WorldWideScience

Sample records for key developing countries

  1. Nuclear power for developing countries. Key issue paper no. 1

    Rogner, H.-H.; Khan, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Is there a rationale for developing countries to adopt nuclear power? This paper explores this rationale and the suitability of nuclear power for developing countries by surveying the prerequisites for and implications of developing a nuclear power program: infrastructure availability, economics and finance, environment, the needs for technology transfer, the regulatory and institutional frameworks required and the awareness of public concerns. (author)

  2. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    Oliveira, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  3. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  4. Shifting the Climate Finance Paradigm: Nine Key Challenges for Developed Countries

    Curtin, Joseph

    2013-03-13

    In 2009, developed countries committed to part-funding the cost of adapting to the impacts of climate change and of low carbon development in developing countries. From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exchequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period. But what are the implications for developed countries? This policy brief explores the policy context defining the current climate finance debate; examines the extent to which commitments have been met; and identifies nine key challenges for developed countries as they enter the new climate finance paradigm, drawing on the lessons of the fast start finance period. This is the second in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  5. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  6. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  7. Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

    McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John

    2007-01-01

    Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade r...

  8. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  9. Group assessment of key indicators of sustainable waste management in developing countries.

    Tot, Bojana; Vujić, Goran; Srđević, Zorica; Ubavin, Dejan; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries. An assessment is performed by 43 decision makers from both developed and developing countries, and the applied methodology is based on a combined use of the analytic hierarchy process, from the multi-criteria decision-making set of tools, and the preferential voting method known as Borda Count, which belongs to social choice theory. Pairwise comparison of indicators is performed with the analytic hierarchy process, and the ranking of indicators once obtained is assessed with Borda Count. Detailed analysis of the final results showed that the Institutional-Administrative indicator was the most important one, with the maximum weight as derived by both groups of decision makers. The results also showed that the combined use of the analytic hierarchy process and Borda Count contributes to the credibility and objectivity of the decision-making process, allowing its use in more complex waste management group decision-making problems to be recommended.

  10. Prospects of concentrating solar power to deliver key energy services in a developing country

    Karakosta, Charikleia; Pappas, Charalampos; Psarras, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Management and Decision Support Systems Lab (NTUA-EPU), 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2011-07-01

    One of today's greatest challenges is the response to the worldwide continuously increasing energy demand. The need for supply of electricity is getting greater year by year. In addition, climate change problems and the limited fossil resources require new sustainable electricity generation options, which utilize Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and are economical in the meantime. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) generation is a proven renewable energy technology that has the potential to become cost-effective in the future. This analysis explores for Chile the potential of CSP to deliver key energy services for the country. The specific technology has a significant technical potential within Chile, but 'somehow' do not receive sufficient attention from relevant stakeholders, because of gaps either in stakeholders' awareness of the technology or in domestic research and development (R and D) and/or public/private investment. The aim of this paper is to establish a well-informed discussion on the feasibility and potential of the specific sustainable energy technology, namely the CSP technology, within a given country context and particularly Chile. It provides an overview of the fundamental (macro-economic) forces within an economy and identifies some of the blockages and barriers that can be expected when introducing a new technology.

  11. Development of safety-related regulatory requirements for nuclear power in developing countries. Key issue paper no. 4

    Han, K.I.

    2000-01-01

    In implementing a national nuclear power program, balanced regulatory requirements are necessary to ensure nuclear safety and cost competitive nuclear power, and to help gain public acceptance. However, this is difficult due to the technology-intensive nature of the nuclear regulatory requirements, the need to reflect evolving technology and the need for cooperation among multidisciplinary technical groups. This paper suggests approaches to development of balanced nuclear regulatory requirements in developing countries related to nuclear power plant safety, radiation protection and radioactive waste management along with key technical regulatory issues. It does not deal with economic or market regulation of electric utilities using nuclear power. It suggests that national regulatory requirements be developed using IAEA safety recommendations as guidelines and safety requirements of the supplier country as a main reference after careful planning, manpower buildup and thorough study of international and supplier country's regulations. Regulation making is not recommended before experienced manpower has been accumulated. With an option that the supplier country's regulations may be used in the interim, the lack of complete national regulatory requirements should not deter introduction of nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  12. WBL to Promote Lifelong Learning among Farmers from Developing Countries: Key Strategies

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…

  13. Renewable Energy Services For Developing Countries - In support of the millennium development goals: recommended practice and key lessons

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Almost 1.6 billion people currently live without electricity in developing countries. These people live in either remote rural areas that have no connection to electrical power grids, or urban areas with inadequate utility systems. The demand for energy in these countries is expected to grow with increases in population and living standards. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that developing countries will need to double their electrical power output by 2020. Despite the growth in energy consumption, the number of people disadvantaged by a lack of modern energy services has remained relatively unchanged. The focus of the international donor community is clearly aimed at poverty alleviation in general, and specifically at achieving the targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Renewable energy technologies have a tremendous potential in providing energy services to developing countries and in helping achieve the MDGs. This document highlights how meeting the MDGs can be facilitated through a sustainable energy supply, and provides case studies from around the world to demonstrate that these technologies are applicable in real-life situations. Based on these cumulative experiences and in order for energy services to be delivered effectively, key lessons and recommendations are put forward with regard to policy, finance and implementation. (author)

  14. Key Drivers of PPPs in Electricity Generation in Developing Countries : Cross-Country Evidence of Switching between PPP Investment in Fossil Fuel and Renewable-Based Generation

    Vagliasindi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new global evidence on the key determinants of public-private partnership investment in electricity generated by fossil fuels and renewable energy based on a panel data analysis for 105 developing countries over a period of 16 years from 1993 to 2008. It aims to identify the key factors affecting private investors' decision to enter electricity generation, through probi...

  15. Key issues in food processing by irradiation in developing countries and the ensuing regulatory aspects

    Mossel, D A. A

    1986-12-31

    Food irradiation offers tremendous potential as a means of food preservation, particularly for developing countries. Irradiating food on a commercial scale has distinct advantages. Through irradiation, the keeping quality of a variety of food will be increased, insect infestation will be controlled, and dangerous intestinal pathogens will be eliminated. It will also facilitate export of food, which will aid national economic development, provide employment opportunities and foster the development of personnel trained in the technology. While food irradiation may be of importance and use in developing countries, it is equally important that developing countries are not used as `testing grounds` for commercial food irradiation. By and large, public reluctance to accept food irradiation is deep-rooted. Fears need to be allayed through exposure to research results and extensive talks by experts and individuals from research institutions and the United Nations. If such attempts fail, it may be necessary for the government to embark on a program of introducing alternative food processes or technologies, e.g. food dehydration, fermentation, thermal or chemical treatments. In the eventual adoption of food irradiation, inspection of plants and manufacturing and distribution practices, monitoring of production lines, and testing of final product samples will be necessary

  16. Key issues in food processing by irradiation in developing countries and the ensuing regulatory aspects

    Mossel, D. A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation offers tremendous potential as a means of food preservation, particularly for developing countries. Irradiating food on a commercial scale has distinct advantages. Through irradiation, the keeping quality of a variety of food will be increased, insect infestation will be controlled, and dangerous intestinal pathogens will be eliminated. It will also facilitate export of food, which will aid national economic development, provide employment opportunities and foster the development of personnel trained in the technology. While food irradiation may be of importance and use in developing countries, it is equally important that developing countries are not used as 'testing grounds' for commercial food irradiation. By and large, public reluctance to accept food irradiation is deep-rooted. Fears need to be allayed through exposure to research results and extensive talks by experts and individuals from research institutions and the United Nations. If such attempts fail, it may be necessary for the government to embark on a program of introducing alternative food processes or technologies, e.g. food dehydration, fermentation, thermal or chemical treatments. In the eventual adoption of food irradiation, inspection of plants and manufacturing and distribution practices, monitoring of production lines, and testing of final product samples will be necessary

  17. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Organizational Size: A Key Element In The Development Of Private Enterprises In The Less Developed Countries: The Case Of Ecuador

    John Demetrios Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine and evaluate the prerequisites needed in private enterprises in Ecuador that are conducive to economic development and determine if economic development via this choice is feasible. The prerequisites are ample organizational size, a situation that allows the formation of a well-constructed and viable organizational structure with three hierarchal levels and sufficient departmentalization. All of the above permits the formation, sustenance, and develo...

  19. Buyer's participation and well developed domestic infrastructure. Keys to successful introduction of nuclear power in a small country

    Numminen, K.; Laine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power is advantageous for a small country such as Finland which does not possess indigenous fossil fuel. For instance, the cost of imports required by nuclear fuel is essentially smaller than the cost of production of electric energy based on coal or fuel oil. In Finland the advantageousness of nuclear power was already proved in the 1950s but before starting the first power plant project it took 15 years to develop step by step the required infrastructure: building the research institutes and training their staff, creating connections to the international organizations and elsewhere abroad, training Finnish design staff, developing the domestic industry to the high quality required by nuclear power, and establishing the necessary authorities and public administration. Thanks to thorough preparation the implementation of the plant projects progressed at a good pace in the 1970s. The lesson learned from operation of the plants is that in a small country - located far from its main supplier - the staff at the plant and the supporting staff in the power company have to be able to analyse the problems occurring, usually in the conventional equipment, and carry out quick repairs without aid from the main supplier. This requires a high level of educational attainment from the staff and the best way to achieve this is for the staff to participate in the design and construction as much as possible already in the implementation phase. In order to maintain high availability, the capability of the domestic industry must also be good - especially in the fields of mechanical industry and electronics. In Finland over 30% of electric energy was produced in 1981 by four nuclear units. Two of these were built as manifold east-west adjustment work with the Soviet supplier and the other two are of Swedish origin

  20. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  1. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  2. Key Drivers for Cooperation toward Sustainable Development and the Management of CO2 Emissions: Comparative Analysis of Six Northeast Asian Countries

    Andrew Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the key drivers of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in six Northeast Asian countries (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia from 1991 to 2015. We apply a decomposition analysis approach using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index to identify the main contributing factors toward CO2 emission changes. To discuss the decomposition results in more in detail, we explain the energy portfolio change in each country to understand the energy and resource utilization strategy. From the results, we find that the key driving factors of CO2 emissions change and energy portfolio trends are different among Northeast Asian countries, driven by economic growth in China and Korea, reduced by energy efficiency improvements in Russia and the DPRK, while being relatively benign in Japan and Mongolia due to a combination of these factors. This result implies that we can better understand the regional cooperation policy for improving each driving factor to achieve sustainable development and management of CO2 emissions considering the characteristics of each country.

  3. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  4. FISCAL CULTURE - AS KEY ELEMENTS OF ENSURING TAX COMPLIANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (BASED ON THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA EXPERIENCE

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax avoidance and tax evasion have considerably consumed the ink and papers of academic research because taxation is an issue that has been relevant in the last 6000 years of human history and will continue to be relevant in the future. Questions about tax compliance are as old as taxes themselves and will remain an area of discovery as long as taxes exist. To understand the impact of a tax system, it is important to know who complies with the tax law as well as who does not. In this paper I discuss several key factors that seem to be important for understanding tax compliance in Republic of Moldova: factors of tax evasion and avoidance, consequences and methods for ensuring tax compliance.

  5. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  6. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  7. Investment in Developing Countries

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  8. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    1987-01-01

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  9. Problems facing developing countries

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  10. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  11. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  12. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  13. Mobilizing technology for developing countries

    Weiss, C Jr

    1979-10-01

    Mr. Weiss says that the 15 years since the UN Conference on Science, Technology, and Development in Geneva have taught us that what seem at first to be technological obstacles to development frequently turn out on closer examination to have been policy failures; that introduction of technologies into developing countries must be accompanied by institutional and policy changes if the technologies are to benefit the countries. He points out that choice of alternative technology for a developing country should depend on careful overall assessment of local techno-economic, geographical, ecological, and social factors, as well as the desired balance between growth and equity. Such a technology assessment, a key element in the choice of appropriate (i.e., locally suitable) technology for particular investment projects, should be built into procedures for project preparation and appraisal in governments and development assistance agencies. Turning to technologists, Mr. Weiss says they face a double challenge: (1) to recognize potential for new efforts to harness science and technology for the benefit of the developing countries; and (2) by understanding the social, institutional, and economic framework into which an innovation is to operate, to ease its application and diffusion, and thus speed and increase its practical impact. 25 references.

  14. The AEC and developing countries

    Ouvrieu, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A historical background shows how AEC's activities have changed and consequently, the development of the AEC's relations with developing countries. Some examples serve to illustrate the different types of AEC cooperation with developing countries [fr

  15. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  16. Demand for programs for key populations in Africa from countries ...

    ... a minority proposed programming for IDU (13%, 21 proposals). Demand for these programs was highly concentrated in a subset of countries. Epidemiological data for at least one key population was included in a majority of these proposals (63%, 67 proposals), but in many cases these data were not linked to programs.

  17. Focusing on key development challenges

    addresses today's pressing environmental, social, economic, and political ... telecentre.org. Harness science, technology, and innovation to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty. ... capacities, support research that would lead to better policies and ... country researchers, and the private sector to produce.

  18. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  19. Uranium exploration in developing countries

    Premoli, C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages to the developing countries of exploiting their uranium deposits in the next two decades to aid their own economic growth are considered. It is pointed out that in spite of the little known geology of these countries less sophisticated surveying methods have turned up large uranium deposits even in developed countries. Carborne surveys with simple crystal-detectors coupled to scintillators can be effective. Intelligent exploration in developing countries can be cheap due to low labour costs and less stringent environmental restraints and the uranium found could be sold to developed countries for their nuclear power programme. (U.K.)

  20. in a Developing Country

    GB

    This could have contributed to the refusal for readmission. In conclusion, identification and management of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in affected patients pose a problem in resource-constrained countries due to late identification and presentation, lack of facilities for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the cost and the.

  1. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  2. Nuclear energy for developing countries

    Kemery, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the circumstances which must prevail before a reasonable technical, administrative and sociological case can be made to justify the introduction of nuclear power technology to a developing country. The role played by the IAEA in responding to needs of developing countries is considered and problems of nuclear plant safety and materials safeguards discussed. Plans for nuclear power in several developing countries are outlined

  3. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  4. Country branding: an imperative for developing countries | Akotia ...

    Clarifying what a country brand and country branding encompasses, this paper examines the competitive advantage a country brand engenders for developing countries. Furthermore, emphasising country branding as a social construction, this paper argues that for developing countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there ...

  5. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  6. Business ethics in developing countries

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  7. Energy problems in developing countries

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Domestic biogas development in developing countries

    Rakotojaona, Loic

    2013-07-01

    Communities that rely mostly on agriculture and livestock farming in developing countries can face strong pressure related to: - Energy access: for instance, in Africa, it is estimated that 68% of the population live without clean cooking facilities [1]. Energy access plays a key role in poverty alleviation. - Resources depletion: if a household uses firewood for cooking purposes, forests depletion in some areas makes firewood collection tougher. - Climate change mitigation: agriculture (i.e. the production of crop and livestock products) accounts for 13.5%2 of the global GHG emissions, and extensive systems are sometimes blamed for being less efficient than intensive ones when it comes to climate change mitigation (given that the later involve lower direct emissions per kg of product). In this context, access to clean and sustainable energy through domestic biogas production can help rural communities alleviate current pressures on the environment. In an urban context, domestic biogas in developing countries is also considered as a means for improving hygiene conditions (especially when it comes to public washrooms issues). This report only focuses on domestic biogas development within the frame of small scale agriculture and livestock production (i.e. in rural areas). The main objective of this document is to provide domestic biogas project developers with relevant information on the key issues to have in mind regarding national integration of such projects. This document gives a general presentation of domestic biogas and its main environmental, social and economic benefits. It also browses the main aspects one should have in mind (checklist) in order to assess local risks and opportunities for domestic biogas development

  9. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  10. Nuclear medicine in developing countries

    Kremenchuzky, S.; Degrossi, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The economic crisis through which developing countries are passing means that every field of endeavour must adapt to new realities imposed by each particular's country's situation. Public health is no exception, although it is obviously a priority field in view of the repercussions which social and economic phenomena can have on the health of a country's inhabitants. This article briefly considers ways in which nuclear medicine facilities in Argentina may be improved

  11. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    Muntasser, M.A.; Bara, M.F.; Quadri, H.A.; El-Tarabelsi, R.; La-azebi, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)

  12. Natural gas in developing countries

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  13. Nuclear power in developing countries

    Morrison, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the essential issues which arise when we consider nuclear power and development together in the context of energy policy are discussed. Ethical concerns must ultimately be expressed through policies and their impact on people. There are ethical issues associated with nuclear power in the developing countries which deserve our attention. Four aspects of the question of nuclear power in developing countries are considered: their energy situation; the characteristics of nuclear power which are relevant to them; whether developing countries will undertake nuclear power programmes; and finally the ethical implications of such programmes. It is concluded that what happens in developing countries will depend more on the ethical nature of major political decisions and actions than on the particular technology they use to generate their electricity. (LL)

  14. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  15. social protection for developing countries

    Nicola Smit

    challenges of informal economy workers in developing countries. This view. 5 ibid. ..... in the informal economy – an international and regional perspective” 2007 4 TSAR 700-715. ..... management – should be improved. In South Africa the ...

  16. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  17. Child labour in developing countries

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  18. Export opportunities in developing countries

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  19. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  20. Road safety in developing countries.

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  1. Progress in the developing countries

    Simnad, M.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear programmes in selective developing countries are briefly discussed. The oil rich countries of Iraq, Libya and Iran all have reactors on order. Turkey has decided to purchase a PWR from the USSR and Egypt's programme anticipates a capacity of 6600 MWe by 2000. The current projections for India are 6000 MWe by 1990 and 20,000 MWe by 2000. The progress of Pakistan, South Korea and other Asian countries are discussed. The predicted growth in reactors and population in Latin America is considered - 17 reactors presently planned for a population of 340 million and 18-57 possible additions in 2000 for an estimated population of 600 million. The role of the IAEA and experience of some Western countries in technology transfer is discussed with the ambitious Spanish nuclear power programme and the experience of Argentina in purchasing Candu reactors. (author)

  2. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    Whelan, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  3. Energy investment in developing countries

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  4. Fundamental research in developing countries

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  5. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Radioassay services in developing countries

    Belcher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of an advisory group convened by the IAEA to give guidance relating to the development of IAEA projects involving radioassay are presented. The current status of radioassay services in different countries is reviewed; guiding principles relating to the organization of such services are affirmed, with particular reference to services in developing countries; the needs of services at various levels as regards accommodation, staff, equipment, supporting services and running costs, including minimum initial needs, are specified; operational problems are identified and indications given how they may be solved; facilities for training in radioassay are reviewed; finally, reference is made to IAEA activities in the field in question. (author)

  7. Nuclear power for developing countries

    Kendall, J.; Kupitz, J.; Rogner, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently makes a large contribution to the electricity supply in a number of countries and, to a much less extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be expanded in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. Building upon this background of success and applying lessons learned from the experience of operating plants, new generations of nuclear power plants have been, or are being developed. Improvements incorporated into these advance designs include features that will allow operators more time to perform equipment protection and safety actions in response to equipment failures and other off normal operating conditions, and that will reduce and simplify the actions required. Great attention is also paid to making new plants simpler to operate, inspect, maintain and repair, thus increasing their overall cost efficiency and their compatibility with the infrastructure of developing countries. The paper provides a discussion of future world energy supply and demand projections, current status and prospects for nuclear power, a short summary of advanced reactor concepts and non-electrical applications of nuclear energy for developing countries, and a review of the role of the IAEA. (author)

  8. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  9. Nuclear power for developing countries

    Hirschmann, H.; Vennemann, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the energy policy quandary of developing countries and explains why nuclear power plants of a suitable size - the KKW 200 MW BWR nuclear power plant for electric power and/or process steam generation is briefly presented here - have an economic advantage over fossil-fuelled power plants. (HP) [de

  10. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

    Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study

  11. Construction industry in developing countries

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  12. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed...

  13. Status of nuclear power in developing countries

    Laue, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In the context of the world-wide energy situation and the key position energy plays and will play for the economic and social development of any country, the energy demand situation up to the year 2000 is analysed. As a result, the world-wide energy demand will continue to increase, however, mainly in the developing world. Nuclear power is one of the important component in the energy mix of today and in the future. Status of nuclear power application in developing countries up to the end of the century. Any further growth of the peaceful use of nuclear power in developing countries is closely linked with the following requirements: - qualified manpower, - industrial infrastructure, - energy demand and supply assessments, - high investments, - assurance of supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, - availability of small and medium power reactors. The possible role of the IAEA in developing countries and international measures to remove some of the limitations for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in developing countries are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  15. Urban bioclimatology in developing countries.

    Jauregui, E

    1993-11-15

    A brief review of the literature on urban human bioclimatology in the tropics is undertaken. Attempts to chart human bioclimatic conditions on the regional/local scale have been made in several developing countries. The effective temperature scheme (with all its limitations) is the one that has been most frequently applied. The possibilities of application of bioclimatic models based on human heat balance for the tropical urban environment are discussed.

  16. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  17. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  18. [AIDS, developing countries and ethnopsychiatry].

    Ehrhardt, N; Defourny, J; Bertrand, J

    1995-04-01

    This work briefly assesses the history of the AIDS epidemic in different geographic regions and examines factors that render developing countries particularly vulnerable. It reviews the three main techniques of traditional therapeutic systems and examines their implications for psychiatric treatment of AIDS patients from developing countries. Young age structures, low rates of condom usage, women's lack of education and of sexual bargaining power, and the deficiencies of health and educational facilities are among factors that increase risks of HIV in developing countries. Health education geared to specific audiences should encourage condom use and other preventive measures. Among factors to encourage condom use, group decision making appears to be of greatest potential influence on behavior in sub-Saharan Africa and among African immigrants to Europe. To encourage preventive measures and to understand reactions of non-Western populations to HIV, it is desirable to understand the deeper meanings of their cultures and of traditional therapies. It is difficult and misguided to pose a diagnosis according to the criteria of Western psychiatry. Western psychiatry has been proven incompetent in its attempts to treat members of traditional societies, whether immigrants or in their countries of origin. And attempts to integrate traditional healing into a western medical system have not been successful. Traditional systems accomplish therapeutic goals by three major techniques, possession, shamanism, and clairvoyance, or their numerous variants. It is recommended that group sessions be held with immigrants requiring treatment, in which the principal therapist is assisted by translators, who help create a space for the patient intermediate between the two cultures, where the therapies can coexist without conflict.

  19. Nuclear power in developing countries

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  20. Nuclear trade between developing countries

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of nuclear south-south cooperation is based on the evaluation of official documents (the texts of laws, of contracts for nuclear cooperation treaties, safeguard treaties, official government policy speeches etc.). These data were supplemented by numerous interviews with representatives of atomic energy authorities, foreign ministries, nuclear industries, members of parliament, representatives of the nuclear energy opposition movement and military representatives in the three states and by interviews with representatives of the IAEO and OPANAL in Mexico. The study deals with each country in turn: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the Indian nuclear energy programme and India's nuclear export activity and export policy. Chapter 3 analyzes Brazil's nuclear energy policy and Brazilian export capacities, exports and export policy in the nuclear sector. Chapter 4 looks at the development of the Argentinian nuclear energy programme and the crisis in it, at Argentina's nuclear export activities and its export policy and technology transfer policy in this field. Chapter 5 analyzes separately relations between Argentina and Brazil on nuclear cooperation, since they differ considerably from the two countries' relations with other Third World countries on this topic. The appendix documents the most important contractual agreements and government policy declarations on nuclear cooperation between the two states. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear cardiology for developing countries

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in developing countries must be oriented to the local needs for clinical practice, the health care of large populations and the demands for research with sometimes extremely limited resources. To help define the locally differing needs, it is stressed that nuclear medicine provides the unique opportunity to observe the body at the molecular level of organization and thus makes the body biochemically transparent. Depending on the particular diagnostic demands, complex imaging with gamma scintigraphy or emission tomography may be the only method to choose in some instances, but for others it may be an unnecessary luxury. Nuclear cardiology, with the purpose of non-invasively assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial metabolism, is a particular challenge in both respects for developing countries. Given such requirements, single-probe devices with multipurpose application are less expensive than gamma cameras and promise advanced diagnostic uses. In one examination, left ventricular function, global cardio-pulmonary circulation and the general circulatory adaptation to exercise can be investigated by non-gated simultaneous blood pool measurements over four lung regions, the heart and the liver. In addition, such devices have the advantages of compactness, robustness and electronic stability. Despite enormous difficulties regarding funding, infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, developing countries should be encouraged to participate in the evolution of nuclear medicine by responding and adapting to defined needs and perhaps by maintaining at least one national centre of excellence with capacities for research and training. Funds are best secured by providing an indispensable service in co-operation with the various clinical disciplines. (author)

  2. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries.

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2007-06-01

    To highlight the problems faced in developing countries where healthcare resources are limited, with particular emphasis on pediatric anesthesia. The fact that very few publications address pediatric anesthesia in the developing world is not surprising given that most anesthetics are provided by nonphysicians, nurses or unqualified personnel. In compiling this article information is drawn from pediatric surgical, anesthetic and related texts. In a recent survey more than 80% of anesthesia providers in a poor country acknowledged that with the limited resources available they could not provide basic anesthesia for children less than 5 years. Although many publications could be regarded as anecdotal, the similarities to this survey suggest that the lack of facilities is more generalized than we would like to believe. The real risk of anesthesia in comparison to other major health risks such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma remains undetermined. The critical shortage of manpower remains a barrier to progress. Despite erratic electrical supplies, inconsistent oxygen delivery, paucity of drugs or equipment and on occasion even lack of running water, many provide life-saving anesthesia. Perioperative morbidity and mortality is, however, understandably high by developed world standards.

  3. Infection control in developing countries.

    Meers, P D

    1988-02-01

    The level of socio-political and economic development achieved by a country determines the quality and quantity of the health care its citizens receive. These factors also govern the amount of attention given to hospital-acquired infection. The problems of infection control in 'developing' countries include, first, the international problems that arise from clashes of personality and viewpoint among those responsible for it, exacerbated in some places by ethnic or religious traditions. Second are problems imposed by factors that affect the spectrum of infectious disease, and third is a variable deficiency of human and financial resources. In the search for solutions, an analysis suggests that nurses are particularly suited to take the lead in the prevention of infection, so that a special initiative directed towards their education in the rapidly developing science of hospital infection and its control is likely to be the most cost effective and appropriate initial approach. This needs to be accompanied by parallel improvements in the education of medical undergraduates. Anything else should be applied in response to measured need, and then only as money and manpower permit. Careful thought is required to avoid squandering scarce resources by applying inappropriate infection control technology.

  4. Demand for programs for key populations in Africa from countries ...

    Owen Ryan, John Macom, and Michelle Moses-Eisenstein

    2012-11-28

    Nov 28, 2012 ... Keywords: PEPFAR, Global Fund, key population, MSM, IDU, SW. Résumé ... geographical contexts (e.g. MSM in Asia and IDU in Eastern. Europe) ..... Implementation of the investment framework in Africa will require two ...

  5. HIS priorities in developing countries.

    Amado Espinosa, L

    1995-04-01

    Looking for a solution to fulfill the requirements that the new global economical system demands, developing countries face a reality of poor communications infrastructure, a delay in applying information technology to the organizations, and a semi-closed political system avoiding the necessary reforms. HIS technology has been developed more for transactional purposes on mini and mainframe platforms. Administrative modules are the most frequently observed and physicians are now requiring more support for their activities. The second information systems generation will take advantage of PC technology, client-server models and telecommunications to achieve integration. International organizations, academic and industrial, public and private, will play a major role to transfer technology and to develop this area.

  6. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  7. AIDS in the developing countries.

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  8. Nuclear power in developing countries

    Laue, H.J.; Bennett, L.L.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1984-01-01

    Experience clearly indicates that most developing countries actively planning and implementing nuclear power require broad-scope assistance if their use of nuclear technology is to be safe, economic, and reliable. The IAEA's assistance is directed both to general planning, and to the development of supporting structures and is based on an assessment of needs which cannot be satisfied by other means. The Agency's Division of Nuclear Power has the technical background and tools to support a comprehensive programme of assistance in nuclear power assessment, planning, and implementation. The overall objective of such a programme is to help strengthen national capabilities of executing the following tasks: Analysis of overall energy and electricity demand and supply projections; planning the possible role of nuclear power in electricity supply, through determining the economically optimal extent and schedule for the introduction of nuclear power plants; assessing the available infrastructures and the need, constraints, and possibilities for their development; and developing master schedules, programmes, and recommendations for action. Proposed programmes must be reviewed periodically, and one of the Agency's aims is to ensure that national competence to carry out such reviews exists or can be developed. Training of local staff is therefore one of the most important objectives

  9. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries

    Wang, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms’ competitiveness.  This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries.   In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms.  In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage Model—a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries.  Their ...

  10. The Social Development Summit and the developing countries.

    Barnabas, A P; Kulkarni, P D; Nanavatty, M C; Singh, R R

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses some concerns of the 1996 UN Summit on Social Development. Conference organizers identified the three key conference issues as poverty alleviation, social integration of the marginalized and disadvantaged, and expansion of productive employment. The goal of a "society for all" means dealing with the increasing differences between rich and poor countries, the survival of weaker economies in a competitive market system, wide variations in consumption patterns between countries, attainment of political stability while respecting ethnic identity, the rise in social problems among countries with a high human development index, and increasing joblessness. The Human Development Report for 1994 emphasizes human security. Social development is not the equivalent of human resource development nor a side issue of economic growth. The integration of ethnic groups poses social and political problems. There remains a question about what political system and culture would be best for social integration. Developed countries define poverty as the inability of people and government to provide resources and necessary services for people's productive activity. Poverty in developing countries is blamed on colonialism. Globally, developed countries control 71% of world trade. Sharing resources to meet basic needs throughout the world is not an operational ideal. The highest 20% of income earners receive 83% of the world income. The culture of poverty is the strategy used by the poor to survive. Welfare is not an end in itself but does enable the poor to improve their conditions. Development that focuses on productive employment is uncertain. Developed and developing countries do not share similar perceptions of human rights. There is a question as to who should set the priorities for social development. Sustainable social development is related to preservation of natural resources, control of population growth, and promotion of social security.

  11. Risk and FDI flows to developing countries

    Jay van Wyk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The explanatory power of institutional and macroeconomic variables for FDI stock accumulation in developing countries is investigated. Hypotheses are tested by means of pooled least squares regressions. The impact of institutional variables on FDI flows produced mixed results: levels of economic freedom facilitate inward FDI; political risk dampens investment. Some macroeconomic variables displayed significant explanatory power: market size (as measured by per capita income in the base year and absolute growth of GDP positively impacts FDI inflows.  Other key macroeconomic variables, such as lower current account balance, appreciation of host country’s currency, and lower inflation rate stimulate FDI inflows.

  12. The need for biosafety regulation in developing countries: Benefits ...

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Key words: Biotechnology, biosafety, developing countries, benefits, risks and controversies. ... biotechnology concerns relate more to human health and ..... animals in laboratory, when they are tested outdoors, and when they ...

  13. Methodology and key determinants of building an efficient national innovation system of a country

    Viktoriia Gurova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a research of theoretical principles for determining national innovation systems, as well as analyzes performance results displayed by national innovation systems of the leading countries in the global innovation space, while also describing characteristic features thereof and formulating recommendations for NIS build-up based on the same, implementation of which should serve as the basis of the national innovation system effective performance. It has been determined that at the current stage of global economy development such factors as science, technology and innovation play an important role in formation of a competitive economy. It has been established that the overall funding level with respect to science proves one of the key characteristics of an innovative country, and therefore NIS performance analysis was carried out based on the national expenditure indicator regarding research and development as well as on the country's position in the Global Innovation Index. The analysis carried out showed that the NISs of certain countries were more efficient than those of the others due to peculiarities of the innovative system elements that can be further referred to as determinants of building an effective national innovation system of a country

  14. Developing Enterprise Architecture Skills: A Developing Country Perspective

    Shaanika , Irja; Iyamu , Tiko

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Key Competencies for Educating ICT Professionals; International audience; Through different approaches, organisations strive to evolve their competitiveness, as well as their addressing their operational and strategic needs. Some organisations employ Enterprise Architecture (EA), to bridge the gap between the business and IT, and to providing strategic goals. However, there exists scarcity of EA Skills in many developing countries. This could be attributed to the uniqueness of the dis...

  15. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  16. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  17. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  18. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    Fred

    countries cheaper and potentially easier to administer. Efficient sewage treatment ... developing countries, start-up funding for biotechnology companies is still very ... Business incubators are unique in stimulating spin-offs from universities and ...

  19. Mongolia, the forgotten developing country

    Staudenherz, Anton

    2003-01-01

    In August 2003 I had an opportunity to visit Mongolia together with 20 other colleagues from different medical specialties (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, pathology, hygiene and infection). This small activity was sponsored by a Non-Governmental Organization, 'FABULA'. Our task was to carry out a two-week education programme for Mongolian colleagues at the University Hospital in Ulaanbaatar. I would like to briefly share my experiences and impressions with the readers of World Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Mongolia is a young democracy. Free parliamentary elections were held for the first time on 29 June, 1990. The new constitution was established on 14 February 1992. It is one of the sparsely populated countries of the world with 2.5 million inhabitants living in an area 18.7 times larger than Austria. With 64.6 years, the life expectancy is considerably lower than that in the industrialised countries, like Austria which has a life expectancy of 79 years. The child (< 5 years) mortality rate of 71/1000 is significantly high in comparison with Austria (5/1000). The expenditure on public health service as compared to the GDP is very low [source: WHO internet homepage: http://www3.who.int]. In spite of these alarming numbers the University hospital of Ulaanbaatar has established a department of nuclear medicine. This is part of the 'imaging diagnostic facility' which consists of four sub-units - x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and endoscopy. Mongolia started its first nuclear medicine facility in the year 1975 through the support received from the International Atomic Energy Agency under a Technical Cooperation Project. Prof. Dr. P. Onkhuudai, who currently is the head of the nuclear medicine department at First State Central Clinic of the National Medical University of Mongolia was the first trained and qualified nuclear medicine physician of Mongolia. Keeping in view the limitations of finance and other logistics, the standard of nuclear medicine

  20. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a

  1. Nuclear data applications in developing countries

    Mehta, M.K.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology currently receive an increasing attention in many developing countries. More than 15 developing countries operate, construct or plan nuclear power reactors, 70 developing countries are using or planning to use nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture, industry, and for other vital purposes. The generation, application and computer processing of nuclear data constitute important elements of the nuclear infrastructure needed for the successful implementation of nuclear science and technology. Developing countries become increasingly aware of this need, and, with the help and cooperation of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, are steadily gaining in experience in this field. The paper illustrates this development in typical examples. (orig.)

  2. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  3. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    MNCs are increasingly investing in developing countries to be part of rapid market growth, to enhance the efficiency of their value chains, and to access abundant resources and talent. The potential gains are high, however so are the risks. Some developing country subsidiaries become top performers...... regardless of location and industry. The findings of the study have important implications for the IB literature, for managers and for policy aimed at promoting FDI in developing countries....

  4. Readiness for banking technologies in developing countries

    Professor in the Department of Marketing Management, University of Johannesburg. ... From the organisation's perspective, it has been suggested ... technological readiness of developing countries' consumers, in an urban environment,.

  5. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  6. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  8. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  9. Implementing care policy in developing countries

    Tattum, L.; Phishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    How do chief executives of Western companies, from their plush offices, keep tabs on what happens at chemical plants in developing countries? Many point out that it is difficult to operate a Responsible Care policy in countries where industry associations have not yet started a coordinated initiative. 'Responsible Care is a program that has primarily a geographic dimension and is organized country by country by the industry associations,' note Kaspar Eigenmann, head of corporate unit safety and environment at Ciba (Basel). Where there is a campaign, the local Ciba company participates, he says. 'It's obvious that the industrialized countries are taking the lead,' adds Eigenmann

  10. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    25 nov. 2009 ... Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries : Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East. Directeur(s):. Khalid Sekkat. Maison(s) d'édition: Springer, CDRI. 25 novembre ...

  11. Health educaton in developing countries.

    Kanaaneh, H A

    1977-01-01

    Health education is of great relevance in developing communities as it is a means of improving the health level which is an integral part of the overall socioeconomic development. It must be undertaken in conjunction with health services which should involve consumer participation at an early stage. Its focus is on changing behavior in respect to healthful living both at the individual and community levels. Health education subjects in developing communities include maternal and child health (MCH), nutrition, family planning and infectious diseases. Every member in the health team must be a health educator. Personal methods, especially when used by indigenous community health workers, are best suited to induce health behavior change in developing communities. Mass media as a rule is less suited for this, although radio can inform large segments of the population.

  12. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  13. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  14. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  15. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Fernandez, A.A.; Kouwer, P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a...

  16. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    Baum, V.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  17. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  18. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    has been widely recognized. Energy and climate policy planning requires in-depth analyses of current trends and structures of energy production systems and related emission flows. Possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions depend critically on economic growth and on the development of energy efficiency in economywide production systems. The ASEAN Leaders have expressed their concern and commitment for ASEAN to play a proactive role in addressing climate change through their declarations to the 2007 Bali and 2009 Copenhagen UN Conferences on Climate Change. They view the protection of the environment and the sustainable use and management of natural resources as essential to the long-term economic growth and social development of countries in the region. The ASEAN Vision 2020 calls for 'a clean and green ASEAN' with fully established mechanisms to ensure the protection of the environment, sustainability of natural resources, and high quality of life of people in the region. ASEAN Leaders have noted that: 'We acknowledged the energy cooperation between ASEAN and Japan in promoting energy efficiency and conservation as well as new and renewable energy, and stressed the need for closer cooperation. The ASEAN Leaders welcomed Japan's efforts to create a low-carbon society. We appreciated Thailand's offer for the use of the Practical Energy Management Training Center in Thailand which was established with funding from Japan to other ASEAN Member States interested in energy conservation in factories.' Thus, low carbon society is key energy policy target of ASEAN countries. Our analysis in this e-book gives analytical background to this strategy. This e-book also indicates that ASEAN countries have very different kind of challenges for low carbon strategy. The e-book provides useful information for ASEAN energy policy formulation and implementation of the Bali Roadmap. This study presents a comparative analysis of the driving forces behind

  19. Prospects of Nuclear Power for Developing Countries

    Mourogov, V. M.; Khan, A. M.; Rogner, H-H.; Kagramanian, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    The demand for electricity in developing countries of the world is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries undergo the process of industrialization, accompanied by increased urbanization, and seek to improve the living standards of their growing population. The continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels will result in an increased dependence of a number of the developing countries on energy imports, with consequentbalance of payment difficulties and implications in terms of reduced energy security, cause severe degradation of the local and regional environment, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Increasing the share of hydropower in most of the developing countries is constrained by the limited potential of hydro resources as well as environmental considerations. Other renewable energy technologies such as solar PV and wind power are not expected to play a significant role in the commercial supply of electricity in the foreseeable future in the most part of the developing world. Thus nuclear power as a non-fossil alternative with a proven and mature technology may be called upon to play an increasing role in the future supply of electricity to developing countries. The paper discusses the main factors that are likely to affect, both positively and negatively, the deployment of nuclear power in developing countries and presents the results of the recent IAEA projections on nuclear power capacity growth up to the 2020. The paper also briefly reviews the prospects of nuclear power in Central and Eastern European countries. (author)

  20. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  1. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  2. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Figueroa, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  3. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Figueroa, M J [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  4. Exploration of the Future – a Key to Sustainable Development

    Vatroslav Zovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history people were fascinated and curious about the future. The future was, and still is seen as a key for prosperous development in all aspects of the society. As such, new discipline is developed – future studies.This paper discusses the discipline of future studies and its role in the society and science. Future studies are analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is argued that future studies and sustainable development are complementary in nature. Based on analysis of most developed countries in the world, that spend the greatest portion of their budget on research, development and science in comparison to the rest of the world, there is a conclusive link between investments in research, development and science, and the recognition of the importance of thinking about the future. Those countries started to formalize their future orientation in many respected research centres and universities through their educational programs and research. That situation poses the need for other, less well off countries, to follow up.

  5. IAEA paper on special needs of developing countries

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to define the conditions and the key issues in those developing countries which have nuclear power programmes or should consider such a programme within the next couple of decades. Key problems are the supply of nuclear materials, fuel and technology. The introduction of a highly sophisticated technology such as nuclear power technology in countries with a rather low level of industrialisation, the need for specially trained personnel, and the provision of the necessary funds entail problems that can only be solved with some assistance from industrialized nations

  6. Health Behaviuor Interventions In Developing Countries

    health promotion interventions specifically focusing on developing countries would ... example from Kenya and Brazil of web-based education on adolescents' ... Master of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Malawi. Reviewed by: ...

  7. Environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries

    Gonfiantini, R.; Stichler, W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on the role, experience, and problems of environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries, based upon the IAEA's experience. It specifically offers guidance on important aspects of organization, staffing, and operation

  8. Problems of scientific research in developing countries

    Vose, P.B.; Cervellini, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper gives a general consideration of the problems encountered in the scientific research by the developing countries. Possible optimizations in the long term as well as short term strategies are pointed out

  9. Improving access to transport in developing countries

    Savill, T

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving access and mobility of people with disabilities is an essential component of the alleviation of poverty in developing countries. Disabled people are among the most socially excluded members of society and poorly designed and inaccessible...

  10. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further ... Based on original research in Africa and South America and using a ... Related content ...

  11. Magnetic fusion research in developing countries

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme. 6 figs, 1 tab

  12. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Alvarez Fernandez, Alexandra; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-05-16

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  13. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  14. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    Abdel Ghani, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  15. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  16. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  17. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  18. Promoting nuclear medicine in developing countries

    Ganatra, R.; Nofal, M.

    1986-01-01

    After a short review of the applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosis and treatment of diseases or in medical research the ways and the means of IAEA's support in helping developing countries to set up nuclear medicine capabilities in their hospitals are described. Some trends and new directions in the field of nuclear medicine and the problems related to the implementation of these techniques in developing countries are presented

  19. Energy Issues and Problems in Developing Countries

    Mehdizadeh, Saeed

    1999-01-01

    In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems

  20. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  1. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  2. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  3. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...... in the context of education. The book is essential reading for researchers, educational planners, policy advisers, students and educators....

  4. Developing countries and the global science Web

    Cerdeira, Hilda; Fonda, Carlo; Cottrell, R L A

    2003-01-01

    Enabling scientists from developing countries to bridge the gap between rich and poor depends on closing another gap - the "digital divide". Now the technology exists to monitor this divide, and it reveals some alarming results. Most developing countries experience great difficulties because of adverse economic conditions and political instability, which means they lag behind in scientific and technological development. With the advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid exchange of information via the Internet, one might naively have thought that much of the gap between developed and developing nations would disappear, even if problems still persisted for those areas of science that need expensive facilities. However, access to information, peer reviewed or not, depends on having the appropriate hardware, i.e. a computer, and Internet connectivity, and there is a serious problem with access to the Internet in developing countries. Gaining access to a computer is more of a question of economics, and one that ...

  5. International: development, the petroleum, security for the least developing countries

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The annual report of the CNUCED presents the economic situation improvement of the developing countries, those which benefit from petroleum resources. The CNUCED worries on the durability of the economic improvement of these countries. (A.L.B.)

  6. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  8. Developing countries are combating climate change. Actions in developing countries that slow growth in carbon emissions

    Reid, Walter V.; Goldemberg, Jose

    1998-01-01

    The role of developing countries in helping to solve the problem of climate change is increasingly a focus of political controversy. With levels of greenhouse gas emissions projected to exceed those of developed countries by 2020, some industrialized countries are calling on developing countries to take stronger action to meet the commitments they have made in the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). This review of recent policy changes in developing countries, however, suggests that they are already taking little appreciated steps that reduce rates of growth in carbon emissions. Indeed, since the 1992 signing of the FCCC, carbon emission savings in developing countries may be greater than those attained by industrialized countries. A major source of these gains can be attributed to energy price reforms that are likely to have led to substantial gains in production and end-use efficiency. (author)

  9. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader literature on development strategy. In particular, it is widely accepted that a common characteristic......In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... of IMF programs is a high degree of policy rigidity. This is in contrast with studies which hold that unleashing an economy's growth potential hinges on a set of well-targeted policy interventions aimed at removing country-specific binding constraints. The process of locating constraints that bind...

  10. Helping transfer technology to developing countries

    Masters, R.

    1978-01-01

    Manpower planning and training are an increasingly important part of the activities of the IAEA which organises a number of courses for engineers and administrators from developing countries. The Agency supports the view of these countries that there should be a real transfer of nuclear technology and not just the import of equipment and services. A Construction and Operation Management course held at Karlsruhe, is reviewed. (author)

  11. Transfer of radiation technology to developing countries

    Markovic, Vitomir; Ridwan, Mohammad

    1993-10-01

    Transfer of technology is a complex process with many facets, options and constraints. While the concept is an important step in bringing industrialization process to agricultural based countries, it is clear, however, that a country will only benefit from a new technology if it addresses a real need, and if it can be absorbed and adapted to suit the existing cultural and technological base. International Atomic Energy Agency, as UN body, has a mandate to promote nuclear applicationsand assist Member States in transfer of technology for peaceful applications. This mandate has been pursued by many different mechanisms developed in the past years: technical assistance, coordinated research programmes, scientific and technical meetings, publications, etc. In all these activities the Agency is the organizer and initiator, but main contributions come from expert services from developed countries and, increasingly, from developing countries themselves. The technical cooperation among developing coutries more and more becomes part of different programmes. In particular, regional cooperation has been demonstrated as an effective instrument for transfer of technology from developed and among developing countries. Some examples of actual programmes are given.

  12. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  13. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  14. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  15. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  16. Surgical audit in the developing countries.

    Bankole, J O; Lawal, O O; Adejuyigbe, O

    2003-01-01

    Audit assures provision of good quality health service at affordable cost. To be complete therefore, surgical practice in the young developing countries, as elsewhere, must incorporate auditing. Peculiarities of the developing countries and insufficient understanding of auditing may be, however, responsible for its been little practised. This article, therefore, reviews the objectives, the commonly evaluated aspects, and the method of audit, and includes a simple model of audit cycle. It is hoped that it will kindle the idea of regular practice of quality assurance by surgeons working in the young developing nations and engender a sustainable interest.

  17. Energy needs, developing countries and ICTP

    Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The energy consumption in the near future will go up at a more rapid rate than before. About four billion people use little energy today (1.6 billion are without electricity). The energy consumption will increase partly because more of them will begin to use more energy and partly because the population will increase (to an estimated 10-12 billion in the steady state). Dependence on fossil fuels cannot continue as now. Supplies are limited, availability will become a greater vagary as sources dry up and greenhouse effects may make them less useful even sooner. Sustainable energy options will have to be a mix of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewable sources and others like hydrogen. Participation of developing countries and dialogue with them are essential. Developing countries cannot follow the same path to progress as industrialized countries did in the past. Greater ingenuity is needed, which calls for greater investment in science. The industrialized countries have a large responsibility because unsustainable development in the developing part of the world will adversely affect every other part. ICTP's involvement in this respect involve dedicated scientific workshops over the years (some in cooperation with IAEA) with considerable participation from Developing Countries and TRIL Fellows. ICTP has a new section on Earth System Physics (consolidating energy issues as well). Since 1977 ICTP organized 21 courses and workshops, which were attended by about 2000 participants

  18. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  19. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  20. Key developments of the EP1000 design

    Noviello, L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European utilities initiated, together with Westinghouse and its industrial partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology for application in Europe. The Phase I of the European Passive Plant program involved the evaluation of the Westinghouse 600 MWe AP600 and 1000 MWe Simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR) designs against the European Utility Requirements (EUR), and when necessary, the investigation of possible modifications to achieve compliance with the EUR. In Phase 1 of the program, which has been completed in 1996, the following major tasks were accomplished: The impacts of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) on the Westinghouse nuclear island design were evaluated. A 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was developed which conforms to the EUR and is expected to be licensable in Europe. With respect to the NSSS and containment, the EP1000 reference design closely follows those of the Westinghouse SPWR design, while the AP600 design has been taken as the basis for the design of the auxiliary systems. Extensive design and testing efforts have been made for the AP600 and SPWR during the respective multi-year programs. While the results of these programs have been and will continue to be utilised, at the maximum extent, to minimise the work to be performed on the EP1000 design, the compliance with EUR is a key design requirement for the EP1000 The ultimate objective of Phase 2 of the program is to develop design details and perform supporting analyses to produce a Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Safety Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, hereafter referred as Phase 2A, started at the beginning of 1997 and will be completed at the end of 1998. Scope of this phase of the program is to develop the design modifications of important systems and structures so to comply with the

  1. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... are dealt with, such as: • Approaches to user involvement and participation in development • Knowledge and its role in development, particularly in higher education • Digital literacy and ways of developing it • Pedagogic approaches • Learning cultures in globalised education • Teacher training...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...

  2. Nuclear desalting potential for developing countries

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power, having proved its success in large units, now poses problems for application in developing countries. Possible solutions for electricity supply, desalting systems and agricultural development are suggested by Joseph R. Wilson, of the Agency's Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors. His article is adapted from a lecture to students in Switzerland. (author)

  3. Status consumption and poverty in developing countries

    van Kempen, L.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the scope, nature and welfare effects of status consumption by the poor in developing countries, a phenomenon that is virtually unexplored in the development economics literature. It addresses questions such as: why do the poor buy status-intensive goods, while they suffer

  4. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  5. Business symbiosis between developing and industrialised countries

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Sygna, Linda

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses problems of soil conservation and use. Research into the possibilities of improving soil quality by carbon storage is surveyed. An integration of soil carbon storage into the green development mechanisms in the Kyoto protocol may prove to be environmentally beneficial and economically profitable to both the developing and the industrialised countries

  6. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  7. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  8. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  9. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing Countries?

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    ) are increasingly establishing subsidiaries in developing countries. The potential gains are high; however, so are the risks. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any international business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has...... examined this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comprehensive literature review of the IB performance literature, it is hypothesized that subsidiary performance essentially is shaped by five clusters of factors: location, industry, MNC capabilities, subsidiary role and entry strategy...

  10. Problems of radiation therapy in developing countries

    Lyimo, R; Neumeister, K

    1988-01-01

    Poverty as well as lack of proper cancer programmes has prevented the early detection of cancer in developing countries. Radiotherapy is applied mostly in advanced cases only. To change the situation comprehensive programmes must be introduced with particular attention to the importance of cancer control. The establishment of cancer societies as well as the introduction of centres for training of radiological personnel will really improve the situation. A realistic method for the optimization of radiotherapy in developing countries should be the use of radiomodification such as hypoxyradiotherapy.

  11. CSR Institutionalized Myths in Developing Countries

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Khara, Navjote

    2017-01-01

    This article examines joint action initiatives among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing industries in developing countries in the context of the ascendancy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the proliferation of a variety of international accountability tools...... place, and how developing country firms can gain credit and traction by focusing on high visibility CSR issues, although the plight of workers remains fundamentally unchanged. The authors revisit these findings in the discussion and concluding sections, highlighting the main research and policy...

  12. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  13. Key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport

    Thaveewatanaseth, K.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cities become more vulnerable to climate change impacts causing by urbanization, economic growth, increasing of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. People who live in the cities have already been affected from the impacts in terms of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Sustainable transport plays the key role in CO2 mitigation and contributes positive impacts on sustainable development for the cities. Several studies in megacities both in developed and developing countries support that mass transit system is an important transportation mode in CO2 mitigation and sustainable transport development. This paper aims to study key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport. The Bangkok Mass Rapid Transit System (MRT) located in Bangkok was the study area. Data collection was using semi-structured in-depth interview protocol with thirty respondents consisting of six groups i.e. governmental agencies, the MRT operators, consulting companies, international organizations, non-profit organizations, and experts. The research findings highlighted the major factors and supplemental elements composing of institution and technical capacity, institutional framework, policy setting and process, and plan of implementation that would support more effective strategic process for low carbon development strategy (LCDS) for sustainable transport. The study would highly recommend on readiness of institution and technical capacities, stakeholder mapping, high-level decision- makers participation, and a clear direction of the governmental policies that are strongly needed in achieving the sustainable transport.

  14. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    Bennett, L.L.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power has been introduced only to a small extent in a few developing countries. A group of senior experts conducted a study of the existing constraints on nuclear power in developing countries, the requirements to be met for successful introduction of a nuclear power programme, and mechanisms to assist developing countries in overcoming the identified constraints. Financing represents one (but not the only) major constraint to nuclear power development in developing countries. The present schemes of export credits and commercial financing are seen as not adequately meeting the needs of nuclear power financing in terms of repayment periods and profiles, or in terms of flexibility to meet delays and cost overruns. Innovative and workable arrangements to share the economic and financial risks would be helpful in obtaining financing for a nuclear power project. All possible efforts should be made by all parties involved in the development of nuclear power to reduce as far as possible the uncertainties surrounding the cost and schedule of a nuclear power project, as an essential step to improve the overall climate for financing the project. Government commitment, soundly based and thorough planning, development of qualified manpower and other key infrastructures, and good project management are important mechanisms to achieve greater predictability in project schedule and cost. Technical assistance provided by the IAEA can be very helpful in building these capabilities in developing countries. (author). 1 tab

  15. Mountain tourism development in Serbia and neighboring countries

    Krunić Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas with their surroundings are important parts of tourism regions with potentials for all-season tourism development and complementary activities. Development possibilities are based on size of high mountain territory, nature protection regimes, infrastructural equipment, provided conditions for leisure and recreation as well as involvement of local population in processes of development and protection. This paper analyses the key aspects of tourism development, winter tourism in high-mountain areas of Serbia and some neighboring countries (Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Common determinants of cohesion between nature protection and mountain tourism development, national development policies, applied models and concepts and importance of trans-border cooperation are indicated.

  16. Practice of nuclear medicine in a developing country

    Hasan, M.M.; Karim, M.A.; Nahar, N.; Haque, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    For more than a half a century nuclear medicine is contributing in the field of medicine. Still nuclear medicine is not widely available in many countries. Especially in developing countries due to many a reasons nuclear medicine could not flourish in that way. Availability of radioisotope, high cost of instrument and sophistication of the branch are the three main reasons behind. Even the countries where nuclear medicine is functioning for quite a long time, the facilities for proper function are still not adequate. Training of manpower, maintenance of instruments, regular supply of isotopes and kit and cost effectiveness are some of the major problems. We have seen some fast developments in nuclear medicine in last few decades. Development of gamma detecting systems with SPECT, positron emission detector (PET), supported computer technology and introduction of some newer radiopharmaceuticals for functional studies are few of the examples. The developing countries also have a problem to go on parallel with these rapid development of nuclear medicine in other part of the world. In last few decades we have also witnessed development of CT, MRI, Ultrasound and other imaging modalities as our competitor. Specially for developing countries these have posed as a major challenge for nuclear medicine. A better understanding between developed and developing nations is the key point of todays ultimate success in any sector. For real development of nuclear medicine and to give the majority of the people the benefit of nuclear medicine a better and more active co-operation is needed between all the countries. The paper presents the difficulties and some practical problems of practicing nuclear medicine in a developing country. And also appeals for global co-operation to solve the problems for better interest of the subject

  17. Waste management advisory missions to developing countries

    Thomas, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) was initiated in 1987 as an interregional technical co-operation project to complement other activities in radioactive waste management. Its creation gave greater recognition to the importance of the safe management of radioactive wastes and promotion of long-term waste management technical assistance strategies for developing countries. Over the past 4 years, international experts have reviewed the radioactive waste management programmes of 29 developing countries. Missions have been conducted within the framework of the IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP). Ten of these countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction or have nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Altogether, 23 have research reactors or centres, eight have uranium or thorium processing programmes or wastes, and nine essentially have only isotope applications involving the use of radiation sources

  18. Developing countries' motivation to use nuclear technology

    Ratsch, U.

    1990-01-01

    Governments of various developing countries see nuclear energy as an important tool for at least three political goals: Firstly, the expected rise in future energy demand, so they argue, can only be met if nuclear electricity production in the Third World is expanded. Fossil sources are supposed to become increasingly scarce and expensive, and they are also seen to be ecologically damaging. Technologies to harness renewable energy sources are not yet mature and still too costly. Secondly, nuclear technology is seen as one of the most advanced technologies. Mastering of it might help to diminish the technological gap between the First and the Third World. Thirdly, scientific progress in developing countries is hoped to be accelerated by operating research reactors in these countries. All of these arguments ought to be taken as serious motivations. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  20. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. On the benefits of nominal appreciations: Contrasting evidence across developed and developing countries

    Magda Kandil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies determinants of flexibility of the nominal effective exchange rate and the effects of exchange rate shocks on macroeconomic variables and key components of the external balances using data for a sample of advanced and developing countries. The composite evidence points to the positive effects of appreciation through cheaper imports in support of higher growth and lower price inflation in advanced and developing countries. However, the negative effects of appreciation are more pervasive on the external balances in developing countries. The implication is developing countries remain highly dependent on exports of commodities. In contrast, advanced countries are more diversified and ahead in capitalizing on currency appreciation to mobilize investment growth, a channel that boosts competitiveness and mitigates the adverse effect of appreciation on external stability. The evidence attests to the need to create an environment that is more conducive to investment growth in developing countries.

  2. Solar passive buildings for developing countries

    Gupta, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is meant to be an indicative survey of developments in solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. The evolution of this area during the last fifty years is reported along with the scientific principles and design concepts underlying these developments. Factors to be considered for design strategies such as direct gain, isolated gain, indirect gain and roof evaporative systems are then described. Rating parameters for assessing the performance and benefit and cost parameters are then outlined. Successful examples illustrating each of the design concepts, mainly from Indian buildings constructed during the last fifteen years, are then detailed along with their performance based on actual monitoring, if available. Concluding remarks indicate the current and future trends. A survey is made of papers marking significant milestones in the development of solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. (author). 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  4. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...

  5. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  6. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...

  7. Housing policies in developing countries: Microfinance

    Smets, P.G.S.M.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; O’Mahony, L.H.; Ong, S.E.; Wachter, S.; Wood, G.

    2012-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need for which financial means are required. Poorer sections of society face difficulties in accessing and coping with conventional mortgage finance and are better assisted with housing microfinance. This enables the poor, especially in 'developing' countries to build their

  8. Empowering women in work in developing countries

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this volume present the outcomes of a major project aimed at empowering girls and young women in 14 developing countries. They discuss the young women’s choices in life, set against the backdrop of family building, health, education, employment opportunities and the use of the

  9. Climate change and developing country interests

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows for...

  10. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2017-01-01

    - and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  11. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  12. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives......, this study highlights key lessons learned from empirical studies of CSR initiatives that aimed to improve environmental management and work conditions and reduce poverty in local industrial districts. Academic work in this area remains embryonic, lacking in empirical evidence about the effects of CSR...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....

  13. Strategy of the Development of the Country: opinions and attitudes of the country people

    Somerauerová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The conception of country-side and village. Demographic development of country-side places. Case study of attitude and positions of village inhabitants outspreaded to the country-side development (opinion poll).

  14. Radiation protection monitoring in tropical, developing countries

    Becker, K.; Drexler, G.

    1979-01-01

    Almost all radiation protection standards, manuals and textbooks have been written in and for industrialized countries in temperate climates, and most research effort and instrument manufacturers are also located there. There has been relatively little interest in the completely different socio-economic and climatic conditions in many developing countries. Some of the important differences in conditions, such as high temperatures and relative humidities, electric-power failures and voltage fluctuations, shortage of trained manpower, etc., are discussed, and suggestions are made how to minimize their impacts. Other important matters that are considered are recruitment and training, optimized organizational structures, and the proper choice of research topics in the radiation protection field. (author)

  15. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    Butera, F.; Farinelli, U.

    1992-01-01

    With the use of critical analyses of some examples of technology transfer by industrialized to third world countries, this paper illustrates the importance, in technology transfer, of giving due consideration to the specific social and marketing contexts of the targeted developing country and its physical and financial capability to acquire all the technology necessary to make the total realization of a desired industrial scheme feasible from the economic, technical and social points of view. It also indicates that the most effective transfers are those in which efforts are made to optimize local work force learning levels, process scheme efficiency and cost through the careful integration of innovative with conventional technologies

  16. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  17. Internationalization of science in developing countries

    Salam, A.

    1980-03-01

    The history of science has gone through cycles among nations. In the period of antiquity the centres of science were in the East; in the middle ages scholars from the underdeveloped West travelled to the centres of study and research of the rich countries in the East to learn from the teachers there. In our century the cycle has turned and it is the East that turns to the West for science. Opportunities for scientists from developing countries are diminishing, however, and it is important that centres like the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, supported by the IAEA, UNESCO and the Government of Italy, be provided with continuing and strong support

  18. Food aid to developing countries: a survey

    Maxwell, S J; Singer, H W

    1979-03-01

    Food air currently constitutes nearly 15% of official development assistance and hence has considerable potential as a stimulant to growth in less-developed countries (LDCs). This paper reviews the evidence on the impact of food aid on growth and its associated factors. While recognizing that the use of food aid is influenced by a constellation of interests in recipient and donor countries, it identifies a set of guiding principles for maximizing the effectiveness of food aid. These include the need for food (relative to other development needs), its level of substitutability with commercial imports, its incorporation in a poverty-oriented development plan, its guaranteed availability and its complementarity with financial aid. Current food air programs recognize the relevance of some of these principles - e.g. the criteria of necessity - but ignore others - notably the need to situate food aid in a comprehensive plan for improving patterns of income distribution in LDCs. 203 notes, 203 references.

  19. Bringing developing countries into the energy equation

    Colombier, M.; Loup, J.; Laponche, Bernard; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie; Chateau, Bertrand; Heller, Thomas C.; Kieken, Hubert; Kleiche, Mustapha; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Goldemberg, Jose; Pizer, William A.

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of articles on energy and climate change is a selection of contributions to the first edition of Regards sur la Terre, an annual reference in French on the international dimension of sustainable development, launched on the initiative of the French development agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the institute for sustainable development and international relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales), and published by Presses de Sciences Po (Paris) in November 2006. Regards sur la terre includes an analysis of the most important international meetings and events of the last 12 months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic report, which focuses this year on energy and climate change. For almost two hundred years, the economic development of industrialized countries has gone hand in hand with growing consumption of fossil fuels, first coal, then oil and gas. The oil shocks of the 1970's had already revealed the fragility of this model, without however generating any major changes. The disconnection observed in the 1980's between a rapid return to economic growth and stagnating energy consumption was only provisional, and energy demand in the richest countries has again been rising since the 1990's; the development of alternative energy sources (nuclear power and renewables) has remained marginal and has failed to dethrone fossil fuels on which, paradoxically, the economies of industrialized countries are even more dependent today than they were 20 years ago. But with the turn of the century came major developments in the global energy landscape following the emergence of new and hitherto marginal actors: the rapid economic development of emerging countries is also dependent on an increasing supply of energy. Today this growing demand adds to tension on the oil and gas market, where the poorest countries are also the first victims. It could give new impetus to the

  20. Electronic medical records: a developing and developed country analysis

    Sikhondze, NC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems in developed and developing countries. There is a direct relationship between the income of the country and the use of electronic information and communication systems as part of healthcare systems hence the division...

  1. Development of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition

    Roze, J.; Guegan, G.; Guerrini, Y.; Marzeau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 10 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress was devoted to the study of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition. This committee comprises three group of studies covering the following topics: natural gas in the less developed countries (environment protection, power production, institutional framework and cooperation), natural gas in countries in economical transition (situation in Eastern Europe, reforms and investments, prices and tariffs, towards the integration to the European Union), natural gas in developing countries (financing and technology transfers, down-side gas development, economical viability, technology transfers, projects financing, recommendations), inter-region development and power production (South America, Asia, role of the worldwide bank). (J.S.)

  2. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  3. Key events in the history of sustainable development

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2005-01-01

    This document is a table which summaries the key events in the history of sustainable development, adapted from International Institute for Sustainable Development's sustainable development timeline. Publisher PDF

  4. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  5. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J

    2012-01-01

    and to provide universal access, especially in disadvantaged communities, in both developing and developed countries. Moreover, even though the most widespread illnesses are avoidable, not all population groups are well informed about or able to take advantage of the proper measures for oral health promotion....... In addition, in many countries, oral health care needs to be fully integrated into national or community health programmes. Improving oral health is a very challenging objective in developing countries, but also in developed countries, especially with the accelerated aging of the population now underway...... intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some...

  6. Experience in developing countries from the vendor's point of view

    Altvater, W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction of nuclear power plants calls for a wide sphere of industrial activities, nuclear as well as conventional. For a specific country the ways and methods of developing an industrial nuclear power program and reaching the target of independence, will widely differ, depending on the size of the country, the economic situation, the already existing industrial manufacturing and engineering capacities, the time schedule of the program and the type of contracting. The supply of nuclear power stations from an industrial country to a developing country is normally combined with an obligation for an effective technology transfer for the strengthening and setting up of a national industry, and the engineering capacities, needed for the construction of nuclear power plants. The German nuclear power industry gained considerable experience in connection with the turn-key supply of the first units in various countries. The prerequisites and national nuclear power programs were different. Based on a successful technological development, including standardization, the German nuclear power industry could meet the demand and different approaches in these countries for nuclear power plants up to the largest size existing today. The specific situation and practices followed will be described for three different cases, namely Argentina, Brazil and Iran. (orig.) [de

  7. Radioactive waste management in developing countries

    Thomas, K.T.; Baehr, W.; Plumb, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The activities of the Agency in waste management have therefore laid emphasis on advising developing Member States on the management of wastes from the uses of radioactive materials. At the present time, developing countries are mostly concerned with the management of nuclear wastes generated from medical centres, research institutes, industrial facilities, mining operations, and research reactors. In certain instances, management of such wastes has lapsed causing serious accidents. Radiation source mismanagement has resulted in fatalities to the public in Mexico (1962), Algeria (1978), Morocco (1984), and Brazil (1987). The objective of these activities is to support the countries to develop the required expertise for self-sufficiency in safe management of radioactive wastes. What follows are details of the Agency mechanisms in place to meet the above objectives

  8. Capacity building for higher education in developing countries

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    "Higher education is the modern world's basic education, but many countries are falling further and further behind". This quote from a recent World Bank publication indicates that the role of the universities as a key driver for societal development is now widely recognized and included...... in the donor policies. However, donor projects are not easy to organize in this area, and the role of the western universities in this area is not easy to identify. The paper presents a case study from Mozambique dealing with a World Bank project in Higher Education. The project was focused on qualitative...... in the donor countries in order to merge the interests of the universities, the Ministry of Science/Education and the national/international donor agencies. It is argued that capacity building for higher education in developing countries should be a generally accepted part of the university strategy portfolio...

  9. Developing countries: small technology with big effects

    McRobie, G.; Carr, M.

    1978-01-01

    As far the poor countries of the world are concerned, during the past twenty years they have had access only to the technologies developed by the rich to suit the rich. It is now beyond question that some of the most daunting problems confronting the majority of the worlds populations stem directly from the kind of technology transferred to them under current aid and development programs. That the technology of the rich is generally inappropriate to meet the needs and resources of the poor countries is becoming more widley recognized both by aid-givers and aid-receivers. Yet it is this technology that continues to be almost exclusively and most powerfully promoted in the developing countries. To meet their needs a new technology must be discovered or devised: one that lies between the sickle and the combine harvester and is small, simple and cheap enough to harmonise withlocal human and material resources and lends itself to widespread reproduction with the minimum of outside help. What we now need most urgently is a new set of technologies, designed, by people who are informed by the need to develop capital-saving technologies capable of being decentralized to the maximum extend. The technology gap is not only wide, but the knowledge an resources required to fill is, although they exist in the industrialized countries, have not been mobilized to provide the right kind of knowledge and to make it available to those who need it. It was to do this that the Intermediate Technology Development Group was set up ten years ago. (orig.) 891 HP 892 EKI [de

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy For Developing Countries

    Kim, Chang Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects

  11. Head and Neck Cancers in Developing Countries

    Poonam Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers in developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. Head and neck cancers are more common in males compared to females. This is mainly attributed to tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, etc. Oral cancers are most common amongst all head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC. HNSCC in the developing world differ from those in the Western world in terms of age, site of disease, etiology, and molecular biology. Poverty, illiteracy, advanced stage at presentation, lack of access to health care, and poor treatment infrastructure pose a major challenge in management of these cancers. The annual GDP (gross domestic product spent on health care is very low in developing countries compared to the developed countries. Cancer treatment leads to a significant financial burden on the cancer patients and their families. Several health programs have been implemented to curb this rising burden of disease. The main aims of these health programs are to increase awareness among people regarding tobacco and to improve access to health care facilities, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care.

  12. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  13. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  14. Reprocessing considerations for a developing country

    This paper describes some of the alternatives for dealing with spent fuel that face a developing country. It then discusses the considerations that affect decisions on the size and siting of reprocessing plants, and shows how small plants may be suitable in countries without the means to transport spent fuel easily. The paper also outlines the reasons for reprocessing in India, and describes the development of India's reprocessing capability. It shows how the economic conditions in India, such as low skilled labour costs, make reprocessing plants of 100 to 200 tonnes U/yr capacity economic, and includes a table giving technical data on a 100 t U/yr national plant for inclusion in the reference cases used by INFCE Working Group 4

  15. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  16. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the produ....... The barriers and challenges of implementation are considered, and a socio-technical systems approach is proposed as a way to addapt to local conditions....

  17. The Demand for Calories in Developing Countries

    Odin K. Knudsen; Pasquale L. Scandizzo

    1982-01-01

    This paper employs characteristic demand theory to estimate demand functions for calories for a set of developing countries and to investigate the potential impact of income growth, redistribution, and price changes on alleviating underconsumption of calories. The analysis finds that, although calorie elasticities with respect to income are substantial for the poorer consumers, income growth above historical rates is required for the food needs of the entire population to be satisfied within ...

  18. Globalisation and the developing countries (in Dutch)

    Miquel Dijkman

    2003-01-01

    Globalisation is a highly controversial topic. Despite its potential for accelerating growth and reducing poverty (to which most policy makers and economist would agree) objections are often expressed about the position of developing countries, and a number of damaging side-effects of the current globalisation wave. In the present analysis, a number of questions raised by the antiglobalist movement is assessed on its economic merits. On the basis of empirical analyses, it is assessed whether:...

  19. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries | IDRC ...

    Couverture du livre Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries. Editor(s):. José M. ... Ils se penchent sur les enjeux clés internationaux comme les preuves de l'impact de la variabilité du taux de change sur le commerce, les tendances des prêts bancaires, ainsi que l'ouverture du commerce et le développement.

  20. Capital goods for energy development: power equipment for developing countries

    Parikh, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Questions of energy policy in developing countries are considered, with the goal of 'evolution from exports to indigenization' i.e. independence. Levels of technologies are considered in relation to the resources of each country. Nuclear power is considered among other energy sources. (G.Q.)

  1. Capacity Development for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

    Senbil, Metin; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2008-01-01

    To make urban transport sustainable, effective and efficient, first and foremost, there is a need for capacity development-capacity is defined as the ability to deal with problems in efficient and effective ways-in developing countries. Apart from many important capacity related problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure, older vehicle population, etc., policy makers in developing countries have to consider changing individual behavior to realize sustainable urban transportation policie...

  2. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  3. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  4. Renewable energy education in developing countries

    Bara, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The global call for more and more penetration of renewable energy sources in the energy mix for several countries driven by various different motives including the desire for attaining sustainable development through the use of these renewable sources, for decreasing pollution, trying to decrease dependency on imported fuels or to exploit the locally available renewable resources, this call has not been satisfactorily responded to, partially, it is believed here, due to the lack of awareness and adequate manpower qualifications in these sources at the different levels of decision making. Energy education in many countries is still not so dynamic to coup with the ever changing circumstances and developments related to the demand, supply, technologies, economics policies as well as environmental aspects this is more noticed in the world developing countries, with other related obstacles facing the desired and needed wider application of renewable energy sources. The paper will try to handle this situation, analyzing its components, citing some examples of good fruitful practice in this connection, and drawing some recommendations that may help in improving the same

  5. Industrial development in Indonesia - key data

    Gocht, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the case of Indonesia 3 goals in particular were linked to the industrial process: to improve the balance of payments, to reduce unemployment and to develop remote regions. Thus, development plans and official development policy have not adopted merely one strategic approach to industrialization, but have combined several: export diversification, promition of labour-intensive, small-scale and large-scale enterprises, and industrial production linked to basic needs. In 1991 the KfW gave financial support to the following projects: transformer plant and Suralaya, railway investment programme, electricity transmission system Krian-Paiton, supply of 3 ferries, staff development fund III. (BWI) [de

  6. Status of radiation applications in developing countries

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the following applications: radiotherapy; sterilization of medical products and biological tissues; inactivation of virus; food preservation; insect control and eradication; improvement in field crops; treatment of waste waters and sewage sludge. In industry, irradiation technology has contributed to the manufacturing industries for new product developments in the plastics, textiles, wood, rubber, petroleum, concrete and chemical industries. Irradiation technology offers a fascinating outlet for developing countries for improving their condition of medical care, upgrading of their natural materials, stimulating their industrial development, decreasing their food losses and increasing their crop production. These lines would certainly contribute to their national economy and would result in an enhanced rate of development. However, transfer of radiation technology to developing countries should be undertaken in view of the actual national and regional needs and supported by an overall well studied national and regional planning for trained manpower development. The choice of a radiation source for a potential application should be based on the demand of the process, compromise between desirability and cost and quantitative data on installation, operation and maintenance conditions, and costs. The program developed and implemented by Egypt is herein presented. Facilities, organization, personnel, current and past activities, and future plans are described. (author)

  7. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper invest...

  8. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  9. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  10. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  11. Research in Medicine: Essentials for Developing Countries

    Yusuf YAKUPOGULLARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available (ExtractThe well-being has been the highest topic for humanity throughout the adventure of mankind on the earth. Therefore, extensive efforts have been performed on the science of medicine, and glorious advances have been gained especially in the last two centuries. Research is essential for medicine to develop new therapeutic methods and to monitor the results of the current treatment given to the patient. These are possibly the simplest reasons for investigations in medicine. On the other hand, qualified human resource, research ethics, financial supports, regular data recording and analysis, and publication are important issues for improvement of the medical researches in the developing countries.... 

  12. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents.

  13. Acceptance of nuclear energy in developed countries

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    This paper focuses on the presence of problems, governmental efforts and the state of each people's awareness in accepting nuclear energy especially in developed countries and reviews the past circumstances and recent activities. Significant differences among countries in the popularity of nuclear power depend largely on the environment of the particular country such as energy circumstances and also on the execution of the energy policy. Also it is pointed out that the difference comes from the consciousness of the execution of the people in such a policy they establish and decide whether they accept or not. The analysis, that the French people traditionally believe they cannot control risks and give high degree of trust to their government and specialists, whereas Americans conversely intervene in administration to control risks by themselves and try to change specialist's Judgment, explains one side of polarization in popularity of nuclear energy in the world. Japanese have tended to not to believe the administration probably due to recent continuous scandals of officials and motivation to require disclosure of information and to dispute, which lays on the background of retard of nuclear energy. For resolving the global issues such as warming, it is becoming more important that at least specialists of nuclear technology recover the loosing trust owing to the accidents and scandals through steady activities, show the whole view of trust worthy development plan of nuclear energy and regain the confidence by the people. (author)

  14. Human resource development – A key factor for the sustainable development of Albania

    Perlat Lame

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.

  15. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  16. Obesity among schoolchildren in developing countries.

    Galal, Osman M; Hulett, Judie

    2005-06-01

    The threat of worldwide obesity in children is a reality and has become pandemic. Previously a concern of only developed countries, rapid, escalating rates of overweight children now dominate the public health concerns of middle-and low-income nations as well. There are, of course, many influences that have literally shaped the global population, but there is also a recent observable pattern that is shared by those developing countries with increasingly obese children: a grand structural shift in diet and activity levels on every continent and in every region has occurred in the last quarter century, accompanied by rising rates of obesity. Two central public health concerns drive the need for effective interventions: the immediate health of children and the imminently crushing blow that is coming to health care systems and developing economies due to high rates of chronic disease. In developed nations, the role of gatekeeper has shifted to childcare providers, media, and schools, but in the developing world the traditional role of the mother as home manager has remained intact. Accepting the mother as the primary care provider within the child's nuclear environment places the mother as the guardian of the family's resources, which may be a viable alternative to the types of health-promotion efforts found in past ineffective models.

  17. Key technological challenges for JSFR development

    Morishita, Masaki; Nakai, Ryodai; Aoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    JSFR is a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor on which a conceptual design study is now underway in the framework of 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT project)' of Japan. Achieving economic competitiveness with future light water reactors, along with assuring high level of safety and reliability, is among the most crucial development targets. A number of innovative technologies are pursued for these purposes. A two loop primary heat transfer system (PHTS) design, integration of a main circulation pump and an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) into one single component, and adoption of high chrome ferritic steel as a structural material are typical technologies mainly for economic purposes. A passive shutdown system, decay heat removal by natural convection, and re-criticality free core configuration are those for mainly safety enhancement purposes. Technically challenging issues inevitably accompany these innovative technologies, and a systematic research and development program is undertaken for resolving these issues and realization of the plant design. An overall picture will be given in this paper on the design concept of JSFR that will be followed by descriptions on the major innovative technologies and their relevant research and development activities. (author)

  18. Mediator: A key regulator of plant development.

    Buendía-Monreal, Manuel; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2016-11-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that regulates transcription at the level of RNA pol II assembly, as well as through regulation of chromatin architecture, RNA processing and recruitment of epigenetic marks. Though its modular structure is conserved in eukaryotes, its subunit composition has diverged during evolution and varies in response to environmental and tissue-specific inputs, suggesting different functions for each subunit and/or Mediator conformation. In animals, Mediator has been implicated in the control of differentiation and morphogenesis through modulation of numerous signaling pathways. In plants, studies have revealed roles for Mediator in regulation of cell division, cell fate and organogenesis, as well as developmental timing and hormone responses. We begin this review with an overview of biochemical mechanisms of yeast and animal Mediator that are likely to be conserved in all eukaryotes, as well as a brief discussion of the role of Mediator in animal development. We then present a comprehensive review of studies of the role of Mediator in plant development. Finally, we point to important questions for future research on the role of Mediator as a master coordinator of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediatric clinical drug trials in low-income countries: key ethical issues.

    MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D

    2015-02-01

    Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which

  20. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries.

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70-80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering.

  1. Sustainable energy issues in developing countries

    Munasinghe, M [Environmental Policy Division, The World Bank, Washington D.C. (US)

    1991-07-01

    Increased energy use is a vital pre-requisite for economic development, and less developing countries (LDCs) are struggeling to meet energy needs at acceptable costs. LDC decision-makers share the worldwide environmental concerns, but also face other urgent issues like poverty. The industrialised countries can afford to substitute environmental protection for further material growth, but the LDCs will need concessional funding to participate in addressing global environmental problems. Global financing issues may be analysed and resolved through tradeoffs among several criteria including affordability/additionality, fairness/equity, and economic efficiency. The short-term LDC response to sustainable energy issues will be limited mainly to conventional technologies in efficiency improvements, conservation and resource development. The industrialised nations should provide financial resources to LDCs and develop the technology to be used in the 21st century. Pilot international funds like the Global Environmental Facility and the Ozone Fund will help LDCs participate in the effort to solve global environmental issues. (author) 16 refs.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for human health in developing countries

    Piyasena, R.D.; Airey, P.L.; Ganatra, R.D.; Nofal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since first introduced in the early 1960s, radioimmunoassay (RIA) has gained wide acceptance as an analytical method adopted by an increasing number of developing countries as an appropriate technology that can be managed within the capabilities of local infrastructures. An informed estimate would be that there are, at present, more than 500 hospitals, university, or other laboratories in the developing world engaged in RIA on some scale. In the developing world, RIA is used primarily for patient management, but research activity is also increasing as expertise and resources improve. The majority of patient samples processed are in relation to thyroid disorders. However, the technique also is used widely in the investigation of other endocrine conditions and public health problems. Some developing countries have gained the capability to perform radioisotopic microassays in areas of clinical and research importance such as steroid receptor quantification in breast tissue; diagnosis of bacterial and parasitic disorders; investigation of infertility and sterility; narcotic drug abuse; and organ transplantation. 1 fig

  3. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries.

    Chopra, Prem

    2009-02-20

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity.

  4. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    Chopra Prem

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity.

  5. Women's development key to MCH/FP.

    1991-05-01

    The Sri Lankan government has included women in its development process thereby raising literacy levels to 91% for urban women and 87% for rural women. Their successful participation has in turn resulted in improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) acceptance. Indeed MCH/FP promotion could not have occurred without their participation in development. Since the 1960s, the Health and Women's Affairs Ministry continues to provide broad support for grass roots health care, such as strengthening the capacity of local clinics to increase coverage of health monitoring for women and children. There fore infant mortality in Sri Lanka has decreased from 47.5 in 1970 to 34 in 1980 to 19 in 1989. In addition, the total fertility rate fell from 5 in 1962-1964 to 3.4 in 1980-1982 to 2.8 in 1982-1987. The Ministry initiated its Integrated FP, Nutrition, and Parasite Control Project (IP) in 8 pilot areas in 1981. IP continues to encourage women's developed and MCH/FP at the grass roots level. In fact, FP acceptance rates increased from 31.8% in 1980 to 59% in 1989 in Nakulugamuwa and from 2.3% in 1980 to 70.5% in 1989 in Galnewa. The MCH component operating from community level clinics includes growth monitoring and immunization. Project activities include construction of latrines and wells, promotion of regular health examinations for mothers and children, FP education, counseling, nutrition promotion for children, and training programs for health staff, community volunteers, mothers' groups, and teachers. The volunteers form a link between the community and government health workers. Mothers' groups participate in school nutrition programs, home gardening, and income generation. Parasite control is consequently accomplished by community health and environmental sanitation promotion.

  6. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  7. Overcoming the barriers. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in developing countries

    Mitchell, T.; Tanner, T.; Wilkinson, E.; Roach, R.; Boyd, S.

    2006-10-01

    Climate change is a huge threat to all aspects of human development and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for poverty reduction. Until recently, donor agencies, national and local layers of government, and non-governmental organisations have paid little attention to the risks and uncertainties associated with climate change. Now, however, players at all levels are increasingly engaging with the question of how to tackle the impacts of climate change on development in poorer nations. There are growing efforts to reduce negative impacts and seize opportunities by integrating climate change adaptation into development planning, programmes and budgeting, a process known as mainstreaming. Such a co-ordinated, integrated approach to adaptation is imperative in order to deal with the scale and urgency of dealing with climate change impacts. In developed countries progress on mainstreaming climate adaptation has been limited. Many countries have carried out climate change projections and impact assessments, but few have started consultation processes to look at adaptation options and identify policy responses. In developing countries, the mainstreaming process is also in its early stages. Small island developing states have made good progress, with Caribbean countries among the first to start work on adaptation. The Pacific islands have received considerable support and through the World Bank a number of initiatives have begun. Crucially, there has been little progress in mainstreaming adaptation within existing poverty alleviation policy frameworks. There is a lack of research on the extent to which climate change, and environmental issues more broadly, have been integrated within PRSPs. This is critical. Examples of efforts from Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan, Mexico and Kenya are presented, highlighting a number of key issues relating to current experiences of integrating climate change into poverty reduction efforts. Experiences so far

  8. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  9. Promoting electricity conservation in developing countries

    Geller, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    Electricity conservation helps meet national goals and does not imply reducing economic growth or lowering standards of living. Improving efficiency raises economic productivity. Cutting back on the construction of costly new power plants reduces public debt and the need to increase tariffs. Also, more customers can be added to the power grid if there is a transition to more efficient equipment among all customers. And if developing countries do not produce and use energy-efficient equipment, they could be burdened with outdated products and factories. 35 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  11. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    Kalu, A.; Ventre, G.

    1995-08-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  12. Reactor physics needs in developing countries

    Solanilla, R.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper the identification of needs on Reactor Physics in developing countries embarked in the installation and later on in the operation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. In this context the main task of Reactor Physics should be focused in the application of Physical models with inclusion of thermohydraulic process to solve the various realistic problems which appear to ensure a safe, economical and reliable core design and reactor operation. The first part of the paper deals with the scope of Reactor Physics and its interrelation with other disciplines as seen from the view point of developing countries possibilities. Needs requiring a quick response, i.e., those demands coming during the development of a specific Nuclear Power Plant Project, are summarized in the second part of the lecture. Plant startup has been chosen as reference to separate two categories of requirements: Requirements prior to startup phase include reactor core verification, licensing aspects review and study of fuel utilization alternatives; whereas the period during and after startup mainly embraces codes checkup and normalization, core follow-up and long term prediction

  13. Health and development in BRICS countries

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the century, the acronym BRIC first appeared in a study produced by an economist at Goldman Sachs. Economic and financial interest in BRICS resulted from the fact of them being seen as drivers of development. The purpose of this review is to analyze the extent to which what is being proposed at the Declarations of Heads of State and in the Declaration and Communiqué of Ministers of Health of BRICS can provide guidance to the potential of achieving a healthier world. With that in mind, the methodology of analysis of Statements and Communiqué rose from the discussions at the Summit of Heads of State and Ministers of Health was adopted. In the first instance, the study focused on the potential for economic, social and environmental development, and in the second, on the future of health within the group addressed. The conclusion reached was that despite the prospect of continued economic growth of BRICS countries, coupled with plausible proposals for the health sector, strong investment by the countries in S&T and technology transfer within the group, research on the social and economic determinants that drive the occurrence of NCDs – there is the need and the opportunity for joint action of the BRICS in terms of the “diplomacy of health” reinforcing the whole process of sustainable development.

  14. HIV among women in developing countries.

    Decarlo, P

    1999-01-01

    In South Africa, a pregnant woman infected with HIV took zidovudine to protect her fetus, but the child later developed HIV because the woman was not told about breast milk transmission. Women in developing countries have been hit hard by the AIDS epidemic because social inequalities that make it impossible for them to negotiate for safer sex or even to choose their sexual partners. In most developing countries, the only treatment women have access to is the zidovudine that is available only during their participation in clinical trials on prenatal transmission. Activists have expressed concern over programs that attempt to save the lives of babies with no regard for their mothers or other women. Women with HIV need access to health care, to information, and to counselors who can help them make choices. Women must be able to assess whether to risk breast feeding or attempt costly bottle feeding, which may lead to higher levels of infant mortality from bacteria in contaminated water. Women must also be educated so that they can protect their sexual health. In some settings, the topics of sex and sexuality still must be introduced into public discourse. Strong prevention programs are reducing HIV-infection rates among young women in parts of Tanzania, among pregnant women and prostitutes in Dakar, among prostitutes in Thailand and Nepal, and among street children in Brazil. Effective programs must consider AIDS a social issue and address education, equality, and information access.

  15. Future energy options for developing countries

    Zaric, Z P

    1982-05-01

    An educated guess is made of the energy demand in developing countries well into the next century in order to estimate the possible role of new and renewable sources in meeting this demand. The world is roughly divided into industrialized (IND) and developing (LDC) countries. A plot of energy demand in both parts shows a possible structure of mixed energy to meet LDC demand, but there is a gap between demand and supply from conventional sources in LDCs that has to be met by new and renewable sources. When the demand for specific energy forms is projected, as much as two thirds of the final energy needed from new sources should be based on centralized-electricity and liquid-fuels technologies. Solar and geothermal energy must compete with nuclear and thermonuclear breeders, while solar prospects for chemical fuel supply in LDCs lacking adequate coal reserves seems promising. There is a large gap in research and development (R and D) spending on new energy between the two parts, which means that LDCs will have inappropriate technology at a high price. An increase in R and D spending on a regional basis should target funds to appropriate options. 6 references, 7 figures.

  16. Technical Co-operation between developing countries

    2001-01-01

    In the plan of activities of the project Int/0/060 Technical Cooperation Between Developing Countries a Workshop on Public Awareness Promotional Literature was included with the purpose of preparing public and professional awareness literature and to develop a strategy which would enable Tissue Banks to present their mission to their public,professional health workers and clinical users.To identify the information to be provided to potential donors about the value of the donation.To prepare instructions to be given to potential users about the various types of grafts available.To develop a strategy wi ch would enable Tissue Banks to present themselves to their public and tissue users

  17. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    % growth in the same period, with two consecutive years of decline between 2012 and 2014. This steady upward trend of publication output from developing countries shows that researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the values of evidence-based research, without which would limit funding opportunities and restrict international collaborations, as well as partnerships.Advances in Modern Oncology Research is an Open Access journal aimed at increasing the accessibility of peer-reviewed information among researchers worldwide. The journal emphasizes on equal opportunity in scientific publishing, and is committed towards bridging the existing knowledge gap in cancer research between developed and developing countries. AMOR is keen to highlight the current challenges and opportunities of cancer research in developing countries, and the creation of a special issue dedicated to this subject is especially relevant and urgent to the broad community of cancer researchers because:(i It provides a much-needed platform to clinicians and researchers from developing countries to share important region-specific data, statistics, observations, and findings with the international community. This will not only improve the visibility of researchers from developing countries, but also enrich existing medical literature with updated information on the progress of cancer research in the developing world.(ii It gives clinicians, researchers, and policy makers from developed nations the opportunity to assess the existing and projected capability of developing countries in coping with the disease burden of cancer. Moreover, it is expected to equip stakeholders with key data and information to better manage vital resources, i.e. the allocation of funding and creation of knowledge transfer programs, moving forward.It takes collective efforts to address the escalating threat of cancer mortality and morbidity in the developing world. In order to introduce effective long-term solutions, it is

  18. The Key Driving Forces for Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries

    Shufang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is little consideration about how these influencing factors act on geo-economic relationships. Therefore, this paper explores the key driving forces for geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries by use of the structural equation modeling based on Partial Lease Squares. There are three main findings: (1 Economic factors have the greatest impact on geo-economic relationships and the total path effect is 0.778. Geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture act on geo-economic relationships directly and indirectly. Their total path effects are 0.731, 0.645 and 0.513, respectively. (2 Indirect effects of geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture impacting geo-economic relationships are far greater than direct effects. Geo-culture, in particular, has a vital mediating effect on geo-economic relationships. (3 Economic drivers promote geo-economic relationships through market, industrial policy, technical, network and benefit-sharing mechanisms. Political drivers improve geo-economic relationships through cooperation, negotiation, coordination and institutional mechanisms. Cultural drivers enhance geo-economic relationships through transmission mechanism. Location drivers facilitate geo-economic relationships through selection mechanism. We provide new insights on the geo-economic relationships through quantitative analysis and enrich the existing literature by revealing the key driving forces and mechanisms for geo-economic relationships.

  19. An Empirical Investigation of Telecommunications Investment and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sources of economic development is of obvious importance, and numerous attempts have been made to judge the impact of many different factors on economic development. Since some empirical studies have reported that telecommunications investment is one of the important factors in economic development, this paper empirically investigates the impact of telecommunications investment on economic development using a cross-country analysis based on data from 56 developing countries for the years 1970-98. To this end, a further augmented version of the neoclassical Solow growth model is suggested and applied. Subject to the appropriate caveats, the results provide further support for several key conclusions of the former studies - investment in physical capital, population growth, and human capital seem to be quite important in accounting for economic development in developing countries. In addition, more importantly, it is concluded that telecommunications investment significantly contributes to economic development in the developing world.

  20. Technological transfer. 1. Appropriateness for developing countries

    Berrie, T W

    1978-12-01

    Capital-intensive projects dominate the technology transferred to developing countries in spite of the need to serve a pool of unskilled labor and small capital reserves. Recent doubts about the appropriateness of large industrialization projects have questioned the social and economic benefits of this approach and led to an emphasis on innovative planning for the benefit of the urban and rural poor. This shift assumed that direct attacks on the roots of poverty will be more effective than the trickle-down approach, but development planners now see that technologies can be planned that are not limited to single groups. Official policies, often working against the adoption of appropriate technologies, must consider local needs and local resources. Farm equipment, for example, must minimize the need for skilled labor and maintenance. Planners for appropriate urban technology should emphasize local capability, but should also risk occasional failure in the effort to improve the efficiency of labor.

  1. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...... specifically, we question the fruitfulness of focusing on not being installed base hostile and suggest focusing on how to be installed base “friendly” by underscoring how the installed base can also be draw upon and shaped by human agents. The paper conceptualizes health information infrastructure (HII......) building as an intertwined process of the evolution of the installed base and the construction activities of human agents. Overall, we argue that it is not only the adverse situation that determines how things develop, but HII builders need to navigate and take into account a wide range of issues related...

  2. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.

  3. Green technology innovation in a developing country

    Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Dolphen, Rujira; Dhurakit, Prapai; Siswanto, Dian; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-11-01

    Developing countries rapidly grow when green technology, which is referred to as eco-friendly processes or methods, is developed in parallel. Here, some examples of green technology research and development in Thailand will be overviewed. A huge amount of agricultural waste is generated during agricultural processes. Applying these agricultural wastes in order to maximize the benefits for environmental cleanups of water, soil and air has been studied and commercialized. For example: 1) Application of agricultural waste and/or biochar developed from agricultural waste as biological adsorbents for wastewater treatment in some industries, such as textile/dye industries, and printing industries. In addition, this agricultural waste can also be applied in decolorization of sugar syrup from sugar industries; 2) The research on modified biomaterials as adsorbents and packing materials in biofilters would also be presented, and now, pilot scale biofilters have been developed and applied to solve air pollution problems in the field for future commercialization; 3) Some agricultural waste and/or biochar developed from agricultural waste in our laboratory can promote rice growth and improve rice quality via the reduction of Cd uptake and translocation in rice. Phytoremediation technology, in which plants are used to improve the environmental quality in water and air, has also been studied and would be presented. 1) Some species of native Thai plants can effectively remove heavy metals and dye from wastewater. For this research, a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment was developed and applied in a real contaminated site. 2) In air phytoremediation, some plant species harbor highly volatile organic compound (VOC) removal efficiency. In addition, plants do not only absorb organic pollutants, but also they have the innate ability to degrade organic compounds and use them as carbon sources for their growth. In addition, plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria inoculation

  4. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  5. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  6. Education and Rural Development with Reference to Developing Countries.

    Coverdale, G.M.

    Seeking full use of the educational resources available to developing countries in the areas of rural education and agricultural training, this paper is concerned with ways in which the efforts of organizations and institutions concerned with rural development might be improved and expanded. A generalized critical analysis of different facets of…

  7. Prevention of nosocomial infections in developing countries, a systematic review.

    Murni, Indah; Duke, Trevor; Triasih, Rina; Kinney, Sharon; Daley, Andrew J; Soenarto, Yati

    2013-05-01

    Prevention of nosocomial infection is key to providing good quality, safe healthcare. Infection control programmes (hand-hygiene campaigns and antibiotic stewardship) are effective in reducing nosocomial infections in developed countries. However, the effectiveness of these programmes in developing countries is uncertain. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing nosocomial infections in developing countries. A systematic search for studies which evaluated interventions to prevent nosocomial infection in both adults and children in developing countries was undertaken using PubMed. Only intervention trials with a randomized controlled, quasi-experimental or sequential design were included. Where there was adequate homogeneity, a meta-analysis of specific interventions was performed using the Mantel-Haenzel fixed effects method to estimate the pooled risk difference. Thirty-four studies were found. Most studies were from South America and Asia. Most were before-and-after intervention studies from tertiary urban hospitals. Hand-hygiene campaigns that were a major component of multifaceted interventions (18 studies) showed the strongest effectiveness for reducing nosocomial infection rates (median effect 49%, effect range 12.7-100%). Hand-hygiene campaigns alone and studies of antibiotic stewardship to improve rational antibiotic use reduced nosocomial infection rates in three studies [risk difference (RD) of -0.09 (95%CI -0.12 to -0.07) and RD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.02 to -0.01), respectively]. Multifaceted interventions including hand-hygiene campaigns, antibiotic stewardship and other elementary infection control practices are effective in developing countries. The modest effect size of hand-hygiene campaigns alone and negligible effect size of antibiotic stewardship reflect the limited number of studies with sufficient homogeneity to conduct meta-analyses.

  8. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  9. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat, the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, World Food Programme (WFP and selected measures used by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU for the construction of the Global Food Security Index. It has been showed that to the greatest extent the problem of maintaining food security occur in developing countries which are characterised by low per capita income, while in developed countries the scale of hunger is marginal and it afflicts less than 1% of the population. On a regional scale the daily dietary energy supply is greater than the minimum dietary energy requirement in all regions of the world, but the extent to which the dietary needs are satisfied increases along with the increase in national income. In order to reduce the problem of hunger it is necessary to solve the problem of asymmetrical distribution of global income, e.g. by taking actions to accelerate the economic growth in less developed regions and increase the purchasing power of the population.

  10. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    1966-01-01

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    1966-05-01

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries

    Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. PMID:25964453

  13. Stakeholder Visions for Biodiversity Conservation in Developing Countries

    Ademola A. Adenle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Conference of the Parties (COP 12 for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was another step on the road to achieving the Aichi Targets the CBD agreed in 2010. It was also a key step on the way to making progress towards the vision of a more balanced relationship between people and the rest of biodiversity by 2050. Many key issues were left for this COP by negotiators from COP 11 and earlier meetings; such as settling financial issues, articulating clearly the Aichi Targets for national implementation by 2020, or providing clear guidance on capacity-building for developing states. This paper utilizes 22 stakeholder interviews taken at the 2012 Hyderabad COP to develop discussion of ongoing issues in the CBD negotiations. These interviews yielded a number of tractable policy opportunities available for the 2014 Conference to create significant space for developing countries to contribute effectively to global achievement of the Aichi Targets. Breakthroughs and developments at the COP, despite the inevitability of some difficult discussions, will be provided by developing country perspectives. Despite that potential traction, Ministers at the high-level segment noted that progress towards the Aichi targets is insufficient and recognizing there was still much to do on resource mobilization, reaffirmed their commitment to mobilize financial resources from all sources for the effective implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020. As we enter the second half of the 2011–2020 decade, developing countries must be placed at the center of efforts to improve sustainable use, conservation and benefit sharing of biodiversity around the world.

  14. Energy statistics: A manual for developing countries

    1991-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made by developing countries during the last 20 years in the collection and compilation of energy statistics. the present Manual is a guide, which it is hoped will be used in countries whose system of statistics is less advanced to identify the main areas that should be developed and how this might be achieved. The generally accepted aim is for countries to be able to compile statistics annually on the main characteristics shown for each fuel, and for energy in total. These characteristics are mainly concerned with production, supply and consumption, but others relating to the size and capabilities of the different energy industries may also be of considerable importance. The initial task of collecting data from the energy industries (mines, oil producers, refineries and distributors, electrical power stations, etc.) may well fall to a number of organizations. ''Energy'' from a statistical point of view is the sum of the component fuels, and good energy statistics are therefore dependent on good fuel statistics. For this reason a considerable part of this Manual is devoted to the production of regular, comprehensive and reliable statistics relating to individual fuels. Chapters V to IX of this Manual are concerned with identifying the flows of energy, from production to final consumption, for each individual fuel, and how data on these flows might be expected to be obtained. The very different problems concerned with the collection of data on the flows for biomass fuels are covered in chapter X. The data needed to complete the picture of the national scene for each individual fuel, more concerned with describing the size, capabilities and efficiency of the industries related to that fuel, are discussed in chapter XI. Annex I sets out the relationships between the classifications of the various types of fuels. The compilation of energy balances from the data obtained for individual fuels is covered in chapter XIII. Finally, chapter

  15. Rural energy and poverty in developing countries

    Fall, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The study from which this article is drawn was carried out under the auspices of the World Energy Council, in collaboration with the FAO, and under the supervision of a steering committee made up of experts in which the author played an active role. The article begins with an in-depth analysis of the energy crisis in rural areas of developing countries and their economic implications, which contribute to increasing poverty among rural populations. It then assesses the limits and problems related to intervention and the solutions attempted in the past, with the aim of drawing lessons from the various experiments undertaken. From these, we see an edifying and worrying factor emerging as despite a great deal of well-intentioned effort, rural energy poverty still remains at an unacceptable level today in the so-called modern world of the third millennium. Indeed 2 billion people (accounting for a third of the world population and almost all living in developing countries) do not have access to modern forms of energy and still depend on firewood, leftovers from the harvest and animal waste in order to meet their energy needs. It therefore appears necessary and urgent if we intend to take up the challenge of meeting energy requirements in rural areas, to fundamentally change the attitudes and mentalities of decision-makers at a political and other levels (planners, consultants, donors etc). It also means changing direction in research to find solutions. The author then presents a range of 'solutions' advices and recommendations aimed at ensuring that future energy provision in rural areas is more stable and sustainable, enabling rural populations to live the decent life that they should be entitled to expect today. (author)

  16. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  17. Agricultural support measures of advanced countries and food insecurity in developing countries

    Herrmann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many developing nations, especially the least developed countries, are subjected to recurrent spells of food insecurity. In order to understand food insecurity in these countries it is necessary to consider not only immediate or trigger-causes of food crises, but also its underlying or systemic causes. This paper argues that the agricultural support measures of advanced countries may act as a systemic cause for food insecurity in developing countries. While the import of subsidized foods by d...

  18. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developing country industries

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction of energy-related technological change have long been recognized as critical determinants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived from integrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developing countries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has lagged behind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoral productivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change for several energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, for comparison, the United States. The key findings are substantial heterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of cases of declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certain technical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to the direct comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations. Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to the empirical basis for common modeling assumptions

  19. The Doha Development Agenda: Mixed Prospects for Developing Countries

    Alan Matthews; Keith Walsh

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses the GTAP computable general equilibrium model to assess the impact of a Doha Development Agenda agreement on agricultural trade liberalisation. In particular, we examine the consequences for developing countries. The simulation incorporates further liberalisation in the areas of market access, export competition and domestic support. Most developing regions can expect strong positive results from this liberalisation, however some suffer a decrease in welfare. The magnitude of ...

  20. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  1. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    Piyasena, R D

    1993-12-31

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  2. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    Piyasena, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  3. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  4. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  5. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    Cook, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade...

  6. Assessment of international mitigation costing studies in developing countries

    Halsnaes, K.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs

  7. Road safety in developing countries: The role of research.

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Road accidents are a continuous burden for all countries, developing and developed alike. There are reasons, however, to pay special attention to developing countries as the situation often seems to be more unfavourable as in developed countries, and as the consequences of road accidents, can be

  8. Impact of foreign bribery legislation on developing countries and the role of donor agencies

    Zagaris, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Legislation prohibiting foreign bribery has been enacted and enforced by several countries, notably the United States and the United Kingdom, but its impact on developing countries is poorly understood. An analysis of literature and practice provides insights into factors that may help developing countries benefit from foreign bribery laws and minimize negative externalities. Lack of capacity, lack of political will, and weak flows of information emerge as key obstacles. Although donor agenci...

  9. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  10. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  11. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  12. Financial globalization: gain and pain for developing countries

    Sergio L. Schmukler

    2004-01-01

    Economies around the world are becoming increasingly interconnected by the unprecedented breadth and depth of financial globalization. Developed countries tend to be most actively involved in cross-country capital movement, but in recent years developing countries have begun to participate in the process. ; This article focuses on the integration of developing countries into the international financial system. It examines recent developments and the principal agents of financial globalization...

  13. Seismic-Proof Buildings in Developing Countries

    Vittoria Laghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of “ductile seismic frames,” whose proper seismic behavior largely depends upon construction details and specific design rules, may do not always lead to effective seismic resistant structures, as dramatically denounced by the famous Chinese artist Ai Weiwei in his artwork Straight. The artwork (96 t of undulating metal bars that were salvaged from schools destroyed by the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake, where over 5,000 students were killed is a clear denounce against the corruption yielding to shoddy construction methods. The issue of safe constructions against natural hazards appears even more important in developing countries where, in most cases, building structures are realized by non-expert workers, or even by simple “people from the street,” who does not have any technical knowledge on construction techniques and seismic engineering. In this paper, a brief history from the first frame structures to the more efficient wall-based structures is provided within Earthquake Engineering perspectives. The superior structural properties of box-type wall structures with respect to conventional frame structures envisage a change of paradigm from actual “ductility-based” Earthquake Engineering (centered on frame structures toward 100% safe buildings through a “strength-based” design exploiting the use of box-type wall-based structures.

  14. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  15. Institutional and societal innovations in information technology for developing countries

    James, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the developed countries is heavily based on R&D and is closely related to income, skills and infrastructure in those countries. Little is geared towards IT problems of poor countries. This technology does not suit the incomes, skills and so on of poor countries. Fortunately another

  16. Professional development for nuclear power programs in developing countries

    Kanter, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Countries entering nuclear power programs for the first time find that inadequate planning for the development of trained manpower is a critical factor in the success of their programs. This requires the early training of a team for the planning and acquisition effort to be followed by training for the supervision of construction. In addition, there is the more readily recognized training for operation. Typical manpower needs for such projects have been documented by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The basic academic training of engineers and scientists, which should be available within the country; advanced academic training, which is often secured in institutions abroad; specialized training abroad by international agencies; specialized training by the vendors of nuclear equipment; and the development of indigenous training. This paper outlines all of these avenues but will concentrate on the training available through international agencies and on the development of indigenous training capability

  17. Bureau Management Technologies and Information Systems in Developing Countries

    Mehmet Altınöz

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on bureau management technologies and information systems in developing countries. Developing countries use such systems which facilitate executive and organizational functions through the utilization of bureau management technologies and provide the executive staff with necessary information. The concepts of data and information differ from each other in developing countries, and thus the concepts of data processing and information processing are di...

  18. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  19. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  20. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    2009-11-25

    Nov 25, 2009 ... ... economic performance is still lagging behind many regions of the world. Even in those countries that are the most advanced in implementing ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  2. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries

    The experience of these countries suggests that high productivity and competitiveness .... Fluctuations in the terms of trade and, hence, in the availability of foreign ...... plying mills), 3312 (wooden and cane containers), 3521 (paints, varnishes, ...

  3. Developing countries unprepared for ballooning elderly population ...

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... ... Economics and Demography of Aging at the University of California, Berkeley ... Another problem is that some of these countries are implementing social ... Presenting advances in financial inclusion and education for youth, ...

  4. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    Goldemberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives some examples of how technology transfer can successfully be given to third world countries to allow them to benefit in their quest for economic growth and better standards of living through reduced energy consumption and environmental pollution. It also suggests methods by which obstacles such as high investment costs, lack of information, market demand, etc., can be overcome in order to motivate technological transfer by industrialized countries

  5. Developed country trade barriers and the least developed countries: The economic results of freeing trade

    Haveman, Jon D.; Shatz, Howard J.

    2003-01-01

    The Doha Ministerial Declaration emphasized that priority should be given to improving market access for products originating in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). In this paper, we analyze the importance of this proposition with respect to market access in the Triad economies. We first present a brief history of non-reciprocal preferences granted by the Triad. This covers Generalized System of Preference (GSP) programmes in each, and further preferences granted to African, Caribbean and P...

  6. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  7. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Developing Country: Is It Different from Developed Countries?

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1–37 years. Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%; 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  9. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of rotavirus vaccines in developed and developing countries

    Jiang, Victoria; Jiang, Baoming; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that rotavirus diarrhea results in approximately half a million deaths and approximately 2.4 million hospitalizations in developing countries each year. Two live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® (RV 5; Merck) and Rotarix® (RV 1; GlaxoSmithKline) with good efficacy against severe rotavirus disease and a reassuring safety profile could substantially impact the burden of rotavirus disease. In April 2009, WHO provided a recommendation for global introducti...

  11. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  12. Poverty—A structural problem of developing countries

    Wülker, Gabriele

    1981-01-01

    The contrast between industrialized and developing countries is often seen as one between two opposites: Rich countries—poor countries. But the poverty in the developing countries is by no means identical with the need for help as perceived in the industrialized societies. Poverty in the Third World is, as the following article shows, a structural problem.

  13. Comparing ecological awareness in developed countries

    Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions ''Do people think about the environment in similar ways.'', ''What are the similarities and differences across different groups within a country, and what are the similarities and differences across countries.'' Using a new factor-analytical approach (which is described in detail in the appendix) four independent cognitive dimensions of the ecological awareness could be found from a set of 12 Items of the International Environmental Survey of 1980: 1. Attitude toward science and technology; 2. Concern about resources and energy supply; 3. Attitude toward nuclear power; 4. Concern about the limits to growth. The major similarities overall and the minor differences between the countries will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Pharmacovigilance in developing countries (part I): importance and challenges.

    Elshafie, Shaimaa; Zaghloul, Iman; Roberti, Anne Marie

    2017-12-16

    The thalidomide disaster was the significant historical event that acted as a catalyst for pharmacovigilance activity. Following this event developed countries initiated drug monitoring systems that evolved and now extend their scope to broader drug-related safety issues; however, this was not the case in developing countries. Pharmacovigilance is still a relatively new concept with low priority in developing countries although various issues are raising concerns that magnify the need for systems to monitor post marketing drug safety in these countries. This article analyzes the barriers to introducing robust pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries.

  15. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  16. Likely impact of global warming on developing countries

    Topping, J.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last couple of years there has been mounting evidence that the human costs of rapid global warming are likely to be concentrated especially in developing countries and that some countries may be gravely affected. Climate impacts research has until recently been focused principally on a handful of more affluent countries, but studies of climate impacts on developing countries are now under way and preliminary results are likely to be available for many areas of the world within the next year

  17. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  18. Sustainable Energy Development: The Key to a Stable Nigeria

    Kalu Uduma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of sustainable energy systems based on solar and biomass technologies to provide solutions to utility challenges in Nigeria and acute water shortage both in rural and urban areas of that country. The paper highlights the paradoxes of oil-rich Nigeria and the stark reality of social infrastructure deprivations in that country. Perennial power outages over many years have translated to the absence of or poorly-developed basic social infrastructures in Nigeria. The consequences of this lack have been an increase in abject poverty in rural and urban communities as well as the erosion of social order and threats to citizen and their property. This paper proposes the adaptation of two emerging technologies for building sustainable energy systems and the development of decentralized and sustainable energy sources as catalyst for much-needed social infrastructure development through the creation of Renewable Energy Business Incubators, creative lending strategies, NGO partnerships and shifting energy-distribution responsibilities. These changes will stimulate grassroots economies in the country, develop large quantities of much needed clean water, maintain acceptable standards of sanitation and improve the health and wellbeing of Nigerian communities. The proposed strategies are specific to the Nigerian context; however, the authors suggest that the same or similar strategies may provide energy and social infrastructure development solutions to other developing countries as well.

  19. Destigmatizing day-to-day practices: what developed countries can learn from developing countries.

    Rosen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The nature of and threshold for stigma associated with mental disorders appears to be different between developed and developing countries. Decreasing stigma can be achieved through a combination of the best Western educational and media strategies and the systematization of some important lessons from developing countries. At the macro-level, this involves: societal changes leading to being more inclusive and re-integrating people with mental illness into our communities; finding socially useful and culturally valued work roles for such marginalized people; re-extending our kinship networks, and re-valuing contact with people with mental illness and learning from their experiences. At the micro-level, this involves developing more destigmatizing day-to-day clinical practices, including: more holistic appraisal of disorder, abilities and needs; therapeutic optimism; a strengths orientation; engaging family and redeveloping an extended support network; celebration of age appropriate rites of passage; invoking the language of recovery; valuing veterans of mental illness as "spirit guides"; promoting consumers' community living as full citizens; engaging and involving the local community in taking responsibility for their own mental health.

  20. Key Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  1. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Developing, Implementing, and Using Winning KPIs

    Parmenter, David

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at how to create and use key performance indicators (KPIs), from the King of KPIs â€" now updated and expanded! By exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David Parmenter has developed a methodology that is breathtaking in its simplicity and yet profound in its impact. Now in an updated and expanded Second Edition, Key Performance Indicators is a proactive guide representing a significant shift in the way KPIs are developed and used, with an abundance of implementation tools, including: The four foundation stones that lead the development and use of KPIs; A 12-ste

  2. The emerging role of Big Data in key development issues: Opportunities, challenges, and concerns

    Nir Kshetri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of academic literature, policy documents from government organizations and international agencies, and reports from industries and popular media on the trends in Big Data utilization in key development issues and its worthwhileness, usefulness, and relevance. By looking at Big Data deployment in a number of key economic sectors, it seeks to provide a better understanding of the opportunities and challenges of using it for addressing key issues facing the developing world. It reviews the uses of Big Data in agriculture and farming activities in developing countries to assess the capabilities required at various levels to benefit from Big Data. It also provides insights into how the current digital divide is associated with and facilitated by the pattern of Big Data diffusion and its effective use in key development areas. It also discusses the lessons that developing countries can learn from the utilization of Big Data in big corporations as well as in other activities in industrialized countries.

  3. Handbook of nuclear medicine practice in developing countries

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This ``Handbook of Nuclear Medicine Practices in the Developing Countries`` is meant primarily for those, who intend to install and practice nuclear medicine in a developing country. By and large, the conventional Textbooks of nuclear medicine do note cater to the special problems and needs of these countries. The Handbook is not trying to replace these textbooks, but supplement them with special information and guidance, necessary for making nuclear medicine cost-effective and useful in a hospital of a developing country. It is written mostly by those, who have made success in their careers in nuclear medicine, in one of these countries. One way to describe this Handbook will be that it represents the ways, in which, nuclear medicine is practised in the developing countries, described by those, who have a long and authentic experience of practising nuclear medicine in a developing country Figs, tabs

  4. Handbook of nuclear medicine practice in developing countries

    1992-01-01

    This ''Handbook of Nuclear Medicine Practices in the Developing Countries'' is meant primarily for those, who intend to install and practice nuclear medicine in a developing country. By and large, the conventional Textbooks of nuclear medicine do note cater to the special problems and needs of these countries. The Handbook is not trying to replace these textbooks, but supplement them with special information and guidance, necessary for making nuclear medicine cost-effective and useful in a hospital of a developing country. It is written mostly by those, who have made success in their careers in nuclear medicine, in one of these countries. One way to describe this Handbook will be that it represents the ways, in which, nuclear medicine is practised in the developing countries, described by those, who have a long and authentic experience of practising nuclear medicine in a developing country

  5. Developing countries and the frontiers of science and technology

    Gunawardena, W

    1980-06-01

    Direct transfers of technology to developing countries are basically product transfers which may be irrelevant to the recipient country's needs. The process of imitation, however, can build upon local research aided by information transfers so that innovative technology is applied more appropriately. Since developing countries think of technology transfer as a purchased package rather than an intellectual process, most Third World countries have a low innovative capacity at present. This can be overcome if the developed countries will cooperate with information transfers. 24 references. (DCK)

  6. Inspire and develop people, two key competence for safety leadership

    Gonzalez, F.; Perez, O.; Fernandez, M.; Alvarez, N.; Villadoniga, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Developing leadership skills in organizations is key to ensuring the sustainability of excellent results in industries with high standards of safety and reliability element. In order to have a model of development of specific leadership for these organizations, Tecnatom in 2011, we initiated an internal project to find and adapt a competency model to these requirements. (Author)

  7. What Is Driving Gender Equality in Secondary Education? Evidence from 57 Developing Countries, 1970–2010

    Gudrun Østby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite global efforts to expand educational opportunities for women, gender inequalities persist in many developing countries. Addressing the root causes of gender inequalities in secondary education we ask whether such disparities persist because of low state capacity or low willingness. Based on gender- and age-specific educational attainment data for 57 developing countries in 1970–2010, our analysis indicates that willingness factors are central to understanding gender equality in education: ethnically heterogeneous countries and countries where Islam is the primary religion experience lower levels of equality. However, key capacity factors like a country’s income level are unrelated to gender differences in education.

  8. Between the state and market: Electricity sector reform in developing countries

    Jamasb, Tooraj

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries have had to reform technically and financially less efficient electricity sectors than developed countries with less resources and weaker institutions. This paper examines the reform experience and lessons in these countries. The paper reviews private participation and key reform steps such as restructuring, competition, and regulation. The role of contextual factors such as system size, institutional endowment, and international organizations are then discussed. It then argues that there is a need for redefining the role of the state rather than a full withdrawal from the sector and that many countries should adopt simpler reform models and gradual implementation. (author)

  9. Globalization and Gender Equality in Developing Countries

    Niklas Potrafke; Heinrich Ursprung

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically assesses the influence of globalization on the institutional root causes of gender equality as measured by the new OECD Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI). We capture the multifaceted concept of globalization with the KOF index and its three sub-indices which measure the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization. Observing the progress of globalization for a sample of almost one hundred countries at ten year intervals starting in 1970, we find ...

  10. Food irradiation for developing countries in Africa

    1990-12-01

    The amount of post-harvest losses of food is considered to be highest on the African continent. As a result, increasing numbers of countries in Africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition, which range from chronic to acute. Food irradiation could play an important role in reducing the high rate of food losses especially in the case of food grain, root crops and dried food in this continent provided that proper infrastructure to employ this technique could be identified. Irradiation could contribute positively to the safety of food from microbiological and parasitic infection. A panel of experts participated at the round table discussion to assess the potential application of the technology in Africa. Some of the items for which technical feasibility has been established for food irradiation preservation include yams, onions, potatoes, maize, millet, sorghum, cowpeas and other pulses, cocoa beans, spices (pepper) and condiments, meat and poultry, fish and fishery products, animal feed, etc. In considered the local demand, a suitable choice of the type and size of the facility should be made. The design should allow up-grading in both size and automated operation to meet future expansion of the existing facility, but small commercial scale facilities, of low cost, should be considered to start with. Whatever type of equipment chosen, (whether Gamma or Electron Beam) safety, reliability, maintainability, and simplicity of operation should be of major consideration. It is recognized that for a project to be concluded on a reasonable schedule, technology transfer and training should be incorporated into the complete package. In addition back-up technical infrastructure in the country should be strengthened. The effective procedures demonstrated in a number of countries for performing consumer acceptance studies on irradiated foods, should be adopted in a slightly modified form adapted to the different target populations. Such studies should be

  11. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  12. Influence Of Tax Havens On The Functioning Of Developing And Developed Countries

    Arkadiusz Nawrocki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of tax havens on developing and developed countries. Economic research in this area has proved that tax havens not only play a key role on the international capital market, but above all are responsible for the internationalisation of economic activity on a global scale. Representatives of theory, practitioners and regulators for decades conducted research related to the assessment of the impact of tax havens on countries with high taxes in terms of the erosion of their base. The obtained results clearly show that these countries face a significant decline in income, however, some researchers (especially Hines show that there are positive side effects of this process indicating the creation of a new model in the global financial symbiosis.

  13. Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?

    Dodani, Sunita; LaPorte, Ronald E

    2005-01-01

    Brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel in search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on health systems in developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries. PMID:16260795

  14. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  15. Strengthening and redesigning flood risk governance in Europe: an overview of seven key issues and how they are being dealt with in six European countries

    Hegger Dries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.

  16. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    This study examines international trade as an engine of growth in developing countries, a case study of Nigeria. A review of the literature reveals that countries that are more open to international trade tends to experience higher growth rate and per-capital income than countries who do not trade or closed economy.

  17. Technology foresight and industrial strategy in developing countries

    Pietrobelli, C.; Puppato, F.

    2015-01-01

    When Technology Foresight (TF) began to be adopted in industrial countries, it tended to be still somewhat a marginal activity in developing countries. It was then believed that TF and its prediction of the future was a matter that only highly industrialised countries could endeavour to achieve,

  18. Feasibility and attractiveness of indication value-based pricing in key EU countries.

    Flume, Mathias; Bardou, Marc; Capri, Stefano; Sola-Morales, Oriol; Cunningham, David; Levin, Lars-Ake; Touchot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Indication value-based pricing (IBP) has been proposed in the United States as a tool to capture the differential value of drugs across indications or patient groups and is in the early phases of implementation. In Europe, no major country has experimented with IBP or is seriously discussing its use. We assessed how the reimbursement and pricing environment allows for IBP in seven European countries, evaluating both incentives and hurdles. In price setting countries such as France and Germany, the Health Technology Assessment and pricing process already accounts for differences of value across indications. In countries where differential value drives coverage decisions such as the United Kingdom and Sweden, IBP is likely to be used, at least partially, but not in the short-term. Italy is already achieving some form of differential value through managed entry agreements, whereas in Spain the electronic prescription system provides the infrastructure necessary for IBP but other hurdles exist.

  19. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking

  20. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  1. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the associat...

  2. Export Credit Insurances in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey and IMT Countries

    Cihat Koksal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Export credit insurance is one of the substantial tools to promote export in a country. This paper endeavours to find out the effect of Export Credit Insurance covered by Export Credit Agencies on the developing countries’ export figures and GDP. The countries subject to the analysis are Turkey and Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand also known as IMT Countries. The relationship between export value, economic growth and export credit insurances will be analyzed using Vector Autoregression (VAR Model.

  3. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  4. INTEREST RATE DERIVATIVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN EUROPE

    SLOBODAN CEROVIC; MARINA PEPIC

    2011-01-01

    Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps) are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still t...

  5. Corporate Governance Practices in Developing Countries: The Case for Kenya

    Benjamin Mwanzia Mulili; Dr. Peter Wong

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of corporate governance from a historical perspective. The paper explores how the agency theory and stewardship theory affect corporate governance practices. The focus of the paper is on public universities in Kenya. An extensive review of literature indicates that the ideals of good corporate governance have been adopted by developing countries since the 1980s. Developing countries differ from developed countries in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, there is ...

  6. [The informed consent in international clinical trials including developing countries].

    Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.

  7. The biological sciences in nursing: a developing country perspective.

    Kyriacos, Una; Jordan, Sue; van den Heever, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study to inform curriculum development by exploring the contribution of bioscience education programmes to nurses' clinical practice, their understanding of the rationale for practice, and their perceptions of their continuing professional development needs. The future of the health services worldwide depends on nurse education programmes equipping practitioners to deliver safe and effective patient care. In the developed world, the structure and indicative content of nursing curricula have been debated extensively. However, despite the rapid expansion in nursing roles brought about by social change, there is little information on the educational needs of nurses in developing countries. This study was undertaken in government teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa in 2003. A purposive sample of 54 nurses from a range of clinical settings completed questionnaires and described critical incidents where bioscience knowledge had directed practice. Questionnaires were analysed descriptively, in the main. Analysis of critical incident reports was based on Akinsanya's bionursing model. Most nurses felt that their understanding of the biological, but not the physical sciences, was adequate or better: all felt confident with their knowledge of anatomy, compared with 57.4% (31/54) for microbiology. Respondents attributed the successes and failures of their education programmes to their teachers' delivery of content, ability to relate to practice and management of the process of learning. The biological, but not the physical, sciences were universally (96-100%) regarded as relevant to nursing. However, the critical incidents and nurses' own reports indicated a need for further education in pharmacology (40/54, 74.1%) and microbiology (29/54, 53.7%). To meet the needs of nurses in developing countries, and empower them to meet the increasingly complex demands of their expanding roles, nurse educators need to consider increasing the curriculum

  8. Nuclear power programs in the world's developed and developing countries

    Czibolya, L.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of nuclear power in the world's energy balance related to fossile energy sources is discussed. The general trend of declination of the national power programs could be observed from the seventies as a result of the oil crisis and the economic recession. The main features of the national energy programs including the ratio of the different energy sources in the power supply, the distribution of power production among the different types of nuclear reactors, the time schedules of the national nuclear power programs are reviewed through the examples of some developed and developing countries: USA, FRG, Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, India, and the Republic of Korea. (V.N.)

  9. Nuclear Medicine in a developing country

    Wenzel, K.S. von; Rubow, S.M.; Ellmann, A.; Ghoorun, S.

    2002-01-01

    Namibia is a country with 1,8 million inhabitants, of whom the majority has limited access to first world facilities. Nevertheless, medical services of high standard are offered. A Nuclear Medicine Department was established at Windhoek Central Hospital in 1982. A nuclear physician, two nuclear medicine radiographers and a nursing sister staff the department. Equipment includes a Siemens Orbiter and an Elscint Apex SPX Helix gamma camera. Radiopharmaceuticals are obtained from suppliers in South Africa. Investigations performed include musculoskeletal, liver, hepatobiliary, thyroid, renal studies, ventilation perfusion lung scans as well as the following Nuclear Cardiology studies: Gated blood pool scans, Tc-99m pyrophosphate hot spot scans, Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies, Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion studies and Tl-201 rest-redistribution studies. Problems experienced at the Windhoek Nuclear Medicine department include: Lack of funding and high cost of equipment and radiopharmaceuticals, lack of understanding of Nuclear Medicine by the hospital management and health administrators, and difficulties in procuring short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the absence of company representatives and spare parts in Namibia leads to loss of time whenever equipment needs to be repaired. Working as the only nuclear medicine physician in a country also poses major problems. Careful management of resources and information drives have helped to sustain the Nuclear Medicine service despite economic problems in the country. Installation of a tele-link between the department in Windhoek Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital in South Africa has greatly assisted to overcome the problem of isolation and lack of back up from fellow specialists. The IAEA has equipped both departments with Hermes workstations (Nuclear Diagnostics) and a tele-link is maintained via modem. The current software provided with the Hermes system is ideally suited to processing of data such as gated

  10. Nuclear project finance in developing countries: The multi-country financing alternative

    Fleck, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is the basic contention of this paper that, because of certain factors in the financial markets, multi-country financing (MCF) is the new alternative if not the imperative for large scale and turnkey nuclear plant programs in developing countries. The point is made that its successful use depends on the ability of the host country, the credit granting countries and suppliers to both recognize the MCF reality and manage its implicit variables. Those who collectively do so will be successful, and those who cannot will not be states the author. The aspects of MCF are described

  11. Nanotechnologies risk assessment: a perspective from developing countries

    Musee, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available chemicals in these states: the unique challenges of nanotechnologies from a waste perspective are modeled to develop scenarios of likely impacts to the developing countries. Both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment approaches were developed...

  12. Nuclear oncology in a developing country: Namibia

    Wenzel, K.S. von; Rubow, S.M.; Ellmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Namibia is a country with 1.8 million inhabitants of whom the majority have limited access to world-class medical facilities. On an average, 25% people in Namibia get cancer in their lifetime. Most cancers can be cured if detected early and treated more effectively when metastatic disease is localized or even excluded. Nuclear medicine techniques play an important role in the detection, staging and management of malignant disease. In Namibia, due to sun exposure, skin cancer (31%) tops the list of prevailing cancers. The next most common cancer is breast cancer (9%), followed by head and neck cancers (8%), prostate (7%), Kaposi sarcoma (7%) and cervical cancer (6%). AIDS is an ever growing problem in Namibia, and related cancers e.g. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma are on the rise. A Nuclear Medicine Department was established at Windhoek Central Hospital in 1982. A nuclear physician, two nuclear medicine radiographers and a nursing sister staff the department. Equipment includes a Siemens Orbiter and an Elscint Apex SPX Helix gamma camera. Radiopharmaceuticals are obtained from suppliers in South Africa. There is a good working relationship between the Nuclear Medicine department and the clinicians, including the oncologists and surgeons. Therefore oncology patients are regularly referred for Nuclear Medicine procedures. Approximately 50% of all studies performed in the department are referred from oncologists. Investigations performed for breast cancer patients include scintimammography, sentinel node mapping with gamma probe. Bone scans and liver scans are used for the detection of metastases in patients with breast carcinoma and other cancers. In thyroid cancer patients, whole body radioiodine scans are done post-thyroidectomy to confirm the presence of a thyroid remnant and to detect local or distant metastases. Thallium and Sestamibi scans are performed to localize metastatic disease in thyroid cancer patients with a rising thyroglobulin level but a

  13. Positioning and deciding : key factors for talent development in soccer

    Kannekens, R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Talent identification and development implicate recognizing youth players who will be successful in the future and guiding them to the top. A major determinant of this success is tactical skills. To identify possible key factors that help in predicting success over time, this study assesses the

  14. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    Vang, Jan; Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  15. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    Takeshita, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  16. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    are dealt with, such as: • Approaches to user involvement and participation in development • Knowledge and its role in development, particularly in higher education • Digital literacy and ways of developing it • Pedagogic approaches • Learning cultures in globalised education • Teacher training...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...

  17. Countries in transition: Nurturing research in times of turmoil is key ...

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Understanding that times of flux bring both the risk of chaos and the promise of rapid social and economic progress, IDRC has been involved in some 25 countries on the move from war to peace, from dictatorship to democracy, from closed economies to free markets. Support provided to researchers in ...

  18. IT Implementation in a Developing Country Municipality: A SocioCognitive Analysis

    Sanford, Clive Carlton; Bhattacherjee, Anol

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretive analysis of the key problems and challenges to technology implementation in developing countries, based on a three-year case analysis of an IT project in a city government in Ukraine.  We employ the concept of technological frames of reference as an analytical...... implementation projects in developing countries that are often overlooked in the traditional academic and practitioner literatures based on experiences from developed countries....... tool for articulating the group-level structures related to the implementation context from the perspectives of key stakeholders and examine the degree of conflict between these frames using a Fishbone diagram.  We report that conflict between technological frames held by key stakeholders in large...

  19. Climate change mitigation in the energy sector of developing countries

    Sathaye, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Climate change, singed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on parties to the Convention to undertake inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. Several institutions, including UNEP, have initiated programs to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet this obligation. This paper describes a mitigation methodology that is being used for these country studies, and discusses issues that have arisen in conducting mitigation assessments for developing countries in the past. (EG)

  20. Managing nuclear knowledge in a developing country: Pakistan's perspective

    Ahmad, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear technology base in a developing country is relatively much smaller compared to those in the industrialised countries. Thus, nuclear knowledge and its management are of great importance for those countries which are interested in nuclear technology but are still in the development phase. It is neither desirable nor possible to use imported nuclear technology as a black box. It is important for a developing country to acquire the ability for the safe and efficient operation of a nuclear facility such as a nuclear power plant. This should be done with maximum local participation and a sound institutional memory. (author)

  1. Foreign direct investment and their impact on economic development countries in transition

    Marijana Joksimovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is among the key developmental factors that, along with international trade, contributes to the globalisation of the world economy and business. It is therefore necessary to ensure FDI improves economic development. Attracting investors, a favourable investment climate, and investment attractiveness compared to other countries in the region are some of the prerequisites for effective economic development of the Republic of Serbia. The authors in the paper analyse the impact of FDI on the economic development of Republic of Serbia. Based on available countries from 2012 to 2014, the paper presents a comparative view of the Republic of Serbia and the countries in the region.

  2. Universal Health Coverage: A burning need for developing countries

    Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hossain, Naznin

    2017-01-01

    The term of universal health coverage (UHC) are getting popularity among the countries who have not yet attained it. Majority of the developing countries are planning to implement the UHC to protect the vulnerable citizen who cannot afford to buy the health services. Poor people living in developing countries, where there is no UHC, are bereft of getting equal health care. They have to bear a significant amount of health cost in buying different services which often causes catastrophic expend...

  3. China and the Manufacturing Exports of Other Developing Countries

    Gordon H. Hanson; Raymond Robertson

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of China's growth on developing countries that specialize in manufacturing. Over 2000-2005, manufacturing accounted for 32% of China's GDP and 89% of its merchandise exports, making it more specialized in the sector than any other large developing economy. Using the gravity model of trade, we decompose bilateral trade into components associated with demand conditions in importing countries, supply conditions in exporting countries, and bilateral trade cost...

  4. Decentralisation in developing countries: preconditions for successful implementation

    Yasin Olum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation has been implemented and is being implemented in many developing countries without much success. Although several unique factors inhibit the implementation of decentralisation in individual countries, the paper argues that there are six pre-conditions that these countries should fulfill before decentralisation can be successfully implemented. These preconditions are: institutional mechanisms; creation of spaces for participation; political will and civil will; capacity development at the local level; careful implementation; and democratic governance.

  5. Ranking of Developing Countries Based on the Economic Freedom Index

    Zirak, Masoumeh; Mehrara, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we’ve ranked developing countries based on the Economic Freedom index. Therefore we are trying to do the analysis how this ranking is done using numerical taxonomic methodology. To do this, by estimating the effects of the determinants of FDI in 123 developing countries from 1997 to 2010, results showed that with regard to the degree of economic freedom or Economic openness, attract foreign direct investment in each country is different. In this study china, Equator, Liberia, Az...

  6. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  7. Telemedicine for Developing Countries. A Survey and Some Design Issues.

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele; Pozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-11-02

    Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries.

  8. Environmental economics and biodiversity management in developing countries

    Munasinghe, M. (Policy and Research Div., Environment Dept., World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity, and ecotourism benefits. In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. (14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.).

  9. Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries.

    Nizami, A S; Rehan, M; Waqas, M; Naqvi, M; Ouda, O K M; Shahzad, K; Miandad, R; Khan, M Z; Syamsiro, M; Ismail, I M I; Pant, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Attributing to Outwards Direct Investments from Developing Countries to Developed Countries: Evidence from China and India

    Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the growing trend of outward foreign direct investments (OFDIs from developing countries to developed countries. Market-seeking and strategic asset explorations are the main motivations for conducting OFDIs in developed countries. Meanwhile, cross-border greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions are the main entry strategies used by developing countries when penetrating the developed markets. Finally, this paper reveals mixed results about the explaining ability of John Dunning’s International Development Path (IDP theory on the patterns of selected developing markets' OFDIs to developed countries. On the one hand, China’s OFDIs follow the paths in the IDP theory. On the other hand, those of India do not confirm so.

  11. Mobilising private adaptation finance: developed country perspectives

    Pauw, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The private sector is one of the sources of finance included in developed countries’ pledge in the UN climate negotiations to mobilise $100 billion annually by 2020 to support developing countries’ efforts to address climate change. For adaptation in particular, it remains unclear what

  12. Financial Development in Arab Countries (Research Paper)

    Hussein, Khaled; Omran, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    This book of readings provides fruitful policy recommendations on various financial development issues in the Arab World such as operational efficiency and service quality in banking. It also examines different aspects related to stock markets development such as efficiency, volatility, hedging, and returns.

  13. Implementing the illicit financial flows agenda: Perspectives from developing countries

    Fontana, Alessandra; Hansen-Shino, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    While once considered solely a concern of law enforcement agencies; money laundering, tax evasion and secrecy jurisdictions are now perceived as important obstacles to development. Dealing with illicit financial flows is an important aspect of the policy coherence agenda in international development, and developed country governments have made international commitments to tackle the problem Reforms and actions are necessary both in developed and developing countries, and this Brief looks at t...

  14. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  15. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  16. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in Developing Countries

    Patrick Erah

    Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Editorial. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in. Developing Countries. For justifiable reasons, the health of women in developing countries is presently an important.

  17. Energy in developing countries and the role of nuclear energy

    Goldemberg, Jose

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy in developing countries is discussed with respect to energy consumption, energy needs and energy future. The application of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is examined for the developing countries. It is suggested that a revision of the NPT is needed to encourage effective nuclear disarmament. (UK)

  18. Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries ...

    Urban agriculture has served for a long time as a vital asset in the livelihood strategies of urban households in developing countries. It has been considered since then as a relevant input in responding to the embryonic economic situation of developing countries resulting to the structural adjustment programs and increasing ...

  19. Private power in developing countries: Exporting the American experience

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses using American marketing and financing expertise and technology to meet the need for increased power production and efficiency in developing countries. The topics of the paper include the opportunity for independent power production, dangers in international development, foreign country market evaluation, the criteria for selection, and taking advantage of the opportunities

  20. Global Administrative Law and Developing Countries | IDRC ...

    ... and influence important developments in global regulatory governance. ... transnational institutions designed to detect and sanction money laundering shape ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  1. MANAGING LARGE CLASSES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    PROF. BARTH EKWUEME

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 15, 2016: 31-39. COPYRIGHT© ... classes or overcrowded classrooms affect the quality of education delivered in the school system. ... central to their national development strategy.

  2. Management of radioactive wastes in developing countries: Growing needs

    Thomas, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    Wide variations in the development and use of nuclear energy are evident in developing countries. A few have or are pursuing partial or complete nuclear fuel cycle activities. Eleven developing countries have nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 8600 megawatts-electric (MWe). Because of the increasing demand for electrical energy, more developing countries would like to have nuclear power. But most of them are constrained by lack of finances and technical expertise. Some have research reactors, and a few have uranium mining and milling operations. Most developing countries are using nuclear energy for applications in fields of medicine, agriculture, industry, and research. From all these uses, radioactive waste is produced that must be managed safely and efficiently. Increasingly in recent years, countries have turned to the IAEA for technical assistance and waste management services to address serious problems they are facing. 1 map

  3. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas.

  4. Nuclear development in a pacific basin country

    Lawson, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A diversity of energy resources, and of climatic and environmental conditions, has shaped the development of Canada's energy systems. By the early 1950s, a significant scientific base had been established for the development of heavy water-moderated, natural uranium-fuelled reactors. This combination of an existing scientific base and the need to provide economic alternative sources of electricity prompted a policy under which the federal crown corporation Atomic Energy of Canada Limited would lead the development of nuclear power on a cooperative basis with interested electrical utilities. The close working relationship of all the participants--design, research, project management, consultants, manufacturers, utilities and regulators--led to the success of the unique Canadian nuclear program. (author)

  5. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available that affect people in developing and developed countries. The challenges outlined are; poor governance, water scarcity, sanitation and climate change. Nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced to help provide potable water and water for general assumption...

  6. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... In this book, Kettani and Moulin develop their findings and methods from the eFez ... practitioners, and decision makers in developing countries. ... Science and Software Engineering, Laval University, Québec City, Canada.

  7. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A.R. Hosseinpoor (Ahmad); N. Speybroeck (Niko); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); J. Vega (Jeanette)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns

  9. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries | CRDI ...

    ... the National Research Council (CONICET) in Buenos Aires. Rohinton Medhora is Vice-President of Programs at Canada's International Development Research Centre. He has published primarily in the areas of monetary integration and central banking and holds a doctorate in economics from the University of Toronto.

  10. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  11. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Kelishadi, Roya

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.

  12. Energy and Development in Emerging Countries

    Reilly, John; Vincent, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Energy is an important component of the economy and is a fundamental factor of production. In general we expect is use to grow in some relation to growth in economic activity. Empirically we see a closer relationship (higher E/GDP elasticity) in emerging economies where the energy intensive stage of development is still in process. Traditional fossil energy sources remain the least cost source of providing many or most energy services but present an environmental challenge. Managing the growth of energy use and its impact on the environment is a central challenge of 'green growth'. Examples of the interactions of energy development in China are used to provide a deeper understanding of these links. (author)

  13. Online development in the Nordic countries

    Mickos, Elisabet (ed.); Lamvik, Aud (ed.); Retlev, Ulla (ed.); Wallin, Marie (ed.); Oker-Blom, Teodora (ed.)

    2007-01-01

    This is a collection of some of the articles that will form the e-book “Online development in the Nordic countries”. The e-book will contain the chapters: Introduction - Information policy - The infrastructure - Information systems and databases - Users - The online market in perspective. The final version of the e-book will include more articles, more pictures and information about the authors.

  14. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...... Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals...

  15. Basic science research and education: a priority for training and capacity building in developing countries.

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ntambi, James M; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2011-09-01

    This article provides evidence that basic science research and education should be key priorities for global health training, capacity building, and practice. Currently, there are tremendous gaps between strong science education and research in developed countries (the North) as compared to developing countries (the South). In addition, science research and education appear as low priorities in many developing countries. The need to stress basic science research beyond the typical investment of infectious disease basic service and research laboratories in developing areas is significant in terms of the benefits, not only to education, but also for economic strengthening and development of human resources. There are some indications that appreciation of basic science research education and training is increasing, but this still needs to be applied more rigorously and strengthened systematically in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent Development of Municipal Finance in Selected European Countries

    Friedrich, Peter; Kaltschütz, Anita; Nam, Chang Woon

    2004-01-01

    The idea of fiscal decentralisation has become increasingly fashionable world-wide. In some developed countries the systems of intergovernmental finance have evolved gradually and each country has unique features. Transition countries on different continents have had differing reasons and motivations for such reforms. More recently, the acknowledgement of subsidiarity as the basic principle for the European Un-ion, the introduction of the West German federal system in the eastern part of the ...

  17. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  18. National innovation system in less successful developing countries

    Intarakumnerd, Patarapong; Chairatana, Pun-arj; Tangchitpiboon, Tipawan

    2002-01-01

    This paper, using Thailand as a case study, aims at understanding the national innovation system (NIS) in developing countries which are less successful in technological catching-up. In contrast to developed countries, the development level of Thailand’s NIS does not link to its economic structural...... development level. As Thailand moves from agricultural to an increasingly industrial economy, its NIS remains weak and fragmented. The mismatch between the two affected Thailand’s competitiveness and partially contributed to the recent economic crisis. Studies of NIS in countries like Thailand should focus...

  19. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  20. The contribution of energy efficiency to sustainable development in developing countries

    Levine, M.D.; Meyers, S.

    1992-01-01

    The demand for energy services is growing rapidly in developing countries. Low levels of energy efficiency in electric power supply and in energy use mean that the energy sector threatens to absorb an intolerably high share of available financial resources. Energy inefficiency also contributes to local and global environmental problems. A strategy of vigorously improving energy efficiency is thus a key element of a sustainable development path. Results reported in this paper show that there is considerable room for efficiency improvement in both existing and new capital stocks, but a much larger effort than presently underway is essential if the potential is to be realized. Assistance from the industrialized countries can play a major role in such an effort. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. Height-income association in developing countries: Evidence from 14 countries.

    Patel, Pankaj C; Devaraj, Srikant

    2017-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the height-income association is positive in developing countries, and whether income differences between shorter and taller individuals in developing countries are explained by differences in endowment (ie, taller individuals have a higher income than shorter individuals because of characteristics such as better social skills) or due to discrimination (ie, shorter individuals have a lower income despite having comparable characteristics). Instrumental variable regression, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, quantile regression, and quantile decomposition analyses were applied to a sample of 45 108 respondents from 14 developing countries represented in the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE) study. For a one-centimeter increase in country- and sex-adjusted median height, real income adjusted for purchasing power parity increased by 1.37%. The income differential between shorter and taller individuals was explained by discrimination and not by differences in endowments; however, the effect of discrimination decreased at higher values of country- and sex-adjusted height. Taller individuals in developing countries may realize higher income despite having characteristics similar to those of shorter individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Internationalisation of Firms in Developing Countries

    Kuada, John

    process with export and proceed in a path-dependent manner towards the location of production activities abroad. The present apper challenges this perspective, arguing that internationalisation of firms may be initiated through either or both upstream and downstream activities. It therefore proposes...... an integrated conceptual model for internationalisation, encompassing both upstream and downstream activities. Building on this understanding, the paper suggests that firms in general and developing county-based firms in particular, may adopt one or a combination of four routes of internationalisation: upstream...... only, downstream only, sequential upstream-downstream, and or concurrent upstream-downstream routes. The implication of these perspectives for policy, strategy and research are discussed....

  3. Skilled migration and health outcomes in developing countries.

    Uprety, Dambar

    2018-04-30

    Many studies have found that health outcomes decline when health professionals leave the country, but do such results remain consistent in gender- and income-disaggregated skilled migration? To help uncover explanations for such a pro-migration nature of health outcomes, the present study revisits this topic but allows for associations of skilled migration with mortality and life expectancy to differ between male and female, and between low- and high-income countries. Using a panel of 133 developing countries as source and 20 OECD countries as destination from 1980 to 2010 allowing the coefficient on emigration across different education levels to differ, the study finds the negative effect of high-skilled emigration on health outcomes. Such effect is more pronounced for high-skilled female migration than those for male and for low-income countries than for middle-and high-income countries. Results also show that such adverse effect is larger for African countries than non-African ones. However, the low-skilled migration appears to be insignificant to affect health outcomes in developing countries. Thus, skilled migration is detrimental to longevity in developing countries but unskilled migration is not.

  4. Income inequality and population health: a panel data analysis on 21 developed countries

    Roberta Torre; Mikko Myrskylä

    2011-01-01

    The relative income-health hypothesis postulates that income distribution is one of the key determinants of population health. The discussion on the age and gender patterns of this association is still open. We test the relative income-health hypothesis using a panel data covering 21 developed countries for over 30 years. We find that net of trends in GDP per head and unobserved period and country factors, income inequality, measured by the Gini index, is strongly and positively associated wi...

  5. THE INDONESIAN BANK CRISIS AND RESTRUCTURING: LESSONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Mari PANGESTU

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the Indonesian experience in 1997, this paper demonstrates the complexity of managing banking crises deals. It aims at deriving conclusions from this experience for other developing countries facing similar problems. The paper also refers to comparative experiences of other countries, in particular Malaysia and Thailand, examines the IMF programme and reveals its shortcomings. The key question is to what extent the ineffectiveness and slow progress of bank restructuring, corporate ...

  6. Financing of power expansion for developing countries

    Friedmann, E.

    1975-01-01

    The need for a paper of this kind, which was first identified in the Operations Evaluation Report on Power of 1972, became more pressing when the increases in oil prices precipitated the development by the LDCs of more capital intensive sources of power as alternative to oil-fired thermal plants. The occasion for its preparation was the participation of Mr. Friedmann in (i) a Seminar on nuclear power development in LDCs for utility managers organized by IAEA and the Jamaican Government last June and (ii) a Scientific Afternoon on the same subject at the Nineteenth Regular Session of the General Conference of IAEA. The paper reviews the likely growth of Power/Nuclear installation in LDCs, the associated capital requirements in foreign and domestic currencies, the past and projected sources of these funds - official and private -, and points out the growing proportion of foreign borrowing and investments that would be required by the sector. The urgency of mobilizing sufficient resources is brought up. Intentionally, no implications have been drawn in this article regarding Bank policy - either for lending in the sectors or for assistance in mobilizing resources. These will be dealt with separately in cooperation with those concerned. (author)

  7. An Analysis of Key Factors in Developing a Smart City

    Aidana Šiurytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept Smart City is used widely but it is perceived differently as well. Literature review reveals key elements of the Smart City – Information and Communication Technologies and Smart Citizens. Nevertheless, raising public awareness is not a priority of local municipalities which are trying to develop cities. Focus group discussion aims to analyse citizens’ insights in regards to the Smart City and their contribution to creation of it. Case study of Vilnius examines a position of mu-nicipality in developing city as smart. Study contains suggestions for the improvement of communication in the city. Methods employed: comparative literature analysis, focus group investigation, case study.

  8. Factors in Organisational Environmental Management System Implementation – Developed vs. Developing Country Contexts

    Constance Kola-Lawal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Country specificities and national cultures influence Environmental Management Systems (EMS implementation and pro-environmental behaviour in organisations. Previous studies have focused on organisations in developed or emerging economies, creating a need to establish the extent to which findings are applicable to developing counterparts. This paper presents EMS implementation from a developing country perspective, reporting on EMS implementation factors (drivers, benefits, barriers affecting Nigerian organisations’ pro-environmental behaviour, by analysing questionnaire responses from 136 Nigerian organisational respondents. Most commonly cited drivers were ‘environmental concern’ and ‘desire for improved organisational efficiency’. Key barriers were ‘cost of implementation/budget barriers’ and ‘regulatory agency bureaucracy’. Key benefits were ‘reduced environmental accidents and improved site safety’, ‘enhanced corporate image’ and ‘more efficient resource use’. To situate findings within a global construct, results were compared with previous studies in more developed economies. EMS implementation factors differed from those in more developed economies. Plausible explanations for differences are discussed.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment for a Developing Country like India

    Ahmed, Shamsuzzaman; Saha, Indranil

    2017-04-01

    The developing world is facing an increased risk of accelerating disaster losses. A concrete risk assessment along with subsequent management program involving identification, mitigation and preparedness will assist in rehabilitation and reconstruction once the disaster has struck is critical to subvert the magnitude of the loss incurred. A developing country like India has been taken as an example to highlight the elements mentioned. Most countries like India in the developing world is facing a mounting challenge to promote economic growth and bring down poverty. In this scenario, significant climatic changes will not only impact key economic sectors but also add to the existing conundrum. Sudden onset of natural calamities pose an increasing problem to the developing countries for which risk management strategies need to be forged in order to deal with such hazards. If this is not the case, then a substantial diversion of financial resources to reconstruction in the post disaster phase severely messes up the budget planning process. This compromises economic growth in the long run. Envisaging cost effective mitigation measures to minimize environmental and socio economic toll from natural disasters is the immediate requirement. Often it has been found that an apparent lack of historical data on catastrophic events makes hazard assessment an extremely difficult process. For this it is useful to establish preliminary maps to identify high risk zones and justify the utilization of funds. Vulnerability studies assess the physical, social and economic consequences that result from the occurrence of a severe natural phenomenon. Also they take into account public awareness of risk and the consequent ability to cope with such risks. Risk analysis collates information from hazard assessment and vulnerability studies in the form of an estimation of probable future losses in the face of similar hazards. Promoting different governmental schemes to catastrophe risk absorption

  10. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  11. Globalization and the Least Developed Countries: Potentials and Pitfalls

    Bigman, D.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most notable changes in the world economy during the past three decades has been the diverging trends in the growth of the developing countries. Compared to East Asian countries that have integrated well into the global economy, those of Sub-Saharan Africa have remained stagnant and have

  12. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility ...

  13. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  14. Bank concentration, country income and financial development in ...

    kirstam

    between bank concentration and financial development in the SADC region. ... 5The study findings suggest that bank assets in SADC are concentrated in ... a country's cities/administrative regions, or across countries within a regional ... sector emphasises the importance of local embeddedness, networks, ...... The Case of.

  15. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments in developing countries

    1976-01-01

    This report reviews the current nature and severity of the problems related to nuclear medicine instruments in developing countries and gives the recommendations of the Advisory Group on the development of improved strategies to assure that the instruments are effectively maintained while in use. A compilation of data from the Register of Medical Radioisotope Units (IAEA-167) on medical radioisotope instrumentation installed in developing countries and some comments and suggestions contained in reports of Agency Technical Assistance Experts are also presented

  16. Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    Burgers, Irene; Mosquera, Irma

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences. The article provides an introduction to the background of the OECD’s BEPS initiatives (Action Plan, Low Income Countries Report, Multilateral Framework, Inclusive Framework) and the conc...

  17. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  18. Analysis of Public Sector Efficiency in Developed Countries

    Ivan Lovre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector in developed countries went through various forms of transformation in the twentieth century. The expansion of the public sector resulted in high levels of public spending in developed countries. The financial crisis of 2008 led to recessions in the economies of developed countries, the public debt growth, and actualized the issue of the public sector optimal size and efficiency. This study analysed the public sector efficiency in 19 developed countries. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the size of public expenditure and economic growth in the global financial crisis and the measures implemented. The aim of the research in this paper is a comparison of total and partial efficiency of the public sector in developed countries, in order to determine the characteristics of the public sector operations. The comparison covers the areas of the public sector operations in order to identify sources of inefficiency. Partial and overall efficiency of countries are analysed with different size and concept of the public sector, to determine the relationship between the public sector size, efficiency and welfare of citizens. The research results clearly indicate (unjustified state intervention in developed countries.

  19. Implementation of sustainable energy programs in developing countries

    Spitalnik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Energy, a major contributor to development, is an essential element for increasing quality of life. During the next decades, the developing world will experience an explosive increase of energy demand, requiring enormous efforts and ingenuity to be fully satisfied. Delays may create public frustration for not achieving paradigm levels of quality of life, giving eventually rise to serious pressures on governments. The concept of sustainable energy options for development cannot be analyzed under the same prism in developed and developing countries. The relative degree of a country development should be introduced when setting up the path to sustainable development. (author)

  20. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    Gopinathan Nair, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  1. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  2. A strategy to improve priority setting in developing countries.

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-09-01

    Because the demand for health services outstrips the available resources, priority setting is one of the most difficult issues faced by health policy makers, particularly those in developing countries. Priority setting in developing countries is fraught with uncertainty due to lack of credible information, weak priority setting institutions, and unclear priority setting processes. Efforts to improve priority setting in these contexts have focused on providing information and tools. In this paper we argue that priority setting is a value laden and political process, and although important, the available information and tools are not sufficient to address the priority setting challenges in developing countries. Additional complementary efforts are required. Hence, a strategy to improve priority setting in developing countries should also include: (i) capturing current priority setting practices, (ii) improving the legitimacy and capacity of institutions that set priorities, and (iii) developing fair priority setting processes.

  3. Interconnection of the Keys north of the country with the National Electro energetic System (SEN) through a submarine cable

    Sánchez Yañez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Most of the keys of the north of the country have a high potential for tourism Sun and beach, which is why each has an associated infrastructure that allows hotels have the necessary quality standards. Within this infrastructure the continuous electrical service must have each hotel to meet the needs of tourists stands. Today the keys are isolated from the SEN and electrical service is supplied by generators. These groups feed on fuel and diesel, and generate polluting gases near where the major hotel groups are. The problems in transporting fuel and pollution they generate have led to begin to analyze different ways of providing electric service stably in the keys. One possible option to address the problems generated by power generators in an isolated system is to interconnect the cay with SEN. This connection can be made in three ways; by airlines, underground cables or submarine cables. The airlines in the tourist areas are discarded because they affect the visuality this is why variants of underground cables or submarines are almost always handled. The proposal is to interconnect the keys with submarine cable where current conditions do not allow the use of underground cables. This interconnection can meet the demand of the keys stably and more reliably than current conditions. In addition to cases where there is a tourism growth should be no more generators only have a cable with the ability to transfer all the power needed. (author)

  4. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.

  5. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  6. Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting

    Alicja Brodzka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting The aim of the paper is to bring closer Country-by-Country Reporting and outline possible future amendments of the introduced anti-tax avoidance measures. The article presents the motives of implementing the international CbC initiative, aimed at increasing transparency of the biggest multinational enterprises, with particular emphasis on the specificity of the European Union. Part 2 of the paper analyses the Euro-pean legal bases for companies’ financial reporting. It also gives an overview of the main findings of Directive 2016/881, which implements Country-by-Country Reporting and allows for the exchange of information between tax authorities. Part 3 deals with the national perspective, presenting the CbC solu-tions implemented to the Polish legal system; the paper also attempts to assess the potential impact of tax information disclosures, both from the perspective of taxpayers and the tax administration. The final part presents conclusions and tries to draft future developments of the Country-by-Country Reporting system. In the paper, the following research methods have been used: critical analysis and deduction, with partic-ular reference to the source materials and legal acts, as well as the reports of the European Commission, consulting companies, and NGOs. Although the article deals with tax matters, CbC Reporting is an im-portant and relevant issue from the point of view of researchers and accounting specialists. Reporting this phenomenon is part of the accounting science as a universal tool for recording economic phenomena. The author examined all relevant sources and took into account all important factors in order to obtain a com-prehensive picture of CbC Reporting and to prepare a paper that may serve as a reference for future research.

  7. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of radioisotopes in the developing countries

    NONE

    1963-04-15

    Some of the more important isotope applications, especially those which are or can be profitably introduced in the developing countries, are reviewed. The use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture, and hydrology is discussed

  9. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  10. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  11. Gender Issues in the Management of Infertility in Developing Countries

    Gender Issues in the Management of Infertility in Developing Countries. Editorial. Infertility ... heritage has become morbidly adherent in the mind of even the highly ... the respondents preferred male to female children, and this was attributed to ...

  12. Promotion and financing of nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    1987-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in February 1986 a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Mechanisms to Assist Developing Countries in the Promotion and Financing of Nuclear Power Programmes, which was asked: (a) To identify and analyse the problems of and constraints on nuclear power introduction/expansion in developing countries, with particular attention being paid to the problems of financing nuclear power projects; (b) To study mechanisms for dealing with the identified problems and constraints in order to assist developing countries with the promotion and financing of their nuclear power programmes, and to determine the role of the IAEA in this context. This report summarizes the Senior Expert Group's study. It also presents a number of recommendations on mechanisms to assist developing countries in promoting and financing their nuclear power programmes. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Developing countries and copyright in the information age The ...

    . Developing countries are especially disadvantaged by diminished access to works. In this article it is argued that adherence to the principle of functional equivalence in implementing the anti-circumvention provisions of the WCT will ensure ...

  14. Advancing LGBTQI2 rights in developing countries through research ...

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... Advancing LGBTQI2 rights in developing countries through research ... the role of research in advancing the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, ... cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international workshop.

  15. Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  17. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    First Lady

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... international trade on economic development in Nigeria. In the .... devaluation of currency in order to make the exports of the devaluation country's ..... External Shocks and Inconsistent Domestic Policies, IMF Staff. Papers, Vol.

  18. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  19. The regulation, the key for the development of renewable energies

    Saez de Miera, G.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation, rather than mere availability of resources-water, wind, sun-, is the key factor for an appropriate development of the renewable energies. A comparative analysis of the main regulatory support schemes feed-in-tariffs, green certificates and auctions is done in this paper, concluding that systems based on feed-in-tariff are more efficient and effective. Finally, we describe and analyze the regulatory arrangements in place to support wind energy in Spain, a well-known worldwide success, which is based on three basic foundations: predictability, stability and sufficiency. (Author)

  20. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries.

  1. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries. (author)

  2. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools and methods for water loss control. Water loss management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries provide a decision support toolbox (appropriate tools and methodologies) for assessing, quantif...

  3. Present and future of bioleaching in developing countries

    Acevedo, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays bioleaching occupies an increasingly important place among the available mining technologies. Today bioleaching is no longer a promising technology but an actual economical alternative for treating specific mineral ores. An important number of the current large-scale bioleaching operations are located in developing countries. This situation is determined by the fact that several developing countries have significant mineral reserves and by the characteristics of bioleaching that make...

  4. Growth and project finance in the least developed countries

    Lisbeth F. la Cour; Jennifer Müller

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of ...

  5. Subnational Taxes in Developing Countries: The Way Forward.

    Richard M. Bird; Roy Bahl

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and evidence on the most appropriate structure of regional and local taxes in developing countries. A good subnational tax system is critical to an effective and sustainable system of intergovernmental fiscal relations – a need that has become increasingly important around the world as more and more public services are being delivered through subnational governments. In most developing countries potentially sound and productive taxes exist that are suitable f...

  6. Coping with terms-of-trade shocks in developing countries

    Christian Broda; Cedric Tille

    2003-01-01

    Sharp swings in a developing country's terms of trade, the price of its exports relative to the price of its imports, can seriously disrupt output growth. An analysis of the effects of a decline in export prices in seventy-five developing economies suggests that countries with a flexible exchange rate will experience a much milder contraction in output than their counterparts with fixed exchange rate regimes.

  7. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, KC Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the earl...

  8. Organization and training in radiotherapy for developing countries in Africa

    1991-07-01

    This Seminar was arranged to help identify and solve problems likely to be encountered by developing countries, especially in Africa, interested in developing radiotherapy facilities. The Proceedings contain status reports of medical facilities in a number of African countries as well as several more general papers dealing with the epidemiology of cancer in Africa, the attitudes of patients and the importance of different radiotherapeutical techniques in cancer treatment. The individual papers are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

    Seema Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries--in education, personal autonomy, and more--explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold certain cultural views that lead to gender inequality? This article discusses several mechanisms through which, as countries grow, gender gaps narrow. I argue that while much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the process of development, society-specific factors are also at play...

  10. Capital Flight and Transfer from Resource-Rich Developing Countries

    Demachi, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of international resource price movements on capital outflows from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) by distinguishing capital flight and capital transfers. The volume of capital flight and transfers are calculated and their determinants are analyzed using macro-panel data constituting 21 resource-rich developing countries from 1990 to 2011. Through the regression analysis, the linkage between capital flight and resource revenue as well as that betwe...

  11. Necessities and constraints of petroleum exploration in developing countries

    Fetah, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the petroleum low prices, persisting since 1986, many developing countries, non-producing petroleum, are facing growing energy problems: fall of petroleum exploration activities, quasi stoppage of projects for energy substitute development, consecutively to the lowering of the crude oil prices. This communication shows the necessity for these countries to resume petroleum exploration and proposes solutions in order to release constraints: international cooperation, fiscal incentives, access to the financial market, etc. Morocco is taken as an example

  12. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  13. Must developing countries commit quantified targets? Time flexibility and equity in climate change mitigation

    Sugiyama, Taishi; Deshun, Liu

    2004-01-01

    Equity and efficiency dimensions of global time flexibility in GHG emission reduction are analyzed with an integrated assessment model. Global time flexibility is justifiable to some extent as found in previous studies by Wigley et al. Nevertheless, it does not necessarily serve as a rationale to delay emission reduction commitment and efforts of developed countries as they suggested. The time flexibility can be saved for developing countries, and it must be so in equity consideration; early reduction by developed countries eases burden of developing countries in both time and emission quantity dimensions. This equity-oriented argument is robust against time and spatial efficiency consideration, since the apparent benefits that might accrue to developed countries from delaying reductions will by no means be transferred to far distant future developing countries for mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The analysis thus support entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol without participation of key low income developing countries such as China and India with legally binding quantified targets in the First Commitment Period from 2008 to 2012

  14. Bureaucratic Structure and Bureaucratic Performance in Less Developed Countries

    Rauch, James E; Evans, Peter B.

    1999-01-01

    Recent cross-country empirical analysis has found that privately produced ratings of the performance of the central government bureaucracy in areas such as corruption and red tape are significant predictors of economic performance. We argue that several relatively simple, easily identifiable structural features constitute the key ingredients of effective state bureaucracies and should help to predict these ratings: competitive salaries, internal promotion and career stability, and meritocrati...

  15. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  16. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh

    2008-11-01

    Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in developing countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Literature search was carried out using the terms obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, nutrition, physical activity, and developing countries, from PubMed from 1966 to June 2008 and from web sites and published documents of the World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization. With improvement in economic situation in developing countries, increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in adults and particularly in children. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, and reduced physical activity. Furthermore, aggressive community nutrition intervention programs for undernourished children may increase obesity. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood catch-up obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and T2DM. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budgets is enormous. To prevent increasing morbidity and mortality due to obesity-related T2DM and cardiovascular disease in developing countries, there is an urgent need to initiate large-scale community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options, particularly for children. International health agencies and respective government should intensively focus on primordial and primary prevention programs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

  17. Dopamine signaling and myopia development: What are the key challenges.

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Pardue, Machelle T; Iuvone, P Michael; Qu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development. Inspired by the convergence of epidemiological and animal studies in support of the inverse relationship between outdoor activity and risk of developing myopia and by the close biological relationship between light exposure and dopamine release/signaling, we felt it is timely and important to critically review the role of DA in myopia development. This review will revisit several key points of evidence for and against DA mediating light control of myopia: 1) the causal role of extracellular retinal DA levels, 2) the mechanism and action of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and 3) the roles of cellular/circuit retinal pathways. We examine the experiments that show causation by altering DA, DA receptors and visual pathways using pharmacological, transgenic, or visual environment approaches. Furthermore, we critically evaluate the safety issues of a DA-based treatment strategy and some approaches to address these issues. The review identifies the key questions and challenges in translating basic knowledge on DA signaling and myopia from animal studies into effective pharmacological treatments for myopia in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Key feasibility considerations when conducting vaccine clinical trials in Asia–Pacific countries

    Lansang EZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Kenneth Tan,2 Saumya Nayak,1 Ken J Lee,1 Karen Wai1 1Feasibility and Site Identification – Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2National University of Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Conducting clinical trial feasibility is an important first step in initiating a clinical trial. A robust feasibility process ensures that a realistic capability assessment is made before conducting a trial. A retrospective analysis of vaccine clinical trials was performed to understand changes which could affect feasibility recommendations. Methods: Feasibilities conducted by Quintiles between January 2011 and August 2012 were reviewed. Vaccine studies only involving Asia–Pacific countries were selected, and common study parameters were identified. Information from Quintiles’ database was retrieved to examine changes in parameters over time. Results: A total of six vaccine studies were identified within the 1.7-year period. Two studies were excluded because they did not contain feasibility information or had involved sites that were sponsor selected. Four studies were analyzed. Three cases required healthy volunteers, while one case involved a specific patient population. Age requirement and seasonality of disease mainly influenced recommendations for Study 1. Sponsor’s marketing strategy influenced the recommendations for Study 2. Study 3 showed the effect of a country’s immunization program and reimbursement of vaccines on a study’s success. In contrast to the other studies, Study 4 demonstrated the impact of eligibility criteria in recruitment recommendations for a vaccine trial requiring specific patient pools. Conclusion: Feasibility recommendations for vaccine trials are largely based on (1 eligibility criteria; (2 cultural beliefs; (3 country’s past recruitment performance; (4 use of advertising; (5 site’s access to subject populations; (6 cooperation with local health professionals and government; (7

  19. Management of financial sources for innovative development: foreign countries experience

    Dyba O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the main features of financial sources management for innovative development in development economies of foreign countries. The article describes the peculiarities of above mentioned type of management, using the examples of such countries as Germany, USA and Japan, which represent different kinds of economy and society. The main sources for innovative development financing are highlighted within the national economies conditions. The authors proposed the generalized models of financial sources management for innovative development. The information will be useful for Ukrainian model of financial sources management development.

  20. Energy and economic development in Lithuania and neighbouring countries

    Jankauskas, V.; Shtremeikiene, D.

    1995-01-01

    In Lithuania as also in neighbouring countries (Poland, Latvia, Belarus, Russia) economic reforms are going on. All these countries, better or worse, slower or quicker, are restructuring their economies from centrally planned into market based ones. The neighbouring countries also are the main Lithuania's trading partners, and Russia is a sole supplier of crude oil and natural gas. This article deals with the analysis of the latest economic development in Lithuania and in neighbouring countries, as well as with it impact on the development of the Lithuanian energy sector. The analysis is based on the statistical data of the last few years and on some projections of future development. (author). 12 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs

  1. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  2. Scope of nuclear medicine in the developing countries

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    What should a developing country do to promote nuclear medicine? Practice of nuclear medicine requires sophisticated electronic instruments and a variety of radiopharmaceuticals. Ideal situation would be when both are obtainable from local sources. It is not an easy task for developing countries to produce these electronic marvels locally. It anticipates a widespread electronics industry in a country so that various components which go in the big machines are also made locally. One, who has worked in a developing country would realize how exasperating a task it is to maintain, service and repair imported instruments. They break down often in the tropics, are difficult to service due to lack of spare parts and their down-time unusually long. Many of the modern instruments have lots of ''frills and laces'' and as a policy, it is prudent to purchase something which is ''bare to bones'' and simple to use but still capable of providing the essential range of applications

  3. Scope of nuclear medicine in the developing countries

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    What should a developing country do to promote nuclear medicine? Practice of nuclear medicine requires sophisticated electronic instruments and a variety of radiopharmaceuticals. Ideal situation would be when both are obtainable from local sources. It is not an easy task for developing countries to produce these electronic marvels locally. It anticipates a widespread electronics industry in a country so that various components which go in the big machines are also made locally. One, who has worked in a developing country would realize how exasperating a task it is to maintain, service and repair imported instruments. They break down often in the tropics, are difficult to service due to lack of spare parts and their down-time unusually long. Many of the modern instruments have lots of ``frills and laces`` and as a policy, it is prudent to purchase something which is ``bare to bones`` and simple to use but still capable of providing the essential range of applications

  4. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Ahmed, Syud A; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample-particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa-with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  5. Manpower requirements for nuclear power in developing countries

    Csik, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is recognized that each country has its individual unique characteristics and that there is no typical or average developing country. Common conditions represent exceptions, rather than the rule. Manpower requirements, however, are created by the tasks to be performed and activities to be carried out at each definite stage of a nuclear power project or programme. These tasks and activities, as well as the manpower requirements they create, are of a similar nature for any country, subject to the influence of prevailing local conditions. First, successive stages of the evolution of a nuclear power programme are defined. These are: pre-planning, planning, study and procurement, construction, operation of the first plant, confirmed and self-sufficient in implementing nuclear power projects. The developing countries are then classified according to the present stage of their evolution. Finally, the present and future manpower requirements of each country or group of countries are estimated. No attempt has been made to try to establish any precise data for any country in particular. The results obtained are global estimates, intended as indications of trends and of orders of magnitude. It is found that the developing world's present manpower requirements for nuclear power are of the order of 100,000 people, of which about 20,000 need specialized nuclear training. By the year 2000, for an installed nuclear capacity of 150 to 200 GW, overall manpower requirements should increase to more than 500,000 which would include 130,000 with specialized nuclear training. (author)

  6. On the effects of monetary policy shocks in developing countries

    Magda Kandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data for a sample of developing countries, the time-series evidence indicates the allocation of monetary policy shocks, both expansionary and contractionary, between price inflation and output growth. Subsequently, cross-country regressions evaluate factors that underlie the difference in these allocations and their implications. The real effects of monetary shocks increase as the elasticity of aggregate demand increases with respect to monetary shocks. Nonetheless, capacity constraints hamper the output adjustment to monetary shocks and increase price inflation. Across countries, trend output growth increases with the output response to monetary shocks. Consistent with the stabilizing function of monetary policy, the variability of output growth decreases in the face of monetary fluctuations across countries. In contrast, monetary fluctuations increase the trend and variability of price inflation across countries.

  7. Adolescent childbearing in developing countries: a global review.

    Singh, S

    1998-06-01

    This article discusses the current levels and recent trends in the rate of adolescent childbearing, the timing of the first birth, and births to unmarried women for 43 developing countries. Differences in rates of adolescent childbearing by residence and level of education are also examined. The analysis is based on nationally representative fertility surveys. Substantial declines in adolescent fertility have occurred in North Africa and Asia, but levels are still high in some countries. Declines are beginning to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, but current levels are still high in most countries of this region, and the proportion of births to unmarried adolescents is increasing in some countries. In Latin America, where the level of teenage childbearing is moderate, declines are less prevalent and some small increases have occurred. Higher education is associated with lower rates of adolescent childbearing, but other socioeconomic changes cancel or reduce this effect in several countries.

  8. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    Milana, Marcella

      In recent years there has been a rising political attention on competence development both at national and international level. At European level in particular, since 2000, with the set of the Lisbon Agenda, different bodies representing the Union have been very productive in generating working...... papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  9. EG-VEGF: a key endocrine factor in placental development.

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also named prokineticin 1, is the canonical member of the prokineticin family. Numerous reports suggest a direct involvement of this peptide in normal and pathological reproductive processes. Recent advances propose EG-VEGF as a key endocrine factor that controls many aspects of placental development and suggest its involvement in the development of preeclampsia (PE), the most threatening pathology of human pregnancy. This review describes the finely tuned action and regulation of EG-VEGF throughout human pregnancy, argues for its clinical relevance as a potential diagnostic marker of the onset of PE, and discusses future research directions for therapeutic targeting of EG-VEGF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combating infection in developing countries. The IAEA contribution

    Groth, Stefan; Khan, Baldip; Padhy, Ajit; Soo Ling Ch'ng; Soricelli, Andreas; Yanfen Xie; Ford, JoAnne

    2000-08-01

    Control of infection and infectious diseases is an international priority. Worldwide infectious diseases are responsible for an estimated 13 million deaths each year, exacting a large and disproportionately high toll in developing countries. Forty-three percent of all deaths in developing countries are due to infectious diseases, whereas the corresponding figure for developed countries is only 1%. A large proportion of these deaths could be prevented if timely diagnosis and effective treatment were available locally. Loss of life or productivity due to infectious disease is not just a health matter, it also has an important social and economic impact on individuals, families, regions, and countries. According to the World Health Organization, infectious diseases are now the world's largest killer of young adults and children. Hundreds of millions of people are disabled by infectious disease. The economic impact of repeated episodes of illness and long term disability is a major cause of underdevelopment in many countries today. For example, according to the WHO 1999 Infectious Disease Report, malaria alone has cost Africa billions of dollars in the past decade. More recently, a WHO study estimates that malaria slows economic growth in Africa by up to 1.3% each year and that malaria-free countries average three times higher gross domestic product per person than do malarious countries. This brochure highlights the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in disseminating nuclear techniques to combat infection and infectious disease. Some of the techniques are used to diagnose and manage infectious diseases of serious concern to developing countries - malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and Chagas disease. Other techniques are used to detect infection sites in the body, in bones, and organs. The challenges posed by infection and infectious disease and the nuclear techniques that the Agency offers for support illustrate how nuclear techniques can be used to

  11. Developing countries inclined to nuclear energy. Advent of newcomer countries age

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Although a certain degree of braking was applied to the nuclear power development of the world after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, many countries maintain the attitude of promoting nuclear power from the viewpoints of global environmental issues and energy security. This paper overviews the trends of nuclear power generation around the world, and then introduces the nuclear power situation of the nuclear power generation countries such as Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, Argentina, and Taiwan. In Germany, nuclear departure policy since before the Fukushima Daiichi accident was accelerated, and the nuclear phase-out law was passed and put into force in August 2011. This paper also introduces the nuclear development trends in the newly introducing countries of United Arab Emirates (UAE), Belarus, Bangladesh, Turkey, Vietnam, and Saudi Arabia. Iran's first Bushehr No.1 unit began operation in 2013, and in the future United Arab Emirates will join in 2018 and Belarus will join 2019 as the nuclear power generation country. In the 2020s, several more countries are expected to newly join. (A.O.)

  12. Corporate Taxation and BEPS : A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    Burgers, I.J.J.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these

  13. Corporate Taxation and BEPS : A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    Burgers, Irene; Mosquera, Irma

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences.

  14. Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    I. Burgers (Irene); I. Mosquera (Irma)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these

  15. Development research in countries in transition: Introduction | IDRC ...

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... Development research is risky work — and never riskier than in conditions of political, economic, and social transition. But transitions in developing countries can open radically new opportunities for research that informs political change and relieves poverty, while advancing development that is both ...

  16. Operational approach to the environmental problems in the developing countries

    Amsyari, F

    1980-01-01

    Environmental programs associated with socioeconomic development are examined. In most developing countries, environmental problems affecting human health are connected with poverty, over-population, and biological pollutants. An analysis of the environmental problems associated with socioeconomic development in Surabaya City, Indonesia, is presented. An analytical methodology and a mathematical model for an integrated environmental program are described. (1 diagram, 5 references, 5 tables)

  17. The trajectories of EAEC countries development: Numerical analysis of competitive strategies in investments

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Medvedev, M. A.; Isaichik, K. F.; Dyomina, M. I.; Berg, I. A.; Kit, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses comparative analysis of trajectories in the development of participating countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) in a two-dimensional phase space. The coordinates in the space is represented by the value of a dynamic variable that is a key indicator of the country's development, and the rate of its relative growth. This allows for construction of a ternary classification diagram describing competitive behavior strategies of countries in question. The comparative analysis was run for two primary factors: the size of investment in the main capital and R&D spendings. The authors carried out analysis and identification of competitive strategies for the behavior of the EAEC countries, as well as he proposed conclusions and recommendations on improving the policy of economic development.

  18. Development of key performance indicators for prehospital emergency care.

    Murphy, Adrian; Wakai, Abel; Walsh, Cathal; Cummins, Fergal; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-04-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and evaluate critical areas of clinical and support functions that influence patient outcome. Traditional prehospital emergency care performance monitoring has focused solely on response time metrics. The landscape of emergency care delivery in Ireland is in the process of significant national reconfiguration. The development of KPIs is therefore considered one of the key priorities in prehospital research. The aim of this study was to develop a suite of KPIs for prehospital emergency care in Ireland. A systematic literature review of prehospital care performance measurement was undertaken followed by a three-round Delphi consensus process facilitated by a broad-based multidisciplinary group of panellists. The consensus process was conducted between June 2012 and October 2013. Each candidate indicator on the Delphi survey questionnaire was rated using a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Agreement was defined as at least 70% of responders rating an indicator as 'agree' or 'strongly agree' on the rating scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Sensitivity of the ratings was examined for robustness by bootstrapping the original sample. Of the 78 citations identified by the systematic review, 5 relevant publications were used to select candidate indicators for the Delphi round 1 questionnaire. Response rates in Delphi rounds 1 and 2 were 89% and 83%, respectively. Following the consensus development conference, 101 KPIs reached consensus. Based on the Donabedian framework for quality-of-care indicators, 7 of the KPIs which reached agreement were structure KPIs, 74 were process KPIs and 20 were outcome KPIs. The highest ranked indicator was a process KPI ('Direct transport of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI)-capable facility for ECG to PCI time performance measurement using scientifically valid and reliable KPIs. Employing a Delphi panel of key

  19. Development and Implementation of a Pediatric Palliative Care Program in a Developing Country

    Megan Doherty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPalliative care is recognized as an important component of care for children with cancer and other life-limiting conditions. In resource limited settings, palliative care is a key component of care for children with cancer and other life-limiting conditions. Globally, 98% of children who need palliative care live in low- or middle-income countries, where there are very few palliative care services available. There is limited evidence describing the practical considerations for the development and implementation of sustainable and cost-effective palliative care services in developing countries.ObjectivesOur aim is to describe the key considerations and initiatives that were successful in planning and implementing a hospital-based pediatric palliative care service specifically designed for a resource-limited setting.SettingBangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU is a tertiary referral hospital in Bangladesh. Local palliative care services are very limited and focused on adult patients. In partnership with World Child Cancer, a project establishing a pediatric palliative care service was developed for children with cancer at BSMMU.ResultsWe describe four key elements which were crucial for the success of this program: (1 raising awareness and sensitizing hospital administrators and clinical staff about pediatric palliative care; (2 providing education and training on pediatric palliative care for clinical staff; (3 forming a pediatric palliative care team; and (4 collecting data to characterize the need for pediatric palliative care.ConclusionThis model of a hospital-based pediatric palliative care service can be replicated in other resource-limited settings and can be expanded to include children with other life-limiting conditions. The development of pilot programs can generate interest among local physicians to become trained in pediatric palliative care and can be used to advocate for the palliative care needs of children.

  20. Outsourcing Strategies of Emerging Country Firms : Are they Different from Developed Country Multinationals?

    Fleury, A.; Arkader, R.; Größler, A.; Timenes Laugen, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze differences in the sourcing strategies of manufacturing firms from emerging and from developed markets. More specifically, we test whether manufacturers from emerging markets have other objectives when sourcing from within their countries or from international

  1. The Effects of Globalization on Working Conditions in Developing Countries : An Analysis Framework and Country Study Results

    Ruwan Jayasuriya

    2008-01-01

    Globalization defined as falling barriers to, and the increase in, trade, migration, and investment across borders directly affects workers in both developed and developing countries. While most global trade and investment is between the developed countries, globalization has increased dramatically in a number of developing countries. Understanding the effects of globalization is critical ...

  2. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  3. Space technology transfer to developing countries: opportunities and difficulties

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and security, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. Most nations aspiring to begin playing in the space league prefer technology transfer programs as a first step. Decreasing initial costs by small satellite technology made this affordable for many countries. However, there is a long way from this first step to establishment of a reliable space industry that can both survive in the long term with limited financial support from the government and meet national needs. This is especially difficult when major defense companies of industrialized countries are merging to sustain their competitiveness. The prerequisites for the success are implementation of a well-planned space program and existence of industrialization that can support basic testing and manufacturing activities and supply qualified manpower. In this study, the difficulties to be negotiated and the vicious circles to be broken for latecomers, that is, developing countries that invest on space technologies are discussed. Especially, difficulties in the technology transfer process itself, brain drain from developing countries to industrialized countries, strong competition from big space companies for domestic needs, costs of establishing and maintaining an infrastructure necessary for manufacturing and testing activities, and finally, the impact of export control will be emphasized. We will also try to address how and to what extent collaboration can solve or minimize these problems. In discussing the ideas mentioned above, lessons learned from the BILSAT Project, a technology transfer program from the UK, will be referred.

  4. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    Nada Raduški

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.

  5. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia....... The main research question is why it is so difficult for new entrepreneurs to enter markets, or in other words, why are the barriers to entry seemingly higher in developing countries? Development writers such as Hernando de Soto and Daron Acemoglu suggest that this question is closely related...... with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...

  6. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  7. The power of uncertainty - Reflections from a developing country

    Schiefler, Robson

    2010-09-15

    There are a myriad of paths to reach ideal sustainable energy global solution. Wind, water, solar and even nuclear technologies can provide solutions in long terms. But are these solutions really affordable for the developing countries? If we consider the economic block called BRIC, a new mind map will be needed. The green solutions are not the complete answer. For instance, these countries will have an increase of 75% in the electricity demand over the next decade. This paper presents the framework of the energy provision for these countries, arising some reflections about crucial questions, trying to answer them.

  8. Climate policy in developing countries and conditional transfers

    Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role international transfers may play in international climate policy in consideration of the policy's ancillary benefits, such as air quality improvements. Ancillary benefits are especially important in many developing countries, while climate protection benefits or primary benefits play a minor role on the political agenda of these countries. In contrast, industrialized countries have a strong interest in combating climate change. These often neglected asymmetries between the developing and industrialized world affect the impacts of transfers. Interestingly, as we will show, the cost differentials between different environmental technologies among countries are the crucial prerequisite for the functioning of a transfer scheme and not the cost differentials in the execution of climate policy. This result has been overlooked by standard pure public good approaches

  9. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  10. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  11. Development performances of agriculture in the Danube region countries

    Gajić Milivoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.

  12. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  13. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  14. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    Rayana, K.B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  15. Structural change in developing countries: has it decreased gender inequality?

    Michelle Rendall

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of female labor market outcomes from 1987 to 2008 by assessing the role of changing labor demand requirements in four developing countries: Brazil, Mexico, India and Thailand. The results highlight the importance of structural change in reducing gender disparities by decreasing the labor demand for physical attributes. The results show that India, the country with the greatest physical labor requirements, exhibits the largest labor market gender inequality. I...

  16. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  17. UV and EB radiation processing in developing countries

    Garnett, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ultraviolet and electron beams (EB) are to be considered as complementary technologies in the radiation processing field. In many countries, UV processing is used as the pathfinder for EB. In the developing countries the decision to adopt radiation processing techniques to choose between UV and EB will largely be determined by economics, the availability of the chemists and also skilled personnel to service both lines and equipment. (orig./A.B.)

  18. Tanzania. A developing mining country; Tansania. Bergbauland im Aufbruch

    Elsner, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Wirtschaftsgeologie der mineralischen Rohstoffe

    2009-03-19

    Tanzania is the rising country in East Africa, to which not least of all the booming mining sector contributes. Many large gold mines, two precious stone mines, three cement works and smaller facilities for extraction of salt, phosphates, gypsum, pozzolana, coal and coloured gemstones currently characterise the mining sector. The high mineral potential of the country combined with the mining legislation favouring investment will also lead in future to the development of further deposits in particular, nickel, gold, coal and graphite. (orig.)

  19. Implementing EHR in a developing country: potential challenges and benefits

    Tanko, Abdulai

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries are slow adopters of new technologies, particularly with regards to the health services of these countries. This study explores the data collection and management challenges in a Ghanaian hospital using an interpretative case study approach and proposes implementing an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system as a solution to these challenges. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Actor Network Theory (ANT) and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) are used in discussi...

  20. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.