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Sample records for ketogenic diet increases

  1. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  2. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

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    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  3. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

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    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  4. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  5. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

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    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  6. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

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    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable whi...

  7. A bioenergetics systems evaluation of ketogenic diet liver effects.

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    Hutfles, Lewis J; Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Selfridge, J Eva; Tan, Eephie; Thyfault, John P; Slawson, Chad; Fenton, Aron W; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for 1 month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared with the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered. The pattern of changes observed can be used to inform a broader systems overview of how ketogenic diets affect liver bioenergetics.

  8. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Damiani, Ernesto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review. PMID:25101284

  9. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

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    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with onset in infancy affecting 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients is refractory to antiepileptic drugs and they pose a challenge for the health care team. The ketogenic diet is an effective, non-pharmacological, alternative treatment for the management of refractory epilepsy. There is a need to establish guidelines for the adequate and increased use of the ketogenic diet in Spanish-speaking countries. The National Committee on the Ketogenic Diet, consisting of paediatric neurologists, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians, of the Argentine Society of Child Neurology has developed this consensus statement to standardize the use of the ketogenic diet based on the literature and clinical experience. Patient selection, pre-treatment family counseling, drug interactions, micronutrient supplementation, adverse effects, and discontinuation of the diet are discussed. The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for children with refractory epilepsy. Education and collaboration of the patient and their family is essential. The patient should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a protocol. The formation of a national multidisciplinary team and the publication of this document provide possibilities for new centers to integrate the ketogenic diet into their treatment options.

  10. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

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    Sharma, Suvasini; Tripathi, Manjari

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  11. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

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    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  12. The Ketogenic Diet: Making a Comeback.

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    Walczyk, Thomas; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-07-01

    Americans have embraced a large number of diets in an attempt to manage obesity, improve quality of life, and address specific health problems. Among diets developed to address health problems, the ketogenic diet has had a long and variable history. Developed in the 1920s by a faith healer to help children with epilepsy, this diet induces a state that mimics carbohydrate starvation. As medications became available and effectively addressed seizures, the diet fell out of favor. During the last few decades, researchers and clinicians have learned that it can be useful in children and adults with refractory epilepsy and a variety of other conditions. Once again, pharmacists may encounter patients who are employing dietary management of serious health problems. This very high-fat diet almost eliminates carbohydrates from the patient's food selection. The result is the substitution of ketone bodies as a source of energy. Today's ketogenic diet has been modified with scientifically proven adjustments to increase palatability and help with adherence. Effective for some forms of epilepsy, the ketogenic diet also seems to have some utility in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma, and many Americans are using it to lose weight. Consultant pharmacists may field questions about this diet, its potential to correct or alleviate health conditions, and its limitations. The article discusses the ketogenic diet's strengths, limitations, potential mechanisms, and use in a number of conditions with an emphasis on the elderly.

  13. The ketogenic diet and epilepsy.

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    Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M

    2008-03-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been used to treat medically refractory epilepsy. The mechanisms underlying its clinical effects, however, have remained a mystery. The evidence to date suggests that a fundamental shift from glycolysis to intermediary metabolism induced by the ketogenic diet is necessary and sufficient for clinical efficacy. This notion is supported by a growing number of studies indicating that glucose restriction, ketone bodies and polyunsaturated fatty acids may all play mechanistic roles, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, and decreasing reactive oxygen species production. Recent reports indicate that ketone bodies can reduce oxidative stress and that fatty acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling may also yield similar protective effects. Ketone bodies may attenuate spontaneous firing of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in central neurons, and pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis has been shown to retard epileptogenesis in a rat kindling model. While the mechanisms underlying the broad clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet remain unclear, there is growing evidence that the ketogenic diet alters the fundamental biochemistry of neurons in a manner that not only inhibits neuronal hyperexcitability but also induces a protective effect. Thus, the ketogenic diet may ultimately be useful in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders.

  14. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

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    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  16. Purines and Neuronal Excitability: Links to the Ketogenic Diet

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    Masino, SA; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, DN; Geiger, JD; Boison, D

    2011-01-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A1 receptor (A1R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A1Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A1R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A1Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  17. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  18. Rationale, Feasibility and Acceptability of Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Treatment.

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    Chung, Hae-Yun; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diet has been used for more than 80 years as a successful dietary regimen for epilepsy. Recently, dietary modulation by carbohydrate depletion via ketogenic diet has been suggested as an important therapeutic strategy to selectively kill cancer cells and as adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. However, some researchers insist ketogenic diet to be highly undesirable as ketogenic diet may trigger and/or exacerbate cachexia development and usually result in significant weight loss. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possibility of the use of ketogenic diet for oncology patients. Article search was performed from 1985 through 2017 and finally 10 articles were analyzed. The review focused on the results of human trials for cancer patients and checked the feasibility of using ketogenic diet for cancer patients as adjuvant therapy. The main outcomes showed improvement of body weight changes, anthropometric changes, serum blood profiles, and reduction in novel marker for tumor progression, TKTL1, and increase of ketone body. Lactate concentration was reduced, and no significant changes were reported in the measurements of quality of life. Ketogenic diet may be efficacious in certain cancer subtypes whose outcomes appear to correlate with metabolic status, but the results are not yet supportive and inconsistent. Therefore, it warrants further studies.

  19. A ketogenic diet reduces metabolic syndrome-induced allodynia and promotes peripheral nerve growth in mice.

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    Cooper, Michael A; Menta, Blaise W; Perez-Sanchez, Consuelo; Jack, Megan M; Khan, Zair W; Ryals, Janelle M; Winter, Michelle; Wright, Douglas E

    2018-08-01

    Current experiments investigated whether a ketogenic diet impacts neuropathy associated with obesity and prediabetes. Mice challenged with a ketogenic diet were compared to mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus exercise. Additionally, an intervention switching to a ketogenic diet following 8 weeks of high-fat diet was performed to compare how a control diet, exercise, or a ketogenic diet affects metabolic syndrome-induced neural complications. When challenged with a ketogenic diet, mice had reduced bodyweight and fat mass compared to high-fat-fed mice, and were similar to exercised, high-fat-fed mice. High-fat-fed, exercised and ketogenic-fed mice had mildly elevated blood glucose; conversely, ketogenic diet-fed mice were unique in having reduced serum insulin levels. Ketogenic diet-fed mice never developed mechanical allodynia contrary to mice fed a high-fat diet. Ketogenic diet fed mice also had increased epidermal axon density compared all other groups. When a ketogenic diet was used as an intervention, a ketogenic diet was unable to reverse high-fat fed-induced metabolic changes but was able to significantly reverse a high-fat diet-induced mechanical allodynia. As an intervention, a ketogenic diet also increased epidermal axon density. In vitro studies revealed increased neurite outgrowth in sensory neurons from mice fed a ketogenic diet and in neurons from normal diet-fed mice given ketone bodies in the culture medium. These results suggest a ketogenic diet can prevent certain complications of prediabetes and provides significant benefits to peripheral axons and sensory dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mitochondrial Profiles and the Anticonvulsant Effect of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD in adolescent rats, at Emory University and other centers, found that the hippocampus responds by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing metabolic gene expression, and increasing energy reserves.

  1. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

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    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Nonfasting Versus Initial Fasting Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective evaluation of the ketogenic diet (KD was conducted comparing efficacy and tolerability of the diet with or without initial fasting and fluid restriction and involving university centers in Seoul, Korea.

  3. Epilepsy characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with ketogenic diet success.

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    McNamara, Nancy A; Carbone, Loretta A; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2013-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood epilepsy, but its important impacts on families could affect successful treatment. We assessed medical and psychosocial factors associated with successful ketogenic diet treatment. A total of 23 families of patients treated with ketogenic diet completed questionnaires (30% response), including inquiries about challenges to successful dietary treatments and validated family functioning scales. Of these, 14 were considered successful (diet discontinued once the child was seizure-free or continued as clinically indicated). Family-identified challenges were food preparation time (n = 11) and that the diet was too restrictive (n = 9). Neither Medicaid insurance nor family functioning scale scores were significantly associated with successful treatment. Lower seizure frequency prior to ketogenic diet initiation (P = .02) and postdiet seizure improvement (P = .01) were associated with increased odds of success. Effective ketogenic diet treatment is dictated both by psychosocial and epilepsy-related influences. A focus on understanding the psychosocial issues may help to improve families' experiences and success with the ketogenic diet.

  4. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

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    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  5. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

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    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Concurrent Anticonvulsant/Ketogenic Diet Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, studied retrospectively the comparative efficacy of six most frequently used anticonvulsants when employed in combination with the ketogenic diet (KD for treatment of 115 children with epilepsy.

  7. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

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    Amerins Weijenberg MD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction. Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days. The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis.

  8. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

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    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; de Koning, Tom J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction). Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days). The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis. PMID:29872664

  9. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth.

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    De Feyter, Henk M; Behar, Kevin L; Rao, Jyotsna U; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Ketone body oxidation was studied using (13)C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a (13)C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. The level of (13)C-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ketogenic diet in adolescents and adults with epilepsy.

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    Nei, Maromi; Ngo, Ly; Sirven, Joseph I; Sperling, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The ketogenic diet is an alternative treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. Most studies to date report dietary response in children. There are limited data evaluating the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in adults. This is a report of the long-term outcome in a largely adult population of patients treated with the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. Twenty-nine adult and adolescent patients (mean age 32 years, range 11-51) were initiated on the ketogenic diet and followed until diet discontinuation. Clinical response and adverse effects were noted during the duration of the diet. Fifty-two percent of patients had a significant reduction in seizure frequency on the ketogenic diet, including 45% with ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency. Thirty-one percent had no improvement, seven percent were unable to successfully initiate the diet, and 10% had a >50% increase in seizure frequency. The diet was continued for a mean of 9 months (range 0.13-35 months), with five patients completing ≥23 months. There was a trend toward better response and better tolerability/longer duration in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy. The diet was generally well-tolerated, but undesired weight loss and constipation were the most frequent adverse effects. The ketogenic diet can be used safely in the adult and adolescent population, with a response rate similar to those seen in children. Patient with symptomatic generalized epilepsy may be particularly good candidates for this type of dietary treatment. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Valproate effect on ketosis in children under ketogenic diet.

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    Spilioti, Martha; Pavlou, Evangelos; Gogou, Maria; Katsanika, Irene; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Grafakou, Olga; Gkampeta, Anastasia; Dinopoulos, Argyrios; Evangeliou, Athanasios

    2016-07-01

    Although ketogenic diet has been proven useful in the management of intractable seizures, interactions with other medicines have been reported. This study reports two patients on co-administration with ketogenic diet and valproate appearing undesirable side effects after increase or decrease of valproate pharmaceutical levels. Totally 75 patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy were treated with ketogenic diet in our departments. Their age varied from 6 months to 9 years. All patients were followed for at least 12 months and up to five years. Clinical and laboratory variables have been regularly assessed. In 75 patients treated with ketogenic diet and valproate at the same time treatment was well tolerated. Two patients presented mild to moderate undesirable effects. In these patients the removal of valproate treatment resulted in an increase of ketosis with respective clinical signs. The conversion of the diet from 4:1 to 1:1 and 2,5:1 respectively resulted in reduction of ketosis and clinical improvement. In the majority of cases co-administration of valproate and ketogenic diet seems to be safe. In two cases, valproate appeared to have a negative effect on ketosis (and weaning it led to over-ketosis). This interaction is worthy of future study. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of ketogenic diet on vascular function.

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    Kapetanakis, M; Liuba, P; Odermarsky, M; Lundgren, J; Hallböök, T

    2014-07-01

    Ketogenic diet is a well-established treatment in children with difficult to treat epilepsy. Very little is known about the long-term effects on vascular atherogenic and biochemical processes of this high-fat and low carbohydrate and protein diet. We evaluated 26 children after one year and 13 children after two years of ketogenic diet. High resolution ultrasound-based assessment was used for carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery distensibility and carotid artery compliance. Blood lipids including high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein A (apoA), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were analysed. A gradual decrease in carotid distensibility and an increase in LDL-C, apoB and the TC:LDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C ratios were seen at three and 12 months of KD-treatment. These differences were not significant at 24 months. cIMT, BMI and hsCRP did not show any significant changes. The initial alterations in lipids, apoB and arterial function observed within the first year of KD-treatment appear to be reversible and not significant after 24 months of treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ketogenic Diet Improves Recently Worsened Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Pinton, Florence; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We observed a dramatic response to the ketogenic diet in several patients with highly refractory epilepsy whose seizure frequency had recently worsened. This study aimed to identify whether this characteristic was a useful indication for the ketogenic diet. Method: From the 70 patients who received the ketogenic diet during a 3-year period at…

  14. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamecq Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90% being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic activity and hence anticonvulsant protection. The astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttles may be themselves influenced by the availability in energetic substrates such as hydrates of carbon and fats. Historically, ketogenic diet had been designed to mimic changes such as ketosis occurring upon starvation, a physiological state already known to exhibit anticonvulsant protection and sometimes referred to as “water diet”. For this reason, a special attention should be paid to metabolic features shared in common by ketogenic diet and starvation and especially those features that might result in anticonvulsant protection. Compared to feeding by usual mixed diet, starvation and ketogenic diet are both characterised by increased fat, lowered glucose and aminoacid supplies to cells. The resulting impact of these changes in energetic substrates on astrocyte/neuron metabolic shuttles might have anticonvulsant and/or neuroprotective properties. This is the aim of this communication to review some important astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions (astrocyte/neuron lactate shuttle, glutamateinduced astrocytic glycolysis activation, glutamate/glutamine cycle along with the neurovascular coupling and the extent to which the way of their alteration by starvation and/or ketogenic diet might result in seizure and/or brain protection.

  15. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  16. ERGO: a pilot study of ketogenic diet in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Johannes; Bähr, Oliver; Maurer, Gabriele D; Hattingen, Elke; Franz, Kea; Brucker, Daniel; Walenta, Stefan; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Coy, Johannes F; Weller, Michael; Steinbach, Joachim P

    2014-06-01

    Limiting dietary carbohydrates inhibits glioma growth in preclinical models. Therefore, the ERGO trial (NCT00575146) examined feasibility of a ketogenic diet in 20 patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Patients were put on a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet containing plant oils. Feasibility was the primary endpoint, secondary endpoints included the percentage of patients reaching urinary ketosis, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The effects of a ketogenic diet alone or in combination with bevacizumab was also explored in an orthotopic U87MG glioblastoma model in nude mice. Three patients (15%) discontinued the diet for poor tolerability. No serious adverse events attributed to the diet were observed. Urine ketosis was achieved at least once in 12 of 13 (92%) evaluable patients. One patient achieved a minor response and two patients had stable disease after 6 weeks. Median PFS of all patients was 5 (range, 3-13) weeks, median survival from enrollment was 32 weeks. The trial allowed to continue the diet beyond progression. Six of 7 (86%) patients treated with bevacizumab and diet experienced an objective response, and median PFS on bevacizumab was 20.1 (range, 12-124) weeks, for a PFS at 6 months of 43%. In the mouse glioma model, ketogenic diet alone had no effect on median survival, but increased that of bevacizumab-treated mice from 52 to 58 days (pketogenic diet is feasible and safe but probably has no significant clinical activity when used as single agent in recurrent glioma. Further clinical trials are necessary to clarify whether calorie restriction or the combination with other therapeutic modalities, such as radiotherapy or anti-angiogenic treatments, could enhance the efficacy of the ketogenic diet.

  17. ERGO: A pilot study of ketogenic diet in recurrent glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIEGER, JOHANNES; BÄHR, OLIVER; MAURER, GABRIELE D.; HATTINGEN, ELKE; FRANZ, KEA; BRUCKER, DANIEL; WALENTA, STEFAN; KÄMMERER, ULRIKE; COY, JOHANNES F.; WELLER, MICHAEL; STEINBACH, JOACHIM P.

    2014-01-01

    Limiting dietary carbohydrates inhibits glioma growth in preclinical models. Therefore, the ERGO trial (NCT00575146) examined feasibility of a ketogenic diet in 20 patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Patients were put on a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet containing plant oils. Feasibility was the primary endpoint, secondary endpoints included the percentage of patients reaching urinary ketosis, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. The effects of a ketogenic diet alone or in combination with bevacizumab was also explored in an orthotopic U87MG glioblastoma model in nude mice. Three patients (15%) discontinued the diet for poor tolerability. No serious adverse events attributed to the diet were observed. Urine ketosis was achieved at least once in 12 of 13 (92%) evaluable patients. One patient achieved a minor response and two patients had stable disease after 6 weeks. Median PFS of all patients was 5 (range, 3–13) weeks, median survival from enrollment was 32 weeks. The trial allowed to continue the diet beyond progression. Six of 7 (86%) patients treated with bevacizumab and diet experienced an objective response, and median PFS on bevacizumab was 20.1 (range, 12–124) weeks, for a PFS at 6 months of 43%. In the mouse glioma model, ketogenic diet alone had no effect on median survival, but increased that of bevacizumab-treated mice from 52 to 58 days (pketogenic diet is feasible and safe but probably has no significant clinical activity when used as single agent in recurrent glioma. Further clinical trials are necessary to clarify whether calorie restriction or the combination with other therapeutic modalities, such as radiotherapy or anti-angiogenic treatments, could enhance the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. PMID:24728273

  18. Ketogenic diet exposure during the juvenile period increases social behaviors and forebrain neural activation in adult Engrailed 2 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpeut, Jessica L; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of ketogenic diets (KD) has reported neuroprotective benefits. Several studies suggest KD interventions could be useful in the management of neurological and developmental disorders. Alterations in the Engrailed (En) genes, specifically Engrailed 2 (En2), have neurodevelopmental consequences and produce autism-related behaviors. The following studies used En2 knockout (KO; En2(-/-)), and wild-type (WT; En2(+/+)), male mice fed either KD (80% fat, 0.1% carbohydrates) or control diet (CD; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrates). The objective was to determine whether a KD fed from weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21 to adulthood (PND 60) would alter brain monoamines concentrations, previously found dysregulated, and improve social outcomes. In WT animals, there was an increase in hypothalamic norepinephrine content in the KD-fed group. However, regional monoamines were not altered in KO mice in KD-fed compared with CD-fed group. In order to determine the effects of juvenile exposure to KD in mice with normal blood ketone levels, separate experiments were conducted in mice removed from the KD or CD and fed standard chow for 2days (PND 62). In a three-chamber social test with a novel mouse, KO mice previously exposed to the KD displayed similar social and self-grooming behaviors compared with the WT group. Groups previously exposed to a KD, regardless of genotype, had more c-Fos-positive cells in the cingulate cortex, lateral septal nuclei, and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In the novel object condition, KO mice previously exposed to KD had similar behavioral responses and pattern of c-Fos immunoreactivity compared with the WT group. Thus, juvenile exposure to KD resulted in short-term consequences of improving social interactions and appropriate exploratory behaviors in a mouse model that displays autism-related behaviors. Such findings further our understanding of metabolic-based therapies for neurological and developmental disorders

  19. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsalaki, Ioanna; Karvela, Alexia; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrate-restricted (ketogenic) diets on metabolic parameters in children have been incompletely assessed. To compare the efficacy and metabolic impact of ketogenic and hypocaloric diets in obese children and adolescents. Fifty-eight obese subjects were placed on one of the two diets for 6 months. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, oral glucose/insulin tolerance test, lipidemic profile, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined before and after each diet. Both groups significantly reduced their weight, fat mass, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (p = 0.009 for ketogenic and p = 0.014 for hypocaloric), but the differences were greater in the ketogenic group. Both groups increased WBISI significantly, but only the ketogenic group increased HMW adiponectin significantly (p = 0.025). The ketogenic diet revealed more pronounced improvements in weight loss and metabolic parameters than the hypocaloric diet and may be a feasible and safe alternative for children's weight loss.

  1. Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Ketogenic diet using a Japanese ketogenic milk for patients with epilepsy: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Tomohiro; Imai, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Nabatame, Shin; Oguni, Hirokazu

    2018-03-01

    In Japan, Meiji 817-B (M817-B), a powdered ketogenic milk, has been available since the ketogenic diet was introduced to infants and tube-fed children with medication-resistant epilepsy in the 1980s. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of the ketogenic diet using M817-B as the main source of daily food intake for patients with epilepsy by sending questionnaires to the members of a subcommittee of the Japan Epilepsy Society that focuses on the proper use of M817-B. A total of 42 patients were enrolled. Age at the initiation of the diet therapy ranged from 3 to 244 months (median, 32.5 months). Thirty-four patients were fed via tube, and the remaining 8 were fed orally. About 93% of patients were able to continue the diet for 1 month, 74% for 3 months, and 64% for 6 months. The median period of continuation was 16 months. One patient was able to continue as long as 7 years. The ketogenic ratio was maintained at about 3.0. The seizure-free rate and responder (>50% seizure reduction) rate were about 10% and 30-40%, respectively during the 12 months on the diet. Mean serum beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to almost 4 mM at 1 month and was maintained during the diet period. Side effects, which required discontinuation of the diet therapy, occurred in 11 of 42 patients and included hypertonia, weight loss, vomiting, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia. M817-B could be used long-term with demonstrated efficacy in seizure reduction, although there are some side effects that may require cessation of the diet therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Benefits of the nonfasting ketogenic diet compared with the initial fasting ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kang, Hoon Chul; Park, Jung Chae; Kim, Heung Dong

    2004-12-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is traditionally introduced with an initial period of fasting and fluid restriction that is difficult and sometimes complicated by moderate dehydration. This investigation compares the efficacy and tolerability of the nonfasting ketogenic diet (NFKD) and the conventional initial-fasting ketogenic diet (IFKD). Forty-one children with intractable epilepsy were treated with the NFKD, beginning with a gradual increase in calories with no initial fasting or fluid restriction. This NFKD population was compared retrospectively with 83 recent historical control subjects who were treated with the IFKD. Efficacy, tolerability, time until strong ketosis, and occurrence of complications were compared. Fourteen (34.1%) patients became seizure-free for at least 3 months after the NFKD, compared with 29 (34.9%) after the IFKD. There was no significant difference in days until strong urinary ketosis between the 2 groups. The incidence of hypoglycemia was also not significantly different between the groups as most other laboratory findings, although the blood urea nitrogen was elevated in 24.1% of the IFKD group and in only 12.2% of the NFKD patients without statistical significance. Conversely, moderate dehydration was significantly less frequent in the NFKD group (12.2%) than in the IFKD group (62.7%). Finally, these results were reflected to the shortening of the hospitalization period in the NFKD group. These observations suggest that initial fasting and fluid restriction are not essential for the KD and that the tolerability of this treatment may be improved. These data support our intention to conduct a formal, prospective, randomized trial comparing 2 forms of the KD.

  4. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Lindsey B.; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M.

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate “classic KD”, as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  5. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  6. Mechanisms of Action of Antiseizure Drugs and the Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawski, Michael A.; Löscher, Wolfgang; Rho, Jong M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiseizure drugs (ASDs), also termed antiepileptic drugs, are the main form of symptomatic treatment for people with epilepsy, but not all patients become free of seizures. The ketogenic diet is one treatment option for drug-resistant patients. Both types of therapy exert their clinical effects through interactions with one or more of a diverse set of molecular targets in the brain. ASDs act by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels, including sodium, calcium, and potassium channels; by enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition through effects on GABAA receptors, the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) GABA uptake transporter, or GABA transaminase; through interactions with elements of the synaptic release machinery, including synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) and α2δ; or by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. The ketogenic diet leads to increases in circulating ketones, which may contribute to the efficacy in treating pharmacoresistant seizures. Production in the brain of inhibitory mediators, such as adenosine, or ion channel modulators, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, may also play a role. Metabolic effects, including diversion from glycolysis, are a further postulated mechanism. For some ASDs and the ketogenic diet, effects on multiple targets may contribute to activity. Better understanding of the ketogenic diet will inform the development of improved drug therapies to treat refractory seizures. PMID:26801895

  7. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Internist, anesthesiologist and surgeon use of ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Lorenzo; Paoli, Antonio; Omar, Hesham R; Dalvi, Prachiti; Camporesi, Enrico M; Mangar, Devanand; Quartesan, Silvia; Fiorito, Alberto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Ketogenic diet is being increasingly utilized in recent decades because of its success as an effective tool for short and intermediate-term weight loss. Promoting physiological ketosis from a drastically low carbohydrate diet is the fundamental basis for this diet regime. Though debated, these diets have been demonstrated to be effective, at least in the short- to medium terms, to manage excess weight, hyperlipidemia, and other cardiovascular risk factors. We reviewed the cardiovascular, metabolic, anesthetic, and postsurgical profiles in the literature and summarized technical issues of anesthesia and surgery along with long-term changes from published papers. Doubts with ketogenic diet were raised due to possible renal damage caused by significant excretion of nitrogen found in animal models, the effects of acidosis, and the concerns of increasing triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Though current literature supports the efficacy of very low carbohydrate keto-diets their potential negative effects on renal function and acidosis are debated. An increase in nitrogen excretion during protein metabolism in the postoperative period could lead to renal damage. Research on the value of ketogenic diets is emerging because of its value in weight loss and in managing other pathologies.

  9. The Ketogenic Diet: A Practical Guide for Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luat, Aimee F; Coyle, Leigh; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-12-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsies in children. In addition, it is the first-line treatment for some metabolic disorders, such as glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome. This article discusses the proposed mechanisms of a ketogenic diet's antiseizure action, its clinical indications, and its contraindications. The steps involved in ketogenic diet initiation, monitoring, and management of its side effects are also discussed. This review provides general pediatricians with the necessary skills to provide comprehensive care of children using the ketogenic diet and counsel their families and caregivers. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(12):e446-e450.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Ketogenic Diets for Adults With Highly Refractory Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Tanya J. W.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.

    2017-01-01

    The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diets in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults. Ketogenic diet variants are compared and advantages and potential side effects of diet therapy are discussed.

  11. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of One Month Duration Ketogenic and non-Ketogenic High Fat Diets on Mouse Brain Bioenergetic Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J. Eva; Wilkins, Heather M.; Lezi, E; Carl, Steven M.; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain’s aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated. PMID:25104046

  13. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  14. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nymo, Siren

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Subjects/methods: T...

  15. Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Recent Findings In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; a group of patients previously not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, both in terms of an anticonvulsant and possibly neuroprotective effect. Summary Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy. PMID:22322415

  16. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  17. Kynurenic Acid and Neuroprotective Activity of the Ketogenic Diet in the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Tomasz; Tulidowicz-Bielak, Maria; Zarnowska, Iwona; Mitosek-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Wnorowski, Artur; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Gasior, Maciej; Turski, Waldemar A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the involvement of the kynurenine metabolic pathway and the enhancement of kynurenic acid production in the neuroprotective effects of the ketogenic diet. Here, we review evidence implicating kynurenic acid in the efficacy of ketogenic diet in eye diseases associated with neurodegeneration. Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies that are elevated during exposure to the ketogenic diet each have a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of Nmethyl- D-aspartate induced neuronal damage. Chronic exposure to ketogenic diet also increases kynurenic acid concentrations in discrete rat brain structures. A non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, glutamate, also decreases the production of kynurenic acid in bovine retinal slices; this effect is attenuated by acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, two of three ketone bodies overproduced during ketogenic diet. Whether ketogenic diet induced enhancement of kynurenic acid production would translate into a clinically significant improvement in certain eye diseases like glaucoma and retinal neurodegenerations awaits further experimental and clinical verification. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Are purines mediators of the anticonvulsant/neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets?

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal signaling caused by metabolic changes characterizes several neurological disorders, and in some instances metabolic interventions provide therapeutic benefits. Indeed, altering metabolism either by fasting or by maintaining a low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet might reduce epileptic seizures and offer neuroprotection in part because the diet increases mitochondrial biogenesis and brain energy levels. Here we focus on a novel hypothesis that a ketogenic diet-induced change in ...

  19. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients.

  1. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and is a strong risk factor for a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and also certain types of cancers. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Genetic predisposition in combination with inactive lifestyles and high caloric intake leads to excessive weight gain. Even though there may be agreement about the concept that lifestyle changes affecting dietary habits and physical activity are essential to promote weight loss and weight control, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet are still under debate. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have been focused on reducing dietary fat with little positive results over the long-term. One of the most studied strategies in the recent years for weight loss is the ketogenic diet. Many studies have shown that this kind of nutritional approach has a solid physiological and biochemical basis and is able to induce effective weight loss along with improvement in several cardiovascular risk parameters. This review discusses the physiological basis of ketogenic diets and the rationale for their use in obesity, discussing the strengths and the weaknesses of these diets together with cautions that should be used in obese patients. PMID:24557522

  2. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePaoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g. via ghrelin. However ketone bodies (KB seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  3. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  4. Effects of a ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    For a subpopulation of drug-resistant epilepsies, a ketogenic diet constitutes the treatment of choice. A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, which induces ketosis. Despite the use in treatment of epilepsy since 1924, the clinical efficacy was not demonstrated...... in a controlled, randomized trial until 2008, showing its capability of reducing seizure frequency with more than 50%. However, the exact mechanism of this form of treatment is still unknown. We report here a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, where a brain 18F-FDG PET examination...

  5. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2017-04-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores new insights into mechanisms mobilized by ketogenic diet therapies. Ketogenic diets act through a combination of mechanisms, which are linked to the effects of ketones and glucose restriction, and to interactions with receptors, channels, and metabolic enzymes. Decanoic acid, a component of medium-chain triclycerides, contributes to seizure control through direct α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition, whereas drugs targeting lactate dehydrogenase reduce seizures through inhibition of a metabolic pathway. Ketogenic diet therapy also affects DNA methylation, a novel epigenetic mechanism of the diet. Ketogenic diet therapy combines several beneficial mechanisms that provide broad benefits for the treatment of epilepsy with the potential to not only suppress seizures but also to modify the course of the epilepsy.

  6. Cardiopulmonary bypass considerations for pediatric patients on the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, R W; Dreher, M; Ramsey, E; Savoca, M; Rosenthal, T

    2015-07-01

    There is a population of children with epilepsy that is refractory to anti-epileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen, is one alternative treatment to decrease seizure activity. Special considerations are required for patients on the ketogenic diet undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to prevent exposure to glucose substrates that could alter ketosis, increasing the risk of recurrent seizures. A 2-year-old, 9 kilogram male with a history of infantile spasms with intractable epilepsy, trisomy 21 status post tetralogy of Fallot repair, presented to the cardiac operating room for closure of a residual atrial septal defect. All disciplines of the surgical case minimized the use of carbohydrate-containing and contraindicated medications. Changes to the standard protocol and metabolic monitoring ensured the patient maintained ketosis. All disciplines within cardiac surgery need to be cognizant of patients on the ketogenic diet and prepare a modified protocol. Future monitoring considerations include thromboelastography, electroencephalography and continuous glucose measurement. Key areas of focus with this patient population in the cardiac surgical theater are to maintain a multidisciplinary approach, alter the required CPB prime components, address cardiac pharmacological concerns and limit any abnormal hematological occurrences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein-losing enteropathy as a rare complication of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Watanabe, Mio; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Shiihara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case of protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet has been reported. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl experienced fever for 5 days then suddenly developed convulsive seizures that subsequently evolved to severe refractory status epilepticus. After multiple antiepileptic drugs failed to improve the patient's condition, we introduced the ketogenic diet. Although her seizures diminished, her course was complicated by hypoproteinemia. An abdominal dynamic scintigraphy and colonoscopy findings indicated protein-losing enteropathy with nonspecific mucosal inflammation. Her nutritional status deteriorated; thus, we discontinued the ketogenic diet. Her nutritional status gradually improved, whereas her seizures increased. Hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet is common, but the underlying etiologies are not well understood. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy could be valuable for clarifying the etiology of hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Halevy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed.

  10. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  11. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  12. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vamecq Joseph; Maurois Pierre; Bac Pierre; Delplanque Bernadette; Pages Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90%) being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic ac...

  13. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  14. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  15. Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Azevedo de Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet is an important therapy used in the control of drug-refractory seizures. Many studies have shown that children and adolescents following ketogenic diets exhibit an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency, which is considered to be clinically relevant. These benefits are based on a diet containing high fat (approximately 90% fat for 24 months. This dietary model was proposed in the 1920s and has produced variable clinical responses. Previous studies have shown that the mechanisms underlying seizure control involve ketone bodies, which are produced by fatty acid oxidation. Although the pathways involved in the ketogenic diet are not entirely clear, the main effects of the production of ketone bodies appear to be neurotransmitter modulation and antioxidant effects on the brain. This review highlights the impacts of the ketogenic diet on the modulation of neurotransmitters, levels of biogenic monoamines and protective antioxidant mechanisms of neurons. In addition, future perspectives are proposed.

  16. Dispersion durations of P-wave and QT interval in children treated with a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Işgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of a ketogenic diet on dispersion duration of P-wave and QT-interval measures in children. We searched for the changes in these measures with serial electrocardiograms in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. Twenty-five drug-resistant patients with epilepsy treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning and at the sixth month after implementation of the ketogenic diet. Heart rate, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion, and maximum and minimum corrected QT interval and QT dispersion were manually measured from the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Minimum and maximum corrected QT and QT dispersion measurements showed nonsignificant increase at month 6 compared with baseline values. Other previously mentioned electrocardiogram parameters also showed no significant changes. A ketogenic diet of 6 months' duration has no significant effect on electrocardiogram parameters in children. Further studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow-up are needed to clarify the effects of ketogenic diet on P-wave dispersion and corrected QT and QT dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels of Antiepileptic Drugs and the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the ketogenic diet did not change the plasma levels of antiepileptic drugs in an open study of 51 children (mean age 6.6 years with refractory epilepsy studied at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

  18. Ketogenic Diet in Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Garnett; Press, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers from the Children’s National Health System in Washington, D.C. studied the feasibility, rate of complications, and effect on seizures of initiating the Ketogenic Diet (KD) in pediatric patients with Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE).

  19. A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan N; Wallace, Marita A; Tomilov, Alexey A; Zhou, Zeyu; Marcotte, George R; Tran, Dianna; Perez, Gabriella; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; Koike, Shinichiro; Knotts, Trina A; Imai, Denise M; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hagopian, Kevork; McMackin, Marissa Z; Haj, Fawaz G; Baar, Keith; Cortopassi, Gino A; Ramsey, Jon J; Lopez-Dominguez, Jose Alberto

    2017-09-05

    Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The SKMD is safe, an effective

  1. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  2. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Knut H.; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes......, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits α1. However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron...... microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial...

  3. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

  4. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Michal M.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Isoda, Fumiko; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Zheng, Feng; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined. PMID:21533091

  5. Ketogenic diet effects on cognition, mood, and psychosocial adjustment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.; Bovens, M.J.; Parra, de la N.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible adverse effects of the diet on cognition, behavior, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents. Method Fifteen

  6. Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Milene L; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

  7. Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene L Brownlow

    Full Text Available Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs, widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31 diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

  8. Management of symptomatic cholelithiasis while on ketogenic diet: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amita A; Thompson, Lindsey M; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T; Kayyali, Husam; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-09-01

    The ketogenic diet is a treatment modality used for patients with refractory epilepsy. Development of cholelithiasis while on the ketogenic diet is a potential side effect that has been described in the literature. There however have not been any reports on the outcomes of continuing the diet after cholecystectomy. We present a 5-year-old boy with history of pharmacologically intractable epilepsy that was well controlled on the ketogenic diet. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the development of symptomatic cholelithiasis 12 months after the initiation of ketogenic diet for seizure control. Patient tolerated the surgery well and was able to continue the ketogenic diet postoperatively. There have been no reports describing the continuation of ketogenic diet after cholecystectomy. This child demonstrates the safety of the procedure and the ability to continue the ketogenic diet without further biliary or surgical complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A dietary therapy for pediatric epilepsy known as the ketogenic diet has seen a revival in its clinical use in the past decade. Though the diet’s underlying mechanism remains unknown, modern scientific approaches like genetic disruption of glucose metabolism are allowing for more detailed questions to be addressed. Recent work indicates that several mechanisms may exist for the ketogenic diet including disruption of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, inhibition of glycolysis, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we describe on-going work in these areas that is providing a better understanding of metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy. PMID:23228828

  10. Ketogenic Diet Provides Neuroprotective Effects against Ischemic Stroke Neuronal Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shaafi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Many mechanisms contribute in cell death in ischemic stroke. Ketogenic diet which has been successfully used in the drug-resistant epilepsy has been shown to be effective in many other neurologic disorders. The mechanisms underlying of its effects are not well studied, but it seems that its neuroprotective ability is mediated at least through alleviation of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis events. On the basis of these mechanisms, it is postulated that ketogenic diet could provide benefits to treatment of cerebral ischemic injuries.

  11. Ketogenic diets improve behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder in a sex-specific manner in the EL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N; Fortin, Jessica A; Bisnauth, Subrina N; Masino, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are poorly treated with current medications. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are frequently comorbid with a diagnosis of epilepsy and vice versa. Medically-supervised ketogenic diets are remarkably effective nonpharmacological treatments for epilepsy, even in drug-refractory cases. There is accumulating evidence that supports the efficacy of ketogenic diets in treating the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in animal models as well as limited reports of benefits in patients. This study tests the behavioral effects of ketogenic diet feeding in the EL mouse, a model with behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid epilepsy. Male and female EL mice were fed control diet or one of two ketogenic diet formulas ad libitum starting at 5weeks of age. Beginning at 8weeks of age, diet protocols continued and performance of each group on tests of sociability and repetitive behavior was assessed. A ketogenic diet improved behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in a sex- and test-specific manner; ketogenic diet never worsened relevant behaviors. Ketogenic diet feeding improved multiple measures of sociability and reduced repetitive behavior in female mice, with limited effects in males. Additional experiments in female mice showed that a less strict, more clinically-relevant diet formula was equally effective in improving sociability and reducing repetitive behavior. Taken together these results add to the growing number of studies suggesting that ketogenic and related diets may provide significant relief from the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and suggest that in some cases there may be increased efficacy in females. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified Atkins diet vs classic ketogenic formula in intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, O F; Nassar, M F; Abdel-Hamid, I A; Shatla, R H; Abdel-Hamid, M H; Gabr, S S; Mohamed, S G; El-Sayed, W S; Shaaban, S Y

    2013-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) whether classic 4:1 formula or the modified Atkins diet (MAD) in intractable childhood epilepsy. Anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile were measured upon enrollment and after 3 and 6 months in 40 patients with symptomatic intractable epilepsy. Fifteen were given MAD diet, ten were kept on classic 4:1 ketogenic liquid formula, and the rest were allowed to eat as desired. The liquid ketogenic formula group showed significantly higher body mass index compared with those who did not receive KD after 6 months. The lipid profile of KD patients was within normal limits for age and sex during the study period. The rate of change of frequency and severity of seizures showed best improvement in ketogenic liquid formula patients followed by the MAD group than the patients on anti-epileptic medications alone. The KD whether classic 4:1 or MAD is a tolerable, safe, and effective adjuvant therapy for intractable symptomatic childhood epilepsy with limited adverse effects on the growth parameters and accepted changes in the lipid profile. The liquid ketogenic formula patients showed better growth pattern and significantly more seizure control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ketogenic Diet Therapy in Infants: Efficacy and Tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine; Eckert, Susan; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Payne, Eric; Nickels, Katherine

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated tolerability and efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants less than 12 months of age. Infants less than 12 months of age, commencing the ketogenic diet between September 2007 and July 2016 were identified. Records were reviewed for epilepsy details, diet initiation details, efficacy and tolerability. Twenty-seven infants commenced the ketogenic diet (56% male, median age seven months). Median age at seizure onset was 1.9 months and 92% had daily seizures. An epilepsy syndrome was noted in 19 (West-11, epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures-5, early myoclonic encephalopathy-1, Ohtahara-1, Dravet-1). Infants were on a median of two and had failed a median of one medications for lack of efficacy. All initiated a traditional ketogenic diet at full calories without fasting, and all but one started the diet in hospital. Significant hypoglycemia during initiation was seen in two - both had emesis +/- decreased oral intake. Eighty-eight percent developed urinary ketosis by 48 hours and all were successfully discharged on the diet (median ratio 3:1). Of those continuing dietary therapy, responder rates at one, six and 12 months were 68%, 82% and 91%, with 20%, 29% and 27% achieving seizure freedom. By 12 months, two stopped the diet for serious adverse effects, five discontinued for lack of efficacy, six were lost to follow-up and two died of unrelated causes. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for infants with intractable epilepsy. In-hospital initiation is strongly recommended due to risk of hypoglycemia with emesis or reduced intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatic Dysfunction as a Complication of Combined Valproate and Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Clare E; Turner, Zahava; Kossoff, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has long been shown to be an effective therapy for children with medication-refractory seizures. Most complications of the ketogenic diet include short-lived gastrointestinal disturbances, acidosis, and dyslipidemia. Hepatic dysfunction and pancreatitis are among the less common but more serious complications of the ketogenic diet. Many patients on the ketogenic diet receive adjunct treatment with an anticonvulsant drug, and valproate is frequently used. We describe a child who developed hepatic dysfunction in association with the combined use of valproate and the ketogenic diet. After stopping the valproate and then restarting the ketogenic diet, her liver enzymes normalized, and she was able to achieve markedly improved seizure control and quality of life. Although caution should be advised when using both treatments simultaneously, the development of hepatic dysfunction should not preclude continuation of the ketogenic diet, as the hepatotoxic effects may be completely reversed once the valproate is stopped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katrin; Khabbush, Aziza; Williams, Sophie; Eaton, Simon; Orford, Michael; Cross, J Helen; Heales, Simon J R; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2018-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, known as ketogenic diets, have been used as a non-pharmacological treatment for refractory epilepsy. A key mechanism of this treatment is thought to be the generation of ketones, which provide brain cells (neurons and astrocytes) with an energy source that is more efficient than glucose, resulting in beneficial downstream metabolic changes, such as increasing adenosine levels, which might have effects on seizure control. However, some studies have challenged the central role of ketones because medium-chain fatty acids, which are part of a commonly used variation of the diet (the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet), have been shown to directly inhibit AMPA receptors (glutamate receptors), and to change cell energetics through mitochondrial biogenesis. Through these mechanisms, medium-chain fatty acids rather than ketones are likely to block seizure onset and raise seizure threshold. The mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet might also have roles in other disorders, such as preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, the proliferation and spread of cancer, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Analysing medium-chain fatty acids in future ketogenic diet studies will provide further insights into their importance in modified forms of the diet. Moreover, the results of these studies could facilitate the development of new pharmacological and dietary therapies for epilepsy and other disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed.

  17. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25221391

  18. The Effect of the Ketogenic Diet on the Vascular Structure and Functions in Children With Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Rahmi; Güzel, Orkide; Küçük, Mehmet; Karadeniz, Cem; Katipoglu, Nagehan; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Meşe, Timur

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine the midterm effect of a ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels, carotid intima-media thickness, and the elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta in patients with intractable epilepsy. A total of 52 children aged between 12 months and 18 years with intractable epilepsy who started the ketogenic diet from September 2014 to September 2015 were included into this prospective study. Carotid intima-media thickness and the elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta were assessed by echocardiography in all cases before beginning of the ketogenic diet and after at least 12 months on the ketogenic diet. Twenty-one patients at the third month and 25 patients at the first year of the ketogenic diet were seizure free. A reduction of greater than 90% in the seizure frequency was achieved in three patients at the sixth month and in five patients at the first year of the treatment. The serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were increased significantly at a median of 12.6 months (range: 12 to 13.5 months) of the ketogenic diet treatment, whereas serum levels of high-density lipoprotein did not change. Carotid intima-media thickness, aortic and carotid strain, the stiffness index, distensibility, and elastic modulus did not change after 12 months of the ketogenic diet therapy. Olive oil-based ketogenic diet appears to have no disturbing effect on the carotid intima-media thickness and the elastic properties of the aorta and the carotid artery in epileptic children, although it may be associated with increased concentrations of serum lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GLUT1 deficiency with delayed myelination responding to ketogenic diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, J.; Engelbrecht, V.; Scheffer, H.; Knaap, M.S. van der; Fiedler, A.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring effects of a ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome without seizures is difficult. Neuroimaging is considered uninformative. We report the case of a boy with neurodevelopmental delay, severe ataxia, an E54X-mutation in the SLC2A1 gene (previously GLUT1), and neuroimaging

  20. Antiseizure effects of ketogenic diet on seizures induced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiseizure effects of ketogenic diet on seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole, 4-aminopyridine and strychnine in wistar rats. E.O. Sanya, A.O. Soladoye, O.O. Desalu, P.M. Kolo, L. A. Olatunji, J.K. Olarinoye ...

  1. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic.

  2. GLUT1 deficiency with delayed myelination responding to ketogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, Jörg; Engelbrecht, Volkher; Scheffer, Hans; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Fiedler, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring effects of a ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome without seizures is difficult. Neuroimaging is considered uninformative. We report the case of a boy with neurodevelopmental delay, severe ataxia, an E54X-mutation in the SLC2A1 gene (previously GLUT1), and neuroimaging

  3. Ketogenic diet in 3 cases of childhood refractory status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sort, Rune; Born, Alfred P; Pedersen, Karen N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in children is associated with a significant risk of death or neurological morbidity. Recently attention has been drawn to the ketogenic diet (KD) as an acute treatment, as it has shown promise in controlling seizures in otherwise refractory status epilepticus...

  4. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein?losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative ca...

  5. Hepatic fatty acid profile of rats fed a triheptanoin-based ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meloi, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Ataidei, Terezinha da Rocha; Oliveirai, Suzana Lima de; Bezerra Buenoi, Nassib; Freitasi, Johnnatan Duarte de; Sant'Anai, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. Methods: three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methy...

  6. The Short-Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Cardiac Ventricular Functions in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Çeleğen, Kübra; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Uysal, Utku; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Mehmet; Meşe, Timur

    2015-09-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the short-term effects of a ketogenic diet on cardiac ventricular function in patients with refractory epilepsy. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this prospective study. Echocardiography was performed on all patients before beginning the ketogenic diet and after the sixth month of therapy. Two-dimensional, M-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler, and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging measurements were performed on all patients. The median age of the 32 patients was 45.5 months, and 22 (57.8%) of them were male. Body weight, height, and body mass index increased significantly at the sixth month of therapy when compared with baseline values (P 0.05). Doppler flow indices of mitral annulus and tricuspid annulus velocity of patients at baseline and month 6 showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Tricuspid annular E/A ratio was lower at month 6 (P 0.05), there was a decrease in Ea velocity and Ea/Aa ratio gathered from tricuspid annulus at month 6 compared with baseline (P ketogenic diet does not impair left ventricular functions in children with refractory epilepsy; however, it may be associated with a right ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some...... of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED...... followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9...

  8. Use of the ketogenic diet in the neonatal intensive care unit-Safety and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsey; Fecske, Erin; Salim, Mohammad; Hall, Ara

    2017-02-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information. The ketogenic diet was well tolerated in all cases. The most common side effects observed were constipation, hypoglycemia, and weight loss. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels demonstrated improved reliability as a marker of ketosis when compared to urine ketones in this population. Perceived benefits to the infants included improved seizure control, increased alertness, and decreased need for invasive respiratory support. These cases demonstrate that the use of the ketogenic diet for treatment of neonatal encephalopathy and refractory epilepsy can be undertaken safely in the NICU and is well tolerated by carefully screened neonates and infants. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo; Lodi, Alessandra; Cenci, Lorenzo; Parmagnani, Andrea; Grimaldi, Keith; Zhongjin, Yang; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  10. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. Ketogenic diet efficacy in the treatment of intractable epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, Husam R; Gustafson, Megan; Myers, Tara; Thompson, Lindsey; Williams, Michelle; Abdelmoity, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in controlling epileptic spasms after failing traditional antiepileptic medication therapy. This is a prospective, case-based study of all infants with epileptic spasms who were referred for treatment with the ketogenic diet at our hospital between 2009 and 2012. All subjects continued to have epileptic spasms with evidence of hypsarrhythmia or severe epileptic encephalopathy on electroencephalography despite appropriate medication treatments. The diet efficacy was assessed through clinic visits, phone communications, and electroencephalography. Quality of life improvement was charted based on the caregiver's perspective. Twenty infants (15 males) were included in the study. The mean age at seizure onset was 4.5 months. Age at ketogenic diet initiation was 0.3 to 2.9 years (mean 1.20, standard deviation 0.78). Fifteen patients had epileptic spasms of unknown etiology; three had perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, one had lissencephaly, and one had STXBP1 mutation. Fifteen infants failed to respond to adrenocorticotropin hormone and/or vigabatrin before going on the ketogenic diet. Three months after starting the diet, >50% seizure reduction was achieved in 70% of patients (95% CI 48-86). These results were maintained at 6- and 12-month intervals. All eight of the patients followed for 24 months had >50% seizure reduction (95% CI 63-100). At least 90% seizure reduction was reported in 20% of patients at 3 months (95% CI 7-42), 22% (95% CI 8-46) at 6 months, and 35% (95% CI 17-59) at 12 months. The majority of patients (63%) achieved improvement of their spasms within 1 month after starting the diet. Sixty percent of patients had electroencephalographic improvement. All caregivers reported improvement of the quality of life at the 3-month visit (95% confidence interval 81-100). This ratio was 94% at 6 months (95% CI 72-99) and 82% at 12 months (95% CI 58-95). The ketogenic diet is a safe and potentially

  12. An acidosis-sparing ketogenic (ASK) diet to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects in the treatment of refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Alan W C; Walcutt, Isabel A; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-09-01

    Diets that increase production of ketone bodies to provide alternative fuel for the brain are evolving from the classic ketogenic diet for epilepsy devised nearly a century ago. The classic ketogenic diet and its more recent variants all appear to have similar efficacy with approximately 50% of users showing a greater than 50% seizure reduction. They all require significant medical and dietetic support, and there are tolerability issues. A review suggests that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis associated with ketosis is likely to be an important contributor to the short term and long term adverse effects of ketogenic diets. Recent studies, particularly with the characterization of the acid sensing ion channels, suggest that chronic metabolic acidosis may increase the propensity for seizures. It is also known that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis has a broad range of negative health effects and an increased risk of early mortality in the general population. The modified ketogenic dietary treatment we propose is formulated to limit acidosis by measures that include monitoring protein intake and maximizing consumption of alkaline mineral-rich, low carbohydrate green vegetables. We hypothesize that this acidosis-sparing ketogenic diet is expected to be associated with less adverse effects and improved efficacy. A case history of life-long intractable epilepsy shows this diet to be a successful long-term strategy but, clearly, clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of ketogenic diet in special situations: expanding use in intractable epilepsy and other neurologic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been widely used and proved to be effective for intractable epilepsy. Although the mechanisms underlying its anti-epileptic effects remain to be proven, there are increasing experimental evidences for its neuroprotective effects along with many researches about expanding use of the diet in other neurologic disorders. The first success was reported in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome, in which the diet served as an alternative metabolic source. Many neurologic disorders share some of the common pathologic mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction, altered neurotransmitter function and synaptic transmission, or abnormal regulation of reactive oxygen species, and the role of the ketogenic diet has been postulated in these mechanisms. In this article, we introduce an overview about the expanding use and emerging trials of the ketogenic diet in various neurologic disorders excluding intractable epilepsy and provide explanations of the mechanisms in that usage. PMID:23049588

  14. Mouse models: the ketogenic diet and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Literature on the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in mouse seizure models is summarized. Recent data show that a KD balanced in vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant content is anticonvulsant in mice, confirming that the KD's effect in mice can be attributed to the composition of the diet and not other dietary factors. Given that the anticonvulsant mechanism of the KD is still unknown, the anticonvulsant profile of the diet in different seizure models may help to decipher this mechanism. The implications of the findings that the KD is anticonvulsant in electrical seizure models are indicated. Further, the potential involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the KD's anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  15. Ketogenic diet guidelines for infants with refractory epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    van der Louw, E.; van den Hurk, D.; Neal, E.; Leiendecker, B.; Fitzsimmon, G.; Dority, L.; Thompson, L.; Marchio, M.; Dudzinska, M.; Dressler, A.; Klepper, J.; Auvin, S.; Cross, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established, effective non-pharmacologic treatment for drug resistant childhood epilepsy. For a long time, the KD was not recommended for use in infancy (under the age of 2 years) because this is such a crucial period in development and the perceived high risk of nutritional inadequacies. Indeed, infants are a vulnerable population with specific nutritional requirements. But current research shows that the KD is highly effective and well tolerated in ...

  16. The biochemical changes in hippocampal formation occurring in normal and seizure experiencing rats as a result of a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Kutorasinska, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Figiel, Henryk; Dumas, Paul; Sandt, Christophe; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-04-07

    In this study, ketogenic diet-induced biochemical changes occurring in normal and epileptic hippocampal formations were compared. Four groups of rats were analyzed, namely seizure experiencing animals and normal rats previously fed with ketogenic (KSE and K groups respectively) or standard laboratory diet (NSE and N groups respectively). Synchrotron radiation based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy was used for the analysis of distributions of the main organic components (proteins, lipids, compounds containing phosphate group(s)) and their structural modifications as well as anomalies in creatine accumulation with micrometer spatial resolution. Infrared spectra recorded in the molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (DG) areas of normal rats on a ketogenic diet (K) presented increased intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) absorption band. This originates from the stretching vibrations of carbonyl groups and probably reflects increased accumulation of ketone bodies occurring in animals on a high fat diet compared to those fed with a standard laboratory diet (N). The comparison of K and N groups showed, moreover, elevated ratios of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) for DG internal layers and increased accumulation of creatine deposits in sector 3 of the Ammon's horn (CA3) hippocampal area of ketogenic diet fed rats. In multiform and internal layers of CA3, seizure experiencing animals on ketogenic diet (KSE) presented a lower ratio of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) compared to rats on standard laboratory diet (NSE). Moreover, in some of the examined cellular layers, the increased intensity of the 2924 cm(-1) lipid band as well as the massifs of 2800-3000 cm(-1) and 1360-1480 cm(-1), was found in KSE compared to NSE animals. The intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) band was diminished in DG molecular layers of KSE rats. The ketogenic diet did not modify the seizure induced anomalies in the unsaturation level of lipids or the number of creatine deposits.

  17. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of a ketogenic diet on auditory gating in DBA/2 mice: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregellas, Jason R; Smucny, Jason; Legget, Kristina T; Stevens, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Although the ketogenic diet has shown promise in a pilot study and case report in schizophrenia, its effects in animal models of hypothesized disease mechanisms are unknown. This study examined effects of treatment with the ketogenic diet on hippocampal P20/N40 gating in DBA/2 mice, a translational endophenotype that mirrors inhibitory deficits in P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia patients. As expected, the diet increased blood ketone levels. Animals with the highest ketone levels showed the lowest P20/N40 gating ratios. These preliminary results suggest that the ketogenic diet may effectively target sensory gating deficits and is a promising area for additional research in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. How Can a Ketogenic Diet Improve Motor Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A ketogenic diet (KD is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80–90%, low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production. KD is a therapy that has been used for almost a century to treat medically intractable epilepsy and has been increasingly explored in a number of neurological diseases. Motor function has also been shown to be improved by KD and/or medium-chain triglyceride diets in rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal cord injury. These studies have proposed that KD may induce a modification in synaptic morphology and function, involving ionic channels, glutamatergic transmission, or synaptic vesicular cycling machinery. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of KD on motor function and the perspectives of its use to acquire the neuromuscular effects. The aim of this review is to explore the conditions through which KD might improve motor function. First, we will describe the main consequences of KD exposure in tissues involved in motor function. Second, we will report and discuss the relevance of KD in pre-clinical and clinical trials in the major diseases presenting motor dysfunction.

  20. Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D’Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

  1. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy : Starting With a Liquid Formulation in an Outpatient Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; Callenbach, Petra M C; de Koning, Tom J; Brouwer, Oebele F

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its

  2. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E; Kleppa, Liv; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Klungland, Arne; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) receptor subunits α 1 . However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial in mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein-losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative care for over 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin indicated protein-losing enteropathy. Related symptoms were relieved after cessation of the ketogenic diet. Unexplained hypoalbuminemia combined with edema and diarrhea during ketogenic suggests the possibility of protein-losing enteropathy, and proper evaluation is recommended in order to expeditiously detect it and to act accordingly. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  4. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information...

  5. Is ketogenic diet treatment hepatotoxic for children with intractable epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Guzel, Orkide; Kose, Engin; Yılmaz, Unsal; Kuyum, Pınar; Aksoy, Betül; Çalık, Tansel

    2016-12-01

    Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc.) were included in the study. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, aminotransferase, bilirubin, protein and albumin levels and abdominal ultrasonography were recorded before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following after diet initiation. The mean duration of KD was 15.9±4.3months. At one month of therapy, three patients had elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels. These patients were receiving ketogenic diet for Doose syndrome, idiopathic epilepsy and GLUT-1 deficiency. Hepatosteatosis was detected in three patients at 6 months of treatment. Two of these patients were treated with KD for the primary diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and one for Landau Kleffner syndrome. Cholelithiasis was detected in two patients at 12 months of treatment. They were receiving treatment for West syndrome and hypoxic brain injury sequelae. Long-term ketogenic diet treatment stimulates liver parenchymal injury, hepatic steatosis and gallstone formation. Patients should be monitored by screening liver enzymes and abdominal ultrasonography in order to detect these side effects. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ketone Bodies as a Possible Adjuvant to Ketogenic Diet in PDHc Deficiency but Not in GLUT1 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarou, F; Bahi-Buisson, N; Lebigot, E; Pontoizeau, C; Abi-Warde, M T; Brassier, A; Le Quan Sang, K H; Broissand, C; Vuillaumier-Barrot, S; Roubertie, A; Boutron, A; Ottolenghi, C; de Lonlay, P

    2018-01-01

    Ketogenic diet is the first line therapy for neurological symptoms associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDHD) and intractable seizures in a number of disorders, including GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS). Because high-fat diet raises serious compliance issues, we investigated if oral L,D-3-hydroxybutyrate administration could be as effective as ketogenic diet in PDHD and GLUT1-DS. We designed a partial or total progressive substitution of KD with L,D-3-hydroxybutyrate in three GLUT1-DS and two PDHD patients. In GLUT1-DS patients, we observed clinical deterioration including increased frequency of seizures and myoclonus. In parallel, ketone bodies in CSF decreased after introducing 3-hydroxybutyrate. By contrast, two patients with PDHD showed clinical improvement as dystonic crises and fatigability decreased under basal metabolic conditions. In one of the two PDHD children, 3-hydroxybutyrate has largely replaced the ketogenic diet, with the latter that is mostly resumed only during febrile illness. Positive direct effects on energy metabolism in PDHD patients were suggested by negative correlation between ketonemia and lactatemia (r 2  = 0.59). Moreover, in cultured PDHc-deficient fibroblasts, the increase of CO 2 production after 14 C-labeled 3-hydroxybutyrate supplementation was consistent with improved Krebs cycle activity. However, except in one patient, ketonemia tended to be lower with 3-hydroxybutyrate administration compared to ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate may be an adjuvant treatment to ketogenic diet in PDHD but not in GLUT1-DS under basal metabolic conditions. Nevertheless, ketogenic diet is still necessary in PDHD patients during febrile illness.

  7. Ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy during pregnancy: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Louw, Elles J T M; Williams, Tanya J; Henry-Barron, Bobbie J; Olieman, Joanne F; Duvekot, Johannes J; Vermeulen, Marijn J; Bannink, Natalja; Williams, Monique; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Kossoff, Eric H; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for seizure control during pregnancy when safety and appropriate management become considerations. Until now, no information has been available on seizure reduction and human pregnancy related outcomes in women treated with KD therapies. We describe two cases of pregnant women with epilepsy treated with KD therapy either as monotherapy (Case 1) or as adjunctive therapy (Case 2). Case 1: A 27 year old woman, gravida1, started the classic KD with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsion and 75g carbohydrate-restriction, later reduced to 47g. Glucose levels were 4-6mmol/L and blood ketone levels ranged from 0.2 to 1.4mmol/L. Seizure frequency decreased and seizure-free days increased. Mild side effects included intolerance to MCT, reduced serum carnitine and vitamin levels, and mild hyperlipidemia. Fetal and neonatal growth was normal as was growth and development at 12 months. Case 2: A 36 year-old nulliparous woman was treated with a 20 gram carbohydrate-restricted Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and lamotrigine, resulting in reduction of seizure frequency to once per month prior to pregnancy. Once pregnant, carbohydrates were increased to 30g. When seizures increased, lamotrigine dose was doubled. Urine ketones trended down during second trimester. A male was born with bilateral ear deformities of unknown significance. The child had a normal neurodevelopment at eight months. Non-pharmacological epilepsy therapies like KD and MAD may be effective during human pregnancy. However, safety still has to be established. Further monitoring to identify potential long term side effects is warranted. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Ketogenic diets as an adjuvant cancer therapy: History and potential mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryan G.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Mapuskar, Kranti A.; Schoenfeld, Joshua D.; Buatti, John M.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Fath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells, relative to normal cells, demonstrate significant alterations in metabolism that are proposed to result in increased steady-state levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2•−and H2O2. It has also been proposed that cancer cells increase glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism to compensate for increased levels of ROS. Given this theoretical construct, it is reasonable to propose that forcing cancer cells to use mitochondrial oxidative metabolism by feeding ketogenic diets that are high in fats and low in glucose and other carbohydrates, would selectively cause metabolic oxidative stress in cancer versus normal cells. Increased metabolic oxidative stress in cancer cells would in turn be predicted to selectively sensitize cancer cells to conventional radiation and chemotherapies. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the hypothesis that ketogenic diets may be safely used as an adjuvant therapy to conventional radiation and chemotherapies and discusses the proposed mechanisms by which ketogenic diets may enhance cancer cell therapeutic responses. PMID:25460731

  9. The ketogenic diet is effective for refractory epilepsy associated with acquired structural epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaluz, Mel Michel; Lomax, Lysa Boissé; Jadhav, Trupti; Cross, J Helen; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2018-07-01

    Ketogenic diet therapies have proven efficacy for refractory epilepsy. There are many reports of their use in the genetic developmental and epileptic encephalopathies; however, little attention has been paid as to whether the diet is also effective in individuals with an acquired structural aetiology. We observed remarkable efficacy of the diet in two patients with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We then analysed our cases with refractory structural epilepsies of acquired origin to characterize their response to the ketogenic diet. The classical ketogenic diet was implemented with dietary ratios of 3:1 to 4.4:1. Seizure frequency at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was ascertained. A responder was defined as greater than 50% seizure reduction compared to baseline. Seven of the nine patients were responders at 3 months. Somewhat surprisingly we found that the ketogenic diet was effective in patients with a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to an acquired structural aetiology. This cohort may not be routinely considered for the ketogenic diet because of their structural and acquired, rather than genetic, basis. The ketogenic diet should be considered early in the management of patients with acquired structural encephalopathies as it can improve seizure control with the potential to improve developmental outcome. The ketogenic diet was effective in children with epilepsy associated with an acquired structural aetiology. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  11. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Natale, Francesco; Torino, Annarita; Capasso, Rosanna; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Pironti, Erica; Santoro, Elena; Calabrò, Raffaele; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet. Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls. The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (pketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effectiveness of a ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Quintanilla, F; Celis-Rosati, A; Rodriguez-Leiva, C; Silva-Navarro, C; Silva-Pinto, Y; Toro-Jeria, B

    2016-05-16

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that affects both children and adults. From the 1920s the ketogenic diet has gained prestige as another treatment option for patients with refractory epilepsy. A summary of the evidence will be made through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials that have compared a single ketogenic diet with other diet for the management of these patients. To determine the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in reducing episodes of seizures in patients with refractory epilepsy. The search strategy included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials. Databases used were Medline, LILACS, Central and CINAHL. Six articles that met our elegibility criteria. There is limited evidence that the ketogenic diet compared to the medium-chain triglyceride diet is more effective in reducing the frequency of seizures. There is also moderate evidence that classical ketogenic diet compared to the gradual diet (2.5:1 and 3:1) is more effective in reducing seizures. There is moderate evidence that classical ketogenic diet compared to Atkins diet is more effective in reducing the frequency of seizure. The decision to apply this type of diet should also be based on costs, preferences and safety of treatment. It should also take into account the likelihood that studies have indexing problems have been left out of the review.

  13. The Short-Term Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Elastic Properties of the Carotid Artery and the Aorta in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur; Uysal, Utku

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the effect of a 6-month-long ketogenic diet on carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery, and aortic vascular functions. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were being treated with ketogenic diet were enrolled. Fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were measured and echocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning of ketogenic diet and at the sixth month of treatment. The body weight, height, body mass index, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein increased significantly at month 6 when compared to baseline values (P ketogenic diet has no effect on carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Antiepileptic popular ketogenic diet: emerging twists in an ancient story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamecq, Joseph; Vallée, Louis; Lesage, Florian; Gressens, Pierre; Stables, James P

    2005-01-01

    The antiepileptic activity associated with ketogenic diets (KD) have been known for some time. First reports date back to the Middle Ages and even Biblical times where KD was achieved by fasting (i.e. "water diet") [see Swink, T.D., Vining, E.P.G., Freeman, J.M., 1997. The ketogenic diet: 1997. Adv. Pediatr. 44, 297-329, and references therein]. In the early 20th century, changes in the design of the KD were introduced, shifting the so-called "water diet" to a high-fat diet. Initial clinical evaluations undertaken between the 1920s and 1940s were enthusiastic, but the popularity of the KD was retrograded upon clinical introduction of phenytoin and subsequently other antiepileptic drugs. Today, despite a pharmacological arsenal targeting cerebral receptors and specific events in seizure initiation and development, about 30-40% patients are still refractory to available medications. Thus, the KD has been re-introduced in recent years as an alternative therapy, averring to be efficacious against some instances of resistant or intractable epilepsy. Despite a long historical background and enlarged clinical use, identification of the underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms associated with this nonpharmacological approach is still in stagnation. The present review is an attempt to encourage current research orientation through well-based and directed proposals for putative emerging candidates mediating KD anticonvulsant mechanisms. The reader is provided with a special emphasis on ATP-sensitive and recently cloned two-pore (or tandem) domain potassium channels, as well as several emerging conceptual views and advances such as nuclear receptors, uncoupling proteins and gap junctions that the authors speculate may contribute to understanding the basic mechanisms linked to the KD.

  15. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zajac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate

  16. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  17. Limited efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of highly refractory epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shin, Ji Hyun; Shih, Evan J; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika; Kezele, Michele E; Sankar, Raman; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet is effective in the treatment of epileptic spasms, even in refractory cases. However, there has been very limited demonstration of prompt and complete (video-EEG confirmed) response. We set out to describe our center's experience with the ketogenic diet in the treatment of children with highly refractory epileptic spasms, with rigorous seizure outcome assessment. Children treated with the ketogenic diet for epileptic spasms between April, 2010 and June, 2014 were retrospectively identified. Seizure burden was tabulated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12-months of ketogenic diet exposure. Adverse events were similarly ascertained. We identified a cohort of 22 consecutive patients who received ketogenic diet therapy, with median age of onset of epileptic spasms of 5.2 (IQR 2.0-9.0) months, with diet initiation beginning a median of 26.4 (12.5-38.7) months after onset, and following a median of 7 (IQR 5-7) treatment failures. Only 2 patients exhibited a complete response during ketogenic diet exposure, and response was more reasonably attributed to alternative therapies in both cases. A modest early reduction in seizure frequency was not sustained beyond 1 month of diet exposure. The diet was well tolerated, and continued in 6 patients with subjective and/or partial response. In contrast to prior studies reporting substantial efficacy of the ketogenic diet, our findings suggest limited efficacy, albeit in a highly refractory cohort. Prospective studies in both refractory and new-onset populations, with both video-EEG confirmation of response and rigorous cognitive outcome assessment, would be of great value to more clearly define the utility of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin; Sun, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searc...

  19. Alternative diets to the classical ketogenic diet-Can we be more liberal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Maria J; Turner, Zahava; Magrath, Gwyneth

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, adequate protein, low-carbohydrate diet has been used since 1921 for the treatment of severe medically refractory epilepsy. In the past 15 years, the use of the KD has expanded enormously and a huge amount of clinical evidence of its efficacy is available....... The classical KD is however restrictive and therefore alternative more liberal varieties of the classical KD have been developed within the last 8 years. The purpose of this report is to summarise the principles and evidence of effectiveness of the alternative ketogenic diets: Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT......)-KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and low glycaemic index treatment (LGIT), compared to the classical KD. The clinical evidence to date suggests that the more liberal versions of the classical KD such as MCT KD, MAD and LGIT have an efficacy close to the classical KD; however, no RCT data are available for MAD...

  20. The influence of the ketogenic diet on the elemental and biochemical compositions of the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Patulska, Agnieszka; Sandt, Christophe; Simon, Rolf; Ciarach, Malgorzata; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that dietary therapies, mainly the ketogenic diet, may be highly effective in the reduction of epileptic seizures. All of them share the common characteristic of restricting carbohydrate intake to shift the predominant caloric source of the diet to fat. Catabolism of fats results in the production of ketone bodies which become alternate energy substrates to glucose. Although many mechanisms by which ketone bodies yield its anticonvulsant effect are proposed, the relationships between the brain metabolism of the ketone bodies and their neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic action still remain to be discerned. In the study, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and FTIR microspectroscopy were used to follow ketogenic diet-induced changes in the elemental and biochemical compositions of rat hippocampal formation tissue. The use of synchrotron sources of X-rays and infrared allowed us to examine changes in the accumulation and distribution of selected elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se) and biomolecules (proteins, lipids, ketone bodies, etc.) with the micrometer spatial resolution. The comparison of rats fed with the ketogenic diet and rats fed with the standard laboratory diet showed changes in the hippocampal accumulation of P, K, Ca, and Zn. The relations obtained for Ca (increased level in CA3, DG, and its internal area) and Zn (decreased areal density in CA3 and DG) were analogous to those that we previously observed for rats in the acute phase of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Biochemical analysis of tissues taken from ketogenic diet-fed rats demonstrated increased intensity of absorption band occurring at 1740 cm(-1), which was probably the result of elevated accumulation of ketone bodies. Moreover, higher absolute and relative (3012 cm(-1)/2924 cm(-1), 3012 cm(-1)/lipid massif, and 3012 cm(-1)/amide I) intensity of the 3012-cm(-1) band resulting from increased unsaturated fatty acids content was found after the treatment

  1. Efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin; Sun, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet.

  2. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María J; Agustinho, Ariela; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; De Martini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Ríos, Viviana; Sosa, Patricia; Vaccarezza, María; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet, a non-drug treatment with proven effectiveness, has been the most commonly used therapy in the past decade for the management of refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population. Compared to adding a new drug to a pre-existing treatment, the ketogenic diet is highly effective and reduces the number of seizures by 50-90% in approximately 45-60% of children after six months of treatment. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology established the Ketogenic Diet Working Group. It is integrated by pediatric dietitians, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists and B.S. in Nutrition, who developed recommendations for the optimal management of patients receiving the classical ketogenic diet based on expert consensus and scientific publications in this field. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  3. Effect of Combined Ketogenic Diet and Valproate Treatment for Intractable Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety and tolerability of ketogenic diet (KGD and valproate (VPA cotherapy in the treatment of intractable seizures were evaluated retrospectively at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

  4. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy: Starting With a Liquid Formulation in an Outpatient Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; Callenbach, Petra M C; de Koning, Tom J; Brouwer, Oebele F

    2018-01-01

    Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction). Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days). The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis.

  5. The Anticonvulsant Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Epileptic Seizures and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Wei; Li, Bingjin

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction induced by the aberrant excitability of certain neurons. Despite advances in surgical technique and anti-epileptic drug in recent years, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and lead to a serious morbidity in the world. The ketogenic diet refers to a high-fat, low-carbohydrate and adequate-protein diet. Currently, its beneficial effects on epileptic seizure reduction have been well established. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the anti-epileptic effects of ketogenic diet are still poorly understood. In this article, the possible roles of ketogenic diet on epilepsy were discussed. Data was obtained from the websites including Web of Science, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, based on these keywords: "Ketogenic diet" and "epilepsy". As shown in both clinical and basic studies, the therapeutic effects of ketogenic diet might involve neuronal metabolism, neurotransmitter function, neuronal membrane potential and neuron protection against ROS. In this review, we systematically reviewed the effects and possible mechanisms of ketogenic diet on epilepsy, which may optimize the therapeutic strategies against epilepsy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  7. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways

  8. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Klieser Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1 and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1 were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic

  9. Intravenous ketogenic diet therapy for treatment of the acute stage of super-refractory status epilepticus in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2015-04-01

    A ketogenic diet has been used successfully to treat intractable epilepsy. However, the role of early intravenous initiation of ketogenic diet in the acute phase of super-refractory status epilepticus is not well-described. An intravenous ketogenic diet was administered to a boy with super-refractory status epilepticus. At 24 hours after intravenous ketogenic diet, moderate ketosis appeared, and thiamylal was successfully weaned at 70 hours after admission. An intravenous ketogenic regimen led to subsequent ketosis and seizure control in a child with super-refractory status epilepticus. Early induction of ketosis may be a novel strategy to effectively treat super-refractory status epilepticus. Although there are few data regarding the early use of intravenous ketogenic diet in the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus, it may be considered an alternative option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complications During Ketogenic Diet Initiation: Prevalence, Treatment, and Influence on Seizure Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Abigail; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C; Stanfield, Anthony; Kossoff, Eric H

    2017-03-01

    Many centers still admit children for several days to start the ketogenic diet. The exact incidence of adverse effects during the admission and their potential later impact on seizure reduction has not been widely studied. We performed a retrospective study of children with intractable epilepsy electively admitted for ketogenic diet initiation at our institution from 2011 to 2016. Charts were reviewed for adverse effects during the admission period and then examined for seizure reduction and compliance at three months. A rating scale (1 to 4) was created for severity of any adverse events. A total of 158 children were included, with the mean age 4.6 years. Potentially attributable adverse effects occurred in 126 (80%) children, most commonly emesis, food refusal, and hypoglycemia. Seventy-three (46%) children received some form of intervention by the medical team, most commonly the administration of juice (24%). Younger age was correlated with an increased likelihood of moderate to severe adverse effects during admission, often repeated hypoglycemia (3.6 versus 4.9 years, P = 0.04). Fasting was more likely to result in lethargy and a single blood glucose in the 30 to 40 mg/dL range, but it was not correlated with emesis, repeated hypoglycemia, or higher adverse effect scores. There was no statistically significant correlation between the severity of adverse effects and the three-month seizure reduction. Mild easily treated adverse effects occurred in most children admitted for the ketogenic diet. Younger children were at greater risk for significant difficulties and should be monitored closely. Because fasting led to more lethargy and hypoglycemia, it may be prudent to avoid this in younger children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangeliou, A.; Vlachonikolis, I.; Mihailidou, H.; Spilioti, M.; Skarpalezou, A.; Makaronas, N.; Prokopiou, A.; Christodoulou, P.; Liapi-Adamidou, G.; Helidonis, E.; Sbyrakis, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot prospective follow-up study of the role of the ketogenic diet was carried out on 30 children, aged between 4 and 10 years, with autistic behavior. The diet was applied for 6 months, with continuous administration for 4 weeks, interrupted by 2-week diet-free intervals. Seven patients could

  12. Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyan; Xia, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Qian, Min

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we established diabetic mice model with streptozotocin (STZ) and divided them into control group, ketogenic diet group, and ketogenic diet with aerobic exercise group. We found that after six weeks of intervention, mice treated with ketogenic diet and ketogenic diet combined with exercise both have lower body weights, HbAlc level, HOMA index, and improvements in insulin sensitivity, compared with diabetes group. In addition, mice in ketogenic diet intervention exhibited hepatic steatosis shown by serum and hepatic parameters, as well as histochemistry staining in the liver, which could be largely relieved by exercise. Furthermore, gene analysis revealed that ketogenic diet in combination with exercise reduced PPARγ and lipid synthetic genes, as well as enhancing PPARα and lipid β-oxidation gene program in the liver compared to those in ketogenic diet without exercise. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the combination of ketogenic diet and a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice, while avoiding hepatic steatosis, which provided a novel strategy in the combat of diabetes. PMID:29743883

  13. Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Lingyan; Xia, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Qian, Min; Ding, Shuzhe

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we established diabetic mice model with streptozotocin (STZ) and divided them into control group, ketogenic diet group, and ketogenic diet with aerobic exercise group. We found that after six weeks of intervention, mice treated with ketogenic diet and ketogenic diet combined with exercise both have lower body weights, HbAlc level, HOMA index, and improvements in insulin sensitivity, compared with diabetes group. In addition, mice in ketogenic diet intervention exhibited hepatic steatosis shown by serum and hepatic parameters, as well as histochemistry staining in the liver, which could be largely relieved by exercise. Furthermore, gene analysis revealed that ketogenic diet in combination with exercise reduced PPAR γ and lipid synthetic genes, as well as enhancing PPAR α and lipid β -oxidation gene program in the liver compared to those in ketogenic diet without exercise. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the combination of ketogenic diet and a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice, while avoiding hepatic steatosis, which provided a novel strategy in the combat of diabetes.

  14. Ketogenic diet for high partial pressure oxygen diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadao, Jason M; Vigilante, John A; DiGeorge, Nicholas W; O'Connor, Sunila E; Bear, Alexandria; Kenyon, Jeffrey; Annis, Heather; Dituri, Joseph; Dituri, Amy E; Whelan, Harry T

    2014-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) may decrease central nervous system oxygen toxicity symptoms in divers, and in view of this implication a feasibility/ toxicity pilot study was performed to demonstrate tolerance of KD while performing normal diving profiles. The exact mechanism of neuroprotection from the KD remains unknown; however, evidence to support the efficacy of the KD in reducing seizures is present in epilepsy and oxygen toxicity studies, and may provide valuable insight in diving activities. Three divers (two males and one female ages 32-45 with a history of deep diving and high pO2 exposure) on the KD made dives to varying depths in Hawaii using fully closed-circuit MK-15 and Inspiration rebreathers. These rebreathers have an electronically controlled set point, allowing the divers to monitor and control the oxygen level in the breathing loop, which can be varied manually by the divers. Oxygen level was varied during descent, bottom depth and ascent (decompression). Divers fasted for 12-18 hours before diet initiation. The ketosis level was verified by urinating on a Ketostix (reagent strips for urinalysis). Ketosis was achieved and was easily monitored with Ketostix in the simulated operational environment. The KD did not interfere with the diving mission; no seizure activity or signs or symptoms of CNS toxicity were observed, and there were no adverse effects noted by the divers while on the KD.

  15. Epilepsy Treatment Simplified through Mobile Ketogenic Diet Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanzhou; Jauregui, Jeffrey L; Fenton, Cagla; Chee, Claire M; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2014-07-01

    The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is an effective, alternative treatment for refractory epilepsy. This high fat, low protein and carbohydrate diet mimics the metabolic and hormonal changes that are associated with fasting. To maximize the effectiveness of the KD, each meal is precisely planned, calculated, and weighed to within 0.1 gram for the average three-year duration of treatment. Managing the KD is time-consuming and may deter caretakers and patients from pursuing or continuing this treatment. Thus, we investigated methods of planning KD faster and making the process more portable through mobile applications. Nutritional data was gathered from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database. User selected foods are converted into linear equations with n variables and three constraints: prescribed fat content, prescribed protein content, and prescribed carbohydrate content. Techniques are applied to derive the solutions to the underdetermined system depending on the number of foods chosen. The method was implemented on an iOS device and tested with varieties of foods and different number of foods selected. With each case, the application's constructed meal plan was within 95% precision of the KD requirements. In this study, we attempt to reduce the time needed to calculate a meal by automating the computation of the KD via a linear algebra model. We improve upon previous KD calculators by offering optimal suggestions and incorporating the USDA database. We believe this mobile application will help make the KD and other dietary treatment preparations less time consuming and more convenient.

  16. Effectiveness of the ketogenic diet used to treat resistant childhood epilepsy in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallböök, Tove; Sjölander, Arvid; Åmark, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This Scandinavian collaborative retrospective study of children treated with ketogenic diet (KD) highlights indications and effectiveness over two years follow-up. METHODS: Five centres specialised in KD collected data retrospectively on 315 patients started on KD from 1999 to 2009....... Twenty-five patients who stopped the diet within four weeks because of compliance-problems and minor side-effects were excluded. Seizure-type(s), seizure-frequency, anti-epileptic drugs and other treatments, mental retardation, autism-spectrum disorder and motor-dysfunction were identified and treatment......-response was evaluated. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Responders (>50% seizure-frequency reduction) at 6, 12 and 24 months were 50%, 46% and 28% respectively, seizure-free were 16%, 13% and 10%. Still on the diet were 80%, 64% and 41% after 6, 12 and 24 months. No child had an increased seizure...

  17. The nervous system and metabolic dysregulation: emerging evidence converges on ketogenic diet therapy

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    David N. Ruskin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, ketogenic diet therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. More recently, cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders - although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a ketogenic diet and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a ketogenic diet on cognition and recent data on the effects of a ketogenic diet on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system.

  18. Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures: three patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

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    Caraballo, Roberto; Noli, Daniel; Cachia, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    We present three patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures treated with the ketogenic diet. Between February 1, 2012 and January 31, 2014, three patients who met the diagnostic criteria for migrating focal seizures in infancy at our department were placed on the ketogenic diet and followed for a minimum of seven months. Two of the three children responded well to the ketogenic diet. One of these patients became seizure-free and his neuropsychological performance also significantly improved. The other child had a seizure reduction of 75% to 99% with only weekly seizures and moderate psychomotor improvement. For these two patients who responded well to the ketogenic diet, hospital admission was not required. The remaining patient had a seizure reduction of less than 50%. Tolerability of the diet was good in all three patients. Early treatment with the ketogenic diet should be considered for epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures to control seizures and status epilepticus, and avoid progressive cognitive impairment.

  19. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts.

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    Paoli, Antonio; Grimaldi, Keith; D'Agostino, Dominic; Cenci, Lorenzo; Moro, Tatiana; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2012-07-26

    Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs) were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps) before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes' usual diet (a typically western diet, WD). A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg) and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p < 0.001) with a non-significant increase in muscle mass. Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a relatively

  20. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

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    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  1. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

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    Paoli Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing use of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD in weight control and management of the metabolic syndrome there is a paucity of research about effects of VLCKD on sport performance. Ketogenic diets may be useful in sports that include weight class divisions and the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of VLCKD on explosive strength performance. Methods 8 athletes, elite artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 5.5 yrs were recruited. We analyzed body composition and various performance aspects (hanging straight leg raise, ground push up, parallel bar dips, pull up, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30 sec continuous jumps before and after 30 days of a modified ketogenic diet. The diet was based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrates, but which mimicked their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts. During the VLCKD the athletes performed the normal training program. After three months the same protocol, tests were performed before and after 30 days of the athletes’ usual diet (a typically western diet, WD. A one-way Anova for repeated measurements was used. Results No significant differences were detected between VLCKD and WD in all strength tests. Significant differences were found in body weight and body composition: after VLCKD there was a decrease in body weight (from 69.6 ± 7.3 Kg to 68.0 ± 7.5 Kg and fat mass (from 5.3 ± 1.3 Kg to 3.4 ± 0.8 Kg p  Conclusions Despite concerns of coaches and doctors about the possible detrimental effects of low carbohydrate diets on athletic performance and the well known importance of carbohydrates there are no data about VLCKD and strength performance. The undeniable and sudden effect of VLCKD on fat loss may be useful for those athletes who compete in sports based on weight class. We have demonstrated that using VLCKD for a

  2. How do you keto? Survey of North American pediatric ketogenic diet centers.

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    Jung, Da Eun; Joshi, Sucheta M; Berg, Anne T

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed ketogenic diet centers in North America about their practices surrounding the ketogenic diet. An internet survey was disseminated via REDCap(©) to North American ketogenic diet centers identified from the Charlie Foundation and Ketocal(©) websites. Fifty-six centers responded. In addition to physicians, nurses and dieticians, ketogenic teams included social workers (39%), feeding specialists (14%), educational liaisons (4%), psychologists (5%), and pharmacists (36%). A child attending school (2%), non-English speaking family (19%), single-parent family (0%), and oral feeding (6%) were rarely considered barriers. Overall, the diet was considered the first or second (0%), third or fourth (67%), fifth or sixth (29%), and last resort treatment (4%) by centers. It was considered the first or second treatment for GLUT1 disease (86%) and third or fourth for Dravet (63%), West (71%), and Doose (65%) syndromes. Ketogenic diet is no longer a last resort option. Traditional barriers do not influence its use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Efficacy of a ketogenic diet in urological cancers patients : A systematic review].

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    Maisch, P; Gschwend, J E; Retz, M

    2018-03-01

    Beside the classical anticancer treatment tumor patients try to find proactive alternative therapies to fight their disease. Lifestyle changes such as introducing a ketogenic diet is one of the most popular among them. The German Association of Urological Oncology (AUO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Urologische Onkologie) presents a systematic review investigating the evidence of ketogenic diet in cancer patients. A systematic literature research was conducted in the databases Medline, Livivo, and the Cochrane Library. Only clinical studies of tumor patients receiving chemotherapy while on a ketogenic diet were included. The assessment of the results was performed according to the predefined primary endpoints overall survival and progression-free survival and secondary endpoints quality of life and reduction of adverse effects induced by cytostatics. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria: eight prospective and one retrospective study case series respectively cohort-studies, with a total of 107 patients. Currently there is no evidence of a therapeutic effect of a ketogenic diet in patients with malignant tumors regarding the clinical outcome or quality of life. Based on the current data, a ketogenic diet can not be recommended to cancer patients because prospective, randomized trials are missing.

  4. The use of a formula-based ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy

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    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD is a nonpharmacologic treatment that has been used for refractory epilepsy since 1921. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet, which is calculated and weighed for each individual patient. Introducing and maintaining the diet for a long time remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated the acceptability, tolerance, and efficacy of a formula-based KD in 10 children with refractory epilepsy. The ketogenic formula tested herein caused only mild KD-related adverse events and adequate adherence. Moreover, 60% of patients had more than 50% seizure frequency reduction and 10% were seizure-free.

  5. To treat or not to treat drug-refractory epilepsy by the ketogenic diet? That is the question.

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    Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Pluta, Ryszard; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-12-23

    Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory. This is why other treatment options may be recommended, and ketogenic diet seems a last-chance method, especially in children and adolescents with epilepsy. The diet contains high amounts of fat and low carbohydrates with vitamin supplementation. The elevated concentrations of ketones induced by the diet may result in inhibition of the synaptic activity of glutamate, the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway, and activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. One of the main ketones is acetone, shown to increase the seizure threshold and potentiate the anticonvulsant activity of some antiepileptic drugs. The clinical effectiveness of the ketogenic diet has been confirmed in a number of clinical trials carried out mainly on children. A wider use of the ketogenic diet may be limited by the number of early adverse effects (gastrointestinal distress, acidosis, hypoglycaemia, dehydration and lethargy), and late adverse effects (hyperuricaemia, hyperlipidaemia, kidney stones, easy bruising, and decreases in height and weight). Recently, data are available on the negative impact of the ketogenic diet on the qualitative characteristics of lipoprotein subfractions which points to the atherogenic fenotype as a new side-effect. In conclusion, future research directed to the proper identification of patients (in terms of age, epilepsy type and duration, recommended antiepileptic

  6. Is the interaction between fatty acids and tryptophan responsible for the efficacy of a ketogenic diet in epilepsy? The new hypothesis of action.

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    Maciejak, P; Szyndler, J; Turzyńska, D; Sobolewska, A; Kołosowska, K; Krząścik, P; Płaźnik, A

    2016-01-28

    The effects of a ketogenic diet in controlling seizure activity have been proven in many studies, although its mechanism of action remains elusive in many regards. We hypothesize that the ketogenic diet may exert its antiepileptic effects by influencing tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of octanoic and decanoic fatty acids (FAs), the main components in the MCT diet (medium-chain triglyceride diet, a subtype of the ketogenic diet), on the metabolism of TRP, the activity of the kynurenic pathway and the concentrations of monoamines and amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) in rats. The acute effects of FA on the sedation index and hippocampal electrical after-discharge threshold were also assessed. We observed that intragastric administration of FA increased the brain levels of TRP and the central and peripheral concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA), as well as caused significant changes in the brain and plasma concentrations of BCAA and AAA. We found that the administration of FA clearly increased the seizure threshold and induced sedation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking TRP passage into the brain abolished these effects of FA but had no similar effect on the formation of ketone bodies. Given that FAs are major components of a ketogenic diet, it is suggested that the anticonvulsant effects of a ketogenic diet may be at least partly dependent on changes in TRP metabolism. We also propose a more general hypothesis concerning the intracellular mechanism of the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Refractory Childhood Epilepsy: Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurotransmitters and Amino Acid Levels.

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    Sariego-Jamardo, Andrea; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Castejón, Esperanza; García-Arenas, Dolores; Molero-Luis, Marta; Ormazábal, Aida; Sanmartí, Francesc Xavier

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the ketogenic diet remain unclear, but several predictors of response have been proposed. We aimed is to study the relationship between the etiology of epilepsy, cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet. We studied 60 patients who began classic ketogenic diet treatment for refractory epilepsy. In 24 of 60 individuals, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids in baseline conditions. Mean age at epilepsy onset was 24 months, 83.3% were focal epilepsies, and in 51.7% the etiology of the epilepsy was unknown. Six months after initiating the ketogenic diet, it was effective (greater than a 50% reduction in seizure frequency) in 31.6% of patients. We did not find a link between rate of efficacy for the ketogenic diet and etiologies of epilepsy, nor did we find a link between the rate of efficacy for the ketogenic diet and cerebrospinal fluid pterins and biogenic amines concentrations. However, we found statistically significant differences for lysine and arginine values in the cerebrospinal fluid between ketogenic diet responders and nonresponders, but not for the other amino acids analyzed. The values of some amino acids were significantly different in relationship with the ketogenic diet efficacy; however, the epilepsy etiology and the cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amine and pterin values were not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic management of glioblastoma multiforme using standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet: Case Report

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    Servadei Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM has been difficult using standard therapy (radiation with temozolomide chemotherapy. The ketogenic diet is used commonly to treat refractory epilepsy in children and, when administered in restricted amounts, can also target energy metabolism in brain tumors. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with progressive memory loss, chronic headaches, nausea, and a right hemisphere multi-centric tumor seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Following incomplete surgical resection, the patient was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme expressing hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter. Methods Prior to initiation of the standard therapy, the patient conducted water-only therapeutic fasting and a restricted 4:1 (fat: carbohydrate + protein ketogenic diet that delivered about 600 kcal/day. The patient also received the restricted ketogenic diet concomitantly during the standard treatment period. The diet was supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Steroid medication (dexamethasone was removed during the course of the treatment. The patient was followed using MRI and positron emission tomography with fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET. Results After two months treatment, the patient's body weight was reduced by about 20% and no discernable brain tumor tissue was detected using either FDG-PET or MRI imaging. Biomarker changes showed reduced levels of blood glucose and elevated levels of urinary ketones. MRI evidence of tumor recurrence was found 10 weeks after suspension of strict diet therapy. Conclusion This is the first report of confirmed GBM treated with standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet. As rapid regression of GBM is rare in older patients following incomplete surgical resection and standard therapy alone, the response observed in this case could result in part from the action of the calorie restricted ketogenic diet. Further studies are needed

  9. A ketogenic diet rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome.

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    Benjamin, Joel S; Pilarowski, Genay O; Carosso, Giovanni A; Zhang, Li; Huso, David L; Goff, Loyal A; Vernon, Hilary J; Hansen, Kasper D; Bjornsson, Hans T

    2017-01-03

    Kabuki syndrome is a Mendelian intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes (KMT2D and KDM6A) involved in chromatin accessibility. We previously showed that an agent that promotes chromatin opening, the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) AR-42, ameliorates the deficiency of adult neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome (Kmt2d +/βGeo ). Unlike a drug, a dietary intervention could be quickly transitioned to the clinic. Therefore, we have explored whether treatment with a ketogenic diet could lead to a similar rescue through increased amounts of beta-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous HDACi. Here, we report that a ketogenic diet in Kmt2d +/βGeo mice modulates H3ac and H3K4me3 in the granule cell layer, with concomitant rescue of both the neurogenesis defect and hippocampal memory abnormalities seen in Kmt2d +/βGeo mice; similar effects on neurogenesis were observed on exogenous administration of beta-hydroxybutyrate. These data suggest that dietary modulation of epigenetic modifications through elevation of beta-hydroxybutyrate may provide a feasible strategy to treat the intellectual disability seen in Kabuki syndrome and related disorders.

  10. Neuroactive peptides as putative mediators of antiepileptic ketogenic diets

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    Carmela eGiordano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various ketogenic diet (KD therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs. In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the

  11. Renal stone associated with the ketogenic diet in a 5-year old girl with intractable epilepsy.

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    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal stone disappeared 5 days after conservative treatment; the patient's microscopic hematuria resolved concurrently. In light of this case report, we recommend regularly monitoring the urine Ca/Cr ratio with ultrasonography for further development of renal stones in patients following the ketogenic diet. If these patients exhibit evidence of symptomatic hypercalciuria or cyristalluria, liberalization of fluid restriction and urine alkalization using oral potassium citrate should be considered.

  12. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome

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    Adithya Sivaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients.

  13. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

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    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

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    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

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    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  16. The Therapeutic Potential of the Ketogenic Diet in Treating Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

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    Mithu Storoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, multiple sclerosis has been viewed as an entirely inflammatory disease without acknowledgment of the significant neurodegenerative component responsible for disease progression and disability. This perspective is being challenged by observations of a dissociation between inflammation and neurodegeneration where the neurodegenerative component may play a more significant role in disease progression. In this review, we explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. We review evidence that the ketogenic diet can improve mitochondrial function and discuss the potential of the ketogenic diet in treating progressive multiple sclerosis for which no treatment currently exists.

  17. Ketogenic diet improves behaviors in a maternal immune activation model of autism spectrum disorder.

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    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available Prenatal factors influence autism spectrum disorder (ASD incidence in children and can increase ASD symptoms in offspring of animal models. These may include maternal immune activation (MIA due to viral or bacterial infection during the first trimesters. Unfortunately, regardless of ASD etiology, existing drugs are poorly effective against core symptoms. For nearly a century a ketogenic diet (KD has been used to treat seizures, and recent insights into mechanisms of ASD and a growing recognition that immune/inflammatory conditions exacerbate ASD risk has increased interest in KD as a treatment for ASD. Here we studied the effects of KD on core ASD symptoms in offspring exposed to MIA. To produce MIA, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were injected with the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; after weaning offspring were fed KD or control diet for three weeks. Consistent with an ASD phenotype of a higher incidence in males, control diet-fed MIA male offspring were not social and exhibited high levels of repetitive self-directed behaviors; female offspring were unaffected. However, KD feeding partially or completely reversed all MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in males; it had no effect on behavior in females. KD-induced metabolic changes of reduced blood glucose and elevated blood ketones were quantified in offspring of both sexes. Prior work from our laboratory and others demonstrate KDs improve relevant behaviors in several ASD models, and here we demonstrate clear benefits of KD in the MIA model of ASD. Together these studies suggest a broad utility for metabolic therapy in improving core ASD symptoms, and support further research to develop and apply ketogenic and/or metabolic strategies in patients with ASD.

  18. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

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    Newman, John C; Covarrubias, Anthony J; Zhao, Minghao; Yu, Xinxing; Gut, Philipp; Ng, Che-Ping; Huang, Yu; Haldar, Saptarsi; Verdin, Eric

    2017-09-05

    Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

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    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  20. Ten-year single-center experience of the ketogenic diet: factors influencing efficacy, tolerability, and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Cinthya; Rowe, Natalie; Beavis, Erin; Kepreotes, Helen; Mackie, Fiona E; Lawson, John A; Cardamone, Michael

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of 3 ketogenic diets, the classical ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and modified Atkins diet. A single-center, retrospective study of 48 children with intractable epilepsy receiving ketogenic diets from 2003 to 2012. Patient demographics, epilepsy history, nutritional management, and side effects were collated. Compliance and tolerability were assessed by recording reasons for diet modification and cessation. The value of potassium citrate supplementation for preventing nephrolithiasis was reviewed. Median age at ketogenic diet initiation was 3.8 years (IQR: 2.3-7 years). The majority had intractable epilepsy, and 33 of the 48 children (69%) had epileptic encephalopathies. Three (6%) patients became seizure free, 35 (73%) reported Diet duration or ketogenic diet type did not predict reduction in seizures (P = .381; P = .272). Constipation (n = 31, 65%) was very common. Food refusal (n = 3, 6%) and poor parental compliance (n = 5, 10%) were common reasons cited for cessation. There were lower rates of side effects for modified Atkins diet. Diet cessation was greatest for MCT; however, 3 patients on MCT ceased therapy because adequate seizure control was achieved. Nephrolithiasis was reported in 1 patient before potassium citrate was used and 2 patients noncompliant with potassium citrate supplementation developed hypercalciuria. The 3 ketogenic diets were comparably effective in seizure control and generally well-tolerated. Potassium citrate supplementation is an effective prophylactic supplement for the prevention of nephrolithiasis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation.

  3. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Christophe; Jornayvaz, François R.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. PMID:28534852

  4. Concomitant lamotrigine use is associated with decreased efficacy of the ketogenic diet in childhood refractory epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.T.M. van der Louw (Elles); Desadien, R. (Raakhee); F.O.L. Vehmeijer (Florianne O.L.); I.H. van der Sijs (Heleen); C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); R.F. Neuteboom (Rinze)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and the ketogenic diet (KD) are often used concomitantly in children with refractory epilepsy. It has been hypothesised that certain AEDs may interfere with KD. The purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between efficacy of KD and use of

  5. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; de Kinderen, R.J.A.; Vles, J.S.H.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) during the first 4 months of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in refractory epilepsy patients aged 1–18 years. Methods: Children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy, not eligible for epilepsy surgery, were

  6. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T.; Wehrli, Suzanne; Dang, Chi V.; Curran, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH) pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice. PMID:26192445

  7. The ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Dorothée; Chiron, Catherine; Laschet, Jacques; Dulac, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal therapy or ketogenic diet often permits overcoming the challenging periods of many epileptic encephalopathies (West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep), but relapse affects over 20% of patients. We report here a monocenter pilot series of 42 consecutive patients in whom we combined oral steroids with the ketogenic diet for corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent epileptic encephalopathy. We retrospectively evaluated the effect on seizure frequency, interictal spike activity, neuropsychological course, and steroid treatment course. Twenty-three patients had West syndrome (WS), 13 had encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep (CSWS), and six others had miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. All patients succeeded to reach 0.8 to 1.6g/l ketone bodies in the urine following the usual KD regimen. For at least 6 months, 14/42 responded to the addition of the ketogenic diet: 4/23 with WS, 8/13 with CSWS, and 2/6 with miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. The addition of the KD allowed withdrawing steroids in all responders. Among them, 10/15 had been patients with steroid-dependent epileptic encephalopathy and 4/27 patients with steroid-resistant epileptic encephalopathy. Therefore, the ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies. Patients presenting with steroid-dependent CSWS seem to be the best candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic Success of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: a Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-feng; Zou, Yan; Ding, Gangqiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate therapeutic success of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment option for epilepsy. Methods Using MEDLINE and Google Scholar search, we searched for studies investigating the therapeutic success of ketogenic diet for epilepsy. We estimated therapeutic success rate for ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy and its 95% CIs using generic inverse variance method. Findings A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria. In retrospective studies, the weighted success rate of the patients who take the KD as a treatment option for epilepsy was 58.4% (95% confidence interval (95%CI)=48.7% – 69.9%) at 3 months (n=336); 42.8% (95%CI =36.3% – 50.3%) at 6 months (n=492), and 30.1% (95%CI =24.3% – 37.2%) at 12 months (n=387); in prospective studies, weighted success rate was 53.9% (95%CI 45.5% – 63.8%) at 3 months (n=474); 53.2% (95%CI =44.0% – 64.2%) at 6 months (n=321), and 55.0% (95%CI =45.9% – 65.9%) at 12 months (n=347). Conclusion This meta-analysis provides formal statistical support for the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic patients. PMID:24910737

  9. Ketogenic diet in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofou, Kalliopi; Dahlin, Maria; Hallböök, Tove; Lindefeldt, Marie; Viggedal, Gerd; Darin, Niklas

    2017-03-01

    Our aime was to study the short- and long-term effects of ketogenic diet on the disease course and disease-related outcomes in patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency, the metabolic factors implicated in treatment outcomes, and potential safety and compliance issues. Pediatric patients diagnosed with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency in Sweden and treated with ketogenic diet were evaluated. Study assessments at specific time points included developmental and neurocognitive testing, patient log books, and investigator and parental questionnaires. A systematic literature review was also performed. Nineteen patients were assessed, the majority having prenatal disease onset. Patients were treated with ketogenic diet for a median of 2.9 years. All patients alive at the time of data registration at a median age of 6 years. The treatment had a positive effect mainly in the areas of epilepsy, ataxia, sleep disturbance, speech/language development, social functioning, and frequency of hospitalizations. It was also safe-except in one patient who discontinued because of acute pancreatitis. The median plasma concentration of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyric acid) was 3.3 mmol/l. Poor dietary compliance was associated with relapsing ataxia and stagnation of motor and neurocognitive development. Results of neurocognitive testing are reported for 12 of 19 patients. Ketogenic diet was an effective and safe treatment for the majority of patients. Treatment effect was mainly determined by disease phenotype and attainment and maintenance of ketosis.

  10. The Ketogenic Diet Does Not Affect Growth of Hedgehog Pathway Medulloblastoma in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai T Dang

    Full Text Available The altered metabolism of cancer cells has long been viewed as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In particular, brain tumors often display heightened glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. A subset of medulloblastoma, the most prevalent malignant brain tumor in children, arises as a consequence of activating mutations in the Hedgehog (HH pathway, which has been shown to promote aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that a low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet would suppress tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of medulloblastoma. However, we found that the ketogenic diet did not slow the growth of spontaneous tumors or allograft flank tumors, and it did not exhibit synergy with a small molecule inhibitor of Smoothened. Serum insulin was significantly reduced in mice fed the ketogenic diet, but no alteration in PI3 kinase activity was observed. These findings indicate that while the ketogenic diet may be effective in inhibiting growth of other tumor types, it does not slow the growth of HH-medulloblastoma in mice.

  11. Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Lingyan; Xia, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Qian, Min; Ding, Shuzhe

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver diseas...

  12. PPARα deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPARγ activation in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Horie, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → PPARα deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. → Hepatic expressions of PPARγ and PCG-1α are induced by a ketogenic diet. → PPARγ antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. → Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPARα-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPARα-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPARα-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPARα target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPARα-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPARα-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPARα activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPARγ and its coactivator PCG-1α were more effectively induced in PPARα-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARγ antagonist, in both WT and PPARα-null mice. PPARγ activation seems to be involved in KD-induced hypofibrinolysis by augmenting PAI-1 gene expression

  13. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  14. The effect of ketogenic diet in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Baronio, Diego; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos; Gottfried, Carmem

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Its etiology is still unknown, but different environmental factors during pregnancy, such as exposure to valproic acid (VPA), are associated with high incidence of ASD in children. In this context, prenatal exposure to VPA in rodents has been used as a reliable model of ASD. Ketogenic diet (KD) is an alternative therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy; however, the effects of this approach in ASD-like behavior need to be evaluated. We conducted a behavioral assessment of the effects of KD in the VPA model of autism. Pregnant animals received a single-intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg VPA, and their offspring were separated into four groups: (1) control group with standard diet (C-SD), (2) control group with ketogenic diet (C-KD), (3) VPA group with standard diet (VPA-SD), and (4) VPA group with ketogenic diet (VPA-KD). When compared with the control group, VPA animals presented increased social impairment, repetitive behavior and higher nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, the VPA group fed with KD presented improvements in social behavior. These mice displayed higher scores in sociability index and social novelty index when compared with the SD-fed VPA mice. VPA mice chronically exposed to a KD presented behavioral improvements; however, the mechanism by which KD improves ASD-like features needs to be further investigated. In conclusion, the present study reinforces the potential use of KD as a treatment for the core deficits of ASD.

  15. A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Leuven Fred

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily strikes the elderly. Studies in both humans and animal models have linked the consumption of cholesterol and saturated fats with amyloid-β (Aβ deposition and development of AD. Yet, these studies did not examine high fat diets in combination with reduced carbohydrate intake. Here we tested the effect of a high saturated fat/low carbohydrate diet on a transgenic mouse model of AD. Results Starting at three months of age, two groups of female transgenic mice carrying the "London" APP mutation (APP/V717I were fed either, a standard diet (SD composed of high carbohydrate/low fat chow, or a ketogenic diet (KD composed of very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat chow for 43 days. Animals fed the KD exhibited greatly elevated serum ketone body levels, as measured by β-hydroxybutyrate (3.85 ± 2.6 mM, compared to SD fed animals (0.29 ± 0.06 mM. In addition, animals fed the KD lost body weight (SD 22.2 ± 0.6 g vs. KD 17.5 ± 1.4 g, p = 0.0067. In contrast to earlier studies, the brief KD feeding regime significantly reduced total brain Aβ levels by approximately 25%. Despite changes in ketone levels, body weight, and Aβ levels, the KD diet did not alter behavioral measures. Conclusion Previous studies have suggested that diets rich in cholesterol and saturated fats increased the deposition of Aβ and the risk of developing AD. Here we demonstrate that a diet rich in saturated fats and low in carbohydrates can actually reduce levels of Aβ. Therefore, dietary strategies aimed at reducing Aβ levels should take into account interactions of dietary components and the metabolic outcomes, in particular, levels of carbohydrates, total calories, and presence of ketone bodies should be considered.

  16. Diet and identity: being a good parent in the face of contradictions presented by the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michelle; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat diet used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy. Given that negative meanings tend to be attached to fatty foods and children's food consumption is seen to be the responsibility of parents, the ketogenic diet may be problematic for parenting identity. This article draws upon in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 parents from 10 families that have a child whose epilepsy is being treated with the ketogenic diet. The main focus of the article is the meanings these parents attached to foods and how they were drawn upon or altered to overcome some of the contradictions presented by the diet. It will be argued that the diet was medicalised and parents came to view food as medicine. When viewing food in this way, negative associations with fat were reversed. Furthermore, parents also used food as a symbol of inclusion and prioritised portion size or the child's enjoyment of food in order to use food as a symbol of love. In turn this enabled parents to feel they were being good parents. Overall, it seems that diet can be medicalised and the identity of the good parent maintained if dietary treatment is successful. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  17. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H.; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007-2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments lead to >50% further seizure reduction in-18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs. 15%, p = 0.08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). PMID:24859788

  18. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007 to 2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments led to >50% further seizure reduction in 18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs 15%, P = .08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Pediatric patients on ketogenic diet undergoing general anesthesia-a medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Elif; Gries, Heike; Wray, Carter

    2016-12-01

    To identify guidelines for anesthesia management and determine whether general anesthesia is safe for pediatric patients on ketogenic diet (KD). Retrospective medical record review. Postoperative recovery area. All pediatric patients who underwent general anesthesia while on KD between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. We identified 24 patients who underwent a total of 33 procedures. All children were on KD due to intractable epilepsy. The age of patients ranged from 1 to 15 years. General anesthesia for the scheduled procedures. Patients' demographics, seizure history, type of procedure; perioperative blood chemistry, medications including the anesthesia administered, and postoperative complications. Twenty-four patients underwent a total of 33 procedures. The duration of KD treatment at the time of general anesthesia ranged from 4 days to 8 years. Among the 33 procedures, 3 patients had complications that could be attributable to KD and general anesthesia. A 9-year-old patient experienced increased seizures on postoperative day 0. An 8-year-old patient with hydropcephalus developed metabolic acidosis on postoperative day 1, and a 7-year-old patient's procedure was complicated by respiratory distress and increased seizure activity in the postanesthesia care unit. This study showed that it is relatively safe for children on KD to undergo general anesthesia. The 3 complications attributable to general anesthesia were mild, and the increased seizure frequencies in 2 patients returned back to baseline in 24 hours. Although normal saline is considered more beneficial than lactated Ringer's solution in patients on KD, normal saline should also be administered carefully because of the risk of exacerbating patients' metabolic acidosis. One should be aware of the potential change of the ketogenic status due to drugs given intraoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term High Fat Ketogenic Diet Promotes Renal Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D; Kasprowska, Daniela; Wojakowska, Anna; Polański, Krzysztof; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-02-19

    Nutritional imbalance underlies many disease processes but can be very beneficial in certain cases; for instance, the antiepileptic action of a high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Besides this therapeutic feature it is not clear how this abundant fat supply may affect homeostasis, leading to side effects. A ketogenic diet is used as anti-seizure therapy i.a. in tuberous sclerosis patients, but its impact on concomitant tumor growth is not known. To examine this we have evaluated the growth of renal lesions in Eker rats (Tsc2+/-) subjected to a ketogenic diet for 4, 6 and 8 months. In spite of existing opinions about the anticancer actions of a ketogenic diet, we have shown that this anti-seizure therapy, especially in its long term usage, leads to excessive tumor growth. Prolonged feeding of a ketogenic diet promotes the growth of renal tumors by recruiting ERK1/2 and mTOR which are associated with the accumulation of oleic acid and the overproduction of growth hormone. Simultaneously, we observed that Nrf2, p53 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase α dependent antitumor mechanisms were launched by the ketogenic diet. However, the pro-cancerous mechanisms finally took the ascendency by boosting tumor growth.

  1. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  2. The ketogenic diet in two paediatric patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Roberto Horacio; Valenzuela, Gabriela Reyes; Armeno, Marisa; Fortini, Sebastian; Mestre, Graciela; Cresta, Araceli

    2015-12-01

    We describe two patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus treated with the ketogenic diet. Between May 1, 2014 and January 1, 2015, two patients who met the diagnostic criteria for refractory myoclonic status epilepticus, seen at our department, were placed on the ketogenic diet and followed for a minimum of six months. One patient with myoclonic epilepsy of unknown aetiology had a 75-90% seizure reduction, and the other with progressive encephalopathy associated with myoclonic epilepsy had a 50% seizure reduction. Both patients retained good tolerability for the diet. At the last control, one patient had isolated myoclonias and EEG showed occasional generalized spike-and-polyspike waves; the patient is now successfully attending kindergarten. The quality of life of the second patient improved significantly. In both cases, the number of antiepileptic drugs was reduced. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus and should be considered earlier in the course of treatment.

  3. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Decreased ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy and maintained on the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiò, Maddalena; Roli, Laura; Giordano, Carmela; Trenti, Tommaso; Guerra, Azzurra; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    The gastric hormones ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin have been found to be altered in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs. However, it is unknown if these hormones could be modified by other antiepileptic treatments, such as the ketogenic diet. Especially, a reduction in ghrelin levels could be relevant in view of the growth retardation observed under ketogenic diet treatment. For this reason we aimed to determine the changes in ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in children affected by refractory epilepsy and treated with the ketogenic diet up to 90 days. Both peptides were measured by immunoassays in plasma obtained from 16 children. Ghrelin plasma levels were progressively reduced by the ketogenic diet, reaching a minimum corresponding to 42% of basal levels after 90 days of ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet administration. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are downregulated by the ketogenic diet in children affected by refractory epilepsy. Although no significant changes in growth were observed during the short time period of our investigation, the reduction in ghrelin availability may explain the reported growth retardation found in children treated with the ketogenic diet in the long-term. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Ketogenic diet metabolites reduce firing in central neurons by opening K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyuan; Berg, Jim; Yellen, Gary

    2007-04-04

    A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet remains one of the most effective (but mysterious) treatments for severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We have tested for an acute effect of physiological ketone bodies on neuronal firing rates and excitability, to discover possible therapeutic mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Physiological concentrations of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate) reduced the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in slices from rat or mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata. This region is thought to act as a "seizure gate," controlling seizure generalization. Consistent with an anticonvulsant role, the ketone body effect is larger for cells that fire more rapidly. The effect of ketone bodies was abolished by eliminating the metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels pharmacologically or by gene knock-out. We propose that ketone bodies or glycolytic restriction treat epilepsy by augmenting a natural activity-limiting function served by K(ATP) channels in neurons.

  6. The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Serum Selenium Levels in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Kose, Engin; Guzel, Orkide

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum selenium levels in children receiving olive oil-based ketogenic diet (KD) for intractable seizures for at least 1 year. Out of 320 patients who were initiated on KD, patients who continued receiving KD for at least 12 months were enrolled. Sixteen patients who had selenium deficiency at the time of starting KD were excluded. Finally, a total of 110 patients (mean age 7.3 ± 4.2 years) were included. Serum selenium levels were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Selenium deficiency was defined as a serum selenium level ketogenic diet suggests that patients on this highly prescriptive dietary treatment need close monitoring of this trace element.

  7. Acid–base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Goday, Albert; Mas-Lorenzo, Antonio; Bellon, Ana; Tejera, Cristina; Bellido, Diego; Galban, Cristobal; Sajoux, Ignacio; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. Method Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (base...

  8. Acid-base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Goday Arno, Alberto; Mas-Lorenzo, Antonio; Bellon, Ana; Tejera, Cristina; Bellido, Diego; Galban, Cristobal; Sajoux, Ignacio; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (ba...

  9. Usefulness of ketogenic diet in a girl with migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tatsuo; Imai, Katsumi; Oboshi, Taikan; Fujiwara, Yuh; Takeshita, Saoko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi

    2016-06-01

    Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) are an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterized by migrating focal seizures, which are intractable to various antiepileptic drugs and cause severe developmental delay. We report a case of MPSI with heterozygous missense mutation in KCNT1, which was successfully managed by ketogenic diet. At age 2months, the patient developed epilepsy initially manifesting focal seizures with eye deviation and apnea, then evolving to secondarily generalized clonic convulsion. Various antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, valproic acid, zonisamide, clobazam, levetiracetam, vitamin B6, and carbamazepine were not effective, but high-dose phenobarbital allowed discontinuation of midazolam infusion. Ictal scalp electroencephalogram showed migrating focal seizures. MPSI was suspected and she was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Potassium bromide (KBr) was partially effective, but the effect was transient. High-dose KBr caused severe adverse effects such as over-sedation and hypercapnia, with no further effects on the seizures. At age 9months, we started a ketogenic diet, which improved seizure frequency and severity without obvious adverse effects, allowing her to be discharged from hospital. Ketogenic diet should be tried in patients with MPSI unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs. In MPSI, the difference in treatment response in patients with and those without KCNT1 mutation remains unknown. Accumulation of case reports would contribute to establish effective treatment options for MPSI. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Child Life Services on Children and Families Admitted to Start the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Sutter, Lindsay; Doerrer, Sarah C; Haney, Courtney A; Turner, Zahava

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally the ketogenic diet is started as an inpatient admission to the hospital. Starting in January 2015, child life services were made formally available during ketogenic diet admissions to help families cope. One-page surveys were then provided to 15 parents on the day of discharge and again after 3 months. Every family believed that the child life services were helpful. Children who were developmentally appropriate/mildly delayed had higher parent-reported anxiety scores than those who were moderate to severely delayed (4.4 vs 1.0, P = .02). At 3 months, child life services were deemed very helpful for the parents (mean score: 8.9, range: 5-10), and were more helpful for the parent than the child (mean 6.2, range 1-10, P = .047). One of the most helpful services was a prior phone call to parents 1 week prior. In this small pilot study, child life involvement during the start of the ketogenic diet was highly useful.

  11. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2014-09-01

    The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. Growth, body composition, and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5 y 6 mo [SD 26 mo], range 7 mo-6 y 5 mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo [SD 21 mo] age range 2-9 y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). HAz declined -0.2 and -0.6 from baseline to 3 months and 15 months respectively (p = 0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R(2) = 0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROLEAU, VERONIQUE; SCHALL, JOAN I; STALLINGS, VIRGINIA A; BERGQVIST, CHRISTINA A

    2014-01-01

    AIM The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. METHOD Growth, body composition and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 6mo (SD 26mo), range 7mo–6y 5mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6y 3mo [SD 21mo] age range 2–9y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). RESULTS HAz declined −0.2 and −0.6 from baseline to 3 and 15 months, respectively (p=0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R2=0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. PMID:24749520

  13. SLC6A1 Mutation and Ketogenic Diet in Epilepsy With Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Samantha; Towne, Meghan C; Pearl, Phillip L; Pelletier, Renee C; Genetti, Casie A; Shi, Jiahai; Beggs, Alan H; Agrawal, Pankaj B; Brownstein, Catherine A

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy or Doose syndrome, has been recently linked to variants in the SLC6A1 gene. Epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures is often refractory to antiepileptic drugs, and the ketogenic diet is known for treating medically intractable seizures, although the mechanism of action is largely unknown. We report a novel SLC6A1 variant in a patient with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, analyze its effects, and suggest a mechanism of action for the ketogenic diet. We describe a ten-year-old girl with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures and a de novo SLC6A1 mutation who responded well to the ketogenic diet. She carried a c.491G>A mutation predicted to cause p.Cys164Tyr amino acid change, which was identified using whole exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. High-resolution structural modeling was used to analyze the likely effects of the mutation. The SLC6A1 gene encodes a transporter that removes gamma-aminobutyric acid from the synaptic cleft. Mutations in SLC6A1 are known to disrupt the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1, affecting gamma-aminobutyric acid levels and causing seizures. The p.Cys164Tyr variant found in our study has not been previously reported, expanding on the variants linked to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. A 10-year-old girl with a novel SLC6A1 mutation and epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures had an excellent clinical response to the ketogenic diet. An effect of the diet on gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter protein 1 is suggested. A personalized approach to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures patients carrying SLC6A1 mutation and a relationship between epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures due to SLC6A1 mutations, GABAergic drugs, and the ketogenic diet warrants further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A.; Canton, Ana; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Sajoux, Ignacio; Galban, Cristobal; Bellido, Diego; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2018-01-01

    Background The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA...

  15. An unfortunate challenge: Ketogenic diet for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in tyrosinemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Silvana; Pichard, Samia; Ilea, Adina; Greneche, Marie-Odile; François, Laurent; Delanoë, Catherine; Schiff, Manuel; Auvin, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an evidence-based treatment for resistant epilepsy including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. This diet is based on low carbohydrate-high fat intakes. Dietary treatment is also therapeutic for inborn errors of metabolism such as aminoacdiopathies. We report a child with both Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tyrosinemia type 1. This epilepsy syndrome resulted form a porencephalic cyst secondary to brain abscesses that occurred during the management of malnutrition due to untreated tyrosinemia type 1. We used a ketogenic diet as treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome taking into account dietary requirements for tyrosinemia type 1. The patient was transiently responder during a 6-month period. This report illustrates that ketogenic diet remains a therapeutic option even when additional dietary requirements are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketogenic diet improves forelimb motor function after spinal cord injury in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Streijger

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD are validated non-pharmacological treatments for some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketones reduce neuronal excitation and promote neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the efficacy of KD as a treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI in rats. Starting 4 hours following C5 hemi-contusion injury animals were fed either a standard carbohydrate based diet or a KD formulation with lipid to carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 3:1. The forelimb functional recovery was evaluated for 14 weeks, followed by quantitative histopathology. Post-injury 3:1 KD treatment resulted in increased usage and range of motion of the affected forepaw. Furthermore, KD improved pellet retrieval with recovery of wrist and digit movements. Importantly, after returning to a standard diet after 12 weeks of KD treatment, the improved forelimb function remained stable. Histologically, the spinal cords of KD treated animals displayed smaller lesion areas and more grey matter sparing. In addition, KD treatment increased the number of glucose transporter-1 positive blood vessels in the lesion penumbra and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of MCTs with 4-CIN (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate prevented the KD-induced neuroprotection after SCI, In conclusion, post-injury KD effectively promotes functional recovery and is neuroprotective after cervical SCI. These beneficial effects require the function of monocarboxylate transporters responsible for ketone uptake and link the observed neuroprotection directly to the function of ketones, which are known to exert neuroprotection by multiple mechanisms. Our data suggest that current clinical nutritional guidelines, which include relatively high carbohydrate contents, should be revisited.

  17. Metabolic therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy in a dish: investigating mechanisms of ketogenic diet using electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1 direct application of ketone bodies, (2 mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and (3 reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including ATP-sensitive potassium channels, vesicular glutamate transporter, pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  18. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  19. Tumor metabolism, the ketogenic diet and β-hydroxybutyrate: novel approaches to adjuvant brain tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Woolf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are devastating despite aggressive treatments such as surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The average life expectancy of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is approximately ~18 months. It is clear that increased survival of brain tumor patients requires the design of new therapeutic modalities, especially those that enhance currently available treatments and/or limit tumor growth. One novel therapeutic arena is the metabolic dysregulation that results in an increased need for glucose in tumor cells. This phenomenon suggests that a reduction in tumor growth could be achieved by decreasing glucose availability, which can be accomplished through pharmacological means or through the use of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD. The KD, as the name implies, also provides increased blood ketones to support the energy needs of normal tissues. Preclinical work from a number of laboratories has shown that the KD does indeed reduce tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the KD has been shown to reduce angiogenesis, inflammation, peri-tumoral edema, migration and invasion. Furthermore, this diet can enhance the activity of radiation and chemotherapy in a mouse model of glioma, thus increasing survival. Additional studies in vitro have indicated that increasing ketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate in the absence of glucose reduction can also inhibit cell growth and potentiate the effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, while we are only beginning to understand the pluripotent mechanisms through which the KD affects tumor growth and response to conventional therapies, the emerging data provide strong support for the use of a KD in the treatment of malignant gliomas. This has led to a limited number of clinical trials investigating the use of a KD in patients with primary and recurrent glioma.

  20. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  1. The ketogenic diet as broad-spectrum treatment for super-refractory pediatric status epilepticus: challenges in implementation in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Nicole H; Sankar, Raman; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika L; Kezele, Michele A; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2015-02-01

    Refractory status epilepticus carries significant morbidity and mortality. Recent reports have promoted the use of the ketogenic diet as an effective treatment for refractory status epilepticus. We describe our recent experience with instituting the ketogenic diet for 4 critically ill children in refractory status epilepticus, ranging in age from 9 weeks to 13.5 years after failure of traditional treatment. The ketogenic diet allowed these patients to be weaned off continuous infusions of anesthetics without recurrence of status epilepticus, though delayed ketosis and persistently elevated glucose measurements posed special challenges to effective initiation, and none experienced complete seizure cessation. The ease of sustaining myocardial function with fatty acid energy substrates compares favorably over the myocardial toxicity posed by anesthetic doses of barbiturates and contributes to the safety profile of the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet can be implemented successfully and safely for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  3. Danish study of a Modified Atkins diet for medically intractable epilepsy in children: Can we achieve the same results as with the classical ketogenic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, M. J.; Mortensen, M.; Povlsen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a less restrictive variety of the classical ketogenic diet (KD), used for treating patients with medically resistant epilepsy. There are only few reports comparing the two types of diets in terms of seizure reduction and tolerability. We compared the effect of a MAD...

  4. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  5. Sex-Specific Life Course Changes in the Neuro-Metabolic Phenotype of Glut3 Null Heterozygous Mice: Ketogenic Diet Ameliorates Electroencephalographic Seizures and Improves Sociability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Zhao, Yuanzi; Tomi, Masatoshi; Shin, Bo-Chul; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Mazarati, Andrey; Sankar, Raman; Wang, Elizabeth A; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S; Zhang, Jingjing; Frew, Andrew; Alger, Jeffry R; Clark, Peter M; Sondhi, Monica; Kositamongkol, Sudatip; Leibovitch, Leah; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features, which include aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5 months of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP. Exogenous insulin-induced hypoglycemia increased brain glucose uptake in glut3+/- males alone. Higher plasma-CSF ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate) and lower brain Glut3 in females vs males proved protective in the former while enhancing vulnerability in the latter. As a consequence, increased synaptic proteins (neuroligin4 and SAPAP1) with spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity subsequently reduced hippocampal glucose content and increased brain amyloid β1-40 deposition in an age-dependent manner in glut3+/- males but not females (4 to 24 months of age). We then explored the protective effect of a ketogenic diet on ultrasonic vocalization, sociability, spatial learning and memory, and electroencephalogram seizures in male mice (7 days to 6 to 8 months of age) alone. A ketogenic diet partially restored sociability without affecting perturbed vocalization, spatial learning and memory, and reduced seizure events. We conclude that (1) sex-specific and age-dependent perturbations underlie the phenotype of glut3+/- mice, and (2) a ketogenic diet ameliorates seizures caused by increased cortical excitation and improves sociability, but fails to rescue vocalization and cognitive deficits in glut3+/- male mice. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. A ketogenic diet modifies glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid and agmatine levels in the hippocampus of rats: A microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Naima; Betancourt, Luis; Hernández, Luis; Rada, Pedro

    2017-03-06

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is acknowledged as an unconventional option in the treatment of epilepsy. Several lines of investigation point to a possible role of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as main contributors in this protective effect. Other biomolecules could also be involved in the beneficial consequence of the KD, for example, the diamine agmatine has been suggested to block imidazole and glutamate NMDA receptor and serves as an endogenous anticonvulsant in different animal models of epilepsy. In the present report, we have used microdialysis coupled to capillary electrophoresis to monitor microdialysate levels of GABA, glutamate and agmatine in the hippocampus of rats submitted to a KD for 15days compared to rats on a normal rat chow diet. A significant increase in GABA and agmatine levels while no change in glutamate levels was observed. These results support the notion that the KD modifies different transmitters favoring inhibitory over excitatory neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and ER stress in mice maintained long term on a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Garbow, Joel R.; Doherty, Jason M.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Travers, Sarah; Weber, Mary L.; Wentz, Anna E.; Ezenwajiaku, Nkiruka; Cotter, David G.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets are used to manage obesity, seizure disorders, and malignancies of the central nervous system. These diets create a distinctive, but incompletely defined, cellular, molecular, and integrated metabolic state. Here, we determine the systemic and hepatic effects of long-term administration of a very low-carbohydrate, low-protein, and high-fat ketogenic diet, serially comparing these effects to a high-simple-carbohydrate, high-fat Western diet and a low-fat, polysaccharide-...

  8. From intravenous to enteral ketogenic diet in PICU: A potential treatment strategy for refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiusolo, F; Diamanti, A; Bianchi, R; Fusco, L; Elia, M; Capriati, T; Vigevano, F; Picardo, S

    2016-11-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to treat refractory status epilepticus (RSE). KD is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regimen that may be administered with different fat to protein and carbohydrate ratios (3:1 and 4:1 fat to protein and carbohydrate ratios). Other ketogenic regimens have a lower fat and higher protein and carbohydrate ratio to improve taste and thus compliance to treatment. We describe a case of RSE treated with intravenous KD in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). An 8-year-old boy was referred to the PICU because of continuous tonic-clonic and myoclonic generalized seizures despite several antiepileptic treatments. After admission he was intubated and treated with intravenous thiopental followed by ketamine. Seizures continued with frequent myoclonic jerks localized on the face and upper arms. EEG showed seizure activity with spikes on rhythmic continuous waves. Thus we decided to begin KD. The concomitant ileus contraindicated KD by the enteral route and we therefore began IV KD. The ketogenic regimen consisted of conventional intravenous fat emulsion, plus dextrose and amino-acid hyperalimentation in a 2:1 then 3:1 fat to protein and carbohydrate ratio. Exclusive IV ketogenic treatment, well tolerated, was maintained for 3 days; peristalsis then reappeared so KD was continued by the enteral route at 3:1 ratio. Finally, after 8 days and no seizure improvement, KD was deemed unsuccessful and was discontinued. Our experience indicates that IV KD may be considered as a temporary "bridge" towards enteral KD in patients with partial or total intestinal failure who need to start KD. It allows a prompt initiation of KD, when indicated for the treatment of severe diseases such as RSE. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants and young children with refractory epilepsies using a formula-based powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Tavassoli, Alireza; Badv, Reza Shervin; Heidari, Morteza; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods. We conducted an open label trial and administered a ketogenic diet using formula-based power (Ketocal ® ). Twenty-seven infants and children aged between 12 months and 5 years were enrolled who had refractory seizures and were reluctant to eat homemade foods. Of 27 children, 5 were lost to follow-up and 22 were remained at the end of the study. After 4 months, the median frequency of seizures per week was reduced >50% in 68.2% of patients, while 9/22 children (40.9%) showed a 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency per week, and 6/22 children (27.3%) showed more than 90% reduction in seizure frequency per week. Over the study course, 6/22 (27%) children who continued to receive the diet developed constipation, one child developed gastroesophageal reflux, and one child developed hypercholesterolemia. None of these children discontinued the diet because of the complications. Thirteen children and their parents (59%) reported that the diet was palatable and tolerable enough. The ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder (Ketocal ® ) is effective, safe, and tolerable in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods according to the rules of the ketogenic diet.

  10. Proconvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet in electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowska, Iwona; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Wlaz, Piotr; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J; Gasior, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Among non-pharmacological treatments, the ketogenic diet (KD) has the strongest demonstrated evidence of clinical success in drug resistant epilepsy. In an attempt to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD pre-clinically, the present study assessed the effects of the KD against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. After confirming that exposure to the KD for 2 weeks resulted in stable ketosis and hypoglycemia, mice were exposed to electroshocks of various intensities to establish general seizure susceptibility. When compared to mice fed the standard rodent chow diet (SRCD), we found that mice fed the KD were more sensitive to electroconvulsions as reflected by a significant decrease in seizure threshold (3.86 mA in mice on the KD vs 7.29 mA in mice on the SRCD; P < 0.05) in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. To examine if this increased seizure sensitivity to electroconvulsions produced by the KD would affect anticonvulsant effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), anticonvulsant potencies of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA) against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions were compared in mice fed the KD and SRCD. We found that potencies of all AEDs studied were decreased in mice fed the KD in comparison to those on the SRCD, with decreases in the anticonvulsant potencies ranging from 1.4 fold (PB) to 1.7 fold (PHT). Finally, the lack of differences in brain exposures of the AEDs studied in mice fed the KD and SRCD ruled out a pharmacokinetic nature of the observed findings. Taken together, exposure to the KD in the present study had an overall pro-convulsant effect. Since electroconvulsions require large metabolic reserves to support their rapid spread throughout the brain and consequent generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, this effect may be explained by a high energy state produced by the KD in regards to increased energy storage and utilization.

  11. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  12. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  13. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  14. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  15. Anticonvulsant profile of a balanced ketogenic diet in acute mouse seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ramakrishna; Willis, Sarah; Borges, Karin

    2008-10-01

    Anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) have been reported in the mouse, although previous studies did not control for intake of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of balanced ketogenic and control diets in acute mouse seizure models. The behavior in four mouse seizure models, plasma d-beta-hydroxybutyrate (d-BHB) and glucose levels were determined after feeding control diet, 4:1 and 6:1 KDs with matched vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Feeding 4:1 and 6:1 KDs ad lib to 3-week-old (adolescent) mice resulted in 1.2-2.2mM d-BHB in plasma, but did not consistently change glucose levels. The 6:1 KD reproducibly elevated the CC50 (current that initiates seizures in 50% mice tested) in the 6-Hz model after 14 days of feeding to adolescent CD1 mice. Higher plasma d-BHB levels correlated with anticonvulsant effects. Despite ketosis, no consistent anticonvulsant effects of KDs were found in the fluorothyl or pentylenetetrazole CD1 mouse models. The 4:1 KD was neither anticonvulsant nor neuroprotective in hippocampus in the C3H mouse kainate model. Taken together, the KD's anticonvulsant effect was limited to the 6-Hz model, required chronic feeding with 6:1 fat content, and was independent from lowering plasma glucose.

  16. KETOGENIC DIET – FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE TO NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli M. Ermenlieva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ketogenic diet (KGD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. In 1920`s the diet was developed to treat difficult-to-control epilepsy in children. Nowadays its efficacy has been proven in many other diseases, such as metabolic disorders, brain tumours, autism, Rett syndrome, and in other areas, it has been actively studied. Aim: The aim of this article is to represent the historical review of the therapeutic implication of KGD, as well as to reveal the contemporary clinical trends in which it is being used. Material and Methods: A literature review of 96 scientific reports in English has been made. Results and Discussion: The KGD was developed in the early 1920s. In the period 1970-1990, the therapeutic use of the diet was discontinued, due to the breakthrough of the new anticonvulsants for epilepsy. The interest in KGD was recovered after a meeting of the “American Epilepsy Society” in 1996. The diet demonstrates anticonvulsant efficacy in epilepsy therapy. According to a survey in 2013, the incidence of seizures among half of the number of children was reduced by at least a half, and 15% of them were completely discontinued. The diet is also used in the treatment of metabolic diseases, such as GLUT 1-deficiency syndrome, reducing the incidence of seizures, improving muscle coordination and concentration. It is also effective in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency syndrome by replacing the major energy source - glucose with ketones. Along with these, it is also used in patients with autism (in approximately 60% of patients it improves learning ability and social skills, Rett syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. Its mechanism of action is not fully clarified, as well as its degree of effectiveness in some areas. Conclusion: The ketogenic diet is widely implemented worldwide. It comprises a tremendous therapeutic potential that has been growing considerably during the past decades.

  17. Reduced Mass and Diversity of the Colonic Microbiome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Improvement with Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swidsinski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic microbiome is thought to be involved in auto-immune multiple sclerosis (MS. Interactions between diet and the colonic microbiome in MS are unknown.Methods: We compared the composition of the colonic microbiota quantitatively in 25 MS patients and 14 healthy controls.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 162 ribosomal RNA derived bacterial FISH probes was used. Ten of the MS patients received a ketogenic diet for 6 months. Changes in concentrations of 35 numerically substantial bacterial groups were monitored at baseline and at 2, 12, and 23/24 weeks.Results: No MS typical microbiome pattern was apparent.The total concentrations and diversity of substantial bacterial groups were reduced in MS patients (P < 0.001. Bacterial groups detected with EREC (mainly Roseburia, Bac303 (Bacteroides, and Fprau (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii probes were diminished the most. The individual changes were multidirectional and inconsistent. The effects of a ketogenic diet were biphasic. In the short term, bacterial concentrations and diversity were further reduced. They started to recover at week 12 and exceeded significantly the baseline values after 23–24 weeks on the ketogenic diet.Conclusions: Colonic biofermentative function is markedly impaired in MS patients.The ketogenic diet normalized concentrations of the colonic microbiome after 6 months.

  18. Effect of classic ketogenic diet treatment on lipoprotein subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Lima, Patricia; Baldini Prudêncio, Mariana; Murakami, Daniela Kawamoto; Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Leticia; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio Martins; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient. At baseline and after 3 and 6 mo of the KD, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerols [TG], LDL cholesterol [LDL-C], and HDL cholesterol [HDL-C]), apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB), 10 subfractions of HDL, 7 subfractions of LDL, LDL phenotype, and LDL size were analyzed using the Lipoprint system. The lipid profile components (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB) increased during the 3-mo follow-up, and remained consistent after 6 mo of treatment. Similarly, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios, representing atherogenic particles, significantly increased. In contrast, qualitative lipoprotein characteristics progressively changed during the follow-up period. Small LDL subfractions increased, and this profile was related with reduced LDL size (27.3 nm to 26.7 nm). The LDL phenotype became worse; 52.1% of the patients had a non-A phenotype after 6 mo of the KD. Small HDL subfractions decreased only after 6 mo of the KD. KD treatment promotes negative changes in lipoprotein size and phenotype, contributing to atherogenic risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can an early 24-hour EEG predict the response to the ketogenic diet? A prospective study in 34 children and adults with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebus, S.C.M.; Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; Herraets, I.J.T.; Majoie, H.J.M.; Louw, de A.J.A.; Boon, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Arends, J.B.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether early EEG changes in a 24-h EEG at 6 weeks of treatment were related to the later clinical response to the ketogenic diet (KD) in a 6-month period of treatment. Methods We examined 34 patients with heterogeneous epilepsy syndromes (21 children, 13 adults) and found 9

  20. Ketogenic diet in a patient with congenital hyperinsulinism: a novel approach to prevent brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Arianna; Manganozzi, Lucilla; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Bernabei, Silvia; Gallo, Giorgia; Cusmai, Raffaella; Caviglia, Stefania; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2015-09-24

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia in children. In addition to increased peripheral glucose utilization, dysregulated insulin secretion induces profound hypoglycemia and neuroglycopenia by inhibiting glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. This results in the shortage of all cerebral energy substrates (glucose, lactate and ketones), and can lead to severe neurological sequelae. Patients with CHI unresponsive to medical treatment can be subjected to near-total pancreatectomy with increased risk of secondary diabetes. Ketogenic diet (KD), by reproducing a fasting-like condition in which body fuel mainly derives from beta-oxidation, is intended to provide alternative cerebral substrates such ketone bodies. We took advantage of known protective effect of KD on neuronal damage associated with GLUT1 deficiency, a disorder of impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, and administered KD in a patient with drug-unresponsive CHI, with the aim of providing to neurons an energy source alternative to glucose. A child with drug-resistant, long-standing CHI caused by a spontaneous GCK activating mutation (p.Val455Met) suffered from epilepsy and showed neurodevelopmental abnormalities. After attempting various therapeutic regimes without success, near-total pancreatectomy was suggested to parents, who asked for other options. Therefore, we proposed KD in combination with insulin-suppressing drugs. We administered KD for 2 years. Soon after the first six months, the patient was free of epileptic crises, presented normalization of EEG, and showed a marked recover in psychological development and quality of life. KD could represent an effective treatment to support brain function in selected cases of CHI.

  1. The ketogenic diet is well tolerated and can be effective in patients with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency and refractory epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuscher, Rosanne; Dijsselhof, Monique E.; Abeling, Nico G.; van Rijn, Margreet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Bosch, Annet M.

    2012-01-01

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency (MIM 608310, McKusick 207900) is a rare disorder of the urea cycle, which leads to a deficiency of arginine and hyperammonemia. Epilepsy is a frequent complication of this disorder. A ketogenic diet (KD) can be a very effective therapy for refractory

  2. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Olsen, Maren K; Guyton, John R; Bakst, Ronna P; Westman, Eric C

    2004-05-18

    Low-carbohydrate diets remain popular despite a paucity of scientific evidence on their effectiveness. To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program with those of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet. Randomized, controlled trial. Outpatient research clinic. 120 overweight, hyperlipidemic volunteers from the community. Low-carbohydrate diet (initially, carbohydrate daily) plus nutritional supplementation, exercise recommendation, and group meetings, or low-fat diet (fat, low-carbohydrate diet group than the low-fat diet group completed the study (76% vs. 57%; P = 0.02). At 24 weeks, weight loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate diet group than in the low-fat diet group (mean change, -12.9% vs. -6.7%; P fat mass (change, -9.4 kg with the low-carbohydrate diet vs. -4.8 kg with the low-fat diet) than fat-free mass (change, -3.3 kg vs. -2.4 kg, respectively). Compared with recipients of the low-fat diet, recipients of the low-carbohydrate diet had greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels (change, -0.84 mmol/L vs. -0.31 mmol/L [-74.2 mg/dL vs. -27.9 mg/dL]; P = 0.004) and greater increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (0.14 mmol/L vs. -0.04 mmol/L [5.5 mg/dL vs. -1.6 mg/dL]; P low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level did not differ statistically (0.04 mmol/L [1.6 mg/dL] with the low-carbohydrate diet and -0.19 mmol/L [-7.4 mg/dL] with the low-fat diet; P = 0.2). Minor adverse effects were more frequent in the low-carbohydrate diet group. We could not definitively distinguish effects of the low-carbohydrate diet and those of the nutritional supplements provided only to that group. In addition, participants were healthy and were followed for only 24 weeks. These factors limit the generalizability of the study results. Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high

  3. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR

  4. Ketogenic diet modifies the gut microbiota in a murine model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher; Bomhof, Marc R; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Rho, Jong M; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days. Following diets, fecal and cecal samples were collected for analysis. Main findings are as follows: (1) gut microbiota compositions of cecal and fecal samples were altered in BTBR compared to control mice, indicating that this model may be of utility in understanding gut-brain interactions in ASD; (2) KD consumption caused an anti-microbial-like effect by significantly decreasing total host bacterial abundance in cecal and fecal matter; (3) specific to BTBR animals, the KD counteracted the common ASD phenotype of a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both sample types; and (4) the KD reversed elevated Akkermansia muciniphila content in the cecal and fecal matter of BTBR animals. Results indicate that consumption of a KD likely triggers reductions in total gut microbial counts and compositional remodeling in the BTBR mouse. These findings may explain, in part, the ability of a KD to mitigate some of the neurological symptoms associated with ASD in an animal model.

  5. Various ketogenic diets can differently support brain resistance against experimentally evoked seizures and seizure-induced elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Matusiak, K; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation. Also the analysis of behavioral data recorded after pilocarpine injection did not show any significant differences in intensity and duration of seizures between KD1 and standard diet fed animals. Higher ketogenic ratio KD2 introduced in the normal hippocampal formation prolonged changes in the accumulation of P, K, Zn and Ca. Despite this, both the intensity and duration of seizures were significantly reduced in rats fed with KD2 which suggests that its saving action on the nerve tissue may protect brain from seizure propagation. Also seizure-evoked elemental anomalies in KD2 animals were different than those observed for rats both on KD1 and standard diets. The comparison of seizure experiencing and normal rats on KD2, did not show any statistically significant differences in elemental composition of CA1 and H hippocampal areas whilst in CA3 area only Zn level changed as a result of seizures. DG was the area mostly affected by seizures in KD2 fed rats but areal densities of all examined elements increased in this hippocampal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Urolithiasis on the ketogenic diet with concurrent topiramate or zonisamide therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elahna; Conant, Kerry D.; Dunne, Irie E.; Pfeifer, Heidi H.; Lyczkowski, David A.; Linshaw, Michael A.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Children with refractory epilepsy who are co-treated with the ketogenic diet (KD) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CA-I) anti-epileptic medications including topiramate (TPM) and zonisamide (ZNS) are at risk for urolithiasis. Retrospective chart review of all children treated with ketogenic therapy at our institution was performed in order to estimate the minimal risk of developing signs or symptoms of stone disease. Children (N = 93) were classified into groups according to KD +/− CA-I co-therapy. Fourteen patients had occult hematuria or worse, including 6 with radiologically confirmed stones. Three of 6 calculi developed in the KD + ZNS group of 17 patients who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 97 months (3.1 stones per 100 patient months). One confirmed stone was in the KD + TPM group of 22 children who were co-treated for a cumulative total of 263 months (0.4 stones per 100 patient months). All six patients had at least three of five biochemical risk factors including metabolic acidosis, concentrated urine, acid urine, hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. Standard of care interventions to minimize hypercalciuria, crystalluria and stone formation used routinely by pediatric nephrologists should also be prescribed by neurologists treating patients with combination anti-epileptic therapy. Non-fasting KD initiation, fluid liberalization, potassium citrate prophylaxis as well as regular laboratory surveillance are indicated in this high risk population. PMID:20466520

  7. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

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    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  8. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

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    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  9. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm 3 to 700 mm 3 . The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further

  10. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

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    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  11. Ketogenic Diet: An Early Option for Epilepsy Treatment, Instead of A Last Choice Only

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    Huei-Shyong Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD was usually tried as a last resort in the treatment of intractable epilepsy after failure of many antiepileptics and even epilepsy surgery. Glucose transporter-1 deficiency and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency must be treated with KD as the first choice because of inborn errors of glucose metabolism. Infantile spasms, tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, Doose syndrome, Dravet syndrome, etc., appear to respond to KD, and it has been suggested by the international consensus statement to use KD early. We believe that all patients with epilepsy, except those with contraindicated situations such as pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, porphyria, β-oxidation defects, primary carnitine deficiency, etc., may try KD before trying other regimens.

  12. Ketogenic diet and childhood neurological disorders other than epilepsy: an overview.

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    Verrotti, Alberto; Iapadre, Giulia; Pisano, Simone; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2017-05-01

    In the last years, ketogenic diet (KD) has been experimentally utilized in various childhood neurologic disorders such as mitochondriopathies, alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), brain tumors, migraine, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this review is to analyze how KD can target these different medical conditions, highlighting possible mechanisms involved. Areas covered: We have conducted an analysis on literature concerning KD use in mitochondriopathies, AHC, brain tumors, migraine, and ASD. Expert commentary: The role of KD in reducing seizure activity in some mitochondriopathies and its efficacy in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is known. Recently, few cases suggest the potentiality of KD in decreasing paroxysmal activity in children affected by AHC. A few data support its potential use as co-adjuvant and alternative therapeutic option for brain cancer, while any beneficial effect of KD on migraine remains unclear. KD could improve cognitive and social skills in a subset of children with ASD.

  13. Obesity treatment by very low-calorie-ketogenic diet at two years: reduction in visceral fat and on the burden of disease.

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    Moreno, Basilio; Crujeiras, Ana B; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-12-01

    The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support. Adiposity parameters and the cumulative number of months of successful weight loss (5 or 10 %) over a 24-month period were quantified. The very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced less than 2 months of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight at 6, 12, and 24 months. At 24 months, a trend to regress to baseline levels was observed; however, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced a greater reduction in body weight (-12.5 kg), waist circumference (-11.6 cm), and body fat mass (-8.8 kg) than the low-calorie diet (-4.4 kg, -4.1 cm, and -3.8 kg, respectively; p ketogenic diet group experienced a reduction in the individual burden of obesity because reduction in disease duration. Very low-calorie-ketogenic diet patients were 500 months with 5 % weight lost vs. the low-calorie diet group (350 months; p ketogenic diet was effective 24 months later, with a decrease in visceral adipose tissue and a reduction in the individual burden of disease.

  14. Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.

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    Dahlgren, Kaitlyn; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise. Ketones are neuroprotective agents that shelter the aging brain from memory loss and neurodegeneration. Induced ketone production has been shown to ameliorate mitochondrial function, reduce the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and provide neuroprotection to cells (Lange et al., 2017). This case study highlights an innovative research design aimed at attenuating memory decline in a 57 year old female previously diagnosed with comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mild cognitive impairment is a predementia syndrome known to precede AD (Michaud et al, 2017). The 12-week intervention included ketogenic nutrition protocol, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training using the PEAK brain training app. Memory function was assessed via the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) pre/post intervention. Physiological biomarkers for MetS including HOMA-IR(homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), triglyceride/HDL ratio, HgA1c, fasting triglycerides and HDL were measured pre/post intervention. MoCA baseline score was 22/30 (MCI); post intervention score: 30/30 (normal). MetS biomarker improvements also reflected statistical significance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

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    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) may respond to adjunctive ketogenic diet.

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    Steriade, Claude; Andrade, Danielle M; Faghfoury, Hanna; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Tai, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome can present management challenges. Refractory seizures and stroke-like episodes leading to disability are common. We analyzed the clinical, electrophysiologic, and radiologic data of a 22-year-old woman with multiple episodes of generalized and focal status epilepticus and migratory cortical stroke-like lesions who underwent muscle biopsy for mitochondrial genome sequencing. Although initial mitochondrial genetic testing was negative, muscle biopsy demonstrated a mitochondrial DNA disease-causing mutation (m.3260A > G). New antiepileptic medications were added with each episode of focal status epilepticus with only temporary improvement, until a modified ketogenic diet and magnesium were introduced, leading to seizure freedom despite development of a new stroke-like lesion, and subsequent decrease in frequency of stroke-like episodes. We propose a metabolic model in which the ketogenic diet may lead to improvement of the function of respiratory chain complexes. The ketogenic diet may lead to improvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in MELAS, which in turn may promote better seizure control and less frequent stroke-like episodes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice.

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    Jansen, Natalie; Walach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, Pketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials.

  18. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

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    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  19. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice

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    Sihui Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  20. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  1. Ketogenic diet is antiepileptogenic in pentylenetetrazole kindled mice and decrease levels of N-acylethanolamines in hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Suzanne L; Nielsen, Ane H; Knudsen, Katrine E

    2009-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children, however, the mechanism(s) remains largely unknown. Also, the antiepileptogenic potential in animal models of epilepsy has been poorly addressed. Activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB(1)-R) upon seizure...... activity or type of diet. The level of oleoylethanolamide as well as the sum of N-acylethanolamines were significantly decreased by the KD, but were unaffected by seizure activity. The study shows that the KD had clear antiepileptogenic properties in the pentylenetetrazole kindling model and does...

  2. A ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Humala Nelson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of neuronal death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is uncertain but mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role. Ketones promote mitochondrial energy production and membrane stabilization. Results SOD1-G93A transgenic ALS mice were fed a ketogenic diet (KD based on known formulations for humans. Motor performance, longevity, and motor neuron counts were measured in treated and disease controls. Because mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in neuronal cell death in ALS, we also studied the effect that the principal ketone body, D-β-3 hydroxybutyrate (DBH, has on mitochondrial ATP generation and neuroprotection. Blood ketones were > 3.5 times higher in KD fed animals compared to controls. KD fed mice lost 50% of baseline motor performance 25 days later than disease controls. KD animals weighed 4.6 g more than disease control animals at study endpoint; the interaction between diet and change in weight was significant (p = 0.047. In spinal cord sections obtained at the study endpoint, there were more motor neurons in KD fed animals (p = 0.030. DBH prevented rotenone mediated inhibition of mitochondrial complex I but not malonate inhibition of complex II. Rotenone neurotoxicity in SMI-32 immunopositive motor neurons was also inhibited by DBH. Conclusion This is the first study showing that diet, specifically a KD, alters the progression of the clinical and biological manifestations of the G93A SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS. These effects may be due to the ability of ketone bodies to promote ATP synthesis and bypass inhibition of complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  3. Inflammation-mediated memory dysfunction and effects of a ketogenic diet in a murine model of multiple sclerosis.

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    Do Young Kim

    Full Text Available A prominent clinical symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS due to heightened neuro-inflammation, is learning and memory dysfunction. Here, we investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD on memory impairment and CNS-inflammation in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, using electrophysiological, behavioral, biochemical and in vivo imaging approaches. Behavioral spatial learning deficits were associated with motor disability in EAE mice, and were observed concurrently with brain inflammation. The KD improved motor disability in the EAE model, as well as CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation and spatial learning and memory (assessed with the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, hippocampal atrophy and periventricular lesions in EAE mice were reversed in KD-treated EAE mice. Finally, we found that the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, in our EAE model were both suppressed by the KD. Collectively, our findings indicate that brain inflammation in EAE mice is associated with impaired spatial learning and memory function, and that KD treatment can exert protective effects, likely via attenuation of the robust immune response and increased oxidative stress seen in these animals.

  4. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet

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    Seyfried B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect, malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  5. Use of the Ketogenic Diet to Treat Intractable Epilepsy in Mitochondrial Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologou, Eleni; Ismayilova, Naila; Kinali, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are caused by defects in the respiratory chain, the metabolic pathway of the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production system. Epilepsy is a common and important feature of these disorders and its management can be challenging. Epileptic seizures in the context of mitochondrial disease are usually treated with conventional anti-epileptic medication, apart from valproic acid. However, in accordance with the treatment of intractable epilepsy where there are limited treatment options, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered as an alternative therapy. The use of the KD and its more palatable formulations has shown promising results. It is especially indicated and effective in the treatment of mitochondrial disorders due to complex I deficiency. Further research into the mechanism of action and the neuroprotective properties of the KD will allow more targeted therapeutic strategies and thus optimize the treatment of both epilepsy in the context of mitochondrial disorders but also in other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28587136

  6. The ketogenic diet as a treatment for traumatic brain injury: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Alexandre; Bayley, Mark; Munce, Sarah Ep

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been identified as a potential therapy to enhance recovery after TBI. The purpose of this study is to complete a scoping review and synthesize the evidence regarding the KD and its therapeutic effects in TBI. The methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley was employed. Databases searched include Medline, EMBASE, CCRCT, CINAHL and WebOfScience. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts in a two-step screening protocol to determine inclusion. Abstracted data included study setting and therapeutic mechanism. The KD was demonstrated to reduce cerebral oedema, apoptosis, improve cerebral metabolism and behavioural outcomes in rodent TBIs. Additionally, the KD affected rodent TBIs in an age-dependent manner. Due to a lack of relevant outcome measures, the human trials did not establish much evidence with respect to the KD as a treatment for TBI; only its safety was established. The KD is an effective treatment for TBI recovery in rats and shows potential in humans. Future research should aim to better elucidate the KD's mechanisms of action in human TBIs and determine if the KD's effectiveness on clinical outcomes can be reproduced in humans.

  7. Control of seizures by ketogenic diet-induced modulation of metabolic pathways.

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    Clanton, Ryan M; Wu, Guoyao; Akabani, Gamal; Aramayo, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination. Considering our current inability to test every individual effectively for the true causes of their epilepsy and the alarming number of misdiagnoses observed, we propose the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an effective and efficient preliminary/long-term treatment. The KD mimics fasting by altering substrate metabolism from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketone bodies (KBs). Here, we underscore the need to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms governing the KD's modulation of various forms of epilepsy and how a diverse array of metabolites including soluble fibers, specific fatty acids, and functional amino acids (e.g., leucine, D-serine, glycine, arginine metabolites, and N-acetyl-cysteine) may potentially enhance the KD's ability to treat and reverse, not mask, these neurological disorders that lead to epilepsy.

  8. FGF21 is not required for glucose homeostasis, ketosis or tumour suppression associated with ketogenic diets in mice.

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    Stemmer, Kerstin; Zani, Fabio; Habegger, Kirk M; Neff, Christina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Bauer, Michaela; Yalamanchilli, Suma; Azad, Ali; Lehti, Maarit; Martins, Paulo J F; Müller, Timo D; Pfluger, Paul T; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-10-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) have increasingly gained attention as effective means for weight loss and potential adjunctive treatment of cancer. The metabolic benefits of KDs are regularly ascribed to enhanced hepatic secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and its systemic effects on fatty-acid oxidation, energy expenditure (EE) and body weight. Ambiguous data from Fgf21-knockout animal strains and low FGF21 concentrations reported in humans with ketosis have nevertheless cast doubt regarding the endogenous function of FGF21. We here aimed to elucidate the causal role of FGF21 in mediating the therapeutic benefits of KDs on metabolism and cancer. We established a dietary model of increased vs decreased FGF21 by feeding C57BL/6J mice with KDs, either depleted of protein or enriched with protein. We furthermore used wild-type and Fgf21-knockout mice that were subjected to the respective diets, and monitored energy and glucose homeostasis as well as tumour growth after transplantation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Hepatic and circulating, but not adipose tissue, FGF21 levels were profoundly increased by protein starvation, independent of the state of ketosis. We demonstrate that endogenous FGF21 is not essential for the maintenance of normoglycaemia upon protein and carbohydrate starvation and is therefore not needed for the effects of KDs on EE. Furthermore, the tumour-suppressing effects of KDs were independent of FGF21 and, rather, driven by concomitant protein and carbohydrate starvation. Our data indicate that the multiple systemic effects of KD exposure in mice, previously ascribed to increased FGF21 secretion, are rather a consequence of protein malnutrition.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is not required for glucose homeostasis, ketosis and tumour suppression associated to ketogenic diets in mice

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    Stemmer, Kerstin; Zani, Fabio; Habegger, Kirk M.; Neff, Christina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Bauer, Michaela; Yalamanchilli, Suma; Azad, Ali; Lehti, Maarit; Martins, Paulo J.F.; Müller, Timo D.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Ketogenic diets (KDs) increasingly gained attention as effective means for weight loss and potential adjunctive treatment of cancer. Metabolic benefits of KDs are regularly ascribed towards enhanced hepatic secretion of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, and its systemic effects on fatty acid oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight. Ambiguous data from Fgf21 knockout strains and low FGF21 concentrations reported for humans in ketosis have nevertheless cast doubt regarding the endogenous function of FGF21. We here aimed to elucidate the causal role of FGF21 in mediating therapeutic benefits of KDs on metabolism and cancer. METHODS We established a dietary model of increased vs. decreased FGF21 by feeding C57BL/6J mice with KDs, either depleted or enriched with protein, respectively. We furthermore used wild type and Fgf21 knockout mice that were subjected to the respective diets, and monitored energy and glucose homeostasis as well as tumor growth after transplantation of Lewis-Lung-Carcinoma cells. RESULTS Hepatic and circulating but not adipose tissue FGF21 levels were profoundly increased by protein starvation and independent of the state of ketosis. We demonstrate that endogenous FGF21 is not essential for the maintenance of normoglycemia upon protein and carbohydrate starvation and is dispensable for the effects of KDs on energy expenditure. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressing effects of KDs were independent from FGF21, and rather driven by concomitant protein and carbohydrate starvation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION Our data indicate that multiple systemic effects of KDs exposure in mice that were previously ascribed towards increased FGF21 secretion are rather a consequence of protein malnutrition. PMID:26099854

  10. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes.

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    Zinn, Caryn; Wood, Matthew; Williden, Mikki; Chatterton, Simon; Maunder, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes' experiences of the ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention. Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen's effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes' ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p  = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p  = 0.001). Mean time to exhaustion dropped by ~2 min (±SD 0.7; p  = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: -1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p  = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p  = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p  = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of high levels thereafter

  11. The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study

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    Kephart, Wesley C.; Pledge, Coree D.; Roberson, Paul A.; Mumford, Petey W.; Romero, Matthew A.; Mobley, Christopher B.; Young, Kaelin C.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Huggins, Kevin W.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio) were divided into a control group (CTL; n = 5) and a KD group (n = 7). KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE), blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD (p = 0.053). DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% (p = 0.068), and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% (p = 0.065). Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD (p = 0.048). Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat, 400 m run times, and VO2peak were similar between groups. While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest that

  12. The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study

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    Wesley C. Kephart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio were divided into a control group (CTL; n = 5 and a KD group (n = 7. KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE, blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD (p = 0.053. DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% (p = 0.068, and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% (p = 0.065. Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD (p = 0.048. Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM back squat, 400 m run times, and VO2peak were similar between groups. While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest

  13. Non-pharmacologic Therapeutic Alternatives for Children with Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy: Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Ketogenic Diet

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    Sibel K Velioğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20%-30% of individuals who develop epilepsy will develop medically refractory epilepsy. For this population, ‘‘alternative’’ or nonpharmacologic treatments such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS and ketogenic diet (KD can be highly efficacious and should be seriously considered. Children and young people with medically-resistant epilepsy and poor candidates for epilepsy surgery may be referred to a tertiary paediatric epilepsy specialist for consideration of introducing VNS or KD. Information on the availability of VNS and KD in children is limited yet, due to the lack of suitably designed clinical studies in this population. VNS, is well-tolerated and effective as add-on therapy for refractory seizures in children. There has been no indication of reduction of effectiveness in long-term, open studies. Complications associated with implantation includes infection at the incision site, rib fractures and transient paralysis of the left vocal cord. Special caution is advised for children with pre-existing sleep apnea, cardiac conduction disorders, and asthma. Decreased seizure severity and recovery time, abolition of daytime drop attacks, and reduced hospitalization due to SE have improved patients’ quality of life. KD, with a nonfat-to-fat ratio of 1: 4 is a nonpharmacologic treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Recent reports suggest that the benefit of KD is equivalent to any of the new anticonvulsant medications. The KD is difficult to maintain and has common side effects as constipation, acidosis, hypercholesterolemia, kidney stones, and hunger. It seems possible to design a therapy that is less rigorous and intrusive than the current KD, and promising alternative dietary approaches such as the Atkins and Low-glycemic-index (LGI diet are emerging.

  14. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Rainer J Klement

    Full Text Available Currently ketogenic diets (KDs are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice.We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD. For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR or hazard ratio (HR between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI = [0.73, 0.97] and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87], indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04].There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors.

  15. THE KETOGENIC DIET AS A TREATMENT PARADIGM FOR DIVERSE NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

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    Jong Min Rho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary and metabolic therapies have been attempted in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, headache, neurotrauma, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism, pain, and multiple sclerosis. The impetus for using various diets to treat – or at least ameliorate symptoms of – these disorders stems from both a lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies, and also the intrinsic appeal of implementing a more natural treatment. The enormous spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the aforementioned diseases would suggest a degree of complexity that cannot be impacted universally by any single dietary treatment. Yet, it is conceivable that alterations in certain dietary constituents could affect the course and impact the outcome of these brain disorders. Further, it is possible that a final common neurometabolic pathway might be influenced by a variety of dietary interventions. The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. While the mechanisms through which the KD works remain unclear, there is now compelling evidence that its efficacy is likely related to the normalization of aberrant energy metabolism. The concept that many neurological conditions are linked pathophysiologically to energy dysregulation could well provide a common research and experimental therapeutics platform, from which the course of several neurological diseases could be favorably influenced by dietary means. Here we provide an overview of studies using the KD in a wide panoply of neurologic disorders in which neuroprotection is an essential component.

  16. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

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    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  17. Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: II. Protocol of a randomised phase I study (KETOCOMP).

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    Klement, Rainer J; Sweeney, Reinhart A

    2016-04-01

    We have found that a ketogenic diet (KD) during the course of radiotherapy (RT) was feasible and led to a preservation or favorable changes of body composition. Based on these observations and theoretical considerations, we initiated a study to investigate the impact of a KD or a ketogenic breakfast intervention in patients undergoing RT. All patients presenting for curative RT with age between 18 and 75, body mass index between 18 and 34 kg/m 2 and a histologically confirmed cancer of the breast, colorectum or head and neck region are considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria are Karnofsky index radiotherapy fraction after an overnight fast and subsequently ingest a ketogenic breakfast consisting of (i) 50-250 ml of a medium-chain triglyceride drink (betaquick ® , vitaflo, Bad Homburg, Germany) plus (ii) 5-15 g amino acids (MAP, dr. reinwald healthcare gmbh+co kg, Schwarzenbruck, Germany). If willing to undertake a complete KD for the duration of RT, patients are entered into intervention group 2. Intervention group 2 does not have to fast prior to RT fractions but will be supplemented with MAP analogous to intervention group 1. The control group will not receive dietary advice to follow a KD or reduce carbohydrate intake. The objective is twofold: (i) to test whether the ketogenic interventions are feasibly, as measured by the number of dropouts; (ii) to see whether intervention groups 1 and 2 attain a better preservation of BIA phase angle than the control group. Primary endpoints are the feasibility of the interventions (measured through dropout rates), and changes in body weight and composition (measured through BIA). Secondary endpoints are changes in quality of life (EORTC questionnaires) and blood parameters as well as the occurrence and grade of toxicities and grade of regression after surgery in case of colorectal carcinomas. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of a ketogenic diet in resistant myoclono-astatic epilepsy: A French multicenter retrospective study.

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    Stenger, Elodie; Schaeffer, Mickael; Cances, Claude; Motte, Jacques; Auvin, Stéphane; Ville, Dorothée; Maurey, Hélène; Nabbout, Rima; de Saint-Martin, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the early introduction of a ketogenic diet (KD) could improve seizure control in myoclono-astatic epilepsy (MAE). This multicenter study sought to identify the benefits of KD use on seizure control and epilepsy and on developmental outcomes in children with resistant MAE. Fifty children who were diagnosed with severe MAE in the French network of Reference Centers for Rare Epilepsies and who were treated with KD between 2000 and 2013 were included in this study. The seizure frequency and EEG recordings were assessed two weeks before KD introduction, 2 and 6 months after, and during the last follow-up, which also included an assessment of developmental outcome. Patients had a median follow up of 52 months (range 13-136) and received 4.3 antiepileptic drugs [2-9] before KD introduction. Fifty-four percent (54%) of our patients were seizure-free after 6 months of KD or more, and 86% experienced more than a 70% seizure reduction after 2 months of KD. Forty-four percent (44%) of them had a clear benefit of early KD treatment (after four AEDs failed). Early KD treatment did not result in a greater seizure reduction (p=0.055), but significantly resulted in remission (p<0.028). Fifty percent of patients with resistant MAE had normal development outcomes. Earlier KD treatment, after three AEDs failed, was correlated with a better cognitive outcome (p<0.01). Early introduction of KD treatment in resistant MAE has a strong, persistent anticonvulsant effect with long-term remission and better cognitive outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

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    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  20. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

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    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  1. Ketogenic Diet Impairs FGF21 Signaling and Promotes Differential Inflammatory Responses in the Liver and White Adipose Tissue.

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    Mohamed Asrih

    Full Text Available Beside its beneficial effects on weight loss, ketogenic diet (KD causes dyslipidemia, a pro-inflammatory state involved in the development of hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, although the latter is still being debated. Additionally, KD is known to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 plasma levels. However, FGF21 cannot initiate its beneficial actions on metabolism in these conditions. We therefore hypothesized and tested in the present study that KD may impair FGF21 signaling.Using indirect calorimetry, we found that KD-fed mice exhibited higher energy expenditure than regular chow (RC-fed mice associated with increased Ucp1 levels in white adipose tissue (WAT, along with increased plasma FGF21 levels. We then assessed the effect of KD on FGF21 signaling in both the liver and WAT. We found that Fgfr4 and Klb (β-klotho were downregulated in the liver, while Fgfr1 was downregulated in WAT of KD-fed mice. Because inflammation could be one of the mechanisms linking KD to impaired FGF21 signaling, we measured the expression levels of inflammatory markers and macrophage accumulation in WAT and liver and found an increased inflammation and macrophage accumulation in the liver, but surprisingly, a reduction of inflammation in WAT.We also showed that KD enhances lipid accumulation in the liver, which may explain hepatic inflammation and impaired Fgfr4 and Klb expression. In contrast, import of lipids from the circulation was significantly reduced in WAT of KD-fed mice, as suggested by a downregulation of Lpl and Cd36. This was further associated with reduced inflammation in WAT.Altogether, these results indicate that KD could be beneficial for a given tissue but deleterious for another.

  2. Short-term impact of a classical ketogenic diet on gut microbiota in GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome: A 3-month prospective observational study.

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    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Uggeri, Francesca; Trentani, Claudia; Bertoli, Simona; de Giorgis, Valentina; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Elli, Marina

    2017-02-01

    The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet. RT - PCR analysis was performed in order to quantify Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium cluster XIV, Desulfovibrio spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Compared with baseline, there were no statistically significant differences at 3 months in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However fecal microbial profiles revealed a statistically significant increase in Desulfovibrio spp. (p = 0.025), a bacterial group supposed to be involved in the exacerbation of the inflammatory condition of the gut mucosa associated to the consumption of fats of animal origin. A future prospective study on the changes in gut microbiota of all children with epilepsy started on a KD is warranted. In patients with dysbiosis demonstrated by fecal samples, it my be reasonable to consider an empiric trial of pre or probiotics to potentially restore the «ecological balance» of intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seizure control and acceptance of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome: a 2- to 5-year follow-up of 15 children enrolled prospectively.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, J.; Scheffer, H.; Leiendecker, B.; Gertsen, E.; Binder, S.; Leferink, M.; Hertzberg, C.; Nake, A.; Voit, T.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by impaired glucose transport into the brain resulting in an epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay, and a complex motor disorder. A ketogenic diet provides an alternative fuel to the brain and effectively restores brain energy metabolism.

  4. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term

  5. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures.

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    Ni, Hong; Zhao, Dong-Jing; Tian, Tian

    2016-02-01

    Because the ketogenic diet (KD) was affecting expression of energy metabolism- related genes in hippocampus and because lipid membrane peroxidation and its associated autophagy stress were also found to be involved in energy depletion, we hypothesized that KD might exert its neuroprotective action via lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagic signaling. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-E following neonatal seizures and chronic KD treatment. On postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures group and control group. On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (RS+ND), seizure plus ketogenic diet (RS+KD), the control group without ketogenic diet (NS+ND), and the control plus ketogenic diet (NS+KD). Morris water maze test was performed during P37-P43. Then mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced RS+ND rats show a long-term lower amount of cPLA2 and LC3II/I, and higher amount of clusterin, Beclin-1, p62 and Cathepsin-E which are in parallel with hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, chronic KD treatment (RS+KD) is effective in restoring these molecular, neuropathological and cognitive changes. The results imply that a lipid membrane peroxidation and autophagy-associated pathway is involved in the aberrant hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and cognitive deficits following neonatal seizures, which might be a potential target of KD for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does ketogenic diet have any negative effect on cardiac systolic and diastolic functions in children with intractable epilepsy?: One-year follow-up results.

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    Ozdemir, Rahmi; Kucuk, Mehmet; Guzel, Orkide; Karadeniz, Cem; Yilmaz, Unsal; Mese, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been referred to as an "effective therapy with side effects" for children with intractable epilepsy. Among the most recognized adverse effects, there are cardiac conduction abnormalities, vascular and myocardial dysfunction. However, very limited and controversial data are available regarding the effects of the KD on cardiac functions. We sought to analyze the mid-term effect of ketogenic diet on cardiac functions in patients with intractable epilepsy who received a ketogenic diet for at least 12months using conventional and relatively new imaging techniques. This prospective study included 61 patients with intractable epilepsy who received ketogenic diet for at least 12months. Clinical examinations, serum carnitine and selenium levels as well as electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations were scheduled prior to the procedure and at 1, 3, 6 and 12months. We utilized two-dimensional, M-mode, colored Doppler, spectral Doppler and pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging techniques to investigate ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of this subgroup of patients. In our study, there was no significant difference after 1year of KD therapy compared to baseline values-except a significantly decreased A wave velocity-in terms of pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the diastolic function. The tissue Doppler measurements obtained from the lateral wall of tricuspide and mitral annuli were not different at baseline and at month 12 of the treatment, as well. The ketogenic diet appears to have no disturbing effect on ventricular functions in epileptic children in the midterm. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased health care utilization and health care costs in the inpatient and emergency department setting following initiation of ketogenic diet in pediatric patients: The experience in Ontario, Canada.

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    Whiting, Sharon; Donner, Elizabeth; RamachandranNair, Rajesh; Grabowski, Jennifer; Jetté, Nathalie; Duque, Daniel Rodriguez

    2017-03-01

    To assess the change in inpatient and emergency department utilization and health care costs in children on the ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy. Data on children with epilepsy initiated on the ketogenic diet (KD) Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2010 at Ontario pediatric hospitals were linked to province wide inpatient, emergency department (ED) data at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. ED and inpatient visits and costs for this cohort were compared for a maximum of 2 years (730days) prior to diet initiation and for a maximum of 2 years (730days) following diet initiation. KD patient were compared to matched group of children with epilepsy who did not receive the ketogenic diet (no KD). Children on the KD experienced a mean decrease in ED visits of 2.5 visits per person per year [95% CI (1.5-3.4)], and a mean decrease of 0.8 inpatient visits per person per year [95% CI (0.3-1.3)], following diet initiation. They had a mean decrease in ED costs of $630 [95% CI (249-1012)] per person per year and a median decrease in inpatient costs of $1059 [IQR: 7890; pdiet experienced a mean reduction of 2.1 ED visits per child per year [95% CI (1.0-3.2)] and a mean decrease of 0.6 [95% CI (0.1-1.1)] inpatient visits per child per year. Patients on the KD experienced a reduction of $442 [95% CI (34.4-850)] per child per year more in ED costs than the matched group. The ketogenic diet group had greater median decrease in inpatient costs per child per year than the matched group [pketogenic diet, experienced decreased ED and inpatient visits as well as costs following diet initiation in Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dieta cetogênica no tratamento de epilepsias farmacorresistentes The ketogenic diet on the treatment of drug resistant epilepsies

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    Carla Barbosa Nonino-Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A epilepsia é uma condição clínica crônica correspondente a um grupo de doenças que tem em comum crises epilépticas; ela atinge de 0,5% a 1,0% da população dos países desenvolvidos, podendo esta prevalência ser maior nos países em desenvolvimento. Aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes evolui com crises epilépticas intratáveis com medicamentos; em alguns casos, é possível o tratamento cirúrgico. Nos pacientes em que cirurgia não é possível, a dieta cetogênica passa a ser uma opção terapêutica, principalmente em crianças. Espera-se que esta terapia seja eficaz para, pelo menos, um terço dos pacientes, resultando em redução ou controle das crises. No presente trabalho, apresentamos métodos para o preparo e uso a dieta cetogênica. O planejamento da dieta é individualizado, seguindo-se recomendações para o consumo energético e proporções de gorduras, proteínas e carboidratos específicos. Sempre que introduzida a dieta, o paciente deve ser monitorizado, devido à possibilidade de efeitos adversos. A orientação dos pais ou responsáveis sobre a dieta cetogênica, e como ela funciona, proporciona maior aceitação e aderência a esta forma de tratamento da epilepsia.Epilepsy is a chronic condition that affects 0.5% to 1.0% of the population in developed countries. This prevalence may be higher in developing countries. A significant proportion of the patients, nearly one third of them will have their condition evolved into a stage of uncontrolled crises, in some cases, surgical procedure may be indicated. However, for several patients, surgery is not possible. In these cases, ketogenic diet is a therapeutic option, especially for children. It is supposed that nearly one third of the patients that use the ketogenic diet, experience seizure control or reduction in the number of seizures. The current study presents methods of preparing and using ketogenic diet. The diet must be individualized, considering the

  9. Exploring the relationship between preferences for high fat foods and efficacy of the ketogenic and modified Atkins diets among children with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Adrianna; Turner, Zahava; Rubenstein, James E; Miller, Jonathan R; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has indicated that children with seizures may prefer high fat foods - a preference compatible with ketogenic and modified Atkins dietary therapies. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the relationship between fat preference and efficacy of therapeutic diets in treating intractable seizures among a pediatric population. Preference for high fat foods was directly assessed in a sample of 30 children prior to commencing either the ketogenic or modified Atkins diet. Seizure control was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following diet initiation. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, correlations between fat preference and diet efficacy were examined at each follow-up and across the follow-up period. At individual follow-ups, correlations between fat preference and diet efficacy varied in terms of both strength and significance; however, modest, positive correlations with fat preference were significant when examining high levels of efficacy (100% seizure reduction, ≥90% seizure reduction) across a 1-year follow-up period. These findings provide preliminary evidence that fat preference, when directly assessed, may be a useful predictor of treatment efficacy for the ketogenic and modified Atkins diets; however, further research is necessary. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  11. Efficacy of Modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet in Chronic Cluster Headache: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Clinical Trial

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    Cherubino Di Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDrug-resistant cluster headache (CH is still an open clinical challenge. Recently, our group observed the clinical efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD, usually adopted to treat drug-resistant epilepsies, on migraine.AimHere, we aim to detect the effect of KD in a group of drug-resistant chronic CH (CCH patients.Materials and methodsEighteen drug-resistant CCH patients underwent a 12-week KD (Modified Atkins Diet, MAD, and the clinical response was evaluated in terms of response (≥50% attack reduction.ResultsOf the 18 CCH patients, 15 were considered responders to the diet (11 experienced a full resolution of headache, and 4 had a headache reduction of at least 50% in terms of mean monthly number of attacks during the diet. The mean monthly number of attacks for each patient at the baseline was 108.71 (SD = 81.71; at the end of the third month of diet, it was reduced to 31.44 (SD = 84.61.ConclusionWe observed for the first time that a 3-month ketogenesis ameliorates clinical features of CCH.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03244735.

  12. Improvement in age-related cognitive functions and life expectancy by ketogenic diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2017-01-01

    Rodent studies have indicated that low-carbohydrate diets prevent age-related cognitive decline and extend lifespan due to increased circulating levels of ketone bodies. A possible physiological mechanism for how ketone bodies exert this effect might be by improving central nervous system insulin...

  13. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xingya; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Guan, Wenxian

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies. Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction. Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI) of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34) relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer. Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  14. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  15. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  16. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  17. Use of the ketogenic diet to manage refractory epilepsy in CDKL5 disorder: Experience of >100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhan; Wong, Kingsley; Olson, Heather E; Bergin, Ann M; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Pathogenic variants involving the CDKL5 gene result in a severe epileptic encephalopathy, often later presenting with features similar to Rett syndrome. Cardinal features of epilepsy in the CDKL5 disorder include early onset at a median age of 6 weeks and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet (KD) was first introduced in the 1920s as a treatment option for refractory epilepsy in children. This study investigated use of the KD in the CDKL5 disorder and its influences on seizures. The International CDKL5 Disorder Database, established in 2012, collects information on individuals with the CDKL5 disorder. Families have provided information regarding seizure characteristics, use, and side effects of the KD treatment. Descriptive statistics and time to event analyses were performed. Clinical vignettes were also provided on patients attending Boston Children's Hospital. Data regarding KD use were available for 204 individuals with a pathogenic CDKL5 variant. Median age of inclusion in the database was 4.8 years (range = 0.3-33.9 years), with median age of 6 weeks (range = 1 day-65 weeks) at seizure onset. History of KD use was reported for 51% (104 of 204) of individuals, with a median duration of use of 17 months (95% confidence interval = 9-24). Changes in seizure activity after commencing KD were reported for two-thirds (69 of 104), with improvements in 88% (61 of 69). Nearly one-third (31.7%) experienced side effects during the diet. At ascertainment, only one-third (32%) remained on the diet, with lack of long-term efficacy as the main reason for diet cessation (51%, 36 of 70). Benefits of KD in the CDKL5 disorder are in keeping with previous trials on refractory epilepsies. However, poor long-term efficacy remains as a significant barrier. In view of its side effect profile, KD administration should be supervised by a pediatric neurologist and specialist dietician. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Neurobehavioral Deficits in a Rat Model of Recurrent Neonatal Seizures Are Prevented by a Ketogenic Diet and Correlate with Hippocampal Zinc/Lipid Transporter Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Ni, Hong; Sun, Bao-liang

    2015-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been shown to be effective as an antiepileptic therapy in adults, but it has not been extensively tested for its efficacy in neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. We have previously shown altered expression of zinc/lipid metabolism-related genes in hippocampus following penicillin-induced developmental model of epilepsy. In this study, we further investigated the effect of KD on the neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits, as well as if KD has any influence in the activity of zinc/lipid transporters such as zinc transporter 3 (ZnT-3), MT-3, ApoE, ApoJ (clusterin), and ACAT-1 activities in neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures. Postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizure group (EXP) and control group (CONT). On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (EXP1), seizure plus ketogenic diet (EXP2), the control group without ketogenic diet (CONT1), and the control plus ketogenic diet (CONT2). Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and open field test) were observed from P35 to P49. Morris water maze test was performed during P51-P57. Then hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels of ZnT3, MT3, ApoE, CLU, and ACAT-1 were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced neurobehavioral toxicology and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting were blocked by KD. In parallel with these behavioral changes, rats treated with KD (EXP2) showed a significant down-regulated expression of ZnT-3, MT-3, ApoE, clusterin, and ACAT-1 in hippocampus when compared with the non-KD-treated EXP1 group. Our findings provide support for zinc/lipid transporter signals being potential targets for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage by KD.

  19. A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric Western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden W Hyatt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n=16 or a Western diet (WD (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n=16 for 6 weeks. During these six weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n=8 per diet group or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n=8 per diet group. Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p<0.05 in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

  20. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid-Base Status in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Sharma, Avish P; Ross, Megan L; Welvaert, Marijke; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-18

    Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃ - ) and lactate (La - ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO₃ - ], and blood [La - ] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48-72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO₃ - ], or [La - ], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day -1 ) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid-base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid-base status than nutritional intake.

  1. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Carr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although short (up to 3 days exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3−] and lactate [La−] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9, PCHO (n = 7, or HCHO (n = 8 under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3−], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3−], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1 (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04. Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

  2. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

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    A M Poff

    Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  3. Ketogenic Diet Improves Brain Ischemic Tolerance and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Preventing Drp1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    Min Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets (KD have been reported in stroke models, and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KD on NLRP3 inflammasome and explore the potential molecular mechanisms.Methods: In in vivo study, mice were fed with KD for 3 weeks and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R-injury. In in vitro study, SH-SY-5Y cells were treated with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB followed by oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and related regulatory mechanisms were evaluated.Results: Mice fed with KD had increased tolerance to MCAO/R. KD inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and suppressed TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the brain. The in vitro study showed BHB (10 mM prevented the mitochondrial translocation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, BHB decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, inhibited ROS-NLRP3 pathway in OGD/R-treated cells, and suppressed ER stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation.Conclusions: KD may suppress ER stress and protect mitochondrial integrity by suppressing the mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thus exerting neuroprotective effects. Our findings provide evidence for the potential application of KD in the prevention of ischemic stroke.

  4. GAPDH-mediated posttranscriptional regulations of sodium channel Scn1a and Scn3a genes under seizure and ketogenic diet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-Wang; Lu, Ping; Zeng, Tao; Tang, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yong-Hong; Liu, Shu-Jing; Gao, Mei-Mei; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Yi, Yong-Hong; Long, Yue-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal expressions of sodium channel SCN1A and SCN3A genes alter neural excitability that are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a long-term risk of recurrent seizures. Ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat and low-carbohydrate treatment for difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children, has been suggested to reverse gene expression patterns. Here, we reveal a novel role of GAPDH on the posttranscriptional regulation of mouse Scn1a and Scn3a expressions under seizure and KD conditions. We show that GAPDH binds to a conserved region in the 3' UTRs of human and mouse SCN1A and SCN3A genes, which decreases and increases genes' expressions by affecting mRNA stability through SCN1A 3' UTR and SCN3A 3' UTR, respectively. In seizure mice, the upregulation and phosphorylation of GAPDH enhance its binding to the 3' UTR, which lead to downregulation of Scn1a and upregulation of Scn3a. Furthermore, administration of KD generates β-hydroxybutyric acid which rescues the abnormal expressions of Scn1a and Scn3a by weakening the GAPDH's binding to the element. Taken together, these data suggest that GAPDH-mediated expression regulation of sodium channel genes may be associated with epilepsy and the anticonvulsant action of KD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic modifications associated with ketogenic diet treatment in the BTBRT+Tf/J mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Rho, Jong M

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hallmark behavioral features. The spectrum of disorders that fall within the ASD umbrella encompass a distinct but overlapping symptom complex that likely results from an array of molecular and genetic aberrations rather than a single genetic mutation. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat low-carbohydrate anti-seizure and neuroprotective diet that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ASD-like behaviors in animal and human studies. We investigated changes in mRNA and gene expression in the BTBR mouse model of ASD that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype. In addition, we sought to examine changes in gene expression following KD treatment in BTBR mice. Despite significant behavioral abnormalities, expression changes in BTBR mice did not differ substantially from controls; only 33 genes were differentially expressed in the temporal cortex, and 48 in the hippocampus. Examination of these differentially expressed genes suggested deficits in the stress response and in neuronal signaling/communication. After treatment with the KD, both brain regions demonstrated improvements in ASD deficits associated with myelin formation and white matter development. Although our study supports many of the previously known impairments associated with ASD, such as excessive myelin formation and impaired GABAergic transmission, the RNAseq data and pathway analysis utilized here identified new therapeutic targets for analysis, such as Vitamin D pathways and cAMP signaling. Autism Res 2017, 10: 456-471. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; Morbin, Michela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Marchet, Silvia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Sibon, Ody; Moggio, Maurizio; d’Amati, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2−/−) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2−/− mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:24316510

  7. A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Van Leuven Fred; Wera Stefaan; Van der Auwera Ingrid; Henderson Samuel T

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily strikes the elderly. Studies in both humans and animal models have linked the consumption of cholesterol and saturated fats with amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and development of AD. Yet, these studies did not examine high fat diets in combination with reduced carbohydrate intake. Here we tested the effect of a high saturated fat/low carbohydrate diet on a transgenic mouse model of AD. Results S...

  8. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in quality of life as a result of ketogenic diet therapy: A new approach to assessment with the potential for positive therapeutic effects.

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    Bruce, Susan; Devlin, Anita; Air, Linda; Cook, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    There are difficulties inherent in measuring Quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic illness, including agreement on definitions of quality of life and the type of measure used, disease specific or generic. Well validated QoL instruments for epilepsy exist but focus on capturing common themes pertinent to children and families as a group instead of focusing on themes important to individual patients and their families/carers. In addition, it is common for numerous items on these inventories to be left incomplete or responded to with "not applicable" since many of the items are not suitable for children with disabilities and their families. This led us to devise a way to capture individual quality-of-life measures that are linked to parental/carer expectations in families of children undergoing ketogenic diet therapy for epilepsy. As part of our routine clinical assessment, parents/carers were asked to describe what they would like to see happen or change as a result of their child being on ketogenic diet therapy. A simple unstructured form was designed to facilitate the assessment process. Parents were then asked to rate their own QoL against these criteria on a Likert scale of 0-10 prior to commencement of the diet. This assessment was repeated at subsequent visits with parents/carers initially blinded to their original responses. Our assessments indicated that ketogenic diet therapy improves quality of life over a twelve-month period when measured against parental expectations. This ideographic approach has demonstrated changes in parental Qol and parental perceptions of their child's quality of life that would not have been captured by other validated measures. A lengthy questionnaire is avoided and is replaced by a skilled supportive conversation that identifies goals for treatment that are important to parents. This helps parents to reflect on the progress their child makes on the diet by revisiting their previously stated aspirations, and assessing

  10. Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice.

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    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-04-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Subsequent Seizure-Induced Brain Injury During Early Adulthood: Relationship of Seizure Thresholds to Zinc Transporter-Related Gene Expressions.

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    Tian, Tian; Li, Li-Li; Zhang, Shu-Qi; Ni, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The divalent cation zinc is associated with cortical plasticity. However, the mechanism of zinc in the pathophysiology of cortical injury-associated neurobehavioral damage following neonatal seizures is uncertain. We have previously shown upregulated expression of ZnT-3; MT-3 in hippocampus of neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures, which was restored by pretreatment with ketogenic diet (KD). In this study, utilizing a novel "twist" seizure model by coupling early-life flurothyl-induced seizures with later exposure to penicillin, we further investigated the long-term effects of KD on cortical expression of zinc homeostasis-related genes in a systemic scale. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned each averagely into the non-seizure plus normal diet (NS + ND), non-seizure plus KD (NS + KD), recurrent seizures plus normal diet (RS + ND) and recurrent seizures plus KD (RS + KD) group. Recurrent seizures were induced by volatile flurothyl during P9-P21. During P23-P53, rats in NS + KD and RS + KD groups were dieted with KD. Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and open field test) were observed at P43. At P63, we examined seizure threshold using penicillin, then the cerebral cortex were evaluated for real-time RT-PCR and western blot study. The RS + ND group showed worse performances in neurological reflex tests and reduced latencies to myoclonic seizures induced by penicillin compared with the control, which was concomitant with altered expressions of ZnT-7, MT-1, MT-2, and ZIP7. Specifically, there was long-term elevated expression of ZIP7 in RS + ND group compared with that in NS + ND that was restored by chronic ketogenic diet (KD) treatment in RS + KD group, which was quite in parallel with the above neurobehavioral changes. Taken together, these findings indicate that the long-term altered expression of the metal transporter ZIP7 in adult cerebral cortex might

  12. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-09-19

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both Pdiet group (Pdiet group declined at last follow-up. The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients.

  13. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Organisation of Dietary Control for Nutrition-Training Intervention Involving Periodized Carbohydrate (CHO) Availability and Ketogenic Low CHO High Fat (LCHF) Diet.

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    Mirtschin, Joanne G; Forbes, Sara F; Cato, Louise E; Heikura, Ida A; Strobel, Nicki; Hall, Rebecca; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-12

    We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs. Menus also included nutrition support pre, during and post-exercise. Daily monitoring, via observation and food checklists, showed that energy and macronutrient targets were achieved: diets were matched for energy (~14.8 MJ/d) and protein (~2.1 g.kg/d), and achieved desired differences for fat and CHO: HCHO and PCHO: CHO = 8.5 g/kg/d, 60% energy; fat = 20% of energy; LCHF: 0.5 g/kg/d CHO, fat = 78% energy. There were no differences in micronutrient intakes or density between HCHO and PCHO diets; however, the micronutrient density of LCHF was significantly lower. Daily food costs per athlete were similar for each diet (~AUDS$27 ± 10). Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. Different approaches to sports nutrition support raise practical challenges around cost, micronutrient density, accommodation of special needs and sustainability.

  15. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliss, Lioudmila; Jatania, Urvi; Patel, Mulchand S

    2016-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a major inborn error of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate in the mitochondria causing congenital lactic acidosis and primarily structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system. To provide an alternate source of acetyl-CoA derived from ketone bodies to the developing brain, a formula high in fat content is widely employed as a treatment. In the present study we investigated efficacy of a high-fat diet given to mothers during pregnancy and lactation on lessening of the impact of PDC deficiency on brain development in PDC-deficient female progeny. A murine model of systemic PDC deficiency by interrupting the X-linked Pdha1 gene was employed in this study. Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation had no effect on number of live-birth, body growth, tissue PDC activity levels, as well as the in vitro rates of glucose oxidation and fatty acid biosynthesis by the developing brain of PDC-deficient female offspring during the postnatal age 35 days, as compared to the PDC-deficient progeny born to dams on a chow diet. Interestingly, brain weight was normalized in PDC-deficient progeny of high fat-fed mothers with improvement in impairment in brain structure deficit whereas brain weight was significantly decreased and was associated with greater cerebral structural defects in progeny of chow-fed mothers as compared to control progeny of mothers fed either a chow or high fat diet. The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  16. The ketogenic diet reverses gene expression patterns and reduces reactive oxygen species levels when used as an adjuvant therapy for glioma

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    Stafford Phillip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain tumors affect people of all ages and are the second leading cause of cancer deaths in children. While current treatments are effective and improve survival, there remains a substantial need for more efficacious therapeutic modalities. The ketogenic diet (KD - a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for medically refractory epilepsy - has been suggested as an alternative strategy to inhibit tumor growth by altering intrinsic metabolism, especially by inducing glycopenia. Methods Here, we examined the effects of an experimental KD on a mouse model of glioma, and compared patterns of gene expression in tumors vs. normal brain from animals fed either a KD or a standard diet. Results Animals received intracranial injections of bioluminescent GL261-luc cells and tumor growth was followed in vivo. KD treatment significantly reduced the rate of tumor growth and prolonged survival. Further, the KD reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production in tumor cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that the KD induces an overall reversion to expression patterns seen in non-tumor specimens. Notably, genes involved in modulating ROS levels and oxidative stress were altered, including those encoding cyclooxygenase 2, glutathione peroxidases 3 and 7, and periredoxin 4. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the KD improves survivability in our mouse model of glioma, and suggests that the mechanisms accounting for this protective effect likely involve complex alterations in cellular metabolism beyond simply a reduction in glucose.

  17. Management of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy in EL mice with caloric restriction and the ketogenic diet: role of glucose and ketone bodies

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    Mantis John G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD was developed as an alternative to fasting for seizure management. While the mechanisms by which fasting and the KD inhibit seizures remain speculative, alterations in brain energy metabolism are likely involved. We previously showed that caloric restriction (CR inhibits seizure susceptibility by reducing blood glucose in the epileptic EL mouse, a natural model for human multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant efficacy of the KD with that of CR in adult EL mice with active epilepsy. EL mice that experienced at least 15 recurrent complex partial seizures were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR or restricted (SD-R, and either a KD unrestricted (KD-UR or restricted (KD-R. All mice were fasted for 14 hrs prior to diet initiation. A new experimental design was used where each mouse in the diet-restricted groups served as its own control to achieve a 20–23% body weight reduction. Seizure susceptibility, body weights, and the levels of plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured once/week over a nine-week treatment period. Results Body weights and blood glucose levels remained high over the testing period in the SD-UR and the KD-UR groups, but were significantly (p Conclusions The results indicate that seizure susceptibility in EL mice is dependent on plasma glucose levels and that seizure control is more associated with the amount than with the origin of dietary calories. Also, CR underlies the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant action of the KD in EL mice. A transition from glucose to ketone bodies for energy is predicted to manage EL epileptic seizures through multiple integrated changes of inhibitory and excitatory neural systems.

  18. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA 1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA 1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg

  19. Retrospective evaluation of low long-term efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and ketogenic diet in 39 patients with CDKL5-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Helbig, I; Jansen, C; Bast, T; Guerrini, R; Jähn, J; Muhle, H; Auvin, S; Korenke, G C; Philip, S; Keimer, R; Striano, P; Wolf, N I; Püst, B; Thiels, Ch; Fogarasi, A; Waltz, S; Kurlemann, G; Kovacevic-Preradovic, T; Ceulemans, B; Schmitt, B; Philippi, H; Tarquinio, D; Buerki, S; von Stülpnagel, C; Kluger, G

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the CDKL5 gene cause an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. To date, little is known about effective antiepileptic treatment in this disorder. Accordingly, the aim of this retrospective study was to explore the role of different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the ketogenic diet (KD) in the treatment of this rare genetic disorder. We evaluated the efficacy in 39 patients with CDKL5 mutations at 3, 6 and 12 months after the introduction of each treatment. One patient was lost to follow-up after 6 and 12 months. The responder rate (>50% reduction in seizure frequency) to at least one AED or KD was 69% (27/39) after 3 months, 45% (17/38) after 6 months and 24% (9/38) after 12 months. The highest rate of seizure reduction after 3 months was reported for FBM (3/3), VGB (8/25), CLB (4/17), VPA (7/34), steroids (5/26), LTG (5/23) and ZNS (2/11). Twelve patients (31%) experienced a seizure aggravation to at least one AED. Most patients showed some but only initial response to various AEDs with different modes of actions. Considering both age-related and spontaneous fluctuation in seizure frequency and the unknown impact of many AEDs or KD on cognition, our data may help defining realistic treatment goals and avoiding overtreatment in patients with CDKL5 mutations. There is a strong need to develop new treatment strategies for patients with this rare mutation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An economic evaluation of the ketogenic diet versus care as usual in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy: An interim analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kinderen, Reina J A; Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; Wijnen, Ben F M; Postulart, Debby; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Majoie, Marian H J M; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the cost-effectiveness of the ketogenic (KD) diet compared with care as usual (CAU) in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy, we conducted an economic evaluation from a societal perspective, alongside a randomized controlled trial. Participants from a tertiary epilepsy center were randomized into KD (intervention) group or CAU (control) group. Seizure frequency, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), health care costs, production losses of parents and patient, and family costs were assessed at baseline and during a 4-month study period and compared between the intervention and control groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) (i.e., cost per QALY and cost per responder), and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) were calculated and presented. In total, 48 children were included in the analyses of this study (26 KD group). At 4 months, 50% of the participants in the KD group had a seizure reduction ≥50% from baseline, compared with 18.2 of the participants in the CAU group. The mean costs per patient in the CAU group were €15,245 compared to €20,986 per patient in the KD group, resulting in an ICER of €18,044 per responder. We failed, however, to measure any benefits in terms of QALYs and therefore, the cost per QALY rise high above any acceptable ceiling ratio. It might be that the quality of life instruments used in this study were not sufficiently sensitive to detect changes, or it might be that being a clinical responder is not sufficient to improve a patient's quality of life. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses and nonparametric bootstrapping were performed and demonstrated the robustness of our results. The results show that the KD reduces seizure frequency. The study did not find any improvements in quality of life and, therefore, unfavorable cost per QALY ratio's resulted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Wesley C.; Mumford, Petey W.; Mao, Xuansong; Romero, Matthew A.; Hyatt, Hayden W.; Zhang, Yufeng; Mobley, Christopher B.; Quindry, John C.; Young, Kaelin C.; Beck, Darren T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the

  2. Presentación de un caso de aplicación de la dieta cetogénica en la epilepsia refractaria Presentation of a case of ketogenic diet application to refractory epilepsy

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    Ligia M Marcos Plasencia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 2 años de edad, que padece síndrome de West y que ha recibido tratamiento con múltiples drogas antiepilépticas sin obtener resultados alentadores ni en las crisis ni en su desarrollo psicomotor, seriamente afectado. Se establece el régimen de alimentación cetogénico de instalación progresiva, sin período de ayuno inicial, y se observa un cambio clínico en el paciente a partir de que se logran niveles de cetosis, constatados por la aparición de cuerpos cetónicos en la orina. Los cambios clínicos consisten en la disminución del número de crisis diarias y de su intensidad, en la posibilidad de suspender una de las drogas antiepilépticas que usaba, y en el aumento del nivel de vigilia del paciente. Se concluye que no se debe renunciar a esta alternativa de tratamiento en los casos de epilepsia refractaria.The case of a 2-year-old male patient suffering from West syndrome that had been treated with multiple antiepileptic drugs without encouraging results, neither in the seizures, nor in his psychomotor development, which was seriously affected, was reported. A progressive ketogenic diet was established without initial fasting, and it was observed a clinical change in the patient, since ketosis levels were attained and confirmed by the appearance of ketone bodies in urine. The clinical changes consisted in the reduction of the number of daily seizures and their intensity, in the possibility of stopping the use of one of the antiepileptic drugs, and in the increase of the level of sleeplessness of the patient. It was concluded that this treatment alternative should not be rejected in the cases of refractory epilepsy.

  3. Ketogenic food pyramid for patients with refractory epilepsy: From theory to clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    PRUDENCIO, Mariana Baldini; LIMA, Patricia de Azevedo; FREITAS, Maria Camila Pruper de; CARTOLANO, Flávia de Conti; MURAKAMI, Daniela Kawamoto; DAMASCENO, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a graphical representation in the form of a food pyramid for a ketogenic diet for dietary treatment in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. Methods: The pyramid was constructed based on: the estimation of energy requirements for different age groups, macronutrient distribution, food groups, and the number of servings and respective amounts of food according to the ketogenic diet. Serving sizes were based on the calculation of energy and macronutr...

  4. Dieta cetogênica no tratamento das epilepsias graves da infância: percepção das mães Ketogenic diet in the treatment of intractable epilepsy in children: mothers view

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    Alexsandra Tomé

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como propósito perceber os sentimentos e dificuldades de mães de crianças com epilepsia resistente ao tratamento medicamentoso em relação à adoção e ao seguimento da dieta cetogênica, bem como auxiliar a influência dessa dietoterapia na rotina familiar. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa qualitativa, tendo como técnica de coleta de dados a entrevista semi-estruturada, realizada com três mães atendidas pelo Centro de Neuropediatria do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Em virtude das características da dieta cetogênica, os resultados mostram que o período inicial, o da sua adoção, é bastante difícil, tanto para a criança como para toda a sua família. Entretanto, com a diminuição das crises epilépticas e a adaptação ao tratamento, uma mudança de sentimentos é observada. O estudo revela também a importância da atuação de profissionais, não apenas com competência técnica mas também com sensibilidade e empatia, no apoio às famílias das crianças em tratamento.The purpose of this study was to identify the feelings and difficulties experienced by mothers of children with drug-resistant epilepsy concerning the adoption of the ketogenic diet and its follow-up, as well as to evaluate the influence of this dietotherapy on the family routine. The qualitative research methodology was used, and data were collected through semi-structured interview, carried out with three mothers who attended the Neuropediatrics Center of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Because of the characteristics of the ketogenic diet, the results show that the initial period, corresponding to the phase of adoption, is very difficult, for both the child and all the family. However, with the decrease in the epileptic crises and the adaptation to the treatment, a change in the feelings is observed. The study also reveals the importance of the performance of the

  5. Principios bioéticos en el proyecto de dieta cetogénica para niños epilépticos cubanos Bioethical principles of the ketogenic diet project aimed at Cuban epileptic children

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    Ileana Valdivia Álvarez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis de los 4 principales principios de la Bioética: beneficencia, no maleficencia, autonomía y justicia, y se aplican al proyecto de dieta cetogénica para niños epilépticos. Se plantean las preguntas de Bradford y se les da respuesta, considerando el beneficio que este proyecto representa para la calidad de vida del niño y la precaución de no dañarlo con nuestro tratamiento. Con este fin se plantean criterios de inclusión y de exclusión, y la necesidad de solicitar, en todos los casos, el consentimiento informado por escrito, después de conocer todos los elementos concernientes al tratamiento.The four principles of Bioethics, that is, welfare, no harm, autonomy and justice were analyzed and then applied to a ketogenic diet for epileptic children. Bradford questions were posed and answered, taking into consideration the benefits that this project may bring to the quality of life of the child and the caution of not damaging him/her with our treatment. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria and the need of requesting in all cases a written informed consent after knowing all the treatment elements were set forth.

  6. Ketogenic dietary therapy for epilepsy and other disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal EG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth G Neal 1Matthew's Friends Clinics, Lingfield, UK, 2UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK Abstract: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regime, originally designed to mimic metabolic responses to fasting and has been used since the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy. Modified variants of the KD include the addition of medium-chain triglyceride and less-restrictive modified Atkins and low glycemic index protocols. Scientifically proven as treatment for intractable seizures in children, these ketone-generating diets are increasingly also being used in adults. They are the treatment of choice in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Evidence for the potential of KD therapy to be included within the treatment options for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders is more limited, albeit an exciting area of research with future clinical potential. This review discusses the key aspects of KD therapy, including the efficacy of treatments and clinical implementation. The importance of appropriate initiation, adequate clinical supervision, regular monitoring, and assessment of nutritional needs is highlighted. Keywords: diet, seizures, ketosis

  7. Ketogenic dietary therapy for epilepsy and other disorders: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Elizabeth G Neal 1Matthew's Friends Clinics, Lingfield, UK, 2UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK Abstract: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regime, originally designed to mimic metabolic responses to fasting and has been used since the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy. Modified variants of the KD include the addition of medium-chain triglyceride and less-restrictive modified Atkins and low glycemic index protocols. Scientifically proven as treatme...

  8. A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Holland, A Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mobley, C Brooks; Mumford, Petey W; Lowery, Ryan P; Fox, Carlton D; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Mesquita, Paulo; Patel, Romil K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Young, Kaelin C; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-05-15

    We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Nutritional Ketosis Condition and Specific Ketogenic Diet, May Benefit Cancer Patients as an Alternative Treatment by Sudden Change in the Metabolic State of Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Somayeh Zaminpira

    2017-01-01

    Cancer disease is the second cause of death in the United States and world-wide. Most Researchers estimate that 595,690 of American people will die from cancer at the end of the year 2017. That means 1,600 deaths/day approximately [1]. Cancer in modern societies is commonly treated with the combination of organ surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many kinds of diet strategies have been experimented. However, none of them have been particularly effective. Interestingly, the...

  10. Avaliação do perfil metabólico, nutricional e efeitos adversos de crianças com epilepsia refratária em uso da dieta cetogênica Assessment of serum biochemistry, nutritional status and adverse effects of children with refractory epilepsy using the ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Rizzutti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos adversos, o perfil metabólico e o crescimento pôndero-estatural de crianças com crises epilépticas de difícil controle, as quais foram submetidas a dieta cetogênica. MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se 23 pacientes na faixa etária de 2 até 17 anos com epilepsia de difícil controle medicamentoso, sendo 43,5% (n=10 do sexo masculino e 56,5% (n=13 do sexo feminino, provenientes do Setor de Neuropediatria da Disciplina de Neurologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Foram submetidos a dieta cetogênica e acompanhados por um período mínimo de um ano. Dois pacientes não conseguiram manter a cetose por falta de adesão dos pais à dieta. RESULTADOS: Os efeitos adversos encontrados foram reversíveis, incluindo hiperlipidemia, obstipação (17,4%, náuseas e vômitos (43,4%, sonolência (47,8%, infecções intercorrentes (3,0%, recusa da dieta (13,0% e epistaxe (4,3%. O crescimento pôndero-estatural não foi afetado, tendo o peso e a estatura seguido o percentil adequado. CONCLUSÃO: A dieta cetogênica pode constituir-se em uma alternativa segura e efetiva para o tratamento de crianças com epilepsia refratária.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate adverse events, serum biochemistry, growth and nutritional status of children with difficult-to-control seizures who were submitted to ketogenic diet. METHODS: Twenty-three patients aging from 2 to 17 years with refractory epilepsies, where 43.5% (n=10 were males and 56.5% (n=13 females from the Sector of Neuropediatrics, Discipline of Neurology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, were treated with the ketogenic diet and followed up for at least 1 year. Two patients were not able to achieve persistent ketosis either because they rejected the diets or their parents did not comply. RESULTS: Adverse events were all reversible and included hyperlipidemia, constipation (17.4%, nausea and vomiting (43.4%, drowsiness (47.8%, intercurrent infections (3

  11. Food intolerance and allergy: increased incidence or contemporary inadequate diets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skypala, Isabel; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber

    2014-01-01

    The role of nutrients in the study of allergic disease has been studied for many years, but recent evidence suggests that it is the quality and variety of the whole diet which affects the development of food allergy. This review seeks to understand whether food allergy prevalence is increasing and

  12. Beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for weight loss but not for other metabolic adaptations to the consumption of a ketogenic diet in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Douris

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The response of β-less mice distinguishes at least two distinct categories of physiologic effects in mice consuming KD. In the liver, KD regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα-dependent pathways through an action of FGF21 independent of the SNS and beta-adrenergic receptors. In sharp contrast, induction of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and increased energy expenditure absolutely require SNS signals involving action on one or more β-adrenergic receptors. In this way, the key metabolic actions of FGF21 in response to KD have diverse effector mechanisms.

  13. The use of diet in the treatment of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth E; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2005-02-01

    Fasting and other dietary regimens have been used to treat epilepsy since biblical times. The ketogenic diet, which mimics the metabolism of fasting, was used by modern physicians to treat intractable epilepsy beginning in the 1920s. With the rising popularity of drug treatments however, the ketogenic diet lost its previous status and was used in only a handful of clinics for most of the 20th century. The diet regained widespread recognition as a viable treatment option beginning in 1992 due to the efforts of parent advocate groups. Despite challenges to implementation of the treatment, the ketogenic diet has significant potential as a powerful tool for fighting epilepsy.

  14. A low protein diet increases the hypoxic tolerance in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O(2 and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses.

  15. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation affects the ammonaemia response during exercise under ketogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Eduardo Seixas; de Rezende Neto, José Melquiades; de Almeida, Rosemeire Dantas; Dória de Melo, Marcelia Garcez; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2011-06-28

    Hyperammonaemia is related to both central and peripheral fatigue during exercise. Hyperammonaemia in response to exercise can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA). In the present study, we determined the effect of short-term KAAA supplementation on ammonia production in subjects eating a low-carbohydrate diet who exercise. A total of thirteen male cyclists eating a ketogenic diet for 3 d were divided into two groups receiving either KAAA (KEx) or lactose (control group; LEx) supplements. Athletes cycled indoors for 2 h, and blood samples were obtained at rest, during exercise and over the course of 1 h during the recovery period. Exercise-induced ammonaemia increased to a maximum of 35 % in the control group, but no significant increase was observed in the supplemented group. Both groups had a significant increase (approximately 35 %) in uraemia in response to exercise. The resting urate levels of the two groups were equivalent and remained statistically unchanged in the KEx group after 90 min of exercise; an earlier increase was observed in the LEx group. Glucose levels did not change, either during the trial time or between the groups. An increase in lactate levels was observed during the first 30 min of exercise in both groups, but there was no difference between the groups. The present results suggest that the acute use of KAAA diminishes exercise-induced hyperammonaemia.

  16. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    assigned to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: a glucogenic diet (GLCG) based on sodium hydroxide treated wheat grain (56.5% of diet dry matter); a ketogenic diet (KETO) based on fodder beets (40.5% of diet dry matter); or an alfalfa-glucogenic strategy (ALF-GLCG) supplying 100% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L......Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were.......) haylage at the day of parturition, followed by a 6-d linear shift to the GLCG diet. Samples were obtained 14 d before expected parturition as well as at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk (DIM). The net portal release of glucose was greatest with GLCG, reflecting the higher intake of ruminal escape starch with GLCG...

  17. A Ketogenic Formula Prevents Tumor Progression and Cancer Cachexia by Attenuating Systemic Inflammation in Colon 26 Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nakamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (ketogenic diets might prevent tumor progression and could be used as supportive therapy; however, few studies have addressed the effect of such diets on colorectal cancer. An infant formula with a ketogenic composition (ketogenic formula; KF is used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy. We investigated the effect of KF on cancer and cancer cachexia in colon tumor-bearing mice. Mice were randomized into normal (NR, tumor-bearing (TB, and ketogenic formula (KF groups. Colon 26 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into TB and KF mice. The NR and TB groups received a standard diet, and the KF mice received KF ad libitum. KF mice preserved their body, muscle, and carcass weights. Tumor weight and plasma IL-6 levels were significantly lower in KF mice than in TB mice. In the KF group, energy intake was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. Blood ketone body concentrations in KF mice were significantly elevated, and there was a significant negative correlation between blood ketone body concentration and tumor weight. Therefore, KF may suppress the progression of cancer and the accompanying systemic inflammation without adverse effects on weight gain, or muscle mass, which might help to prevent cancer cachexia.

  18. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-10-01

    Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were assigned to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: a glucogenic diet (GLCG) based on sodium hydroxide treated wheat grain (56.5% of diet dry matter); a ketogenic diet (KETO) based on fodder beets (40.5% of diet dry matter); or an alfalfa-glucogenic strategy (ALF-GLCG) supplying 100% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) haylage at the day of parturition, followed by a 6-d linear shift to the GLCG diet. Samples were obtained 14 d before expected parturition as well as at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk (DIM). The net portal release of glucose was greatest with GLCG, reflecting the higher intake of ruminal escape starch with GLCG, as compared with a lower starch intake with KETO. Postpartum, the portal recovery of feed starch was greater (28 ± 3%, mean ± SEM) with KETO as compared with GLCG (15 ± 4%). At 4 DIM, the net hepatic release of glucose was greatest with KETO and least with ALF-GLCG, whereafter it increased as lactation progressed with ALF-GLCG and GLCG, but not with KETO. The high alfalfa haylage allowance at 4 DIM with the ALF-GLCG treatment induced the lowest net release of nutrients from the splanchnic tissues at 4 DIM. The hepatic removal of lactate as percent of total influx (mean ± SEM) increased from 27 ± 3% prepartum to 56 ± 3% at 4 DIM. The hepatic removal of lactate as percent of net portal release increased from 144 ± 10% prepartum to 329 ± 17% at 4 DIM with ALF-GLCG and KETO as compared with 242 ± 20% in GLCG. No clear evidence for an amino acid sparing effect in splanchnic tissues from increasing small intestinal glucose absorption was observed. In conclusion, the glucogenic feeding strategy induced the highest glucogenic status among the tested feeding strategies due to

  19. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  20. Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1α levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

  1. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  2. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases renal arginine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, A. P.; van Leeuwen, P. A.; Teerlink, T.; FLINKERBUSCH, E. L.; Boermeester, M. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Wesdorp, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    Arginine (Arg) is generated in the kidney by the conversion of circulating citrulline. The most important source for circulating citrulline is the metabolism of glutamine (Gln) by the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of an enteral diet enriched with Gln on renal Arg synthesis in the

  3. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  4. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  5. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pcost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  7. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mitsutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Motomura, Wataru; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hosoki, Yayoi; Miyoshi, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine a hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is implicated in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis. Mice were fed with control or high fat diet containing approximately 10% or 80% cholesterol, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic findings demonstrated that lipid accumulation in the liver was observed as early as 2 weeks after high fat diet and that high fat diet for 12 weeks developed a fatty liver phenotype, establishing a novel model of diet-induced liver steatosis. Gene profiling with microarray and real-time PCR studies demonstrated that among genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis-related genes, PPARγ and its targeted gene, CD36 mRNA expression was specifically up-regulated in the liver by high fat diet for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical study revealed that PPARγ protein expression is increased in the nuclei of hepatocytes by high fat diet. It was also shown that protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), an upstream molecule of PPARγ, in the liver was drastically suppressed by high fat diet. All these results suggest for the first time that the CREB-PPARγ signaling pathway may be involved in the high fat diet-induced liver steatosis

  8. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  9. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  10. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  12. Increased risk of colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes is independent of diet quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Jarvandi

    Full Text Available Poor diet increases the risk of both colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the role of diet in the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer.We analyzed data from 484,020 individuals, aged 50-71 years who participated in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and were cancer free at baseline (1995-1996. History of diabetes was self-reported. Diet quality was measured with the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of first primary incident colorectal cancer, overall and by anatomical location.During an average follow-up of 9.2 years, we identified 7,598 new cases of colorectal cancer. After controlling for non-dietary confounders, diabetes was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36. Further adjustment for diet quality did not attenuate this association. Diabetes was associated with a HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40 in individuals with good diet (quartile 4 of HEI-2005 and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.86 in those with poor diet (quartile 1 of HEI-2005, compared to those with no diabetes and good diet. Moreover, diabetes was associated with a stronger risk of proximal than distal colon cancer (HR: 1.33 vs. HR: 1.20, while poor diet was associated with a weaker risk of proximal colon cancer (HR: 1.18 vs. HR: 1.46.Diabetes and poor diet, independently and additively are associated with the increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  13. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  14. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  15. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Madsen, Andreas N

    2013-01-01

    locomotor activity. Moreover, diet-induced obese Gprc6a KO mice had increased circulating insulin and leptin levels relative to WT animals, thereby demonstrating that endocrine abnormalities associate with the reported disturbances in energy balance. The phenotype was further accompanied by disruptions...... complications is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated the impact of GPRC6A deficiency in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Gprc6a knockout (KO) mice and WT littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks and exposed to comprehensive metabolic phenotyping...

  16. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  18. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  19. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W.; Zerfass, Kristy M.; Heckstall, Ebony M.; Evans, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. Methods: We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Results: Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p diet-induced increases in insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin. PMID:26445641

  20. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  1. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W; Zerfass, Kristy M; Heckstall, Ebony M; Evans, Kristin A

    2015-10-01

    Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p HOMA-IR; 846.5 ± 1723.3%, p HOMA-IR. Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin.

  2. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  3. Temporal complexity of southern Beaufort Sea polar bear diets during a period of increasing land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    From 2000 to 2013, use of land as a seasonal habitat by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) subpopulation substantially increased. This onshore use has been linked to reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice, as well as to the availability of subsistence‐harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) bone piles. Here, we evaluated the role of climate conditions on consumption of traditional ice‐associated prey relative to onshore bowhead whale bone piles. We determined seasonal and interannual trends in the diets of SB polar bears using fatty acid‐based analysis during this period of increasing land use. Diet estimates of 569 SB polar bears from 2004 to 2012 showed high seasonal fluctuations in the proportions of prey consumed. Higher proportions of bowhead whale, as well as ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), were estimated to occur in the winter–spring diet, while higher proportions of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) were estimated for summer–fall diets. Trends in the annual mean proportions of individual prey items were not found in either period, except for significant declines in the proportion of beluga in spring‐sampled bears. Nonetheless, in years following a high winter Arctic oscillation index, proportions of ice‐associated ringed seal were lower in the winter–spring diets of adult females and juveniles. Proportions of bowhead increased in the winter–spring diets of adult males with the number of ice‐free days over the continental shelf. In one or both seasons, polar bears that were in better condition were estimated to have consumed less ringed seal and/or more bowhead whale than those in worse condition. Therefore, climate variation over this recent period appeared to influence the extent of onshore vs. on‐ice food use, which in turn, appeared to be linked to fluctuating condition of SB polar bears.

  4. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  5. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  6. Increased hepatic CD36 expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology of type 2 diabetes often involves diet-induced obesity (DIO), which is associated with elevated plasma fatty acids and lipoprotein associated triglycerides. Since aberrant hepatic fatty acid uptake may contribute to this, we investigated whether increased expression of a fatty acid tran...

  7. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  8. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Has it become increasingly expensive to follow a nutritious diet? Insights from a new price index for nutritious diets in Sweden 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Health-related illnesses such as obesity and diabetes continue to increase, particularly in groups of low socioeconomic status. The increasing cost of nutritious food has been suggested as an explanation. To construct a price index describing the cost of a diet adhering to nutritional recommendations for a rational and knowledgeable consumer and, furthermore, to investigate which nutrients have become more expensive to obtain over time. Linear programming and goal programming were used to calculate two optimal and nutritious diets for each year in the interval under different assumptions. The first model describes the rational choice of a cost-minimizing consumer; the second, the choice of a consumer trying to deviate as little as possible from average consumption. Shadow price analysis was used to investigate how nutrients contribute to the diet cost. The cost of a diet adhering to nutritional recommendations has not increased more than general food prices in Sweden between 1980 and 2012. However, following nutrient recommendations increases the diet cost even for a rational consumer, particularly for vitamin D, iron, and selenium. The cost of adhering to the vitamin D recommendation has increased faster than the general food prices. Not adhering to recommendations (especially those for vitamin D) offers an opportunity for consumers to lower the diet cost. However, the cost of nutritious diets has not increased more than the cost of food in general between 1980 and 2012 in Sweden.

  11. Has it become increasingly expensive to follow a nutritious diet? Insights from a new price index for nutritious diets in Sweden 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Håkansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related illnesses such as obesity and diabetes continue to increase, particularly in groups of low socioeconomic status. The increasing cost of nutritious food has been suggested as an explanation. Objective: To construct a price index describing the cost of a diet adhering to nutritional recommendations for a rational and knowledgeable consumer and, furthermore, to investigate which nutrients have become more expensive to obtain over time. Methods: Linear programming and goal programming were used to calculate two optimal and nutritious diets for each year in the interval under different assumptions. The first model describes the rational choice of a cost-minimizing consumer; the second, the choice of a consumer trying to deviate as little as possible from average consumption. Shadow price analysis was used to investigate how nutrients contribute to the diet cost. Results: The cost of a diet adhering to nutritional recommendations has not increased more than general food prices in Sweden between 1980 and 2012. However, following nutrient recommendations increases the diet cost even for a rational consumer, particularly for vitamin D, iron, and selenium. The cost of adhering to the vitamin D recommendation has increased faster than the general food prices. Conclusions: Not adhering to recommendations (especially those for vitamin D offers an opportunity for consumers to lower the diet cost. However, the cost of nutritious diets has not increased more than the cost of food in general between 1980 and 2012 in Sweden.

  12. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihauf, Jennifer B; Fekete, Éva M; Nagy, Tim R; Levin, Barry E; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Frihauf et al.

  13. Young people with epilepsy have an increased risk of eating disorder and poor quality diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Eivind; Bjørk, Marte; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Alfstad, Kristin; Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Lossius, Morten

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether adolescents with epilepsy are at increased risk of having self-reported eating disorder symptoms and poor quality diet compared to young people from the general population. We used data from the Health Profile for Children and Youth in Akershus Study, a cross-sectional population-based study based on a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. There were 19,995 participants (response rate 85%) aged 13-19 years; 247 (1.2%) reported a lifetime diagnosis of epilepsy. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eating disorders, unhealthy diet, dieting, satisfaction with looks, and participation in sports were estimated by using a logistic regression model. All estimates were adjusted for single parents and poor family economy. Children and adolescents with epilepsy had more eating disorders than their peers (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0, p = 0.03). They were less satisfied with their own appearance (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9, p = 0.02), and they eat more unhealthily (OR 1.7, CI 1.3-2.2, p = 0.001). Males with epilepsy were more likely to have been dieting (OR 3.1, CI 1.2-7.9, p = 0.02) and less satisfied with their own appearance (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.7, p < 0.001). Females with epilepsy were more likely to eat unhealthily (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5, p = 0.01). Adolescents with epilepsy are at increased risk of having eating disorder symptoms. They eat less healthily and are less satisfied with their looks. Health workers should be aware of this and bring diet and lifestyle into the dialogue with young people with epilepsy.

  14. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Lent-Schochet, Daniella; Pike, Christian J

    2014-09-16

    Low testosterone and obesity are independent risk factors for dysfunction of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the independent and cooperative interactions of testosterone and diet-induced obesity on metabolic, inflammatory, and neural health indices in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Male C57B6/J mice were maintained on normal or high-fat diet under varying testosterone conditions for a four-month treatment period, after which metabolic indices were measured and RNA isolated from cerebral cortex and sciatic nerve. Cortices were used to generate mixed glial cultures, upon which embryonic cerebrocortical neurons were co-cultured for assessment of neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. Peripheral nerve damage was determined using paw-withdrawal assay, myelin sheath protein expression levels, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity levels. Our results demonstrate that detrimental effects on both metabolic (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity) and proinflammatory (cytokine expression) responses caused by diet-induced obesity are exacerbated by testosterone depletion. Mixed glial cultures generated from obese mice retain elevated cytokine expression, although low testosterone effects do not persist ex vivo. Primary neurons co-cultured with glial cultures generated from high-fat fed animals exhibit reduced survival and poorer neurite outgrowth. In addition, low testosterone and diet-induced obesity combine to increase inflammation and evidence of nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. Testosterone and diet-induced obesity independently and cooperatively regulate neuroinflammation in central and peripheral nervous systems, which may contribute to observed impairments in neural health. Together, our findings suggest that low testosterone and obesity are interactive regulators of neuroinflammation that, in combination with adipose-derived inflammatory pathways and other factors

  15. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  16. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  17. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  18. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  19. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  20. Antiseizure Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures Induced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    experimental data in Nigeria on the usefulness of KD in epilepsy models. This is ... Fasting glucose, ketosis level and serum chemistry were determined and seizure parameters recorded. ..... in animal occurs through the inhibition of GABA.

  1. [Not Quite] The Ketogenic Diet in a Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Okayama University, Japan showed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH inhibition suppresses neuronal excitation in vitro, reduces EEG discharges and seizures in rodent models, and may provide a novel mechanism for anticonvulsant medications in human patients.

  2. Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M; Vinco, L J; Veldkamp, T

    2018-04-01

    1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.

  3. Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  4. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  5. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  6. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  7. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Tracy L; Kasten, Steven C; Reinholt, Brad M; van Eyk, Gregory R; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M; Gerrard, David E

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (Pblood glucose increased (Pblood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (PAUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  8. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  10. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  11. Increasing consumption of breakfast cereal improves thiamine status in overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Andrés, Pedro; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Bermejo, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thiamine status in a group of young, overweight/obese women and to analyse the changes in this status produced by two weight-control programmes based on approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal, increasing the relative consumption of vegetables (V) or cereals (C) (especially breakfast cereals). The study subjects were 57 Spanish women with a body mass index (BMI) of 24-35 kg/m(2), all of whom were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets. Dietetic, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the beginning of the study and at 2 and 6 weeks. C and V subjects showed a reduction in their energy intake, body weight and BMI, both at 2 and 6 weeks. Thiamine intake and blood thiamine levels only increased with diet C (both at 2 and 6 weeks). 21.8% cf the women, 21.8% had blood thiamine levels diet C, as compared with 30.8% of the women in diet V, showed blood thiamine levels diet C and diet V induced weight loss and a reduction in BMI, diet C would appear to be more useful in the maintenance of an adequate thiamine status.

  12. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  14. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35.......3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet) and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet). Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  15. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  16. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  17. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. ET-1 increases reactive oxygen species following hypoxia and high-salt diet in the mouse glomerulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, J B; Speed, J S; Bloom, C J; O'Connor, P M; Pollock, J S; Pollock, D M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to determine whether ET-1 derived from endothelial cells contributes to oxidative stress in the glomerulus of mice subjected to a high-salt diet and/or hypoxia. C57BL6/J control mice or vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice were subjected to 3-h exposure to hypoxia (8% O₂) and/or 2 weeks of high-salt diet (4% NaCl) prior to metabolic cage assessment of renal function and isolation of glomeruli for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In control mice, hypoxia significantly increased urinary protein excretion during the initial 24 h, but only in animals on a high-salt diet. Hypoxia increased glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression in control, but not in vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice. Under normoxic conditions, mice on a high-salt diet had approx. 150% higher glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression compared with a normal-salt diet (P ET-1 (osmotic pumps) significantly increased the levels of glomerular ROS that were prevented by ETA antagonist treatment. These data suggest that both hypoxia and a high-salt diet increase glomerular ROS production via endothelial-derived ET-1-ETA receptor activation and provide a potential mechanism for ET-1-induced nephropathy. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  20. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  1. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  3. Dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing diet cost according to income: An analysis among French adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Maillot

    Full Text Available To explore the dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy across income levels at constant energy and diet cost.Individual diet modelling was used to design iso-caloric, nutritionally adequate optimised diets for each observed diet in a sample of adult normo-reporters aged ≥20 years (n = 1,719 from the Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2, 2006-2007. Diet cost was estimated from mean national food prices (2006-2007. A first set of free-cost models explored the impact of optimisation on the variation of diet cost. A second set of iso-cost models explored the dietary changes induced by the optimisation with cost set equal to the observed one. Analyses of dietary changes were conducted by income quintiles, adjusting for energy intake, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, and smoking status.The cost of observed diets increased with increasing income quintiles. In free-cost models, the optimisation increased diet cost on average (+0.22 ± 1.03 euros/d and within each income quintile, with no significant difference between quintiles, but with systematic increases for observed costs lower than 3.85 euros/d. In iso-cost models, it was possible to design nutritionally adequate diets whatever the initial observed cost. On average, the optimisation at iso-cost increased fruits and vegetables (+171 g/day, starchy foods (+121 g/d, water and beverages (+91 g/d, and dairy products (+20 g/d, and decreased the other food groups (e.g. mixed dishes and salted snacks, leading to increased total diet weight (+300 g/d. Those changes were mostly similar across income quintiles, but lower-income individuals needed to introduce significantly more fruit and vegetables than higher-income ones.In France, the dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing cost are similar regardless of income, but may be more difficult to implement when the budget for food is lower than 3.85 euros/d.

  4. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    parity sows and their litters were included in the experiment from d 28 to 38 of lactation, including an adaptation period of 3 d. On d 28 of lactation sows were allotted, to two dietary treatments, a control diet or a diet with NSP enzyme addition, and fed for 10 d. The sows continued with their own...

  5. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  6. [Evaluation of the needs and possibilities of increasing the vitamin B12 content in diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Cholewa, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 belongs to the biologically active compounds related to cyanocobalamin group. The bioavailability of B12 from different food products varies considerably, for example from the chicken meat it ranges from 61 to 66%, from fish meat is 42%, and from eggs below 9% only. The deficiency of vitamin B12 could easily be overcame by the appropriate diet or food supplements. The aim of this study was to characterize the fortified with vitamin B12 food products available on the market and to assess the possibilities of increasing the intake of this vitamin by including such products into the daily diet. The study was carried out in winter 2011, at eleven Warsaw supermarkets. Information about food products was based on label declarations. There were 220 products fortified with vitamin B12 from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, fruit juice, non-alcoholic beverages, cereals bars, candies, instant cocoa and tea, margarine, as well as soya products. Breakfast cereals (40%) and juice, non-alcoholic beverages (30%) were the largest groups. RESULTS. The highest amount of vitamin B12 was found in some candies (max. 4,5 microg/100 g) and instant tea (max. 3,75 microg/100g). The lowest amount was found in some fruit beverages (min. 0,12 microg/100 g). There is possibility of increasing the vitamin B12 intake by consuming various fortified products: for instance a glass of soya drink (20,8% RDA), a cup of soya pudding (15%), a glass of instant tea (14%), apple juice (12,5%), a cereal bar (10%), a bowl of corn flakes (9,8%) or a slice of bread with margarine (7,5%). The intake of one average portion of chosen food products fortified with vitamin B12 provides about 0,18-0,5 microg (7,5-20,8% Polish RDA for adults). The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition, it is especially recommendable to vegetarian and elderly people.

  7. Increased contribution of ultra-processed food products in the Brazilian diet (1987-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean Claude; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-08-01

    To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in the metropolitan areas were studied and, for the last two surveys, the scope was national. The units of analysis were food purchases records of clusters of households. The purchased food items were divided according to the extent and purpose of their industrial processing into: 'in natura' or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients and ready-to-consume, processed and ultra-processed food and drink products. The quantity of each item was converted into energy. For each survey, the daily availability of calories per capita and the caloric share of the food groups were estimated. For the national surveys, estimates were calculated by income quintiles. Temporal trends were assessed using linear regression models and difference of means tests. The caloric share of ready-to-consume products significantly increased between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 (from 23.0% to 27.8% of total calories), mainly because of the increase in the consumption of ultra-processed products (20.8% to 25.4%). In the same period, there was a significant reduction in the caloric share of foods and culinary ingredients. The increase in the ultra-processed products caloric share occurred across all income quintiles. There was an uniform increase in the caloric share of ready-to-consume products in the metropolitan areas, mostly in place of ultra-processed products, accompanied by a decrease in the share of 'in natura' or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients. The share of ultra-processed products significantly increased in the Brazilian diet, as seen in the metropolitan areas since the 1980s, and confirmed at a national level in the 2000s.

  8. Keap1 knockdown increases markers of metabolic syndrome after long-term high fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Xu, Jialin; Shimpi, Prajakta C; Belgrave, Clyde; Luyendyk, James P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway upregulates antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme expression to counter cellular oxidative stress. The contributions of Nrf2 to other cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, are emerging. This study was conducted to determine how enhanced Nrf2 activity influences the progression of metabolic syndrome with long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. C57BL/6 and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice, which exhibit enhanced Nrf2 activity, were fed a HFD for 24 weeks. Keap1-KD mice had higher body weight and white adipose tissue mass compared to C57BL/6 mice on HFD, along with increased inflammation and lipogenic gene expression. HFD feeding increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation to a greater extent in Keap1-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with increased liver Cd36, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expression, as well as increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression. The HFD altered short-term glucose homeostasis to a greater degree in Keap-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Together, the results indicate that Keap1 knockdown, on treatment with HFD, increases certain markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Mediterranean Diet and the Increasing Demand of the Olive Oil Sector: Shifts and Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neves

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries play a crucial role as olive oil producers and consumers compared to other world regions. This work focusses on the development of the world production, trade and consumption where the Mediterranean region stands out from the rest of the world, in particular, the Northern Mediterranean countries. Aspects such as how communication emphasizes the benefits of the Mediterranean diet - which is a distinctive characteristic of the Mediterranean culture and identity - the Slow Food Movement, the International Olive Council campaigns, and the successive Common Agricultural Policies, that have triggered production, trade and consumption around the world, are here discussed. Such increases and stimuli brought and is still bringing changes to the olive oil sector such as a shifting tendency in production modes as well as modernization of the sector, responding to the increasing demand. These shifts and demand are changing landscapes and are being referred as environmentally harmful to the ecosystems as the production of olive oil is shifting to more intensive production systems and monoculture plantations. These issues are here debated and illustrated with case study examples, referring to the Mediterranean countries, particularly, referring to the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Effect of increasing the level of alfalfa hay in finishing beef heifer diets on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, A; González, L A; Mainau, E; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2018-02-15

    Eight rumen cannulated Simmental heifers (BW = 281.4 ± 7.28 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to ascertain the effects of increasing levels of alfalfa hay on intake, sorting, and feeding behavior in comparison to barley straw as forage source. Treatments tested were four total mixed rations with: 1) 10% barley straw (10BS) with 7.0% NDF from forage, 2) 13% alfalfa hay (13AH) and less NDF from forage (5.7%) than 10BS, 3) 16% alfalfa hay (16AH) and the same NDF from forage (7.0%) as 10BS, and 4) 19% alfalfa hay (19AH) and more NDF from forage (8.3%) than 10BS. Each experimental period consisted of 3 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for sampling. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet linearly increased (P comparison to the 10BS diet. In the same way, intake of long, medium, and short particle size was greater in this diet. Moreover, heifers fed 19AH sorted for medium particle size and tended to sort for long and short particles size, and against fine particle size. Sorting behavior and meal length increased in the 19AH diet, which leads us to think that sorting feed ingredients requires time and therefore lengthens the meal. Time spent ruminating was greater in heifers fed 19AH, thus reducing the risk of ruminal acidosis when animals are fed high concentrate diets.

  11. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  12. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  13. Exercise reduces diet-induced cognitive decline and increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for 7 weeks of exercise intervention. Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (pdiet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Food Price Policies May Improve Diet but Increase Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system. Low-income (n = 95) and medium-income (n = 33) women selected a daily food basket first at current prices and then at policy prices. Energy density (ED) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline, low-income women selected less healthy baskets than medium-income women (less fruit and vegetables, more unhealthy products, higher ED, lower MAR). Both policies improved nutritional quality (fruit and vegetable quantities increased, ED decreased, the MAR increased), but the magnitude of the improvement was often lower among low-income women. For instance, ED decreased by 5.3% with the fruit and vegetable subsidy and by 7.3% with the mixed subsidy, whereas decreases of 13.2 and 12.6%, respectively, were recorded for the medium-income group. Finally, both policies improved dietary quality, but they increased socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  16. Ghrelin increases the rewarding value of high-fat diet in an orexin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Birnbaum, Shari; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A; Woloszyn, Jakub; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or ghrelin-signaling blockade on two classic behavioral tests of reward behavior: conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant conditioning. Using both CPP and operant conditioning, we found that ghrelin enhanced the rewarding value of high-fat diet (HFD) when administered to ad lib-fed mice. Conversely, wild-type mice treated with ghrelin receptor antagonist and ghrelin receptor-null mice both failed to show CPP to HFD normally observed under calorie restriction. Interestingly, neither pharmacologic nor genetic blockade of ghrelin signaling inhibited the body weight homeostasis-related, compensatory hyperphagia associated with chronic calorie restriction. Also, ghrelin's effects on HFD reward were blocked in orexin-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate an obligatory role for ghrelin in certain rewarding aspects of eating that is separate from eating associated with body weight homeostasis and that requires the presence of intact orexin signaling. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  18. Effects of diets with increasing levels of citrus pulp on the blood parameters linked to energy metabolism in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Lima Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of alternative energy ingredients for horses has increased because these foods contain "superfibers", making safer diet for these animals. To study the influence of diets containing increasing levels of citrus pulp on albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations in the blood, five animals were used, with an average age of 3.5 years and a live weight of 460.66±76.86 kg, they were fed twice a day, at 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The diets were formulated to meet the requirements of the animals at maintenance. 60% of the energy was obtained from forage, and 40% from concentrate, containing the following inclusion levels of citrus pulp (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28%. The area under the curve (AUC and the glucose and insulin peaks were calculated, and no differences were observed between the treatments. There was no effect of diet on the blood concentrations of the evaluated parameters tested, and there was no effect of the time of collection on the following variables: SCFAs, cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin. However, the diet did have quadratic effect on the glucose (Ŷ =-0.5327X²+4.2130X+84.5276 and insulin (Ŷ=-0.1002X² +0.8233X + 1.6336 concentrations. Up to 28% of the concentrate can be composed of citrus pulp in horse diets without causing any alterations on the concentrations of the parameters analyzed in the blood. High-fiber diets with easily fermentable fibers are beneficial because they maintain the glucose and insulin curves close to the baseline levels.

  19. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  20. HF diets increase hypothalamic PTP1B and induce leptin resistance through both leptin-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christy L.; Whittington, Amy; Barnes, Maria J.; Wang, Zhong; Bray, George A.; Morrison, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) contributes to leptin resistance by inhibiting intracellular leptin receptor signaling. Mice with whole body or neuron-specific deletion of PTP1B are hypersensitive to leptin and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here we report a significant increase in PTP1B protein levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus (P = 0.003) and a concomitant reduction in leptin sensitivity following 28 days of high-fat (HF) feeding in rats. A significant increase in PTP1B mRNA levels was also observed in rats chronically infused with leptin (3 μg/day icv) for 14 days (P = 0.01) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice infused with leptin (5 μg/day sc for 14 days; P = 0.003). When saline-infused ob/ob mice were placed on a HF diet for 14 days, an increase in hypothalamic PTP1B mRNA expression was detected (P = 0.001) despite the absence of circulating leptin. In addition, although ob/ob mice were much more sensitive to leptin on a low-fat (LF) diet, a reduction in this sensitivity was still observed following exposure to a HF diet. Taken together, these data indicate that hypothalamic PTP1B is specifically increased during HF diet-induced leptin resistance. This increase in PTP1B is due in part to chronic hyperleptinemia, suggesting that hyperleptinemia is one mechanism contributing to the development of leptin resistance. However, these data also indicate that leptin is not required for the increase in hypothalamic PTP1B or the development of leptin resistance. Therefore, additional, leptin-independent mechanisms must exist that increase hypothalamic PTP1B and contribute to leptin resistance. PMID:19017730

  1. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Hojman

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (P<0.01 in EPO transfected obese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet, 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet, 35.3+/-3.3 g (control, high-fat diet and 28.8+/-2.6 g (EPO, high-fat diet. Correspondingly, DXA scanning revealed that this was due to a 28% reduction in adipose tissue mass.The decrease in adipose tissue mass was accompanied by a complete normalisation of fasting insulin levels and glucose tolerance in the high-fat fed mice. EPO expression also induced a 14% increase in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles.

  2. P and Ca digestibility is increased in broiler diets supplemented with the high-phytase HIGHPHY wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, D; Burton, E; Morgan, N; Sanni, C; Madsen, C K; Dionisio, G; Brinch-Pedersen, H

    2017-09-01

    Around 70% of total seed phosphorus is represented by phytate which must be hydrolysed to be bioavailable in non-ruminant diets. The limited endogenous phytase activity in non-ruminant animals make it common practice to add an exogenous phytase source to most poultry and pig feeds. The mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) of cereal seeds provides a route for the seeds themselves to contribute to phytate digestion, but MGPA varies considerably between species and most varieties in current use make negligible contributions. Currently, all phytases used for feed supplementation and transgenic improvement of MGPA are derived from microbial enzymes belonging to the group of histidine acid phosphatases (HAP). Cereals contain HAP phytases, but the bulk of MGPA can be attributed to phytases belonging to a completely different group of phosphatases, the purple acid phosphatases (PAPhy). In recent years, increased MGPAs were achieved in cisgenic barley holding extra copies of barley PAPhy and in the wheat HIGHPHY mutant, where MGPA was increased to ~6200 FTU/kg. In the present study, the effect of replacing 33%, 66% and 100% of a standard wheat with HIGHPHY wheat was compared with a control diet with and without 500 FTU of supplemental phytase. Diets were compared by evaluating broiler performance, ileal Ca and P digestibility and tibia development, using nine replicate pens of four birds per diet over 3 weeks from hatch. There were no differences between treatments in any tibia or bird performance parameters, indicating the control diet did not contain sufficiently low levels of phosphorus to distinguish effect of phytase addition. However, in a comparison of the two wheats, the ileal Ca and P digestibility coefficients for the 100% HIGHPHY wheat diets are 22.9% and 35.6% higher, respectively, than for the control diet, indicating the wheat PAPhy is functional in the broiler digestive tract. Furthermore, 33% HIGHPHY replacement of conventional wheat, significantly improved

  3. Diet-related gut bacterial dysbiosis correlates with impaired development and increased mortality in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of gut microbial communities for animal health has become increasingly clear. Early gut succession and diet-related shifts in bacterial community composition can be associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Here we determined the effect of host niche and nutrient source...

  4. Supplementation of Diet With Galacto-oligosaccharides Increases Bifidobacteria, but Not Insulin Sensitivity, in Obese Prediabetic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfora, Emanuel E; van der Beek, Christina M; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2017-01-01

    on peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. RESULTS: Supplementation of diets with GOS, but not placebo, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium species in feces by 5-fold (P = .009; q = 0.144). Microbial richness or diversity in fecal samples were...

  5. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  6. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  7. Increased Hepatic Expression of Endothelial Lipase Inhibits Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Niimi, Manabu; Yan, Haizhao; Chen, Yajie; Ning, Bo; Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates. On a chow diet, hepatic expression of human EL in Tg rabbits led to remarkable reductions in plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with non-Tg controls. On a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks, Tg rabbits exhibited significantly lower hypercholesterolemia and less atherosclerosis than non-Tg littermates. In Tg rabbits, gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis was reduced by 52%, and the lesions were characterized by fewer macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared with non-Tg littermates. Increased hepatic expression of EL attenuates cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protects against atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. © 2013.

  9. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  11. High-fructose diet during periadolescent development increases depressive-like behavior and remodels the hypothalamic transcriptome in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Constance S.; Burgado, Jillybeth; Kelly, Sean D.; Johnson, Zachary P.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2015-01-01

    Fructose consumption, which promotes insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, has increased by over 25% since the 1970s. In addition to metabolic dysregulation, fructose ingestion stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to elevations in glucocorticoids. Adolescents are the greatest consumers of fructose, and adolescence is a critical period for maturation of the HPA axis. Repeated consumption of high levels of fructose during adolescence has the potential to promote long-term dysregulation of the stress response. Therefore, we determined the extent to which consumption of a diet high in fructose affected behavior, serum corticosterone, and hypothalamic gene expression using a whole-transcriptomics approach. In addition, we examined the potential of a high-fructose diet to interact with exposure to chronic adolescent stress. Male Wistar rats fed the periadolescent high-fructose diet showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test in adulthood, irrespective of stress history. Periadolescent fructose-fed rats also exhibited elevated basal corticosterone concentrations relative to their chow-fed peers. These behavioral and hormonal responses to the high-fructose diet did not occur in rats fed fructose during adulthood only. Finally, rats fed the high-fructose diet throughout development underwent marked hypothalamic transcript expression remodeling, with 966 genes (5.6%) significantly altered and a pronounced enrichment of significantly altered transcripts in several pathways relating to regulation of the HPA axis. Collectively, the data presented herein indicate that diet, specifically one high in fructose, has the potential to alter behavior, HPA axis function, and the hypothalamic transcriptome in male rats. PMID:26356038

  12. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  13. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  14. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, A. P.; van Leeuwen, P. A.; Boermeester, M. A.; van Lambalgen, T.; Teerlink, T.; FLINKERBUSCH, E. L.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Wesdorp, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    The hemodynamic consequences of glutamine (Gln)-enriched nutrition have not been investigated. This study investigates the effects of a Gln-enriched enteral diet on organ blood flows and systemic hemodynamics. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 24) were randomized to a group that received a 12.5% (wt/wt)

  15. Haloperidol and Rimonabant Increase Delay Discounting in Rats Fed High-Fat and Standard-Chow Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R.; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine and endocannabinoid neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, and obesity. The current study was designed to determine the extent to which haloperidol and rimonabant affected delay discounting in rats fed standard-chow and high-fat diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to free-feed under a high-fat diet (4.73 kcal/g) or a standard-chow diet (3.0 kcal/g) for three months. Then, operant sessions began in which rats (n = 9 standard chow; n = 10 high-fat) chose between one sucrose pellet delivered immediately vs. three sucrose pellets after a series of delays. In another condition, carrot-flavored pellets replaced sucrose pellets. After behavior stabilized, acute injections of rimonabant (0.3-10 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg) were administered i.p. before some choice sessions in both pellet conditions. Haloperidol and rimonabant increased discounting in both groups of rats by decreasing percent choice for the larger reinforcer and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values. Rats in the high-fat diet condition demonstrated increased sensitivity to haloperidol compared to chow-fed controls: haloperidol increased discounting in both dietary groups in the sucrose condition,, but only in the high-fat-fed rats in the carrot-pellet condition. These findings indicate that blocking D2 and CB1 receptors results in increased delay discounting, and that a high-fat diet may alter sensitivity to dopaminergic compounds using the delay-discounting task. PMID:25000488

  16. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  17. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Sara L; Davidson, Terry L; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2015-10-01

    Energy dense "Western" diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  19. Increase of arginase activity in old apolipoprotein-E deficient mice under Western diet associated with changes in neurovascular unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaut Jérôme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging and atherosclerosis are well-recognized risk factors for cardiac and neurovascular diseases. The Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE−/− mouse on a high-fat diet is a classical model of atherosclerosis, characterized by the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in extracranial vessels but not in cerebral arteries. Increase in arginase activity was shown to participate in vascular dysfunction in the peripheral arteries of atherosclerotic mice by changing the level of nitric oxide (NO. NO plays a key role in the physiological functions of the neurovascular unit (NVU. However, the regulation of arginase expression and activity in the brain was never investigated in association with changes in the NVU, ApoE deficiency and high fat diet. Fourteen-month-old ApoE−/− mice on high-fat diet exhibited deposition of lipids in the NVU, impairment of blood–brain barrier properties, astrogliosis and an increase of aquaporin 4 staining. In association with these changes, brain arginase activity was significantly increased in the old ApoE−/− mice as compared to old wild type mice, with an increase in the level of arginase type I in the blood vessels. In conclusion, aging in this classical mouse model of atherosclerosis induces an increase in the level and activity of arginase I that may impair NO synthesis and contribute to changes in the NVU leading to blood–brain barrier leakage and inflammation.

  20. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in histamine-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Vogelsang, Thomas W; Knigge, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin...... weeks, whereas a significant difference in body weight gain was first observed after 5 weeks in WT mice. After 8 weeks 24-hour caloric intake was significantly lower in HFD- than in STD-fed WT mice. In HDC-KO mice no difference in caloric intake was observed between HFD- and STD-fed mice. After 8 weeks...

  1. Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Cosentino, Loretta; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Morgana, Manuela; Mattina, Alessandro; Sprini, Delia; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-06-01

    The role of glycemic index of the diet in glucose control and cardiovascular prevention is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads on endothelial function and glycemic variability in nondiabetic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. Forty nondiabetic obese participants were randomly assigned to a three-month treatment with either a low glycemic index (LGI; n=19) or high glycemic index (HGI; n=21) hypocaloric diet with similar macronutrient and fiber content. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and after dieting. In addition, 48-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring was done before and after dieting in a subgroup of 24 participants. The amount of weight loss after dieting was similar in both groups. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the FMD (Pdiet, and -0.9±3.6% after the HGI diet (Pdiet on results was observed. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the 48-h glycemic variability measured as coefficient of variability (CV%; Pdiet (from 23.5 to 20.0%) and increased after the HGI diet (from 23.6 to 26.6%). The change in percentage of FMD was inversely correlated with the change in the 48-h glycemic CV% (r=-0.45; Phypocaloric diet in nondiabetic obese persons. ISRCTN56834511. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  3. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Rapamycin-ameliorated diabetic symptoms involved in increasing adiponectin expression in diabetic mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang-Hua; Ye, Yan-Na; Li, Jin-Meng; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Li, Xiao-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies showed that rapamycin improved diabetic complications. Here, we investigated the metabolic effects of rapamycin in type 2 diabetes model (T2DM) mice. Mice were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin at 2 mg/kg or vehicle only for 3 weeks and were maintained on a high-fat diet. The treated diabetic mice exhibited decreased body weight, blood glucose levels, and fat mass. FGF21 expression was suppressed in C57B/L6 mice, but adiponectin expression increased both in FGF21 KO and C57B/L6 mice. These results suggest that rapamycin may alleviate FGF21 resistance in mice on a high-fat diet. The reduction of adipose tissue mass of the diabetic mice may be due to the increased adiponectin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  6. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  7. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases glucose uptake and fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida de França, Suélem; Pavani Dos Santos, Maísa; Nunes Queiroz da Costa, Roger Vinícius; Froelich, Mendalli; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Giordani, Morenna Alana; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Marlise Balbinotti Andrade, Cláudia; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate glucose uptake and the contribution of glucose to fatty acid (FA) synthesis and the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) of triacylglycerol synthesis by interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats. LPHC (6% protein; 74% carbohydrate) or control (17% protein; 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats (∼ 100 g) for 15 d. Total FA and G3P synthesis and the synthesis of FA and G3P from glucose were evaluated in vivo by (3)H2O and (14)C-glucose. Sympathetic neural contribution for FA synthesis was evaluated by comparing the synthesis in denervated (7 d before) IBAT with that of the contralateral innervated side. The insulin signaling and β3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) contents, as well as others, were determined by Western blot (Student's t test or analysis of variance; P ≤ 0.05). Total FA synthesis in IBAT was 133% higher in the LPHC group and was reduced 85% and 70% by denervation for the LPHC and control groups, respectively. Glucose uptake was 3.5-fold higher in the IBAT of LPHC rats than in that of the control rats, and the contribution of glucose to the total FA synthesis increased by 12% in control rats compared with 18% in LPHC rats. The LPHC diet increased the G3P generation from glucose by 270% and the insulin receptor content and the p-AKT insulin stimulation in IBAT by 120% and reduced the β3-AR content by 50%. The LPHC diet stimulated glucose uptake, both the total rates and the rates derived from glucose-dependent FA and G3P synthesis, by increasing the insulin sensitivity and the sympathetic flux, despite a reduction in the β3-AR content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

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