Full Text Available Abstract: This study is motivated by the human changes in treating food which is caused by the displacement of society, technology, culture and time change. The aims of this study is to find the obsession on the food in the novel Aruna dan Lidahnya. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative, in which data is collected by library research. The research result in the leading factor of the main character’s obsession to the food, single status, source of happiness, a mean of self-liberation, occupational factors, lifestyle, and educational background. Aruna’s obsession is categorized as compulsive obsession. Compulsive obsession is a repetitive behaviour that performed by someone because she thinks it ia a must. Keywords: Aruna dan Lidahnya; Laksmi Pamuntjak; Food; Obsession; Literature learning Abstrak: Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh perubahan manusia dalam memperlakukan makanan yang disebabkan oleh adanya perpindahan masyarakat, budaya teknologi, dan perkembangan zaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui obsesi terhadap makanan yang terdapat dalam novel Aruna dan Lidahnya. Metode yang digunakan ialah deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik kajian pustaka. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis struktural yakni membaca dan memahami kembali data yang sudah diperoleh. Berdasarkan penelitian, diperoleh hasil bahwa obsesi terhadap makanan yang terdapat dalam novel Aruna dan Lidahnya karya Laksmi Pamuntjak disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, di antaranya faktor status yang masih sendiri, sumber kebahagiaan, sarana pembebasan diri, faktor pekerjaan, gaya hidup, dan latar belakang pendidikan. Obsesi yang dialami oleh Aruna tergolong ke dalam obsesi kompulsif yaitu perilaku yang dilakukan berulang-ulang oleh seseorang karena merasa harus melakukannya. Kata Kunci: Aruna dan Lidahnya, Laksmi Pamuntjak, Makanan, Obsesi, Pembelajaran Sastra
Kanchan, Tanuj; Atreya, Alok; Krishan, Kewal
Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug breathed her last after 42 years of being in a persistent vegetative state. Euthanasia in any form is not permitted in India and it was only in the year 2011 that a petition was filed in the court that urged the cessation of her force feeding with a nasogastric tube and the request for her peaceful death. What followed was a string of arguments and counter arguments relating to Euthanasia. The sad demise of Aruna Shanbaug is not the end of an individual, but may be the end of the road for clear cut guidelines and legislation on Euthanasia in India.
Kishore, R R
Aruna Shanbaug's protracted continuance in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) for nearly 42 years needs to be viewed seriously by all those who believe in a person's inalienable right to dignity in dying. A terminally ill and/or incapacitated individual is a helpless person confronted with perpetual risk of intrusion in to his autonomy by the moral paternalists, owing to false notion of human virtues. Legislative inadequacy coupled with judicial heterogeneity has exposed the decision making process to unwarranted ambiguity. Misapplication of moral and juristic principles is a global challenge. 29-year-old Brittany Maynard's recent act of ending her life by migrating from California to Oregon has ignited a fierce debate and nearly half of the states in the USA are contemplating enactment of death with dignity legislation. Across the Atlantic, the European Court of Human Rights judgment on June 5, 2015, endorsing Vincent Lambert's right to end medical support, is a resounding affirmation of an individual's right to die with dignity. This article is an attempt to explore various dimensions of one's right to dignity in dying, in the global as well as the Indian context.
Lietuvos Telekomase juht olukorrast Leedu sideteenuste turul, Eesti Telefoni brändimuutusest, Lietuvos Telekomase ja Omniteli koostööst ja võimalikust ühinemisest ning ettevõtte turundustegevusest
Girnius, Kestutis K.
Leedut külastanud Poola peaminister Donald Tusk ütles, et Leedu ja Poola vahelised suhted hakkavad sõltuma Leedu suhtumisest seal elavatesse poolakatesse, kuid pressikonverentsil kinnitasid mõlema riigi peaministrid, et küsimust ei tohi politiseerida
Girnius, Kestutis K.
Irene Degutiene, kes on reitingult president Dalia Grybauskaite järel teine poliitik Leedus, tahab asendada erakonna Isamaaliit – Leedu Kristlikud Demokraadid praegust esimeest Andrius Kubiliust, kes on ka riigi peaminister
Autor kirjeldab Leedus läbiviidava kaitseväe reformi põhjuseid, põhimõtteid ning eesmärke ja arutleb pidevalt muutuvate julgeolekuohtude ning võimalike missioonide üle, milleks 21. sajandil tuleb valmis olla. Tabel
Autor vaatleb Põhja-Euroopa riikide ajalugu, Põhjamaade rolli Baltimaade integreerumisel Euroopa Liidu ja NATO-ga ning regionaalse koostöö arengut ühtse julgeoleku- ja kaitsepoliitika elluviimiseks
Full Text Available Abstract: Aconitum Heterophyllum (A. Heterophyllum is an indigenous medicinal plant of India and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. A. Heterophyllum is known to possess a number of therapeutic effects. For very ancient times, this plant has been used in some formulations in the traditional healing system of India, i.e., Ayurveda. It is reported to have use in treating patients with urinary infections, diarrhea, and inflammation. It also has been used as an expectorant and for the promotion of hepatoprotective activity. The chemical studies of the plant have revealed that various parts of the plant contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, saponins, glycosides, quinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. In the present study, a comprehensive phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, as well as the medicinal properties, of A. Heterophyllum are discussed. Abstract: Scientific information on the plant was collected from various sources,
Tracevskis, Rokas M.
Arunas Valinskas leidis, et ta on sobiv kandidaat Leedu kultuuriministri kohale. Arunas Valinskase ja president Dalia Grybauskaite vahelisest konfliktist. Arunas Valinskase kriitika Dalia Grybauskaite aadressil
Vajadusest muuta Leedu televisiooni seadust, et Leedu emigrandid saaksid ka Iirimaal jm vaadata kodumaiseid televisiooniprogramme. Kommenteerib Leedu Raadio ja Televisiooni direktor Kestutis Petrauskis
5. juunil Portugalis Museu de Ceramica das Caldas da Rainhas avataval grupinäitusel 'Artist's Cry' eksponeerib Hanno Soans oma videot 'Private Dancer', mis on tehtud koos Catarina Campinoga Portugalist. Näituse kuraator Kestutis Kuizinas Leedust
Aug 26, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.
Puerto Quetzal , Escuintla Jordan BGEN Dari Alzben Lithuania CAPT Kestutis Macijauskas, Commander in Chief of the Lithuanian Navy Poland ADM Roman Krzy...Guatemalan Navy CAPT Rafael Alfonso Reneau Franco Commander of the Na- tional Naval Defense, Puerto Quetzal , Escuintla Guatemalan Navy Haiti LCDR Leon
Hansapanga galeriis leedu kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Õppides ja lauldes". Kuraator Kestutis Kuizinas. Osalevad Laura Stasiulyte, Gediminas ja Nomeda Urbonas, Vita Zaman. Videod ja slaidiprogrammid näitavad tõelisi või lavastatud episoode naiste elust tänapäeva Leedus
Tallinna valgusfestivali raames toimub 10.02.2007 Harjumäel tule ja jää pidu. Korraldaja Indrek Leht. Tuleinstallatsiooni "Born to fly" autorid leedu kunstnikud Kestutis ja Vytautis Musteikis, jääskulpuuride autorid Tiiu Kirsipuu, Kalle Pruuden, Aime Kuulbusch ja Üllar Kallau
resurgence.73 However, this spending must continue in an upward trajectory and delinquent NATO members must hasten their attainment of the stated...accessed 17 Dec 2016) 2 http://www.nato.int/ history /nato-history.html 3 Paulauskas, Kestutis, (2016). On Deterrence. Retrieved from http
Northwestern), FNASc. Date of birth: 12 April 1968. Specialization: Structural Biology, Malaria, Protein Translation Address: Group Leader & Staff Scientist, International Centre for Genetic Engineering, & Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi ...
basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium ... arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium ... properties and effects (Aruna and Sivaramakrishnan. 1992 ..... Biotransformation of the pesticide.
National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as the staple food for. 30% of the global .... bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid.
Leedu opositsiooniparteid väljendasid umbusaldust keskkonnaminister Arunas Kundrotase vastu, saates talle arupärimise küsimused EL-i fondide jagamise, jäätmekäitluse, vee ja õhu kvaliteedi jm. kohta
John, Agnes Aruna; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadharshni; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Balaji, Arunpandian; Mohandas, Hemanth; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar
Agnes Aruna John,1 Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian,1 Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan,1 Arunpandian Balaji,1 Hemanth Mohandas,2 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan1 1IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Abstract: Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell pr...
Radisson Blu Hotel Olümpias 28. aprillil korraldatud konverentsist "Läänemere regiooni turismiteadmuse toetus turismimajandusele ja -ettevõtlusele 2011-2026", millega tähistati Eesti Hotelli- ja Turismikõrgkooli EHTE 15. sünnipäeva. Thomas Mielke, Maritta Hiltuneni, Kristian Sieversi, Pauli Santala, Inese Šīrava, Maija Rozite ja Kestutis Ambrozaitise konverentsil peetud ettekannetest ja paneeldiskussioonist
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. RNA Polymerase II – The Transcription Machine - Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006. Jiyoti Verma Aruna Naorem Anand Kumar Manimala Sen Parag Sadhale. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 47-53 ...
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2012 Section: General Biology. Mohanty, Dr Debasisa Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 30 November 1966. Specialization: Bioinformatics, Computational & Structural Biology, Biophysics Address: National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, ...
Virander Singh Ph.D. (Delhi), D.Phil. (Oxford), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 3 March 1950. Specialization: Peptide Synthesis & Structure, Malaria Immunology and Malaria Drug Development, Biomarker Discovery Address: Visiting Scientist, International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, NII Campus, Aruna Asaf ...
.... Contact Person: Aruna K Behera, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National...: Biochemistry & Macromolecular Biophysics. Date: July 15-17, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To..., Bethesda, MD 20892 (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: James W Mack, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer...
27 Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body? Devaveena Dey and Annapoorni Rangarajan. 35 Gödel's Proof. Semantics of First Order Theory and Hilbert's Program. S M Srivastava. 47 RNA Polymerase II – The Transcription Machine. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006. Jiyoti Verma, Aruna Naorem, Anand Kumar,.
Fellow Profile. Elected: 2001 Section: General Biology. Salunke, Dr Dinakar Mashnu Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc, FNA, FTWAS. Date of birth: 1 July 1955. Specialization: Structural Biology, Macromolecular Crystallography and Immunology Address: Director, International Centre for Genetic Engineering, & Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf ...
23 See Organizational Behavior, Mc Shane/von Glinow, Mc Graw -Hill/Irwin, New York 2007, chapter 14. 24 As stated during MN3304 class...57 LIST OF REFERENCES Apte, Aruna. (2006). Spiral Development: A perspective.NPS-GSBPP-05-009. Banus, Stephen P. (1997). Financing contingency
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2018 Section: General Biology. Nandicoori, Dr Vinay Kumar Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc. Date of birth: 1 March 1969. Specialization: Molecular & Cellular Biology, Cell Signalling, Cell Biology Address: National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.; Contact ...
... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 1986–1989. Gupta, Dr Satish K. Date of birth: 20 April 1953. Specialization: Immunology Address during Associateship: National Institute of Immunology, J.N.U. Campus, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, ...
Fellow Profile. Elected: 2010 Section: General Biology. Mukhopadhyay, Dr Amitabha Ph.D. (Jadavpur), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 5 February 1959. Specialization: Cell Biology, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Drug Delivery Address: Staff Scientist VII, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, ...
Elected: 2007 Section: General Biology. Gokhale, Mr Rajesh Sudhir Ph.D. (IISc), FNAScFNA. Date of birth: 16 January 1967. Specialization: Chemical Biology, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Immunometabolism, Skin Biology, Vitiligo Address: Staff Scientist VII, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi ...
Elected: 2009 Section: General Biology. Roy, Dr Rajendra Prasad Ph.D. (IISc), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 26 January 1962. Specialization: Protein Chemistry and Chemical Biology Address: Staff Scientist VII, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2670 3698
Date of birth: 16 August 1968. Specialization: Molecular Biology Address during Associateship: Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab., National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 016. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018.
... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 1986–1989. Gupta, Dr Satish K. Date of birth: 20 April 1953. Specialization: Immunology Address during Associateship: National Institute of Immunology, J.N.U. Campus, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067.
Date of birth: 20 April 1953. Specialization: Immunology, Reproductive Immunology and Reproductive Biology, Vaccines, Anti-Body Engineering Address: Emeritus Scientist, Reproductive Cell Biology Unit, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2674 1249
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Aruna Bhatia. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 443-451. Synthesis of 4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1-indeno[1,2-]pyrimidines by Biginelli condensation and their antibacterial activities · Ramandeep Kaur Monika Bansal Balbir Kaur ...
This parameter is taken as the threshold of neuron for learning of neural network. This algorithm is tested with three benchmark datasets and ... Author Affiliations. OM PRAKASH PATEL1 ARUNA TIWARI. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India ...
Sengupta, Dr Sagar Ph.D. (IISc), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 23 June 1968. Specialization: Cancer Biology, Cell Signalling, Mytochondrial Biology Address: National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2670 3786. Residence: (0124) 422 7107. Mobile: 93131 05470
Council Service: 2013-15. Date of birth: 14 October 1952. Specialization: Cell Biology and Biochemistry Address: Professor of Eminence, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2674 1501. Residence: (011) 2674 1501, (011) 2674 2528. Mobile: 99584 20001
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of LSM/YSZ composite cathodes in solid oxide fuel cell. B SHRI PRAKASH S SENTHIL KUMAR S T ARUNA. Volume 40 Issue 3 June 2017 pp 441-452 ...
Komissarov, Eha, 1947-
Leedu kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Omas mahlas" Tallinna Kunstihoones (Evaldas Jansas, Egle Rakauskaite) ja Rotermanni soolalaos (Loreta Bilinskaite-Burke, Laura Barbshtiene & Arturas Bumshteinas (G-Lab), Jonas Gasiunas, Arunas Gudaitis, Linas Jablonskis, Dainius Lishkevicius, Mindaugas Lukoshaitis, Gintaras Makarevicius, Deimantas Narkevicius, Egle Ridikaite, Irma Stanaityte, Laura Stasiulyte, Mindaugas Shimkus, Arturas Valiauga, Rimaldas Vikshraitis, Darius Zhiura). Kuraator Anders Kreuger leedu kunstniku kuvandiloomest
Vägistamises süüdimõistetud Arunas Mickevicius varjas ennast 10 aastat välismaal (1997-2007), tabamisel ta vangistati, kuid Riigikohus vabastas mehe kuriteo aegumise tõttu ning talle määrati alusetult vangis istutud 151 päeva eest hüvitist 160 000 krooni
Lõppes Pärnu 20. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festival. Festivali grand prix - "Enne Maale naasmist", režissöör Arunas Matelis : Leedu/Saksamaa, Eesti Rahva Auhinna saaja ühisnimetaja "Inimene otsib õnne" all "Saatana kaevur", režissöörid Richard Ladkan, Kief Davidson : Saksamaa 2004. Lisaks "Laureatõ festivalja"
Pärnu 20. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festivali auhindade võitjad. Eesti Rahva Auhinna saaja ühisnimetaja "Inimene otsib õnne" all oli Richard Ladkani, Kief Davidsoni "Saatana kaevur" ("The Devil's Miner") : Saksamaa 2004. Peaauhinna sai Arunas Matelise "Enne maale naasmist", parim laste tehtud dokumentaaliks tunnistati Erlend E. Mo "Kas taevalaotuses võib surra?"
Lõppes Pärnu 20. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festival. Festivali grand prix - "Enne Maale naasmist", režissöör Arunas Matelis : Leedu/Saksamaa, Eesti Rahva Auhinna saaja ühisnimetaja "Inimene otsib õnne" all "Saatana kaevur", režissöörid Richard Ladkan, Kief Davidson : Saksamaa 2004. Lisaks "XX Pärnu filmifestivali võitjad"
Oct 2, 2013 ... G. Siva Kumar1, K. Aruna Kumari1*, Ch. V. Durga Rani1, R. M. Sundaram2, S. Vanisree3, Md. ..... review by Jena and Mackill (2008) provided the list of .... repeat protein and is a member of a resistance gene cluster on rice.
Keywords. Superconducting niobium resonator; linear accelerator. Abstract. The proposed high current injector for the superconducting Linac at the InterUniversity Accelerator Centre will have several accelerating structures, including a ... Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India ...
C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ particle size) with mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer (pH 9.2) in the ... which is very effective for the relief of pain and fever. ..... Uttam DP, Abhijit VN, Aruna VS, Tirumal AD, Kiran. VM.
Fellow Profile. Elected: 2017 Section: General Biology. Sengupta, Dr Sagar Ph.D. (IISc), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 23 June 1968. Specialization: Cancer Biology, Cell Signalling, Mytochondrial Biology Address: National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2670 3786
Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-
10nda Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali võidufilm EurAasia võistluskavas oli žürii (esinaine India filmiuurija Aruna Vasudev) hinnangul "TumeSininePeaaeguMust", režissöör Daniel Sanchez Arevalo : Hispaania 2006. Parima Eesti filmi au sai Veiko Õunpuu "Tühirand". Žüriiliikmete arvamusi filmide kohta. Lisatud nimekiri "Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali auhinnad"
Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-
10nda Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali võidufilm EurAasia võistluskavas oli žürii (esinaine India filmiuurija Aruna Vasudev) hinnangul "TumeSininePeaaeguMust", režissöör Daniel Sanchez Arevalo : Hispaania 2006. Parima Eesti filmi au sai Veiko Õunpuu "Tühirand". Žüriiliikmete arvamusi filmide kohta. Lisatud nimekiri "Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali auhinnad"
Cannes'i 58. filmifestival toimub 11.-22. maini. Võistluskavast, esilinastustest (George Lucas'e "Tähesõdade" värske osa) ja žüriist, mida juhib Emir Kusturica. "Režissööride kahe nädala" kavas on ka leedulase Šarunas Bartase "Seitse nähtamatut meest". Võistluskava 20 filmi hulgas pole dokumentaal- ja animafilme
Filmid ja nende kostüümikunstnikud, kes on mõjutanud rõivamoodi : "Barbarella" (1968), kostüümikunstnikud Jacques Fonteray ja Paco Rabanne; "Blade Runner" (1982), kunstnikud Charles Knode ja Michael Kaplan; "Matrix" ja selle järjed (1999, 2003), kostüümidisainer Kym Barrett; "Star Wars" ja selle järjed (1977, 1980, 1983, 1999, 2002, 2005), kunstnik John Mollo, hiljem Trisha Biggar; "Aeon Flux" (2005), kostüümikunstnik Beatrix Aruna Pasztor
Full Text Available Agnes Aruna John,1 Aruna Priyadharshni Subramanian,1 Muthu Vignesh Vellayappan,1 Arunpandian Balaji,1 Hemanth Mohandas,2 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan1 1IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Abstract: Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience. Keywords: neuroregeneration, neurodegeneration, nanomedical, carbon nanotube, graphene, nanodrug delivery
Shekhawat, Raghvendra Singh; Kanchan, Tanuj; Setia, Puneet; Atreya, Alok; Krishan, Kewal
The legal and moral validity of euthanasia has been questioned in different situations. In India, the status of euthanasia is no different. It was the Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug case that got significant public attention and led the Supreme Court of India to initiate detailed deliberations on the long ignored issue of euthanasia. Realising the importance of this issue and considering the ongoing and pending litigation before the different courts in this regard, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India issued a public notice on May 2016 that invited opinions from the citizens and the concerned stakeholders on the proposed draft bill entitled The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of Patients and Medical Practitioners) Bill. Globally, only a few countries have legislation with discreet and unambiguous guidelines on euthanasia. The ongoing developments have raised a hope of India getting a discreet law on euthanasia in the future.
Yuvraj Dilip Patil
Full Text Available Dying has become imposition upon humans, who seek to avoid it as they encounter the inevitably fatal aging process. After the case of Aruna Shanbag a nurse who spent 42 years in a vegetative state as a result of sexual assault, the issue of euthanasia-mercy killing gained attention. The formulation of regulatory provision for euthanasia was earlier examined in Health Ministry in th 2006 based on the 196 report of the law commission of India however; health ministry at that time had opted not to make law on it. Interestingly the health ministry has enacted bill for terminally ill patient in 2016. In this article author has discussed The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of patients and medical practitioners bill- 2016 with position in other countries.
Shekhar, Skand; Goel, Ashish
Euthanasia requests have increased as the number of debilitated patients rises in both developed and developing countries such as India due to medical, psychosocial-emotional, socioenvironmental, and existential issues amid fears of potential misuse. WORLD'S POSITION: Albania, Colombia, the Netherlands, and Switzerland permit euthanasia conditionally. Australia's legalization of euthanasia has been withdrawn. The United States permits withdrawal of life support. Mexico and Norway permit active euthanasia. INDIA'S POSITION: Following the Aruna Shanbaug case the Supreme Court granted legal sanction to passive, but not active, euthanasia that is valid till the Parliament legislates on euthanasia. HANDLING EUTHANASIA REQUESTS: Acknowledging the complexity of the problem; individualizing the palliative approach; and accepting the 'There is no alternative' or 'There is no answer' (TINA) factor.
Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Charlotte
conditions for principally biotic or abiotic iron precipitation is not well defined. An rH2 greater than 14 e.g. corresponding to an Eh a little above zero at slightly acidic pH is stated to be the best condition for biotic iron precipitation (Degremont, 1991). Abiotic iron precipitation is performed at a p...... are built with the purpose of biotic iron precipitation in order to reduce frequency of backwashing filtration systems. This is possibly due to the fact that biologically precipitated iron has a much denser structure than the corresponding abiotic precipitates (Søgaard et al. 2000). Both kinds of iron......-Peskir J. (2000) Conditions and rates of biotic and abiotic iron precipitation in selected Danish freshwater plants and microscopic analysis of precipitate morphology. Water Research, 34, 10, 2675-2682 Søgaard E.G., Aruna R., Abraham-Peskir, J. and Bender Koch, C. (2001) Conditions for iron precipitation...
Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)
Within the CTI Capacity Building Seminar for CEE/FSU Countries at 20th to 24th September, 2003 in Tutzing (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Excursion to fuel cell pilot project (Peter Fleischmann); (2) How to construct a climate change program - some basics (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The EU emissions trading directive (Felix Matthes); (4) Emissions trading - The implementation of the EU-Directive in Germany (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (5) Emissions trading from a buyer's perspective (Albrecht von Ruffer); (6) Emissions trading from a seller's perspective: Czech Republic (Toma Chmelik); (7) Discussant notes: Emissions trading (Sonja Butzengeiger); (8) Carbon finance and the world bank: Chances, experiences, lessons learned (Charlotte Streck); (9) Joint implementation: Relationship to and compatibility with the emission trading scheme (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (10) Clean development mechanism in Central Asia (Liliya Zavyalova); (11) Creating a national CDM system in Georgia (Paata Janelidze); (12) Experiences from the certification of JI/CDM projects (Michael Rumberg); (13) Discussant notes Session JI and CDM (Tiit Kallaste); (14) The EU Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources 2001/77/EC (Volkmar Lauber); (15) Amending the Renewable Energy Source Act (Thorsten Mueller); (16) The new renewables support scheme in te Czech Republic (Martin Busik); (17) Replacing nuclear energy by renewables. The case of Lithunia (Kestutis Buinevicius); (18) Renewables in the New Energy Acts of Estonia (Villu Vares); (19) Discussant notes: Session incentive schemes for renewables (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (20) Bankable energy efficiency projects - How to get energy efficiency investment financed (Petra Opitz); (21) Clear contract - clearinghouse for contracting (Ralf Goldmann); (22) CHP as an important element of a sustainable energy use in Germany (Juergen Landrebe); (23) The European CHP Directive - a step towards the smarter
Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia. Accordingly, the 241st Report of the Law Commission of India proposed a bill to permit passive euthanasia. In May 2016 the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) issued the draft bill for public comment in order to create an informed decision. The Indian people are divided on the issue of euthanasia. The majority of the scientific community welcome it, while some religious groups oppose it. Hindus, in general, express both supporting and opposing views on euthanasia, whereas, Christians and Muslims have hardened their opposition against it. The Supreme Court judgment and the Report of the Law Commission pave the way for the development of new policies pertaining to passive euthanasia by the central government of India. Once such legislation is passed, passive euthanasia may, and probably will, have an enormous impact on the cultural, political, public and medical spheres of India in the near future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sinha, Vinod K.; Basu, S.; Sarkhel, S.
In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327
Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.
Abhishek Kumar Tripathi
Full Text Available The performance of PV panel depends on the incoming sunlight on its surface. The accumulated airborne dust particles on panel surface creates a barrier in the path of sunlight and panel surface, which significantly reduces the amount of solar radiation falling on the panel surface. The present study shows a significant reduction in short circuit current and power output of PV panel due to dust deposition on its surface, whereas the reduction in open circuit voltage is not much prominent. This study has been carried in the field as well as in the laboratory. The reduction in maximum power output of PV panel for both the studies ensures a linear relation with the dust deposition on its surface. In the field study, the reduction in the power output due to 12.86gm of dust deposition on the panel surface was 43.18%, whereas in the laboratory study it was 44.75% due to 11gm of dust deposition Article History: Received July 10th 2017; Received in revised form Sept 15th 2017x; Accepted 1st Oct 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tripathi, A.K., Aruna, M. and Murthy, Ch.,S.N. (2017. Performance Evaluation of PV Panel Under Dusty Condition. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(3, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.225-233
Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin
Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21–23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9–10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). Our white paper is informed informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12–13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. Answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade because of the developments outlined in this white paper.
Full Text Available Aruna Chandran1, Sean Fitzwater1, Anjie Zhen2, Mathuram Santosham11Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease.Keywords: vaccination, mortality, rotavirus, gastroenteritis
Filho, W.L.; Mannke, F. [TuTech Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, P. (eds.) [Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos, Espoo (Finland)
Project by Film and DVD (F.-M. Chambers, F.R.G. Daniell, Sally A. Brain); (l) Raising Awareness of Climate Change: Experience in Lithuania (Arunas Bukantis, Linas Kliucininkas, Egigijus Rimkus, Elena Talockaite); (m) Linking Sustainability, Education, Communication and Climate Change - Some International Approaches and Good Practice (Walter Leal Filho, Franzisko Mannke).
Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle
Full Text Available Michael J Hall,1 Julie Innocent,2 Christina Rybak,1 Colleen Veloski,3 Walter J Scott,4 Hong Wu,5 John A Ridge,4 John P Hoffman,4 Hossein Borghaei,2 Aruna Turaka,6 Mary B Daly1 1Department of Clinical Genetics, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1 is a cancer syndrome resulting from mutations of the MEN1 gene. The syndrome is characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid and pituitary glands, and malignant tumors of the endocrine pancreas. Other manifestations include benign lipomas, angiofibromas, and carcinoid tumors commonly originating in the colon, thymus, and lung. This is the first report of MEN1 syndrome manifesting as bilateral granulosa cell ovarian tumors, and which is associated with a rare intronic mutation of the MEN1 gene. Case report: A 41-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, increasing abdominal girth, and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound demonstrated enlarged ovaries and uterine fibroids. After an exploratory laparotomy, she subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy with hysterectomy where the pathology revealed bilateral cystic granulosa cell tumors of the ovaries. Additional workup including computed tomography imaging discovered a thymic mass, which the pathology showed was malignant, along with a pancreatic mass suspicious for a neuroendocrine tumor. Hyperparathyroidism was also discovered and was found to be secondary to a parathyroid adenoma. Genetic testing revealed an exceedingly rare mutation in the MEN1 gene (c.654 + 1 G>A. Discussion: Mutations of the menin gene leading to MEN1 syndrome are classically nonsense or missense mutations producing a dysfunctional protein product. Recently, researchers described a novel mutation of MEN1 (c.654 + 1 G>A in a male proband meeting the criteria
Full Text Available Conrad Musinguzi,1 Leticia Namale,1 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,2 Aruna Dahal,1 Patricia Nahirya-Ntege,1 Adeodata Kekitiinwa1 1Directorate of Health Systems Strengthening, Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health Uganda, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62% compared with being transactional (42% or laissez-faire (14%. Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32, job satisfaction (r=0.38, and team work (r=0.48, while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21 and teamwork (r=0.18. Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized
Full Text Available - Donald F. Barr, J. Noorduyn, A critical survey of studies on the languages of Sulawesi, Leiden: KITLV Press, (Bibliographical Series 18, 1991, xiv + 245 pp., maps, index. - J. Boneschansker, H. Reenders, Alternatieve zending, Ottho Gerhard Heldring (1804-1876 en de verbreiding van het christendom in Nederlands-Indië, Kampen, 1991. - H.J.M. Claessen, Albert B. Robillard, Social change in the Pacific Islands. London & New York: Kegan Paul International. 1992, 507 pp. Maps, bibl. - Will Derks, J.J. Ras, Variation, transformation and meaning: Studies on Indonesian literatures in honour of A. Teeuw, Leiden: KITLV Press, (VKI 144, 1991, 236 pp., S.O. Robson (eds. - Will Derks, G.L. Koster, In deze tijd maar nauwelijks te vinden; De Maleise roman van hofjuffer Tamboehan, Vertaald uit het Maleis en ingeleid door G.L. Koster en H.M.J. Maier, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991, 174 pp., H.M.J. Maier (eds. - Mark Durie, C.D. Grijns, Jakarta Malay: a multi-dimensional approach to spacial variation. 2 vols., Leiden: KITLV Press, ( VKI 149, 1991. - Jan Fontein, Jan J. Boeles, The secret of Borobudur, Bangkok, privately published, 1985, 90 pp. + appendix, 29 pp. - M. Heins, L. Suryadinata, Military ascendancy and political culture: A study of Indonesia’s Golkar. Ohio: Ohio University, Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series, no.85, 1989, xiii + 223 pp. - V.J.H. Houben, Ismail Hussein, Antara dunia Melayu dengan dunia kebangsaan. Bangi: penerbit Universiti kebangsaan Malaysia 1990, 68 pp. - Victor T. King, Aruna Gopinath, Pahang 1880-1933: A political history (Monograph/Malaysian branch of the royal Asiatic society, 18. - G.J. Knaap, J. van Goor, Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, IX: 1729-1737 (Rijks Geschiedkundige publicatiën, grote serie 205. ‘s- Gravenhage: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1988, xii + 895 p. - Otto D. van den Muijzenberg, John S. Furnivall, The
Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.
service management' by Gregor v Bochmann and Abdelhakim Hafid offers lessons in QoS management learned during the implementation of a prototype News-on-Demand application. Some general principles are extracted from this experience. In particular, a novel QoS adaptation technique is highlighted: transparent automatic reconfiguration of the components involved in a communication (e.g. choice of an alternative network or server at run time). An algorithm which attempts to choose optimal configurations is discussed. `Quality of service management using generic modelling and monitoring techniques', by Leonard Franken and Boudewijn Haverkort investigates the use of Petri nets as the basis of generic QoS monitoring of distributed applications. A distributed application is exploded into finegrained component parts and interactions between these parts are instrumented. The paper offers a case study of the instrumentation of a videophone application using this technique. Simulation is used to evaluate the scheme. The final two papers in the special issue are more focused and pragmatic in nature. These papers explore QoS provision in particular environments (the World Wide Web and ATM networks respectively) through reported implementation experience. `QoS management in a World Wide Web environment which supports continuous media' by Michael Fry, Aruna Seneviratne, Andreas Vogel and Varuni Witana looks at the practical provision of end to end QoS management in the World Wide Web. The paper looks beyond currently available tools such as RealAudio and StreamWorks and presents a QoS managed RTP based solution featuring an adjunct QoS management protocol. This work offers QoS management functions (e.g. QoS negotiation, adaptation and control of QoS degradation paths) directly to the user via the usual Web GUI. `A QoS adaptive multimedia transport system: design, implementation and experiences' by Andrew Campbell and Geoff Coulson offers further practical experience of QoS management