression of a truncated SPL7 form mimicking its activated proteolysis fragment of the membrane-bound SPL7 precursor partially restores accumulation of SPL7-dependent miRNAs in farnesyl transferase mutants. These results implicate the pathway directing SPL7 activation from its membrane-bound precursor as an important target of farnesylated HSP40, consistent with our demonstration that HSP40 farnesylation facilitates its membrane association. The results also suggest that altered gene regulation via select miRNAs contributes to abiotic stress-related phenotypes of farnesyl transferase mutants. © 2017 Barghetti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  15. New factors controlling the balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-02-01

    The majority of conditions associated with bone loss, including aging, are accompanied by increased marrow adiposity possibly due to shifting of the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (MSC). In order to study the relationship between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis in bone marrow, we have characterized cellular models of multipotent MSC as well as pre-osteoblastic and pre-adipocytic cell populations. Using these models, we identified two secreted factors in the bone marrow microenviroment: secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1) and delta-like1 (preadipocyte factor 1) (Dlk1/Pref-1). Both exert regulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. Our studies suggest a model for lineage fate determination of MSC that is regulated through secreted factors in the bone marrow microenvironment that mediate a cross-talk between lineage committed cell populations in addition to controlling differentiation choices of multipotent MSC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  17. Organizational participatory research: a systematic mixed studies review exposing its extra benefits and the key factors associated with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula L; Pluye, Pierre; Loignon, Christine; Granikov, Vera; Wright, Michael T; Pelletier, Jean-François; Bartlett-Esquilant, Gillian; Macaulay, Ann C; Haggerty, Jeannie; Parry, Sharon; Repchinsky, Carol

    2017-10-10

    In health, organizational participatory research (OPR) refers to health organization members participating in research decisions, with university researchers, throughout a study. This non-academic partner contribution to the research may take the form of consultation or co-construction. A drawback of OPR is that it requires more time from all those involved, compared to non-participatory research approaches; thus, understanding the added value of OPR, if any, is important. Thus, we sought to assess whether the OPR approach leads to benefits beyond what could be achieved through traditional research. We identified, selected, and appraised OPR health literature, and at each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used quantitative content analysis to transform textual data into reliable numerical codes and conducted a logistic regression to test the hypothesis that a co-construction type OPR study yields extra benefits with a greater likelihood than consultation-type OPR studies. From 8873 abstracts and 992 full text papers, we distilled a sample of 107 OPR studies. We found no difference between the type of organization members' participation and the likelihood of exhibiting an extra benefit. However, the likelihood of an OPR study exhibiting at least one extra benefit is quadrupled when the impetus for the study comes from the organization, rather than the university researcher(s), or the organization and the university researcher(s) together (OR = 4.11, CI = 1.12-14.01). We also defined five types of extra benefits. This review describes the types of extra benefits OPR can yield and suggests these benefits may occur if the organization initiates the OPR. Further, this review exposes a need for OPR authors to more clearly describe the type of non-academic partner participation in key research decisions throughout the study. Detailed descriptions will benefit others conducting OPR and allow for a re-examination of the

  18. A Novel Method of Evaluating Key Factors for Success in a Multifaceted Critical Care Fellowship Using Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vikram; Kumar, Avinash B

    2018-01-01

    The current system of summative multi-rater evaluations and standardized tests to determine readiness to graduate from critical care fellowships has limitations. We sought to pilot the use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess what aspects of the fellowship program contribute the most to an individual fellow's success. DEA is a nonparametric, operations research technique that uses linear programming to determine the technical efficiency of an entity based on its relative usage of resources in producing the outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Critical care fellows (n = 15) in an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited fellowship at a major academic medical center in the United States. After obtaining institutional review board approval for this retrospective study, we analyzed the data of 15 anesthesiology critical care fellows from academic years 2013-2015. The input-oriented DEA model develops a composite score for each fellow based on multiple inputs and outputs. The inputs included the didactic sessions attended, the ratio of clinical duty works hours to the procedures performed (work intensity index), and the outputs were the Multidisciplinary Critical Care Knowledge Assessment Program (MCCKAP) score and summative evaluations of fellows. A DEA efficiency score that ranged from 0 to 1 was generated for each of the fellows. Five fellows were rated as DEA efficient, and 10 fellows were characterized in the DEA inefficient group. The model was able to forecast the level of effort needed for each inefficient fellow, to achieve similar outputs as their best performing peers. The model also identified the work intensity index as the key element that characterized the best performers in our fellowship. DEA is a feasible method of objectively evaluating peer performance in a critical care fellowship beyond summative evaluations alone and can potentially be a powerful tool to guide individual performance during the fellowship.

  19. Perceptions of climate change across the Canadian forest sector: The key factors of institutional and geographical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, John R.; Houle, Daniel; Messier, Christian; Gravel, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the perception of key stakeholders within the forest sector is critical to evaluating their readiness to engage in adapting to climate change. Here, we report the results of the most comprehensive survey carried out in the C