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Sample records for keselamatan reaktor kartini

  1. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  2. REAKTOR INNOVATIVE MOLTEN SALT (IMSR DENGAN SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF MENYELURUH

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir pada masa mendatang mengarah pada peningkatan aspek keselamatan, peningkatan pendayagunaan bahan bakar, reduksi limbah radioaktif, ketahanan terhadap proliferasi bahan-bakar nuklir dan peningkatan aspek ekonomi. reaktor Innovative Molten Salt (IMSR adalah reaktor nuklir yang menggunakan bahan bakar cair berupa garam lebur fluoride (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. Reaktor IMSR didesain sebagai reaktor pembiak termal, yaitu membiakkan U-233 dari Th-232. Hal ini untuk menjawab permasalahan sustainabilitas ketersedian sumber daya bahan bakar nuklir dan reduksi limbah radioaktif. Dalam aspek keselamatan, desain reaktor IMSR memiliki sifat inherent safe, yaitu koefisien umpan balik daya yang negatif serta memiliki fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif. Fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif terdiri dari sistem shutdown pasif, sistem pendinginan pasif pasca shutdown serta sistem pendinginan pasif untuk produk fisi. Kecelakaan yang berpotensi terjadi pada IMSR, yaitu kecelakaan kehilangan aliran bahan bakar, kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin, kecelakaan kehilangan kemampuan pengambilan kalor serta kecelakaan kerusakan integritas sistem reaktor, dapat ditangani sepenuhnya secara pasif hingga mencapai kondisi shutdown selamat. Kata kunci: keselamatan pasif, inherent safe, IMSR   The next Nuclear Reactor Technology developments are directed to the increasing of the aspects of safety, fuel utility, radioactive waste reduction, proliferation retention and economy. Innovative Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR is a nuclear reactor design that uses fluoride molten salt (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. IMSR is designed as a thermal breeder reactor, i.e. to produce U-233 from Th-232. This is the answer of natural nuclear fuel sustainability and radioactive waste problems. In term of safety aspect, IMSR design has inherent safe characteristics, i.e. negative power feedback coefficient, and passive safety features. The passive safety features are passive shutdown

  3. PENINGKATAN KINERJA SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF PADA REAKTOR NUKLIR DENGAN PENAMBAHAN KOMPONEN RVACS

    A. G. Abdullah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelengkapan sistem keselamatan pasif dan inheren pada reaktor lanjut merupakan prasyarat utama. Makalah ini mengeksplorasi hasil desain konseptual sistem pembuang sisa panas pada pusat listrik tenaga nuklir berjenis Very High-Temperature Reactor. Tujuan riset ini untuk merancang sistem pembuang sisa panas pusat listrik tenaga nuklir yang terdapat pada dinding reaktor. Studi kinerja Reactor Vessel Auxliary Cooling System (RVACS dilakukan pada dua jenis pendingin yaitu Timbal-Bismut dan Liquid Salt. Panas dari dinding reaktor dihapus melalui sirkulasi alamiah pada keadaan tunak. Analisis melibatkan sistem perpindahan panas secara radiasi, konduksi dan konveksi alami. Perhitungan perpindahan panas dilakukan pada elemen reaktor vessel, dinding luar guard vessel, dan pelat pemisah. Hasil analisis kecelakaan menunjukkan kedua jenis sistem pendingin reaktor dan sistem pasif sisa pembuangan panas cukup menghapus sisa panas hasil peluruhan dengan sirkulasi alami.ABSTRACTCompleteness of passive safety systems and inherent in advanced reactors is a major prerequisite. This paper explores the results of a conceptual design of the heat removal system at the nuclear power plant (NPP type Very High-Temperature Reactor. The purpose of this research was to design the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS of NPP located within the reactor walls. The RVACS performance study was conducted on two types of coolant: Lead-Bismuth and Liquid Salt. Heat was removed from the reactor vessel through the natural circulation in the steady state. Analyses of heat transfer systems involved radiation, conduction and natural convection. Heat transfer calculations were performed on the reactor vessel, guard vessel, and perforated plate. The results from the accident analysis showed that both types, the reactor coolant system and the passive residual heat removal system, adequately remove remaining heat of the decay by a natural circulation.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL UNTUK SIMULASI KESELAMATAN REAKTOR PWR 1000 MWe GENERASI III+ MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM KOMPUTER RELAP5

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reaktor daya PWR AP1000 yang didesain oleh Westinghouse adalah reaktor Generasi III+ pertama yang telah menerima persetujuan desain dari U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC. Saat ini utilitas China telah memulai pembangunan beberapa unit AP1000 di dua tapak terpilih untuk rencana operasi pada 2013-2015. AP1000 sebagai desain PWR berdasarkan teknologi teruji dari desain PWR lainnya yang dibuat oleh Westinghouse dengan penguatan pada sistem keselamatan pasif dengan demikian dapat dipertimbangkan untuk dibangun di Indonesia bila mengacu pada persyaratan pada PP 43/2006 mengenai Perijinan Reaktor Nuklir. Namun demikian, desain tersebut perlu diverifikasi oleh Technical Support Organization (TSO independen sebelum dapat dibangun di Indonesia. Verifikasi dapat dilakukan menggunakan paket program RELAP5 dalam bentuk analisis kecelakaan. Selama ini analisis kecelakaan PLTN dilakukan untuk tipe PWR 1000 MWe dari generasi II atau tipe konvensional. Mengingat saat ini referensi yang menggambarkan teknologi AP1000 yang menyertakan teknologi keselamatan pasif sudah tersedia maka dilakukan kegiatan pemodelan yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk melakukan analisis kecelakaan. Metode pengembangan model mengacu pada pedoman IAEA yang terdiri dari pengumpulan data instalasi, pengembangan engineering data dan penyusunan input deck, verifikasi dan validasi data input. Model yang berhasil dikembangkan secara umum telah mewakili sistem AP1000 secara keseluruhan dan dianggap sebagai model dasar. Model tersebut telah diverifikasi dan divalidasi dengan data desain yang terdapat pada referensi dimana respon parameter termohidraulika menunjukkan perbedaan hasil ± 3% selain untuk parameter penurunan tekanan teras yang lebih rendah 13%. Sebagai model dasar, input deck yang diperoleh dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut dengan mengintegrasikan pemodelan sistem keselamatan, sistem proteksi, dan sistem kendali yang spesifik AP1000 untuk keperluan simulasi keselamatan yang lebih

  5. PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Bemby Yulio Vallenry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5. MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (Фepi > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (Ḋf/Фepi 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu Фepi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, Ḋf/Фepi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, Ḋγ/Фepi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, Фth/Фepi = 1,51 dan J/Фepi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA. Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator   One of the cancer therapy methods is

  6. Preliminary studi on neutronic aspect of a conceptual design of the Kartini reactor base ADS facility

    Tegas Sutondo

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study on neutronic aspect of a conceptual design of ADS facility with the basis of Kartini Reaktor, has been performed. The study was intended to see the feasibility from neutronic point of view of Kartini reactor, to be used as a small scale of NPP’s waste transmutation experimental facility. A SRAC code was used as the basis of calculations. The results indicate that the presence of minor actinides (MA) will give a positive reactivity, which tends to increase with the increase of MA concentrations. Based on the defined criteria of subcriticality and by considering the core power distributions and the level of reactivity contribution of MA element, it is concluded that Kartini reactor is potential enough to be used as an ADS experimental facility, mainly for MA concentration between 30 to 50 % of the assumed mixture of C-MA matrix. (author)

  7. ANALISIS PENGARUH DENSITAS BAHAN BAKAR SILISIDA TERHADAP PARAMETER KINETIK TERAS REAKTOR RSG-GAS

    Tukiran s

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini RSG-GAS menggunakan elemen bakar silisida 2,96 g U/cc. Untuk meningkatkan waktu operasi reaktor maka akan direncanakan untuk mengganti elemen bakar silisida dengan kerapatan yang lebih tinggi. Keuntungan reaktor dengan bahan bakar kerapatan tinggi adalah dapat lebih efektif dan efisien. Maka perlu dilakukan perhitungan parameter kinetik teras silisida kerapatan tinggi mengingat pengaruhnya sangat penting untuk keselamatan operasi reaktor. Parameter kinetik yang dihitung yaitu fraksi neutron kasip efektif, konstanta peluruhan neutron kasip, umur neutron serempak yang merupakan faktor utama dalam kontrol dan keselamatan. Bahan bakar silisida tipe pelat dengan densitas 2,96 - 4,8 gU/cm3 digunakan pada teras RSG-GAS untuk menganalisis perhitungan parameter kinetik. Perhitungan sel dilakukan dengan paket program WIMSD-5B dan paket program Batan-2DIFF digunakan untuk perhitungan teras. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa harga fraksi neutron kasip turun dengan naiknya densitas bahan bakar. Turunnya nilai parameter kinetik ini tidak mengganggu pergantian bahan bakar ke densitas yang lebih tinggi. Turunnya nilai parameter kinetik rata-rata dari densitas 2,96 gU/cm3 ke 3,55 gU/cm3 adalah 1,3 % sedangkan dari densitas 2,96 gU/cm3 ke 4,8 gU/cm3 adalah 2,2 % . Sehingga jika dilakukan pergantian bahan bakar maka ditinjau dari segi neutronik dan parameter kinetiknya tidak akan mengalami perubahan dalam pola operasi reaktor atau manajemen bahan bakar dan tidak akan berpengaruh terhadap keselamatan operasi reaktor.

  8. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN DAYA REAKTOR PCMSR DENGAN LAJU ALIR PENDINGIN

    Iqbal Syafin Noha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari Molten Salt Reactor (MSR yang memiliki karakter berbeda dengan lima reaktor generasi IV lainnya, yaitu menggunakan bahan bakar leburan garam. Pada reaktor MSR, garam lebur tidak digunakan sebagai pendingin tetapi digunakan sebagai medium pembawa bahan bakar. Dengan fase bahan bakar yang berupa garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, maka dapat dilakukan pengendalian daya dengan mengatur laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan laju alir pendingin terhadap daya reaktor PCMSR. Analisis dilakukan dengan empat jenis masukan untuk perubahan laju alir pendingin, yaitu masukan step, ramp, eksponensial, dan sinusoidal. Untuk masukan step, laju alir pendingin dibuat berubah secara mendadak. Selanjutnya untuk masukan ramp dan eksponensal, perubahan laju alir masing-masing dibuat perlahan secara linear dan mengikuti fungsi eksponensial. Kemudian untuk masukan sinusoidal, laju alir berubah naik turun secara periodik dengan memvariasikan frekuensi dari perubahan laju alir tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju alir pendingin sebesar 50% dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada reaktor PCMSR turun sebesar 63% dari daya sebelumnya. Jika terjadi fluktuasi laju aliran pendingin, maka semakin cepat perubahan tersebut, maka respon daya yang diberikan semakin kecil. Pada frekuensi yang sangat cepat, daya reaktor menjadi konstan dan cenderung tidak memiliki respon terhadap laju aliran. Hal ini merupakan salah satu aspek keselamatan reaktor, karena reaktor tidak merespon perubahan yang terlalu cepat. Kemampuan reaktor mengatur daya menyesuaikan laju aliran pendingin merupakan aspek keselamatan lainnya. Kata kunci : PCMSR, pengendalian daya, laju alir pendingin, uji respon   Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR is the development of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR which has different character from other five

  9. PSA LEVEL 3 DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA PADA KAJIAN KESELAMATAN PWR

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kajian keselamatan PLTN menggunakan metodologi kajian probabilistik sangat penting selain kajian deterministik. Metodologi kajian menggunakan Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA Level 3 diperlukan terutama untuk estimasi kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Metode ini banyak dilakukan setelah kejadian kecelakaan Fukushima. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan implementasi PSA Level 3 pada kajian keselamatan PWR, postulasi kecelakan luar dasar desain PWR AP-1000 dan disimulasikan di contoh tapak Bangka Barat. Rangkaian perhitungan yang dilakukan adalah: menghitung suku sumber dari kegagalan teras yang terjadi, pemodelan kondisi meteorologi tapak dan lingkungan, pemodelan jalur paparan, analisis dispersi radionuklida dan transportasi fenomena di lingkungan, analisis deposisi radionuklida, analisis dosis radiasi, analisis perlindungan & mitigasi, dan analisis risiko. Kajian menggunakan rangkaian subsistem pada perangkat lunak PC Cosyma. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa implementasi metode kajian keselamatan PSA Level 3 sangat efektif dan komprehensif terhadap estimasi dampak, konsekuensi, risiko, kesiapsiagaan kedaruratan nuklir (nuclear emergency preparedness, dan manajemen kecelakaan reaktor terutama untuk kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Hasil kajian dapat digunakan sebagai umpan balik untuk kajian keselamatan PSA Level 1 dan PSA Level 2. Kata kunci: PSA level 3, kecelakaan, PWR   Reactor safety assessment of nuclear power plants using probabilistic assessment methodology is most important in addition to the deterministic assessment. The methodology of Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is especially required to estimate severe accident or beyond design basis accidents of nuclear power plants. This method is carried out after the Fukushima accident. In this research, the postulations beyond design basis accidentsof PWR AP - 1000 would be taken, and simulated at West Bangka sample site. The

  10. ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA. Kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kehilangan pendingin (loss of coolant accident / LOCA dari sistem reaktor merupakan kejadian dasar desain yang tetap diantisipasi dalam desain reaktor daya yang mengadopsi teknologi Generasi II hingga IV. LOCA ukuran kecil (small break LOCA memiliki dampak yang lebih signifikan terhadap keselamatan dibandingkan LOCA ukuran besar (large break LOCA seperti terlihat pada kejadian Three-Mile Island (TMI. Fokus makalah adalah pada analisis small break LOCA pada reaktor daya maju Generasi III+ yaitu AP1000 dengan mensimulasikan tiga kejadian pemicu yaitu membukanya katup Automatic Depressurization System (ADS secara tak disengaja, putusnya salah satu pipa Direct Vessel Injection (DVI secara double-ended, dan putusnya pipa lengan dingin dengan diameter bocoran 10 inci. Metode yang digunakan adalah simulasi kejadian pada model AP1000 yang dikembangkan secara mandiri menggunakan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4. Dampak yang ingin dilihat adalah kondisi teras selama terjadinya small break LOCA yang terdiri dari pembentukan mixture level dan transien temperatur kelongsong bahan bakar. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa mixture level untuk semua kejadian small break LOCA berada di atas tinggi teras aktif yang menunjukkan tidak terjadinya core uncovery. Adanya mixture level berpengaruh pada transien temperatur kelongsong yang menurun dan menunjukkan pendinginan bahan bakar yang efektif. Hasil di atas juga identik dengan hasil perhitungan program lain yaitu NOTRUMP. Keefektifan pendinginan teras juga disebabkan oleh berfungsinya injeksi pendingin melalui fitur keselamatan pasif yang menjadi ciri reaktor daya AP1000. Secara keseluruhan, hasil analisis menunjukkan model AP1000 yang telah dikembangkan dengan RELAP5 dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis kecelakaan dasar desain pada reaktor daya maju AP1000. Kata kunci: analisis

  11. ANALISIS POLA MANAJEMEN BAHAN BAKAR DESAIN TERAS REAKTOR RISET TIPE MTR

    Lily Suparlina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parameter neutronik dibutuhkan dalam mendesain teras reaktor riset. Reaktor riset jenis MTR (Material Testing Reactor sangat diminati karena dapat digunakan baik untuk riset dan juga produksi radio isotop. Reaktor riset yang ada saat ini sudah tua sehingga dibutuhkan desain reaktor yang mempunyai teras kompak. Desain teras reaktor riset yang sudah ada saat ini belum cukup memadai untuk memenuhi persyaratan di dalam UCD yang telah ditetapkan yaitu fluks neutron termal di teras 1x1015 n/cm2s, oleh karena itu perlu dibuat desain teras reaktor baru sebagai alternatif yang kompak dan dapat menghasilkan fluks neutron tinggi. Telah dilakukan perhitungan dan analisis terhadap manajemen bahan bakar desain teras kompak dengan konfigurasi teras 5x5, berbahan bakar U9Mo-Al dan tinggi teras aktif 70 cm. Tujuan dari riset ini untuk memperoleh fluks neutron di teras memenuhi kebutuhan seperti yang telah ditetapkan di UCD dengan panjang siklus operasi minimum 20 hari pada daya 50 MW. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan menggunakan paket program komputer WIMSD-5B untuk menggenerasi tampang lintang makroskopik bahan bakar dan Batan-FUEL untuk memperoleh nilai parameter neutronik serta Batan-3DIFF untuk perhitungan nilai reaktivitas batang kendali. Perhitungan parameter neutronik teras reaktor riset ini dilakukan untuk bahan bakar U-9Mo-Al dengan tingkat muat bervariasi dan 2 macam pola pergantian bahan bakar yaitu teras segar dan teras setimbang. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pada teras segar, tingkat muat 235U sebesar 360 gram, 390 gram dan 450 gram memenuhi kriteria keselamatan dan kriteria penerimaan di UCD dengan nilai fluks neutron termal di teras lebih dari 1x1015 n/cm2s dan panjang siklus >20 hari, sedangkan pada teras setimbang panjang siklus dapat terpenuhi hanya untuk tingkat muat 450 gram. Kata kunci: desain teras reaktor, bahan bakar UMo, pola bahan bakar, WIMS, BATAN-FUEL   Research reactor core design needs neutronics parameter calculation use computer

  12. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Tjiptono, Tri Wulan; Syarip,

    1998-10-01

    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  13. Disain Sistem Pemantauan Lingkungan Untuk Evaluasi Lepasan Radionuklida dari Subsistem pada Kecelakaan Reaktor Daya PWR

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PLTN. (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir sebagai sumber energi baru dipilih sebagai alternatif, karena memiliki berbagai kelebihan yaitu ramah lingkungan, pasokan bahan bakar yang tidak bergantung musim, serta harganya yang dapat bersaing dengan pembangkit listrik yang lain. Namun demikian, adanya keraguan sebagian masyarakat tentang keselamatan radiasi PLTN, maka pemerintah harus bisa meyakinkan tentang operasi PLTN yang aman dan selamat. Penelitian tentang disain sistem pemantauan lingkungan untuk evaluasi lepasan radionuklida dari subsistem reaktor dan lingkungan akibat terjadinya kecelakaan pada reaktor daya telah dilakukan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan perhitungan sebaran radionuklida ke subsistem dan lingkungan serta membuat sistim monitoring radiasi di lingkungan. Sistem monitoring lingkungan terdiri dari system pencacah radiasi, sistem peringatan dini, sistem pengukuran meteorologi, sistem GPS dan system GIS. Sistem pencacah radiasi digunakan untuk mencatat data radiasi, sistem pengukuran meteorologi digunakan untuk mencatat data arah dan kecepatan angin, sedangkan sistem GPS digunakan untuk menentukan data posisi pengukuran. Data tersebut kemudian dikirimkan ke system akuisisi data untuk ditransmisikan ke pusat kendali. Pengumpulan dan pengiriman data dilakukan melalui SMS menggunakan perangkat modem yang ditempatkan di ruang kendali. Ruang kendali menerima data dari berbagai tempat pengukuran. Dalam hal ini ruang kendali memiliki fungsi sebagai SMS gateway. Sistem ini dapat memvisualisasi untuk lokasi pengukuran yang berbeda. Selanjutnya, data posisi dan data radiasi diintegrasikan dengan peta digital. Integrasi sistem tersebut kemudian divisualisasikan dalam personal komputer. Untuk posisi pengukuran terlihat langsung di peta dan untuk data radiasi ditampilkan di monitor dengan tanda lingkaran merah atau hijau yang digunakan sebagai pemonitor batas aman radiasi. Bila tanda lingkaran berwarna merah maka akan menyalakan alarm di

  14. Design of Kartini reactor radiation monitor system using lab view

    Adi Abimanyu; Jumari; Achmad Fahrul Aji; Muhammad Khoiri

    2014-01-01

    Kartini Reactor operation will result in radiation exposure. Gamma radiation exposure rate at the Kartini Reactor monitored by several radiation monitors (Ludlum) that integrate with the computer, so that the rate of radiation exposure is always monitored. Current monitoring system combines six radiation monitor in one computer monitor radiation, and monitoring performed by operators and supervisors to see how the radiation exposure rate measured in the area around the reactor core in a periodic time manually. This research will develop a system to monitor radiation exposure in Kartini reactor based ATMega8 micro controller for interface between radiation monitor and computer and also Graphical User Interface (GUI) develop using Lab view software that makes monitoring is easier and documented regularly. This system is testing by simulation, it is done by replacing the function of the radiation monitoring devices (Ludlum) in Kartini Reactor with computers that send serial data with the same format with a format that is sent by Ludlum. The results show that the interface system has the ability to operate in a range of baud rate 1,200 bps, 2,400 bps, 4,800 bps, 9,600 bps, 14,400 bps, 19,200 bps and 38,400 bps, with the ability to provide realtime information every 6 seconds and able to document the rate of exposure to radiation in the form of logbook. (author)

  15. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  16. Safety culture and quality management of Kartini research reactor

    Syarip [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Hauptmanns, Ulrich [Department of Plant Design and Safety, Otto-Von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation for assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is presented. The method is based on the concept of management control of safety (audit) as well as by using the developed method i.e. the questionnaires concerning areas of relevance which have to be answered with value statements. There are seven statements or qualifiers in answering the questions. Since such statements are vague, they are represented by fuzzy numbers. The weaknesses can be identified from the different areas contemplated. The evaluation result show that the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is globally rated as 'Average'. The operator behavior in the implementation of 'safety culture' concept is found as a weakness, therefore this area should be improved. (author)

  17. Safety culture and quality management of Kartini research reactor

    Syarip; Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation for assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is presented. The method is based on the concept of management control of safety (audit) as well as by using the developed method i.e. the questionnaires concerning areas of relevance which have to be answered with value statements. There are seven statements or qualifiers in answering the questions. Since such statements are vague, they are represented by fuzzy numbers. The weaknesses can be identified from the different areas contemplated. The evaluation result show that the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is globally rated as 'Average'. The operator behavior in the implementation of 'safety culture' concept is found as a weakness, therefore this area should be improved. (author)

  18. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI ZrO2 TERHADAP KORELASI PERPINDAHAN PANAS NANOFLUIDA AIR-ZrO2 UNTUK PENDINGIN REAKTOR

    K.A. Sudjatmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan perkembangan konsep keselamatan pasif pada sistem keselamatan PLTN, maka sistem perpindahan panas konveksi alam memegang peranan penting. Pemakaian nanofluid sebagai fluida pendingin pada sistem keselamatan nuklir dapat digunakan pada Sistem Pendingin Teras Darurat dan Sistem Pendingin Pengungkung Luar Reaktor. Beberapa peneliti telah melakukan studi desain konseptual aplikasi nanofluid untuk meningkatkan keselamatan AP1000 dan sistem pendingin teras darurat pada reaktor daya eksperimen. Penerapan nanofluida juga mulai dikembangkan melalui hasil penelitian perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah pada sub-buluh dengan nanofluida sebagai fluida kerjanya sangat dibutuhkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh perubahan konsentrasi ZrO2 terhadap korelasi perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah dengan pendekatan eksperimental. Data eksperimental yang diperoleh digunakan untuk mengembangkan korelasi umum empirik perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah. Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan alat uji sub-buluh vertikal dengan geometri segitiga dan segiempat menggunakan air dan nanofluida air-ZrO2 sebagai fluida kerjanya. Konsentrasi nanopartikel dalam larutan yang digunakan sebesar 0,05 %, 0,10% dan 0,15 % dalam persen berat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa untuk bilangan Rayleigh yang sama, kemampuan pemindahan kalor oleh nanofluida air-ZrO2 lebih baik dari pada pemindahan kalor oleh air. Namun peningkatan konsentrasi nanofluida tidak selalu mendapatkan kemampuan pemindahan kalor yang lebih baik. Kata kunci: nanofluida air-ZrO2, konveksi alamiah, sub-buluh segitiga, sub-buluh segi segiempat   In line with the development of the passive safety concept for the safety systems of nuclear power plants, the natural convection heat transfer system plays an important role. The nanofluid as coolant fluid on nuclear safety system can be used in Emergency core cooling system and in reactor coolant system confinement. Several researchers have

  19. PEMODELAN TERAS UNTUK ANALISIS PERHITUNGAN KONSTANTA MULTIPLIKASI REAKTOR HTR-PROTEUS

    Zuhair Zuhair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PTRKN sebagai salah satu unit kerja di BATAN dengan tugas pokok dan fungsi yang berkaitan erat dengan teknologi reaktor dan keselamatan nuklir, menaruh perhatian khusus pada konsep reaktor pebble bed. Dalam makalah ini pemodelan reaktor pebble bed HTR-PROTEUS dilakukan dengan program transport Monte Carlo MCNP5. Partikel bahan bakar berlapis TRISO dimodelkan secara detail dan eksak dimana distribusi acak partikel ini dalam bola bahan bakar didekati menggunakan array teratur kisi SC dengan fraksi packing 5,76% tanpa zona eksklusif. Model teras pebble bed didekati dengan memanfaatkan kisi teratur dari bola yang disusun sebagai kisi BCC berdasarkan sel berulang yang digenerasi dari sejumlah sel satuan. Hasil perhitungan MCNP5 memperlihatkan kesesuaian yang sangat baik dengan eksperimen, walaupun teras HTR-PROTEUS diprediksi lebih reaktif daripada pengukuran, khususnya di teras 4.2 dan 4.3. Pustaka ENDF/B-VI menunjukkan konsistensi dengan estimasi keff paling akurat dibandingkan pustaka ENDF/B-V, terutama ENDF/B-VI (66c. Deviasi estimasi keff yang dihitung dengan eksperimen dikaitkan sebagai konsekuensi dari komposisi reflektor grafit yang dispesifikasikan. Komparasi yang dibuat memperlihatkan bahwa MCNP5 menghasilkan keff teras HTR-PROTEUS lebih presisi daripada hasil dari MCNP4B dan MCNPBALL. Hasil ini menyimpulkan bahwa, sukses metodologi pemodelan ini menjustifikasi aplikasi MCNP5 untuk analisis reaktor pebble bed lainnya. Kata kunci: pemodelan teras HTR-PROTEUS, konstanta multiplikasi, MCNP5   PTRKN as a working unit in BATAN whose main duties and functions are related to reactor technology and nuclear safety, consern attention to pebble bed reactor concept. In this paper modeling of HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed reactor was done using Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5. The TRISO coated fuel particle is modeled in detailed and exact manner where random distributions of these particles in fuel pebble is approximated by using regular array of SC lattice

  20. Sistem Peresapan Elektronik pada Keselamatan Pengobatan Pasien

    Al Asyary

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dalam banyak penerapannya, penggunaan sistem peresepan elektronik (computerized physician order entry, CPOE dalam penulisan resep terbukti mampu menurunkan angka kesalahan peresepan obat (adverse drug event, ADE. Kesalahan pengobatan seperti kekeliruan penulisan nama obat, penentuan dosis, dan penggunaan jenis obat yang tepat untuk pasien dengan kondisi kesehatan tertentu di pelayanan kesehatan dapat ditekan. Namun, CPOE masih memiliki kelemahan seperti tambahan waktu untuk mengentri data pasien oleh para dokter ke dalam sistem. Untuk meng- evaluasi dampak persepsi pengguna tentang penerapan CPOE terhadap keselamatan pengobatan pasien, suatu penelitian kualitatif telah dilakukan di Gadjah Mada Medical Health Center yang telah mengadopsi sistem ini selama sepuluh tahun. Data dan informasi dikumpukan dengan wawancara mendalam terhadap sembilan dokter (tujuh dokter umum dan dua dokter spesialis sebagai informen pengguna CPOE menggunakan pedoman wawancara, alat perekam suara, buku catat, dan daftar centang observasi. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa sepuluh tahun CPOE telah mampu meningkatkan efektivitas dan efisiensi pelayanan kesehatan, tetapi poten- si ADE masih terjadi akibat gangguan komunikasi pasien-dokter karena perlunya waktu tambahan untuk entri data. Disimpulkan bahwa sistem CPOE belum mampu mendukung pengambilan keputusan untuk mencegah ADE dalam pengobatan pasien. In most of its applications, Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE has been improved patient safety by reducing medication errors and subse- quent adverse drug events (ADEs. Medication error such as elixir in writing, determination of dose, and correct drug type used for patient with certain health condition in health services can be reduced. But, the CPOE still has some weknesses such as additional time to entry the patient information by physician to the sistem. To evaluate the impact of end-user perception using CPOE sistem on patient safety medication, a qualitative

  1. Design Engineering of Safety Parameter Display for Kartini Reactor

    Yoyok Dwi Setyo Pambudi; Suharyo Widagdo; Aliq Zuhdi; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    Modification information parameter of Reactor Kartini has been conducted. This program use compiler LabView 5.0 that compatible and relevant with National Instrument card. These card mostly use in reactor instrumentation and industry. The information that been display is control rod position, fuel temperature, and water pH. The development in this research is control rod figure that can move up and down as the output from reactor power. Beside this is a module-module security figure that can light if there is a warning signal. Maximum high of control rod is 100 cm. (author)

  2. ANALISIS DESAIN PROSES SISTEM PENDINGIN PADA REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF 50 MW

    Sukmanto Dibyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaktor Riset Inovatif (RRI merupakan jenis MTR (Material Testing Reactor yang dipersiapkan ke depan sebagai desain reaktor baru. Daya RRI telah ditetapkan dari perhitungan neutronik dan termohidrolika teras yaitu 50 MW termal. Reaktor bertekanan 8 kgf/cm2 dan laju aliran massa pendingin primer 900 kg/s. Tantangan yang penting dalam menindak lanjuti desain reaktor ini adalah analisis desain pada sistem pendingin. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis desain proses sistem pendingin utama reaktor RRI daya 50 MW (RRI-50 dengan menggunakan program Chemcad 6.1.4. Dalam analisis ini dilakukan perhitungan neraca massa dan energi (mass/energy balances pada sistem pendingin primer dan sekunder sebagai pendingin utama. Masing-masing sistem pendingin tersebut terdiri dari 2 jalur beroperasi secara paralel dan 1 jalur redundansi. Disamping itu untuk desain termal unit komponen telah dianalisis dengan program RELAP5, frenchcreek dan Metoda Analitik. Hasil analisis yang diperoleh adalah desain diagram sistem pendingin yang mencakup data parameter entalpi, temperatur, tekanan dan laju aliran massa pendingin untuk masing-masing jalur. Adapun hasil desain unit komponen utama pada RRI-50 adalah tangki tunda dengan volume 51,5 m3, 2 unit pompa sentrifugal dan 1 unit pompa cadangan pada pendingin primer daya 141 kW/pompa dan pendingin sekunder daya 206 kW/pompa, 2 unit penukar panas tipe shell-tube dengan koefisien termal overall 1377 W/m2.oC dan 4 unit menara pendingin yang mampu melepaskan panas ke udara dengan desain temperatur approach 5,0 oC dan temperatur range 9,0 oC. Desain sistem pendingin reaktor RRI-50 ini telah menetapkan parameter operasi sistem pendingin yaitu temperatur, tekanan dan laju aliran massa pendingin dengan mempertimbangkan tuntutan aspek keselamatan teras reaktor sehingga desain temperatur maksimum pendingin masuk ke teras 44,5 oC. Kata kunci : RRI 50 MW, desain sistem pendingin, program Chemcad 6.1.4   Innovative Research Reactor RRI

  3. Kartini Research Reactor prospective studies for neutron scattering application

    Widarto

    1999-01-01

    The Kartini Research Reactor (KRR) is located in Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta - Indonesia. The reactor is operated for 100 kW thermal power used for research, experiments and training of nuclear technology. There are 4 beam ports and 1 column thermal are available at the reactor. Those beam ports have thermal neutron flux around 10 7 n/cm 2 s each other and used for sub critical assembly, neutron radiography studies and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Design of neutron collimator has been done for piercing radial beam port and the calculation result of collimated neutron flux is around 10 9 n/cm 2 s. This paper describes experiment facilities and parameters of the Kartini research reactor, and further more the prospective studies for neutron scattering application. The purpose of this paper is to optimize in utilization of the beam ports facilities and enhance the manpower specialty. The special characteristic of the beam ports and preliminary studies, pre activities regarding with neutron scattering studies for KKR is presented. (author)

  4. The Calculation Of Total Radioactivity Of Kartini Reactor Fuel Element

    Budisantoso, Edi Trijono; Sardjono, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The total radioactivity of Kartini reactor fuel element has been calculated by using ORIGEN2. In this case, the total radioactivity is the sum of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactivity from activation products nuclides, actinide nuclides and fission products nuclides in the fuel element. The calculation was based on irradiation history of fuel in the reactor core. The fuel element no 3203 has location history at D, E, and F core zone. The result is expressed in graphics form of total radioactivity and photon radiations as function of irradiation time and decay time. It can be concluded that the Kartini reactor fuel element in zone D, E, and F has total radioactivity range from 10 Curie to 3000 Curie. This range is for radioactivity after decaying for 84 days and that after reactor shut down. This radioactivity is happened in the fuel element for every reactor operation and decayed until the fuel burn up reach 39.31 MWh. The total radioactivity emitted photon at the power of 0.02 Watt until 10 Watt

  5. The Expert System For Safety Assesment Of Kartini Reactor Operation And Maintenance

    Syarip

    2000-01-01

    An expert system for safety assessment of Kartini reactor operation and maintenance based on fuzzy logic method has been made. The expert system is developed from the Fuzzy Expert System Tools (FEST), i.e. by developing the knowledge base and data base files of Kartini research reactor system and operations with an inference engine based on FEST. The knowledge base is represented in the procedural knowledge as heuristic rules or generally known as rule-base in the from of If-then rule. The fuzzy inference process and the conclusion of the rule is done by FEST based on direct chaining method with interactive as well as non-interactive modes. The safety assessment of Kartini reactor based on this method gives more realistic value than the conventional method or binary logic

  6. Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area

    Yazid, M; Sutrisno; Sukarman-Aminjoyo; Zaenal-Abidin

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area has been done. The aim of this investigation is for tracing the possibility of radioactivity released in the environment during the operation of Kartini reactor. The data was evaluated were monthly monitored data taken from 1986 to 1994 period. The method of analysis was done by comparing the environmental radioactivity data before and after reactor commissioning, off side the reactor up to a radius of 5.000 meters and more than 5.000 meters from Kartini reactor and also compared to the maximum permissible radioactivity according to the current regulation. This evaluation showed that there was no indication of radioactivity release to the environment during this period of reactor operation

  7. REPRESENTASI NILAI-NILAI AL QURAN DALAM NOVEL KARTINI KARYA ABIDAH EL KHALIEQY

    Haniah Haniah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji nilai-nilai al quran yang ada di dalam novel Kartini karya Abidah El Khalieqy. Pengkajian ini didasari karena terdegradasinya moral generasi saat ini. Penurunan kualitas moral tersebut dilatarbelakangi oleh lemahnya keimanan di dalam diri seiring arus globalisasi yang tidak terbendung lagi. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif. Peneliti akan mendeskripsikan hasil penelitian dengan rinci. Sumber data dari penelitian ini adalah novel Kartini karya Abidah El Khalieqy, sedangkan datanya adalah kutipan-kutipan teks di dalam novel yang mencerinkan nilai-nilai al quran.  Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis interaktif yang dikembangkan oleh Miles dan Huberman. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa nilai-nilai al quran yang tercermin di dalam novel Kartini di antaranya kewajiban membaca, mencintai al quran, berbakti kepada orang tua, berserah diri kepada Allah, beribadah sebaik-baiknya, dan keutamaan menjadi orang yang berilmu.

  8. A CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF NEUTRON COLLIMATOR IN THE THERMAL COLUMN OF KARTINI RESEARCH REACTOR FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TEST OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

    Nina Fauziah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for IN VITRO and IN VIVO of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT at the Kartini research reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. The design criteria were based on recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni as collimator wall, 60 cm thick of Al as moderator, 15 cm thick of 60Ni as filter, 2 cm thick of Bi as γ-ray shielding, 3 cm thick of 6Li2CO3-polyethylene as beam delimiter, with 1 to 5 cm varied aperture size, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 7.65 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 1.76 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1 and 1.32 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.008, and maximum directionality of 0.73. It did not fully pass the IAEA’s criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 108 n.cm-2.s-1. When it was assumed that the graphite inside the thermal column was not discharged but only the part which was going to be replaced by the collimator, the performance of the collimator became better within the positive effect from the surrounding graphite that the beam resulted passed all criteria with epithermal neutron flux up to 1.68 x 109 n.cm-2.s-1. Keywords: design, collimator, epithermal neutron beam, BNCT, MCNP, criteria   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang desain kolimator yang menghasilkan radiasi netron epitermal untuk uji in vitro dan in vivo pada Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT di Reaktor Riset Kartini dengan menggunakan program Monte

  9. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK, KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA

    Desy Yanti Tri W.A.T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar penduduk Kota Semarang bekerja di sektor industri, dengan begitu diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produkivitas tenaga kerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh usia, tingkat pendidikan, masa kerja, dan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja di kota Semarang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 3.449 orang dan sampel penelitian berjumlah 97 responden yang bekerja pada industri baja di Kota Semarang. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan regresi linier berganda. Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah teknik probability sampling yang meliputi simple random sampling. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini dengan beberapa cara, yaitu penelusuran literatur, kuesioner dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian ini adalah 1 usia berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja, 2 tingkat pendidikan berpengaruh positif namun tidak signifikan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja, 3 masa kerja berpengaruh negatif namun signifikan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja, dan 4 keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja pada industri baja di Kota Semarang. Most residents of Semarang working in the industrial sector, thus expected to increase Productivity of labor. This study aims to determine how big the influence of age, education level, length of employment, and occupational safety and health on labor productivity in Semarang. The population in this study as many as 3,449 people and the sample amounted to 97 respondents who work in the steel industry in the city of Semarang. This research uses descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression. The sampling technique in this research is the probability sampling techniques which include simple random sampling. Collecting data in this study in several ways, namely literature search, questionnaire and interview. Results of this study were 1

  10. Gamma Radiation Assessment In Kartini Reactor And Its Vicinity

    Yazid, M.; Supriyatni, E.; Maryono; Bastianudin, Aris

    2000-01-01

    Measurement to calculate dose assesment for gamma radiation in Kartini Reactor and its vicinity has been done whether on operated or un operated condition. Measurement was performed using height pressured ionization chamber, Reuther Stokes RS-112 production. Measurement location was determined based on distance variation inwardly and outwardly of reactor building and its vicinity. The result showed that the average dose rate in the reactor building when un operated is in the range of 11.4-38.6 mu rad/hour and when the reactor operated is 166.4-1910.9 mu rad/hour. While the vicinity of the reactor on operated condition the average dose rate is 34.4-38.6 mu rad/hour in un operated condition is 6.9-7.0 mu rad/hour. This result showed that the reactor operated did not rise the radiation exposure level in its vicinity. From the personnel assesment dose rate of gamma radiation is 28.54 mrem/week on operated condition, 0.90 mrem.week on un operated condition. While dose rate outside the reactor is 0.44 and 0.27 mrem/week for operated and un operated condition consecutively. This dose rate is still below maximum permissible dose than recommended by the national regulation of radiation protection from BAPETEN No. 01/Ka.BAPETEN/V-99

  11. Kartini's Children: On the Need for Thinking Gender and Education Together on a World Scale

    Connell, Raewyn

    2010-01-01

    A world policy agenda for gender equality in education now exists, realising the idea of earlier reformers such as Kartini. This agenda, however, makes assumptions that are strongly contested by research and policy debates in national forums. This essay urges shifting the framework of gender analysis to global scale. It outlines what is involved…

  12. Design and Development of Data Acquisition System Process Parameters of Kartini Reactor

    Prajitno

    2009-01-01

    Design and development of computer program for data acquisition system of process parameters of the Kartini reactor have been done. System was designed using industrial computer which equipped with electronic module PCL-812PG. The function of computer is to take parameter data of reactor process, processing the data and displaying on the numeric form and bar graphic. Electronics module PCL- 12PG was installed in one of computer slot, functions to convert from analog signal to digital, received digital status signal and produce digital output. The analog signal and digital status got from logarithmic power channel, linear power channel dan three control rod. Result of data acquisition is merged in the form of ASCII characters block, send to the master computer serially with communications protocols RS-232. Computer program which has been developed was tested and used for monitoring Kartini reactor operation and give good performance result. (author)

  13. Kepatuhan Nahkoda Melakukan Pemeriksaan Boat Berdasarkan Check- List Harian untuk Keselamatan Pelayaran di Perusahaan Pelayaran

    B, Rinto; Shaluhiyah, Zahroh; Kurniawan, Bina

    2012-01-01

    Terdapat penyimpangan prosedur dalam pemeriksaan boat berdasarkan checklist inspeksiyang sudah ada dimana rata-rata nahkoda melakukan pencontrengan checklist tanpamelakukan uji coba alat-alat keselamatan dan mesin di dalam boat. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah untuk mengeksplorasi gambaran tentang perilaku kepatuhan nahkoda di Perusahaanpelayaran ini dalam melakukan pemeriksaan boat berdasarkan checklist. Penelitian inimenggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan melakukan wawancara yang menda...

  14. Persepsi Masyarakat Pelayaran Dalam Penerapan ISM-Code Bagi Keselamatan Pelayaran Dan...

    A. Utoyo Hadi

    2007-01-01

    International Safety Management-Code yang disingkat ISM-Code adalah merupakan kebijakan internasional maupun nasional terbaru untuk standar mutu bagi setiap perusahaan pelayaran beserta kapal-kapalnya dalam menjamin terwujudnya keselamatan kapal dan perlindungan lingkungan laut, oleh A. Utoyo Hadi D0100559

  15. Ageing investigation and upgrading of components/systems of Kartini research reactor

    Syarip,; Setiawan, Widi [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Kartini research reactor has been operated in good condition and has demonstrated successful operation for the past 18 years, utilized for: reactor kinetic and control studies, instrumentation tests, neutronic and thermohydraulic studies, routine neutron activation analysis, reactor safety studies, training for research reactor operators and supervisors, and reactor physics experiments. Several components of Kartini reactor use components from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project at Serpong and from Bandung Reactor Centre such as: reactor tank, reactor core, heat exchanger, motor blower for ventilation system, fuel elements, etc. To maintain a good operating performance and also for aging investigation purposes, the component failure data collection has been done. The method used is based on the Manual on Reliability Data Collection For Research Reactor PSAs, IAEA TECDOC 636, and analyzed by using Data Entry System (DES) computer code. Analysis result shows that the components/systems failure rate of Kartini reactor is around 1,5.10{sup -4} up to 2,8.10{sup -4} per hour, these values are within the ranges of the values indicated in IAEA TECDOC 478. Whereas from the analysis of irradiation history shows that the neutron fluence of fuel element with highest burn-up (2,05 gram U-235 in average) is around 1.04.10{sup 16} n Cm{sup -2} and this value is still far below its limiting value. Some reactor components/systems have been replaced and upgraded such as heat exchanger, instrumentation and control system (ICS), etc. The new reactor ICS was installed in 1994 which is designed as a distributed structure by using microprocessor based systems and bus system technology. The characteristic and operating performance of the new reactor ICS, as well as the operation history and improvement of the Kartini research reactor is presented. (J.P.N.)

  16. Pengaruh Pemindahan Perpustakaan Umum Kabupaten Rembang ke Lokasi Pariwisata Pantai Kartini Terhadap Minat Kunjung Pemustaka

    Athiyah Kamaliyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim ofthis research are (1 to know the influence of Rembang Public Library transfer to Kartini Beach tourism area toward animo of visits to the libratyt (2 to know user perception about Rembang Public Library transfer to Kartini Beach tourism area (3 to know animo of visits to Rembang Public Library. This was a quantitative research that used correlation method between location (independent variable and animo of visits (dependent variable. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview and documentation. Data analysis used product moment correlation and processed using SPSS version 17 for Windows. The result of the study showed there was significant correlation between location and animo of visits. Score of correlation was 0.632 at significance level 5% r table is 0.202. The Rembang public library transfer to Kartini Beach tourism area belonged to good category whereby grand mean of location variable was 2.86. Animo of visits also belonged to high category whereby grand mean was 3.01. Key word: location, animo ofvisit, public library

  17. Measurement and evaluation of the external radiation level at reactor Kartini

    Atok Suhartanto; Suparno

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation of external radiation level at reactor Kartini in 2012 has been done. The purpose of this activity is to know the external radiation level as a result of the radioactive or radiation source usage, toward the operational of limit condition. The measurement is using survey meter Inspector 11086, factor of calibration 0.991 mR/h, at 9 locations is: Control room area, Thermal column facilities, Demineralizer, Beamport radiography facilities, bulk shielding Deck, Subcritical facilities, Reactor hall, Deck reactor and on the surface of reactor water tank . The highest room average measurement result in 9 working areas for 12 months continuously are at the reactor tank location is between 13.05±1.09 (xlO -2 mSv/hour) to 16.80±1.40 (x10 -2 mSv/hour), and the lowest measurement result in 1 location (control room) is 0.02±0.005 (x10 -2 mSv/hour) to 0.035±0.009 (x10 -2 mSv/hour). The Kartini reactor is involved in the control area which has potentially contaminated and has radiation exposure at the level of 6 mSv/year. Radiation Protection Officer that work in interval will received radiation exposure dosage of 8.4 mSv/year. This dosage is still below the Below Dosage Value which is recommended by, BAPETEN decree No, 4, 2013 about Protection and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Energy Application at 20 mSv/year. The result of the evaluation above shows that the external radiation which occurred in each area is still below the operational of limit condition that is written on the Kartini reactor safety analysis report, on document number: C7/05/B2/LAK/2010, revision 7. So that the workplace is safe for work monitored. (author)

  18. Determination and Analysis of Ar-41 Dose Rate Characteristic at Thermal Column of Kartini Reactor

    Widarto; Sardjono, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Determination and Analysis of Ar-41 activity dose rate at the thermal column after shutdown of Kartini reactor has been done. Based on evaluation and analysis concluded that external dose rate is D = 1.606x10 -6 Sv/second and internal dose rate is 3.429x10 -1 1 Sv/second. It means that if employee work at the column thermal area for 15 minutes a day, 5 days a week, in a year will be 0.376 Sv still under dose rate limit i.e. 0.5 Sv, so that the column thermal facility is safely area. (author)

  19. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    Nicolette, V.F.; Yang, K.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories' participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia's participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants

  20. Analysis of Radioactivity Contamination Level of Kartini Reactor Efluen Gas to the Environment

    Suratman; Purwanto; Aminjoyo, S

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of radioactivity contamination level of Kartini reactor efluen gas to the environment has been done from 13-10-'95 until 8-2-'96. The aim of this research is to determine the radioactivity contamination level on the environment resulted from the release of Kartini reactor efluen gas and other facilities at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre through stack. The analysis methods is the student t-test, the first count factor test and the gamma spectrometry. The gas sampling were carried out in the stack reactor, reactor room, environment and in other room for comparison. Efluen gas was sucked through a filter by a high volume vacuum pump. The filter was counted for beta, gamma and alpha activities. The radioactivity contamination level of the efluen gas passing through the stack to the environment was measured between 0.57 - 1.34 Bq/m3, which was equal to the airborne radioactivity in environment between 0.69 - 1.12 Bq/m3. This radioactivity comes from radon daughter, decay products result from the natural uranium and thorium series of the materials of the building

  1. Evaluation of radiological impacts for environmental radioactivity distribution in the Kartini reactor area

    Yazid, M.; Suratman; Sutresna, G.; Aminjoyo, S.

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation covered of gross radioactivity. K-40 radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples. The measurement of Cs-137 and Sr-90 radioactivity in the water samples have also been done. The aim of this research was determined of radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor. The water, soil and plant samples were counted of gross beta, Sr-90 activity by beta counter and for K-40, Cs-137 activity by low background gamma spectrometer. For this evaluation can be concluded there are no indication of the radioactivity release from the Kartini reactor operation. Gross beta radioactivity in the water, soil and grass sample are between 0.06-0.61 Bq/l, 0.24-0.79 Bq/g and 3.47-5.70 Bq/g ash. Radioactivity of K-40 in the water, soil and grass sample are between 0.09-0.56 Bq/l, 0.12-0.59 Bq/g and 0.29-0.93 Bq/g ash. The radioactivity of Cs-137 in the water samples are between under limit detectable level to 88.62 mBq/l and Sr-90 are between under limit detectable level to 24.22 mBq/l. (author)

  2. Study on the effect of moderator density reactivity for Kartini reactor

    Budi Rohman; Widarto

    2009-01-01

    One of important characteristics of water-cooled reactors is the change of reactivity due to change in the density of coolant or moderator. This parameter generally has negative value and it has significant role in preventing the excursion of power during operation. Many thermal-hydraulic codes for nuclear reactors require this parameter as the input to account for reactivity feedback due to increase in moderator voids and the subsequent decrease in moderator density during operation. Kartini reactor is cooled and moderated by water, therefore, it is essential to study the effect of the change in moderator density as well as to determine the value of void or moderator density reactivity coefficient in order to characterize its behavior resulting from the presence of vapor or change of moderator density during operation. Analysis by MCNP code shows that the reactivity of core is decreasing with the decrease in moderator density. The analysis estimates the void or moderator density reactivity coefficient for Kartini Reactor to be -2.17×10-4 Δρ/ % void . (author)

  3. Ageing Management Programme: An Experience of In-Service Inspection of the Kartini Heat Exchanger

    Nitiswati, S., E-mail: nitis@batan.go.id [Centre for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia); Syarip,; Tjiptono, T.; Wantana, [Centre for Accelerator and Material Process Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-08-15

    This paper discusses an experience on ISI of the Kartini reactor heat exchanger, as part of the implementation of an ageing management programme. Kartini reactor is located in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The heat exchanger was constructed for 250 kW capacity. The type of heat exchanger is shell with tube recirculation. Tube material is stainless steel 304, and the shell and baffle plate materials are carbon steel. The heat exchanger has 72 tubes, its outer and inner diameters respectively are 19 and 16 mm, and tube thickness is 1.5 mm. The aim of ISI was to obtain and evaluate the heat exchanger’s condition including the detection of any possible local tube thinning, pitting corrosion or gradual thinning, and determine whether any degradation or deterioration of the heat exchanger could have a significant impact to safety. The heat exchanger was inspected utilizing eddy current equipment in 2003 and 2006. Inspection results in 2003 determined that 12 heat exchanger tubes have a thinning degradation level ranging from 10% up to 60% of the outer diameter due to pitting corrosion. Deterioration of baffle plates has been linked to general corrosion attack. Inspection results in 2006 showed a consistent thinning degradation level with the previous inspection in 2003. So far heat exchanger performance is still satisfactory, as defined by the transfer of primary heat for a 2°C difference between inlet and outlet as required. (author)

  4. Safety Management and Safety Culture Self Assessment of Kartini Research Reactor

    Syarip, S., E-mail: syarip@batan.go.id [Centre for Accelerator and Material Process Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-10-15

    The self-assessment of safety culture and safety management status of Kartini research reactor is a step to foster safety culture and management by identifying good practices and areas for improvement, and also to improve reactor safety in a whole. The method used in this assessment is based on questionnaires provided by the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), then reviewed by experts. Based on the assessment and evaluation results, it can be concluded that there were several good practices in maintaining the safety status of Kartini reactor such as: reactor operators and radiation protection workers were aware and knowledgeable of the safety standards and policies that apply to their operation, readily accept constructive criticism from their management and from the inspectors of regulatory body that address safety performance. As a proof, for the last four years the number of inspection/audit findings from Regulatory Body (BAPETEN) tended to decrease while the reactor utilization and its operating hour increased. On the other hands there were also some comments and recommendations for improvement of reactor safety culture, such as that there should be more frequent open dialogues between employees and managers, to grow and attain a mutual support to achieve safety goals. (author)

  5. Application Of WIMS Code To Calculation Kartini Reactor Parameters By Pin-Cell And Cluster Method

    Sumarsono, Bambang; Tjiptono, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis UZrH fuel element parameters calculation in Kartini Reactor by WIMS Code has been done. The analysis is done by pin cell and cluster method. The pin cell method is done as a function percent burn-up and by 8 group 3 region analysis and cluster method by 8 group 12 region analysis. From analysis and calculation resulted K ∼ = 1.3687 by pin cell method and K ∼ = 1.3162 by cluster method and so deviation is 3.83%. By pin cell analysis as a function percent burn-up at the percent burn-up greater than 59.50%, the multiplication factor is less than one (k ∼ < 1) it is mean that the fuel element reactivity is negative

  6. Finite Element Method in the Three Dimensions Deformation Computation ofKartini Reactor Stack

    Supriyono; Syarip; Wibisono, I

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of the Kartini reactor stack i.e. one of the nuclearinstallations in P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta by using SAP 90 software have beendone. The calculation is done as a safety review of building towards theearthquake style in Yogyakarta. The 3-dimension deformation calculation isperformed by the numeric method i.e. finite element method with the form ofelements is the shell. The result obtained showed that the construction oftower safe to the existing earthquake, where the moment exerted as a resultof earthquake style was different under the moment having been kept by thebuilding structure. By knowing the deformation on the stack it is expectedcould be used for concluding the strength of the whole reactor building.(author)

  7. Design of Computerized in Core Fuel Management System of Kartini Reactor

    Edi-Trijono-Budisantoso; Sardjono, Y; Edi-Purwanto; Widi-Setiawan

    2000-01-01

    The program organization for managing Kartini reactor fuel elements has been designed. This program organization work to process on-line operationdata-base and core configuration data-base to produce data-base for in-corefuer management. The in-core fuel management data-base consist of irradiationhistory card, radionuclides inventory and radiation dose for each fuelelement. The computation in this process based on the ORIGEN2, TRIGAP codesand some in-house developed codes that perform matching between output dataof many codes to output data of other code. This program organization worksunder control of a program manager by following the scheduled time table. Thedesign gives a description of the first step development of the in-core fuelmanagement that will be implemented in the internet web server. (author)

  8. Steady state and LOCA analysis of Kartini reactor using RELAP5/SCDAP code: The role of passive system

    Antariksawan, Anhar R.; Wahyono, Puradwi I.; Taxwim

    2018-02-01

    Safety is the priority for nuclear installations, including research reactors. On the other hand, many studies have been done to validate the applicability of nuclear power plant based best estimate computer codes to the research reactor. This study aims to assess the applicability of the RELAP5/SCDAP code to Kartini research reactor. The model development, steady state and transient due to LOCA calculations have been conducted by using RELAP5/SCDAP. The calculation results are compared with available measurements data from Kartini research reactor. The results show that the RELAP5/SCDAP model steady state calculation agrees quite well with the available measurement data. While, in the case of LOCA transient simulations, the model could result in reasonable physical phenomena during the transient showing the characteristics and performances of the reactor against the LOCA transient. The role of siphon breaker hole and natural circulation in the reactor tank as passive system was important to keep reactor in safe condition. It concludes that the RELAP/SCDAP could be use as one of the tool to analyse the thermal-hydraulic safety of Kartini reactor. However, further assessment to improve the model is still needed.

  9. DESAIN KONSEPTUAL TERAS REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF BERBAHAN BAKAR URANIUM MOLIBDENUM DARI ASPEK NEUTRONIK

    Tukiran Surbakti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manfaat yang luas dari penggunaan reaktor riset membuat banyak negara membangun reaktor riset baru. Kecenderungan saat ini adalah reaktor tipe reaktor serbaguna (MPR dengan teras yang kompak untuk mendapatkan fluks neutron yang tinggi dengan daya yang relatif sedang atau rendah. Reaktor riset yang ada di Indonesia yang paling muda usianya sudah berumur 25 tahun. Oleh karena itu diperlukan desain reaktor riset baru sebagai alternatif, disebut reaktor riset inovatif (RRI, kelak pengganti reaktor riset yang sudah ada. Tujuan dari riset ini mendapatkan konfigurasi teras setimbang reaktor riset yang optimal dengan kriteria memiliki fluks neutron termal minimum sebesar 2,5x1014 n/cm2 s pada daya 20 MW (minimum, memiliki panjang operasi satu siklus lebih dari 40 hari dan penggunaan bahan bakar yang paling efisien. Desain neutronik dilakukan untuk bahan bakar baru U-9Mo-Al dengan kerapatan bervariasi dan jenis reflektor yang bervariasi. Desain dilakukan dengan paket program WIMSD-5B dan BATAN-FUEL. Hasil desain konseptual menyajikan 4 konfigurasi teras yaitu 5×5, 5×7, 6×5 dan 6×6. Hasil optimasi menunjukkan bahwa teras setimbang reaktor RRI dengan konfigurasi 5×5, tingkat muat 235U sebesar 450 g, reflektor berilium, fluks neutron termal maksimum di daerah reflektor sebesar 3,33×1014 neutron cm-2s-1 dan panjang siklus 57 hari merupakan desain teras reaktor riset inovatif yang paling optimal. Kata kunci: desain konseptual, bahan bakar uranium-molibdenum,berilium, D2O, WIMS, BATAN-FUEL   The multipurpose of research reactor utilization make many countries build the new research reactor. Trend of this reactor for this moment is multipurpose reactor type with a compact core to get high neutron flux at the low or medium level of power. The research newest reactor in Indonesia right now is already 25 year old. Therefore, it is needed to design a new research reactor, called innovative research reactor (IRR and then as an alternative to replace the old

  10. RA research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1985; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1985. godinu

    NONE

    1985-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1985 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1985 godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  11. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1986; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1986. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1986-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1985 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1986 godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  12. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN GEDUNG BARU F5 UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG SEBAGAI UPAYA TANGGAP TERHADAP KEADAAN DARURAT

    Evi Widowati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Gedung F5 adalah gedung baru di Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan yang masih memiliki sarana keselamatan gedung yang sangat minim, dimana gedung ini memiliki potensi untuk terjadi kebakaran ataupun bencana alam lainnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan suatu rekomendasi sebagai upaya perbaikan dalam aspek keselamatan terhadap gedung baru F5 Universitas Negeri Semarang. Penelitian ini dengan menggunakan metode penelitian deskriptif komparatif. Hasil dari 103 poin yang dibahas, sebanyak 41 poin (39,8% terpenuhi dan sesuai dengan standar/peraturan. Sebanyak 12 poin (11,7% terpenuhi namun belum sesuai dengan standar/peraturan dan sebanyak 50 poin (48,5% tidak terpenuhi. Saran untuk penelitian ini antara lain yaitu memasang instalasi alarm kebakaran, titik panggil manual, hidran, sprinkler, tanda pemasangan pada setiap APAR, dan memasang kembali check sheet yang hilang. Selain itu memasang pintu darurat, tangga darurat, pencahayaan darurat, memperbaiki penunjuk arah evakuasi darurat, menambah 1 area untuk titik berkumpul, menambah 1 akses untuk jalur keluar atau memperlebar jalur akses masuk tersebut menjadi minimal 4 dan ideal 5,5 meter dan melengkapi dengan cermin cembung setiap tikungan yang ada pada akses masuk gedung F5 sebanyak 3 unit.   Kata Kunci : Keselamatan, gedung, darurat.     Abstract F5 Building is a new building in the Faculty of Sport Science which still has very minimal building safety facilities.The purpose of this research is to produce a recommendation as an effort to improve the safety aspect of the new building of F5 State University of Semarang. This research used comparative descriptive research method and focus on 103 topic points of safety building. From observation and analysis, it resulted 41 points (39.8% were met and in accordance with the standards / regulations. A total of 12 points (11.7% are met but not in accordance with the standard / regulation and as many as 50 points (48.5% are not met

  13. APLIKASI PENSILBARIS1.2 UNTUK DESAIN KESELAMATAN IRADIATOR GAMMA BATAN 500K

    M.S. Pudjijanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspek keselamatan penggunaaan radiasi gamma, khususnya penggunaan iradiator gamma perlu ditekankan untuk menjamin keselamatan personil maupun keselamatan lingkungan. Keselamatan radiasi pekerja diperhitungkan pada saat fasilitas iradiasi beroperasi normal dan ketika sedang dilakukan bongkar-muat sumber radiasi dan perawatan/perbaikan fasilitas dengan sumber radiasi berada di dalam kolam penyimpan atau di rak khusus penyimpan sumber. Jenis dan tebal dinding beton ruang papar yang sekaligus berfungsi sebagai perisai radiasi perlu dipertimbangkan, agar paparan radiasi di lingkungan fasilitas iradiator ini memenuhi kriteria keselamatan radiasi yang ditetapkan BAPETEN. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan menggunakan PensilBaris1.2 dengan teknik integrasi kernel titik dan sebagai pembanding digunakan program MCNP5 dengan teknik Monte Carlo. Fasilitas iradiator gamma inovatif yang akan didesain berdimensi panjang 13 m, lebar 6 m dan tinggi 4 m. Radiasi gamma bersumber dari 36-52 batang Cobalt-60 beraktivitas total 500 kCi yang disusun tegak berjajar yang berjarak sama dalam sepasang rak sejajar bertingka dua dengan panjang 135 cm dan tinggi 100 cm. Jarak pisang antara sepasang rak sumber gamma ditetapkan 120 cm. Hasil perhitungan program PensilBaris1.2 untuk dinding beton dengan kerapatan 2,45 g/cm3 berturut-turut memberikan 141,6; 164,4 dan 154,9 cm dan program MCNP5 berturut-turut memberikan ketebalan 145, 155 dan 140 cm. Perbedaan hasil dari kedua tool ini, selain disebabkan oleh teknik dan metode komputasi yang berbeda, disebabkan karena adanya perbedaan pustaka data tampang interaksi foton dengan materi dan faktor bangkit dosis yang digunakan. Hasil perhitungan menggunakan PensilBaris1.2 dengan kerapatan 2,35 g/cm3 memberikan tebal dinding beton dalam arah memanjang, melebar dan meninggi berturut-turut 147,4; 170,7 dan 161,4 cm. Kedalaman benam minimal ujung atas sumber dari permukaan air kolam menggunakan PensilBaris1.2 sebesar 4,85 meter untuk laju

  14. Kartini reactor tank inspection using NDT method for safety improvement of the reactor operation

    Syarip; Sutondo, Tegas; Saleh, Chaerul; Nitiswati; Puradwi; Andryansah; Mudiharjo

    2002-01-01

    The inspection of Kartini reactor tank liner (TRK) by using Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods to improve the reactor operation safety, have been done. The type of NDT used were: visual examination using an underwater camera and magnifier, replication survey using dental putty, hardness test using an Equotip D indentor, thickness test using ultrasonic probe, and dye penetrant test. The visual examination showed that the surface of TRK was in good condition. The hardness readings were considered to be consistent with the original condition of the tank and the slight hardness increase at the reactor core area consistent with the neutron fluence experienced -10 1 4 n/cm 2 . Results of ultrasonic thickness survey showed that in average the TRK thickness is between 5,0 mm - 6,5 mm, a low 2,1 mm thickness exists at the top of the TRK in the belt area (double layer aluminum plat, therefore do not influencing the safety ). The replica and dye penetrant test at the low thickness area and several suspected areas showed that it could be some defect from original manufacture. Therefore, it can be concluded that the TRK is still feasible for continued operation safely

  15. Application of fuzzy set theory for safety culture and safety management assessment of Kartini research reactor

    Syarip; Hauptmanns, U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety culture status of nuclear power plant is usually assessed through interview and/or discussions with personnel and management in plant, and an assessment of the pertinent documentation. The approach for safety culture assessment described in IAEA Safety Series, make uses of a questionnaire composed of questions which require 'Yes' or 'No' as an answer. Hence, it is basically a check-list approach which is quite common for safety assessments in industry. Such a procedure ignores the fact that the expert answering the question usually has knowledge which goes far beyond a mere binary answer. Additionally, many situations cannot readily be described in such restricted terms. Therefore, it was developed a checklist consisting of questions which are formulated such that they require more than a simple 'yes' or 'no' as an answer. This allows one to exploit the expert knowledge of the analyst appropriately by asking him to qualify the degree of compliance of each of the topics examined. The method presented has proved useful in assessing the safety culture and quality of safety management of the research reactor. The safety culture status and the quality of safety management of Kartini research reactor is rated as 'average'. The method is also flexible and allows one to add questions to existing areas or to introduce new areas covering related topics

  16. The Design of Sample Driver System for Gamma Irradiator Facility at Thermal Column of Kartini Reactor

    Suyamto; Tasih Mulyono; Setyo Atmojo

    2007-01-01

    The design and construction of sample driver system for gamma irradiator facility at thermal column of Kartini reactor post operation has been carried out. The design and construction is based on the space of thermal column and the sample speed rotation which has to as low as possible in order the irradiation process can be more homogeneity. The electrical and mechanical calculation was done after fixation the electrical motor and transmission system which will be applied. By the assumption that the maximum sample weight is 50 kg, the electric motor specification is decided due to its rating i.e. single phase induction motor, run capacitor type, 0.5 HP; 220 V; 3.61 A, CCW and CW, rotation speed 1430 rpm. To achieve the low load rotation speed, motor speed was reduced twice using the conical reduction gear with the reduction ratio 3.9 and thread reduction gear with the reduction ratio 60. From the calculation it is found that power of motor is 118.06 watt, speed rotation of load sample is 6.11 rpm due to the no load rotation of motor 1430 rpm. From the test by varying weight of load up to 75 kg it is known that the device can be operated in a good condition, both in the two direction with the average speed of motor 1486 rpm and load 6.3 rpm respectively. So that the slip is 0.268 % and 0.314 % for no load and full load condition. The difference input current to the motor during no load and full load condition is relative small i.e. 0.14 A. The safety factor of motor is 316 % which is correspond to the weight of load 158 kg. (author)

  17. ANALISIS SEBARAN RADIONUKLIDA PADA KONDISI NORMAL UNTUK REAKTOR AEC 1000 MW

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis sebaran radionuklida pada reaktor daya Atomic Energy Agency (AEC 3568 MWTh, setara dengan 1000 Mwe untuk kondisi operasi normal. Analisis dilakukan untuk dua reaktor yang terpisah sejauh 500 m dan sudut 90o satu dengan yang lain. Langkah awal dalam melakukan analisis adalah menentukan suku sumber reaktor menggunakan program komputer ORIGEN2 dan EMERALD NORMAL. ORIGEN2 digunakan untuk menentukan inventori radionuklida yang terdapat di reaktor. Selanjutnya dengan dengan menggunakan program EMERALD NORMAL dihitung suku sumber yang sampai ke cerobong reaktor. Untuk menganalisis dosis yang diterima penduduk dilakukan dengan menggunakan program PC-CREAM. Perhitungan dilakukan untuk satu dan dua PLTN di calon tapak PLTN. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah sebaran radionuklida terbesar untuk satu PLTN pada jarak 1 km dan kearah zona 9 (191,25o dan untuk dua PLTN pada jarak 1 km dan kearah zona 10 (213,75o. Radionuklida yang sampai ke penduduk melalui dua alur yaitu alur makanan dan hirupan. Untuk alur makanan berasal dari radionuklida I-131, dan terbesar melalui alur produk susu sebesar 53,40 % untuk satu maupun dua PLTN . Untuk alur hirupan ranionuklida pemberi kontribusi paparan terbesar berasal dari Kr-85m sebesar 53,80 %. Dosis total terbesar yang diterima penduduk terdapat pada jarak 1 Km untuk bayi yaitu sebesar 4,10 μSi dan 11,26 μSi untuk satu dan dua PLTN. Hasil ini sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan batas dosis yang diijinkan oleh badan pengawas (BAPETEN untuk penduduk yaitu sebesar 1 mSi. Kata Kunci : Reaktor daya, komputer code, radionuklida, alur makanan, hirupan   Analysis for radionuclide dispersion for the Atomic Energy Agency (AEC 3568 MWth Power Reactor, equal to the 1000 MWe at normal condition has been done. Analysis was done for two piles that is separated by 500 m distance and angle of 90o one to other. Initial pace in doing the analysis is to determine reactors source term using ORIGEN2 and EMERALD NORMAL

  18. The effect of leadership, organizational culture, and competency on teachers' performance in Ibu Kartini vocational high school Semarang

    Toha, Mohamad; Katoningsih, Sri

    2018-03-01

    The low performance of teachers in organization is influenced many factors. Organizational culture could be the key of organization success; hence many researches were done to identify the value and the attitude norm that gave big contribution for organization success. Competency is a part of employee they perform during work as kind of behavior. Competency depends on the aspects process of teachers' performance. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of leadership, organizational culture and competency on teachers' performance. The objects of this research are leadership, organizational culture, competency and teachers' performance in Ibu Kartini vocational high school. This research is quantitative. To collect the data, questionnaire was used. Then, the data were analyzed by using Path analysis in SPPS 16. The result of this research showed that leadership, organizational culture, competency and performance run well and had significant effect on teachers' performance.

  19. PENERAPAN KESEHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN KERJA DI PUSKESMAS DI TIGA PROVINSI DI INDONESIA

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2013-11-01

    kerja. Penelitian bertujuan mengevaluasi penerapan kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja (K3 dalam pencegahan penularan Mycobaterium tuberculosis di puskesmas dan hambatannya. Disain cross sectional, pada 50 puskesmas (PRM/PPM puskesmas rujukan mikroskopis/puskesmas pelaksana mandiri di provinsi Banten, Gorontalo, dan Kalimantan Selatan,  tahun 2012, data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dan pengamatan. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi karakteristik puskesmas, penerapan K3, kelengkapan pedoman, sarana dan prasarana. Penerapan K3 dalam rangka pencegahan TB paru di puskesmas belum seluruhnya sesuai dengan Pedoman Pencegahan Penularan M. tuberculosis WHO. Pelatihan pekerja puskesmas terhadap pencegahan penularan TB telah dilaksanakan oleh puskesmas. Penerapan K3 yang masih kurang adalah pelaksanaan kegiatan yang perlu dilakukan dan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala/skrining TB masing-masing pada 58 % dan 56 % puskesmas. Alat promosi kesehatan terkait K3 masih kurang pada 26 % puskesmas.  Alat pelindung diri berupa sarung tangan dan masker tersedia pada hampir semua puskesmas  98% dan 96%. Sarana prasarana masih kurang pada 68 % puskesmas dan sarana prasarana laboratorium masih kurang pada 40 % puskesmas (n=50. Penerapan K3 di PRM/PPM perlu ditingkatkan dengan melengkapi sarana dan prasarana puskesmas dan laboratorium, serta alat promosi kesehatan.Kata kunci : puskesmas, kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja

  20. Aspek Keselamatan Kerja Pada Proses Pembentukan Batu Permata Menggunakan Mesin Gerinda

    Anom Santiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proses pengerjaan batu permata ini ada tiga tahapan yaitu proses pemotongan, prosespembentukan dan proses penghalusan. Pada proses pemotongan, bahan baku yang semulamasih berbentuk bongkahan batu baik batu pirus, batu akik, batu kecubung, dan semacamnyadipotong-potong menjadi bagian kecil dengan teknik tertentu dengan menggunakan gerindapotong. Selanjutnya adalah proses pembentukan, potongan batu yang sudah kecil dibentukdengan menggunakan gerinda asah. Bentuk batu permata disesuaikan dengan pesanankonsumen atau sesuai keinginan perajin sendiri. Sedangkan proses akhir pada pengerjaan batupermata ini adalah menggosok atau mengasah batu permata tersebut biar licin dan menggkilap.Dalam setiap proses ini tentunya mempunyai resiko terhadap kecelakaan kerja. Bahaya-Bahayadari Mesin gerinda ini antara antara lain adalah putaran grinda yang sangat cepat, terbentur olehbarang-barang yang terlempar keluar dari mata asah mesin gerinda, Percikan api yang keluar, jaritangan terpotong, debu yang keluar, dan sebagainya. Untuk itu dilakukan observasi terhadap 12orang pekerja perajin batu permata di Karangasem Bali. Gerinda yang digunakan adalah gerindatangan, beban kerja dihitung berdasarkan denyut nadi, keluhan otot diprediksi denganmenggunakan nordic body map. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek keselamatan yangharus diperhatikan oleh perajin adalah penggunaan APD (alat pelindung diri seperti sarung tangan,masker, dan kaca mata, perubahan Sikap Kerja agar lebih alamiah, dan pengaturan waktu kerja.Untuk itu diperlukan pemahaman prosedur kerja sebelum menggunakan gerinda tangan dalampembentukan batu permata pada perajin sebelum menggunakan mesin gerinda.Kata Kunci : Aspek Keselamatan, Mesin Gerinda, perajin batu permata There are three stages in gemstones processing namely the cutting , forming and polishingprocesses. In the cutting process, the raw materials are initially still a good chunk of stone ofturquoise, agate, amethyst, and the like is cut into

  1. Hubungan Antara Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku Karyawan dengan Penerapan Manajemen Budaya Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja

    Endang Purnawati Rahayu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Budaya K3 dipengaruhi oleh organisasi, individu, dan lingkungan kerja. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis hubungan pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku karyawan dengan penerapan Budaya Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan (K3 di Bagian Produksi PT. Mustika Ratu. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif jumlah sampel sebanyak 170 orang yang diambil secara simple random sampling. Hasil penelitian:  85,9% responden memiliki pengetahuan yang baik mengenai penerapan manajemen budaya K3, 80.6% bersikap baik dan 84.7% berperilaku baik pada penerapan budaya K3.  Penerapan manajemen budaya K3 memberikan hasil baik : 89,4 % sudah menerapkan manejemen budaya K3. Mengenai hubungan pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3, sub variabel yang diteliti memberikan hasil yang sama yaitu adanya hubungan yang bermakna. Hubungan pengetahuan terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (pValue < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio 9,133 (95% CI=3,143-26,539. Hubungan  sikap terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (Pvalue < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio= 9,286 (95% CI = 3,250 - 26,531, sedangkan hubungan perilaku terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (p value < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio=  5,956 (95% CI = 2,080 - 17,051. Temuan lainnya adalah tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara karakteristik responden dengan penerapan budaya K3. Saran: pihak manajemen harus melakukan monitoring dan harus memiliki komunikasi yang baik dengan karyawan, melatih dan melibatkan karyawan untuk meningkatkan upaya perusahaan pada pelaksanaan K3 dengan penerapan OSHAS 18001 sesuai Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1970 dan PP (peraturan pemerintah nomor 50 pada tahun 2012.

  2. Kepuasan Kerja dan Dampaknya terhadap Unjuk Kerja Guru di Gugus Pantai Kartini UPT Dinas Pendidikan Kecamatan Mojolaban (Tinjauan Aspek Keteladanan Pimpinan dan Ketrampilan Pemanfaatan Media

    Emi Sugiati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe : 1 the contribution of leader exemplary and learning media model through indirect satisfied concerning the characteristic of the teacher performance, 2 The contribution of leader exemplary and the satisfied learning media model, 3 the satisfied of the teacher performance. The result is expected to gave information to the headmaster, so its can become reconciliation to increase the school work and for the teacher they can get a feet-back about the increase of the work. This quantitative research has used inquiry method that proved valid and reliable and documentations method a means of principal data collecting, and to test direct and indirect contribution between keteladanan leadership, study media, satisfaction and performance teacher at coast cluster Kartini UPT district Mojolaban education official use stripe analysis method (path Analysis. population in these watchfulness teachers coast cluster Pantai Kartini UPT district education official Mojolaban as much as 141 person, with sample as much as 106 person. The result show that : 1 The leader exemplary and learning media give direct contribution for the teacher performance, 2 The leader exemplary and learning media give direct significant to the satisfied, 3 The satisfied give direct contribution and significant for the performance of the teacher in coast cluster Pantai Kartini Education Official UPTD Mojolaban sub district.

  3. Kajian Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja Bengkel di Jurusan Pendidikan Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan Fakultas Teknik Uny

    Nur Hidayat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse: (1 the plan (2 the implementation, and (3 the evaluation of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH management in the workshop of the Department of Civil Engineering and Planning Education, Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU. This study was categorised into descriptive study that scientifically explained the workplace environment of the workshop specifically in terms of the OSH management. The data collection techniques used observations, interviews and questionnaires. The data of this study was analysed descriptively. This study presented the detailed descriptions of the collected data in the field. The results revealed (1 It is crucial to develop a more systematic OSH management plan in the workshop of the Department of Civil Engineering and Planning Education, Faculty of Engineering, YSU (2 the planning policies and the implementation of the OSH management need a continual improvement  and (3 the evaluation of the OSH management should be conducted simultaneously by the stakeholders, the lecturers and the technicians. (4 The OSH policy in the practices should be properly organised to promote the OSH culture in the workshop. (5 The OSH management control and review were prioritised for fostering the effectiveness of the OSH management implementation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan  evaluasi Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3 di Bengkel Jurusan Pendidikan Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan FT UNY. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif (descriptive reasearch yang memaparkan secara ilmiah keadaan di lingkungan bengkel khususnya mengenai aspek K3. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi, wawancara, dan angket. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Penelitian ini mendeskripsikan secara detail terhadap apa yang ditemukan dalam pengambilan data. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa

  4. Isotopic composition of precipitation at the station Ljubljana (Reaktor, Slovenia – period 2007–2010

    Polona Vreča

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen (δ2H and δ18O and the tritium activity (A were monitored in monthly collected precipitation at Ljubljana (Reaktor during the period 2007–2010. Monthly and yearly isotope variations are discussed and compared with those observed over the period 1981–2006 and with the basic meteorological parameters for Ljubljana (Bežigrad and Ljubljana (Hrastje stations for the period 2007−2010. The mean values for δ2H and δ18O, weighted by precipitation amount at Ljubljana (Reaktor, are –59.4 ‰ and –8.71 ‰. The reduced major axis local meteoric water line (LMWLRMA is δ2H = (8.19 ± 0.22×δ18O + (11.52 ± 1.97, while the precipitation weighted least square regression results in LMWLPWLSR-Re δ2H = (7.94 ± 0.21×δ18O + (9.76 ± 1.93. The lack of significant difference in the LMWL slopes indicates a relatively homogeneous distribution of monthly precipitation as well as the small number of low-amount monthly precipitation events with low deuterium excess. The deuterium excess weighted mean value is 10.3 ‰ which indicates the prevailing influence of the Atlantic air masses. The temperature coefficient of δ18O is 0.30 ‰/°C. Tritium activity in monthly precipitation shows typical seasonal variations, with a weighted mean tritium activity in this period of 8.5 TU. No decrease of mean annual activity is observed.

  5. Determination and analysis of neutron flux distribution on radial Piercing beam port for utilization of Kartini research reactor

    Widarto

    2002-01-01

    Determination and analysis of neutron flux measurements on radial piercing beam port have been done as completion experimental data document and progressing on utilization of the Kartini research reactor purposes. The analysis and determination of the neutron flux have been carried out by using Au foils detector neutron activation analysis method which put on the radius of cross section (19 cm) and a long of radial piercing beam port (310 cm) Based on the calculation, distribution of the thermal neutron flux is around (8.3 ± 0.9) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (6.8 ± 0.5) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 and fast neutron is (5.0 ± 0.2) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (1.43 ± 0.6) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 . Analyzing by means of curve fitting method could be concluded that the neutron flux distribution on radial piercing beam port has profiled as a polynomial curve. (author)

  6. Monitoring of gross beta radioactivities on water sample environment in the surrounding of kartini reactor at 2011

    Siswanti; Munandar, A. Aris

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of gross beta radioactivities on water environment were done in the PTAPB BATAN has a goal for routine monitoring, with the result that fill RPL has been made and the result equivalented with quality standard were decided by BAPETEN. The water sample taken as much as 2 liter at 18 area were definited on radius 100 m to 5000 m in the surrounding of kartini reactor, vaporin on electric stove till the volume been ± 10 ml, and than pick out to the aluminium planset and drying on hot plate. Sample in the plancet were counted with a Low Background Counter (LBC) for 30 minutes and accounted of gross beta radioactivity water system. The result of gross beta radioactivity water environment at 2011 has a lowest 009, ± 0,06 Bq/I on Tambak Bayan area at june and in the Janti area highest 0,39 ± 0,08 Bq/ at December. The result still under of quality standard were decided by SK BAPETEN. No. 02/Ka- BAPETEN/V-99 is 0,4 Bq/I. (author)

  7. PEMBUATAN SERBUK U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET

    Masrukan Masrukan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMBUATAN SERBUK PADUAN U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET. Telah dilakukan pembuatan serbuk paduan U-6Zr dengan pengkayaan 19,75 % untuk bahan bakar reaktor riset. Pembuatan bahan bakar U-6Zr ini dalam rangka mencari bahan bakar baru yang mempunyai densitas tinggi untuk mengganti bahan bakar yang sudah ada U3Si2-Al. Tujuan dari percobaan ini untuk mengetahui sifat-sifat serbuk paduan U- 6Zr yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding sebagai kandidat bahan bakar reaktor riset. Serbuk yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding dikenai pengujian, diantaranya pungujian komposisi kimia, densitas, kandungan hidrogen, fasa dan sifat termal. Hasil pengujian komposisi kimia menunjukkan beberapa unsur seperti Al, Ca, Cu, dan Ni melebihi batas yang diijinkan dimana masing-masing unsur terdapat sebesar 202,21 ppm; 214,05 ppm; 61,25 ppm dan 134,53 ppm. Pada pengujian diperolah densitas serbuk U-6Zr sebesar 13,58 g/cm3 dan pada pengujian kandungan hidrogen sisa diperoleh kandungan hidrogen sebesar 0,16 %. Untuk pengujian fasa, diperoleh fasa αU dan δU, sedangkan pada pengujian sifat termal yakni transformasi temperatur terdapat dua puncak yakni puncak pertama terjadi pada temperatur 274 hingga 311 oC dan puncak kedua terjadi pada temperatur 493 hingga 527oC. Puncak pertama terjadi reaksi endotermik dengan menyerap panas sebesar ∆H = 6,23 cal/g tetapi tidak terbentuk fasa baru, sedangkan puncak kedua terjadi reaksi eksotermik dengan mengeluarkan panas sebesar ∆H = -9.34 cal/g dan terbentuk fasa αZr. Sementara itu, dari pengujian kapasitas panas pada temperatur 34 hingga 75 oC, terjadinya penurunan nilai kapasitas panas yang disertai dengan penyerapan panas. Pada temperatur yang lebih tinggi hingga temperatur 437oC nilai kapasitas panas menjadi lebih kecil disertai pengeluaran panas. Reaksi termokimia antara Zr dengan hidrogen sisa menunjukkan terbentuknya fasa αZr yang diindikasikan oleh reaksi

  8. Konsep Cantik pada Iklan Cetak Majalah Kartini Tahun 2014 dan Koran Kompas Tahun 1979: Suatu Analisis Semiotik

    Dian Natashia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Advertisements, which can be found in daily life, do not just function as the source of the product’s information, but can also create a new connotation about social reality. This research is intended to reveal the form of the connotation about present beauty of Indonesian women that are trying to be conveyed by the advertisers through present advertisements in Kartini magazines.  This research is also revealing elements that are used by the advertisers to attract readers’ attention. To see what are the new connotation that are formed in the present advertisements, they will be compared with advertisements in the older generation. This research is using qualitative descriptive method and the data is coming from the wordings that are printed in those advertisements. The data will be described and analyzed with Discourse of Advertising Theory by Guy Cook and Anchoring Connotation Theory by Roland Barthes, and then the result will be conclude. Through Guy’s theory, this research will reveal all the elements that are used by the producers to build the beauty concept. Through Barthes’ theory, this research will show how the advertisers create new connotation. The result of analysis shows that present beauty concept about ideal body is a beautiful body that are radiated from the outer side of the women’s body and good looking. Beautiful face is a face that looks as young as twenty years old girls. Moreover, the result also shows that producers use current social representative where consumers these days like new, instant products that give maximum result. The result also shows consumers’ doubt over unknown products and women’s fear on fat body and aging.

  9. Design of collimator in the radial piercing beam port of Kartini reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

    M Ilma Muslih A; Andang Widiharto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for in vivo experiment of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini Research Reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni (95%) as collimator wall, 15 cm thick of Al as moderator, 1 cm thick of Pb as γ-ray shielding, 1.5 cm thick of Boral as additional material, with 2 cm aperture diameter, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 5.03 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 2.17 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 and 1.16 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -l , minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.12, and maximum directionality of 0.835 . It did not fully pass the IAEA's criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -l . Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 and fast neutron flux close to 2 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 it is still feasible for BNCT in vivo experiment. (author)

  10. UJI COBA TEKNOLOGI BIOFILM KONSORSIUM BAKTERI PADA REAKTOR SEMIANAEROB-AEROB UNTUK PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH DI INDUSTRI PENCELUPAN TEKSTIL SKALA RUMAH TANGGA

    Dewa Ketut Sastrawidana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efektifitas teknologi biofilm konsorsium bakteri pada  reaktor semianaerob-aerob ntuk mengolah air limbah pencelupan tekstil. Bakteri pada reaktor semianaerob terdiri dari  Aeromonas sp. Pseudomonas sp, dan Flavobacterium sp. sedangkan pada reaktor aerob terdiri dari Vibrio sp. Plesiomonas sp. dan Enterobacter sp. Perombakan proses pertumbuhan terlekat diawali dengan menumbuhkan konsorsium bakteri pada masing-masing reaktor selama 10  hari menggunakan pada batu vulkanik merah sebagai media pelekatan bakteri. Setelah terbentuk biofilm,selanjutnya digunakan untuk merombak limbah denagn waktu tinggal limbah 2 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan teknologi biofilm cukup efektif diaplikasikan pada skala lapang menghasilkan efisiensi perombakan TSS, BOD dan COD secara berturut-turut sebesar 84,7%; 80,56% dan 90,40%. Uji toksisitas air limbah tekstil menggunakan ikan nila dengan waktu paparan 3 hari menunjukkan bahwa air limbah tekstil sebelum diolah berkatagori toksik ringan dengan nilai EC50 adalah 88,80% sedangkan setelah diolah dalam reaktor biofilm konsorsium bakteri sistem anaerob-aerob selama 2 hari menjadi katagori tidak toksik dengan nilai EC50 sebesar 101,64%. Dengan demikian, pengolahan limbah tektil dengan sistem kombinasi anaerob-aerob menghasilkan kualitas limbah dengan kriteria sudah memenuhi baku mutu untuk dibuang ke lingkungan.

  11. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1994; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1994. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1994-12-01

    pouzdan rad ovog reaktora. Poslednji, i ujedno najveci zahvat, koji se odnosi na zamenu celokupne instrumentacije je u toku, ali njegova realizacija u 1994. godini kasni zbog zastoja u isporuci opreme koja se izradjuje u Sovjetskom savezu. Izradu ove opreme finansira Medjunarodna agencija za atomsku energiju kroz ugovor sklopljen decembra 1988. godine sa moskovskom firmom Atomenergoexport. Prema tom ugovoru trebalo je da celokupna nova instrumentacija za reaktor RA bude isporucena Institutu u Vinci do kraja 1990. godine, ali je do septembra 1991. godine isporuceno svega 56% od predvidjene kolicine. Od tada je svaka isporuka obustavljena, a razlog je privremena zabrana na sve isporuke opreme za Jugoslaviju izrecena od strane ove organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija. U 1991. godini na reaktoru RA je demontirana postojeca instrumentacija u maksimalno mogucem obimu, kako bi se zadrzala neka osnovna merenja neophodna i u uslovima kada reaktor nije u pogonu. U 1994. godini nastavljen je rad na razradi i dopuni sovjetskog projekta. Kontrola i odrzavanje celopkupne opreme postrojenja, kao i remontni radovi izvrsavani su redovno i efikasno. Veoma obiman remont sekundarnog kola hladjenja reaktora privodi se kraju i bice okoncan u prvoj polovini 1995. a u skladu postojecim zakonskim propisima i sa preporukama MAAE. Kontrola goriva od strane inspektora MAAE obavljana je jedanput mesecno. Na reaktoru RA u 1994. godini radilo je prosecno 47 radnika, sto je dovoljan broj u uslovima remontnih i investicionih radova.

  12. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1996; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1996. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1996-12-01

    ugovoru trebalo je da celokupna nova instrumentacija za reaktor RA bude isporucena Institutu u Vinci do kraja 1990. godine, ali je do septembra 1991. godine isporuceno svega 80% od predvidjene kolicine. Od tada je svaka isporuka obustavljena, a razlog je privremena zabrana na sve isporuke opreme za Jugoslaviju izrecena od strane ove organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija. Demontirana je postojeca instrumentacija u maksimalno mogucem obimu, kako bi se zadrzala neka osnovna merenja neophodna i u uslovima kada reaktor nije u pogonu. Kontrola i odrzavanje celopkupne opreme postrojenja, kao i remontni radovi izvrsavani su redovno i efikasno. Kontrola goriva od strane inspektora MAAE obavljana je jedanput mesecno. U ovom izvestajnom periodu na reaktoru RA bilo je zaposleno prosecno 43 radnika, sto je dovoljan broj u uslovima remontnih i investicionih radova. Nedostatak finansijskih sredstava za odrzavanje reaktora RA je neresen problem i u ovom periodu. Ovaj izvestaj podeljen je u dve celine: pogon i odrzavanje reaktora i zastita od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  13. VERIFIKASI PAKET PROGRAM MVP-II DAN SRAC2006 PADA KASUS TERAS REAKTOR VERA BENCHMARK.

    Jati Susilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan verifikasi perhitungan benchmark VERA pada kasus Zero Power Physical Test (ZPPT teras reaktor Watts Bar 1. Reaktor tersebut merupakan jenis PWR kelas 1000 MWe yang didesain oleh Westinghouse, tersusun dari 193 perangkat bahan bakar 17×17 dengan 3 jenis pengkayaan UO2 yaitu 2,1wt%, 2,619wt% dan 3,1wt%. Perhitungan nilai k-eff dan distribusi faktor daya dilakukan pada siklus operasi pertama teras dengan kondisi beginning of cycle (BOC dan hot zero power (HZP. Posisi batang kendali dibedakan menjadi uncontrolled (semua batang kendali berada di luar teras, dan controlled (batang kendali Bank D didalam teras. Paket program komputer yang digunakan dalam perhitungan adalah MVP-II dan SRAC2006 modul CITATION dengan data pustaka tampang lintang ENDF/B-VII.0. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan nilai k-eff teras pada kondisi controlled dan uncontrolled antara referensi dengan MVP-II (-0,07% dan -0,014% dan SRAC2006 (0,92% dan 0,99% sangat kecil atau masih dibawah 1%. Perbedaan faktor daya maksimum teras pada kondisi controlled dan uncontrolled dengan referensi dengan MVP-II adalah 0,38% dan 1,53%, sedangkan dengan SRAC2006 adalah 1,13% dan -2,45%. Dapat dikatakan bahwa kedua paket program komputer menunjukkan hasil perhitungan yang sesuai dengan nilai referensi. Dalam hal penentuan kekritisan teras, maka hasil perhitungan MVP-II lebih konservatif dibandingkan dengan SRAC2006. Kata kunci : MVP-II, SRAC2006, PWR, VERA   In this research, verification calculation for VERA core physics benchmark on the Zero Power Physical Test (ZPPT of the nuclear reactor Watts Bar 1. The reactor is a 1000 MWe class of PWR designed by Westinghouse, arranged from 193 unit of 17×17 fuel assembly consisting 3 type enrichment of UO2 that are 2.1wt%, 2.619wt% and 3.1wt%. Core power factor distribution and k-eff calculation has been done for the first cycle operation of the core at beginning of cycle (BOC and hot zero power (HZP. In this

  14. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1991; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1991. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-01-01

    zahvat, koji se odnosi na zamenu celokupne instrumentacije je u toku, ali njegova realizacija u 1991. godini kasni zbog zastoja u isporuci opreme koja se izradjuje u Sovjetskom savezu. Izradu ove opreme finansira Medjunarodna agencija za atomsku energiju kroz ugovor sklopljen decembra 1988. godine sa moskovskom firmom Atomenergoexport. Prema tom ugovoru trebalo je da celokupna nova instrumentacija za reaktor RA bude isporucena Institutu u Vinci do kraja 1990. godine, ali je do septembra 1991. godine isporuceno svega 56% od predvidjene kolicine. Od tada je svaka isporuka obustavljena, a razlog je privremena zabrana na sve isporuke opreme za Jugoslaviju izrecena od strane ove organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija. U 1991. godini na reaktoru RA je demontirana postojeca instrumentacija u maksimalno mogucem obimu, kako bi se zadrzala neka osnovna merenja neophodna i u uslovima kada reaktor nije u pogonu. Pri kraju je izrada odredjenih konstrukcionih elemenata za novu instrumentaciju, koju je prihvatio da realizuje Institut u Vinci, kako bi se ubrzala realizacija ovog projekta. Ako sva predvijena oprema ne bude isporucena do kraja marta 1992. godine, nece moci da se otpocne sa probnim radom reaktora u prvoj polovini 1993. godine, kako je planirano. Na realizaciji projekta u 1991. godini ucestvovalo je efektivno 53 radnika, sto je dovoljan broj u uslovima remontnih i investicionih radova. Godisnji izvestaj o radu nuklearnog reaktora RA za 1992. godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  15. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1988; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1988. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1988-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1989. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  16. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1989; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1989. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1989, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1989. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  17. PENERAPAN SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 DAN IDENTIFIKASI POTENSI BAHAYA KERJA (Studi kasus di PT. LTX Kota Cilegon- Banten

    Wahyu Susihono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perlindungan terhadap keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja masih jauh dari yang diharapkan karena masih banyak terjadi kecelakaan kerja serta potensi bahaya kerja yang dapat membahayakan tenaga kerja. Penerapkan sistem manajeman keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja (SMK3 perlu dilakukan secara optimal. Penerapan SMK3 di perusahaan belum tentu berbanding lurus terhadap potensi bahaya (hazard yang ada di lingkungan sekitar perusahaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai risiko potensi bahaya kerja dan kategori potensi bahaya kerja di perusahaan serta mengetahui faktor penyebab terbesar terjadinya kecelakaan kerja di perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan metode HIRA dan FTA. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa penerapan SMK3 telah sesuai dengan undang-Undang yang berlaku, namun nilai resiko potensi bahaya bagian fluid utility menunjukkan tingkat keparahan bahaya kerja kecil dan kemungkinan terjadinya potensi bahaya kerja juga kecil, nilai kategori potensi bahaya kerja perlu dikendalikan dengan prosedur rutin. Faktor penyebab potensial terjadinya potensi bahaya adalah suara mesin bising, Standard Operational procedure (SOP belum terpasang secara ergonomis, terdapat benda asing yang menghalangi jalan, temperatur ruangan meningkat 50C dari temperatur normal.

  18. Evaluation of Radiological Impacts on the Operating Kartini Reactor and Natural Radioactivity of the Site Plan of Nuclear Power Plant Area

    Yazid, M; Sutresna, G; Sulistyono, A; Ngasifudin

    1996-01-01

    This radiological impacts evaluation covered of radioactivity in water, soil, grass, air samples and ambient gamma radiation that have been carried out in the Kartini reactor area and in the site plan of nuclear power plan are at Ujung Lemah Abang, Jepara, Central Java. The aim of this research was to determine that radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor compared to natural radioactivity for site plan of nuclear power plan area. The radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples ware measured by low background beta counting system and were identified by low background gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity in the air samples was measured by beta portable counting system and the ambient gamma radiation was measured by portable high pressurized ionization chamber model RSS-112 Reuther-Stokes. The reactor data measurement was compared to the site plan of nuclear power plant area data for evaluation of radiological impacts on the operating reactor. From the evaluation and comparison can be concluded there are no indication of the radionuclide release from the reactor operation. The average radiactivity in the water, soil grass and air sample from the reactor area were between 0.17 - 0.61 Bq/1; 0,47 - 0,74 Bq/g; 4.43 - 4.60 Bq/g.ash and 49.53 - 70.90 x 10 Bq/cc. The average radioactivity of those sample from the nuclear power plant area were between 0.06-0.90 Bq/I; 0.02-0.86 Bq/g; 1.68-8.07 Bq/g.ash and 65.0-152.3 x 10 Bq/cc. The ambient gamma radiation were between 6.9-36.7 urad/h for the reactor area and 6.8-19.2 urad/h for the nuclear power plant area

  19. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1997; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1997. godinu

    Sotic, O [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1997-12-01

    RA reactor is not in operation since 1984, activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor started in 1986. The planned actions related to renewal of the reactor components were finished except for the most important action, related to exchange of complete reactor instrumentation which was delayed. Only 80% of the instrumentation was delivered until September 1991. Since then any delivery of components to Yugoslavia was stopped because of the sanctions imposed to our country. The existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled. Control and maintenance of the reactor components was done regularly and efficiently. Fuel inspection by the IAEA safeguards inspectors was done on a monthly basis. There have been on the average 42 employees at the RA reactor which is considered sufficient for maintenance and repair conditions. The problem of financing the reactor activities and maintenance remains unsolved. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1997 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA nije u pogonu od 1984, aktivnosti na revitalizaciji, rekostrukciji i modernizaciji reaktorski sistema zapocete su 1986. godine. Okoncan je niz zahvata na opremi postrojenja kojima ce se u narednom periodu omoguciti kontinualan i pouzdan rad ovog reaktora. Poslednji, i ujedno najveci zahvat, koji se odnosi na zamenu celokupne instrumentacije kasni zbog zastoja u isporuci opreme koja se izradjuje u Sovjetskom savezu. Do septembra 1991. godine isporuceno svega 80% od predvidjene kolicine. Od tada je svaka isporuka obustavljena, a razlog je privremena zabrana na sve isporuke opreme za Jugoslaviju usled sankcija uvedenih od strane organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija. Demontirana je postojeca instrumentacija. Kontrola i odrzavanje celopkupne opreme postrojenja, kao i remontni radovi izvrsavani su redovno i efikasno. Kontrola goriva od strane safeguard inspektora MAAE obavljana

  20. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1970 - Operation and maintenance; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1970. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1970-12-15

    the pool. Refuelling was done three times by 'mixing' the irradiated fuel slugs with 5 to 6 fresh ones. Total exposure of the staff was increased due to activities during the shut-down period. Individual maximum exposure dose was not higher than 3.5 R. Cooperation with the French partner, concerned with the possibility of using 93% enriched fuel instead of the present low enriched, was continued. This would enable achievement of higher neutron flux, order of magnitude of 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} sec. It is mentioned that there is doubt whether the plan for 1971 could be fulfilled for financial difficulties. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1970. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi 160 dana i 40 dana na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 25968 MWh odnosno 3.87% vise od planiranog. Plan rada razlikovao se od prethodnih godina zbog slanja teske vode na rekoncentraciju u Francusku. Izotopski sastav teske vode je opao na 99.05% a posle rekoncentracije iznosi 99,96%. Odstupanje od plana rada u septembru mesecu bilo je izazvano kasnjenjem prispeca teske vode usled administrativnih teskoca i transporta. Pocetak kampanje odlozen je i zbog posledica ostecenja kosuljice jednog gorivnog elementa, sto se dogodilo odmah po pocetku rada pa je reaktor bio zaustavljen. U oktobru i novembru reaktor je radio 28 odnosno 25 dana respektivno sto je omogucilo da se nadoknadi izgubljeno vreme. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 390 korisnika od cega 340 iz Instituta i 50 za korisnika izvan Instituta. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne podatke o radu i eksperimentima koji su obavljani. Zakljucuje se da je reaktor radio uspesno prema planu rada. Kracih zastoja u radu bilo je samo zbog teskoca sa cevovodima tehnicke vode kao posledica klizanja zemljista. Reaktor je samo dva puta sigurnosno zaustavljan zbog neispravnosti opreme odnosno laznog signala elektronske aparature sistema upravljanja. Vreme dok reaktor nije radio iskorisceno je za inspekciju unutrasnjosti reaktorskog suda. Pomocu

  1. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    methane through the form of methanol metabolite. ABSTRAKPenanganan sampah kota di Indonesia pada umumnya dilakukan pada tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah (TPA, yang sebagian besar dilakukan dengan cara pengurugan (landfilling yang cenderung bersifat anaerob (tidak ada oksigen. Cara pengurugan ini biasanya dioperasikan lapis perlapis sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses anaerob. Pada kondisi ini dipastikan biogas, yaitu gas metana (CH4 dan CO2, akan muncul. Metana adalah gas rumah kaca dengan potensi pemanasan global lebih besar dari CO2, dan dapat mengabsorpsi radiasi infra merah 23 kali lebih efisien dari CO2 pada periode lebih dari 100 tahun. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam adalah dengan mengoksidasinya dengan memanfaatkan material penutup landfill (biocover sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana. Aplikasi kompos sebagai material penutup landfill merupakan pendekatan dengan biaya rendah untuk mereduksi emisi gas dari landfill sehingga cocok untuk negara berkembang. Biocover yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kompos landfill mining, yaitu kompos yang terdegradasi secara alami di landfill. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan biocover kompos landfill mining dalam mengoksidasi metana pada ketebalan lapisan tertentu dengan kondisi aliran kontinyu. Tiga buah reaktor kolom yang digunakan terbuat dari flexy glass berukuran tinggi 70 cm dan diameter 15 cm. Gas metana dialirkan dari bawah reaktor secara kontinyu dengan laju alir 5 ml/menit. Kolom diisi dengan biocover kompos landfill mining dengan ketebalan lapisan 5, 25, 35 dan 60 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal lapisan biocover, semakin tinggi efisiensi oksidasi metana. Efisiensi oksidasi yang diperoleh pada setiap ketebalan lapisan 15, 25, 35 dan 60 cm adalah masing-masing 56,43%, 63,69%, 74,58% dan 80,03%, dengan laju oksidasi 0,287 mol m-2 d-1 dan fraksi oksidasi 97%. Hasil oksidasi yang diperoleh tersebut

  2. ANALISIS PENGARUH IRADIASI FLUENS NEUTRON CEPAT TERHADAP BERILIUM REFLEKTOR REAKTOR RSG-GAS

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis iradiasi fluens neutron cepat terhadap berilium reflektor reaktor RSG-GAS. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara melakukan pengukuran fluks neutron di posisi berilium elemen dan berilium blok yang berfungsi sebagai reflector. Selanjutnya dilakukan perhitungan untuk menentukan apakah ada pengaruh fluens neutron selama berilium berada di teras reaktor. Selain cara tersebut dilakukan pula visualisasi untuk memastikan ada tidaknya deformasi pada berilium akibat iradiasi. Hasil pengukuran fluks dan fluens neutron cepat maksimal pada daya 200 kW untuk berilium elemen posisi E-2 sebesar 2,30E+07 n/cm2s dan 4,19E+17 n/cm2, J-8 sebesar 3,70E+07 n/cm2s dan 6,74E+17 n/cm2. Hasil pengukutan pada posisi B-3 sebesar 2,19E+12 n/cm2s dan 3,99E+22 n/cm2, G-10 sebesar 2,12E+12 n/cm2s dan 3,86E+22 n/cm2, serta berilium blok posisi (5-6 sebesar 5,02E+07 n/cm2s dan 9,15E+17 n/cm2, (C-D sebesar 2,32E+07 n/cm2s dan 4,23E+17 n/cm2. Deformasi yang diperoleh untuk berilium elemen (∆L/L posisi E-2 sebesar 1,12E-08, J-8 sebesar 1,84E-08, B-3 sebesar 1,60E-03, posisi G-10 sebesar 1,55E-03, sedangkan pada berilium blok di posisi 5-6 sebesar 2,52E-08 dan C-D sebesar 1,13E-08. Dari hasil ini disimpulkan tidak terjadi deformasi pada berilium elemen dan berilium blok. Hasil ini dibuktikan pula dari pengamatan visual, dimana tidak terlihat adanya deformasi pada berilium tersebut. Kata kunci : fluks, fluens, berilium elemen, berilium blok   Analysis of influence fast neutron fluence irradiated to the RSG-GAS beryllium reflector have been done. Methods of analysis was carried out by measuring fluxs neutron in beryllium element and block positio that function as reflector. The calculation done for determination it is there any influence of neutron as long as beryllium in the core. Bisede that, visualization done to make sure it there is any deformation at beryllium as efect of irradiation. Fluxs and fluences of beryllium element measurement result in 200 k

  3. KARAKTERISTIK REAKTIVITAS TERAS KERJA RSG-GAS SELAMA 30 TAHUN BEROPERASI

    Tukiran Surbakti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RSG-GAS, mulai dari komisioning, operasi teras kerja hingga kini telah 30 tahun beroperasi sehingga perlu dilakukan evaluasi keselamatan parameter neutroniknya. Untuk tujuan keselamatan telah dilakukan berbagai aktivitas penelitian, baik yang berhubungan dengan operasi, keselamatan, maupun dalam rangka penggunaan reaktor. Analisis dan pengelolaan besaran reaktivitas yang menunjang keselamatan operasi reaktor sangat penting dilakukan karena besaran ini mempengaruhi desain, kendali dan jadual operasi reaktor. Besaran tersebut dapat ditentukan melalui pengukuran reaktivitas batang kendali dan eksperimen pemuatan bahan bakar di dalam teras. Pengukuran reaktivitas batang kendali yang dilakukan pada setiap awal siklus teras (dengan kondisi teras dingin dan bersih, bebas pengaruh xenon, menghasilkan nilai reaktivitas batang kendali yang dapat digunakan untuk menentukan nilai reaktivitas lainnya seperti reaktivitas lebih, reaktivitas padam dan reaktivitas total. Pengelolaan reaktivitas teras telah dilakukan dengan baik selama 30 tahun dalam rangka mendukung operasi reaktor untuk keperluan penelitian dan iradiasi target.

  4. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1971; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1971. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1971-12-15

    effects. In the introduction of this report it has been emphasised that the decision makers should have in mind the negative effects of low budget on the reactor safe and reliable operation. For the sake of reactor, decision about the future operation and financing should be done as soon as possible, either to cease operation or continue with adequate financial support. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1971. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi 190 dana i 50 dana na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 31606 MWh odnosno 5,3% vise od planiranog, sto je najvisa vrednost od kako je reaktor pusten u rad. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 425 korisnika od cega 370 iz Instituta i 55 za korisnika izvan Instituta. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne podatke o radu i eksperimentima koji su obavljani. Odstupanja od plana, odnosno veceg ostvarenog rada bilo je u junu i decembru usled posebnih zahteva korisnika. Ukupni broj prekida rada bio je manji od svih prethodnih godina, uglavnom zbog manjeg broja nestanka napona u vreme rada reaktora. U toku godine bilo je samo jedno sigurnosno zaustavljanje, ciji je uzrok bila pojava laznog signala opreme za zastitu reaktora. Nijednog duzeg prekida rada nije bilo zbog neispravnosti opreme. Kracih prekida bilo je usled kidanja spojki na potisnom cevovodu tehnicke vode, sto je bilo izazvano klizanjem zemljista u podrucju crpne stanice na Dunavu. Ukupna doza ozracivanja ljudstva bila je manja nego prethodnih godina. Nije bilo ni jednog akcidenta niti slucaja koji bi se mogao nazvati akcidentom. Dekontaminirano je znatno manje povrsina nego ranijih godina. Zakljuceno je da je uspesan rad reaktora u 1971. godini rezultat valjanog rada u prethodnim godinama. Medjutim usled jos nedefinisane politike u pogledu buduceg rada, odnosno neizvesnosti u vezi finansiranja, neki poslovi su obustavljeni. Tu spada proucavanje mogucnosti prelaska na koriscenje visokoobogacenog goriva sto bi povecalo korisni neutronski fluks i ucinilo reakor konkurentnim za

  5. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1968 - Operation and maintenance; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1968. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1968-12-15

    During 1968, the RA Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW for 190 days, and during 50 days at lower power levels. Total production amounted to 31051 MWh which is 3.5% higher than planned. reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of 600 users, of which 517 from the Institute and 83 externals users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in 1968. It is concluded that the reactor operation was more successful than during previous years. There was only one longer interruption which lasted 27 hours because of the power cut on the cable for the pump station on Danube. Number of safety shutdowns were at the same level as during last year. The only significant incident in 1968 was air contamination with the radioactive argon in the reactor hall. The reactor operation was not interrupted although the hall was evacuated for two hours. The was no significant exposure of the staff. In April and September the integral dosed were higher than during other months because of the accident during refueling (mixing the slugs with irradiated and fresh fuel). There was no significant surface contamination, i.e. the decontaminated surface were negligible. Due to 'mixing' refueling scheme. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1968. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi od 6,5 MW 190 dana i 50 dana na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 31051 MWh odnosno 3,5% vise od planiranog. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 600 korisnika od cega 517 iz Instituta i 83 za korisnika izvan Instituta. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne podatke o radu i eksperimentima koji su obavljani. Zakljucuje se da je reaktor radio uspesnije nego prethodnih godina. U toku 1968. godine samo je jedan duzi prekid u radu od 27 casova izazvan zbog proboja kablovske glave na odvodu za pumpnu stanicu na Dunavu. Sigurnosna zaustavljanja bila su na proslogodisnjem nivou. Jedini znacajniji incident u 1968. godini, bio je kontaminacija vazduha

  6. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  7. Aspek Hukum Keselamatan Penerbangan

    Pramono, Agus

    2013-01-01

    Chicago Convention, 1944 is an instrument of International law which is produced by the International Civil Aviation Organization (/CAO), regulate International civil aviation including aviation safety material that binds to all /CAO member States. Aircraft is a high-tech product in order to set aviation safety requirements and regulations are very strict non-negotiable slightest. The regulations are very strict in the aviation world devoted to creating a safe flight. Realization of aviation ...

  8. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1969; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1969. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1969-12-15

    years of operation as well as purification of heavy water. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1969. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi 200 dana i 15 dana na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 31131 MWh odnosno 3.77% vise od planiranog. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimenta prema zahtevima 463 korisnika iz Instituta i 63 izvan Instituta. Ovaj izvestak sadrzi detaljne podatke o snazi na kojoj je reaktor radio tokom 1969. godine i o uradjenim eksperimentima. Zakljuceno je da je reaktor RA uspesno radio prema planu rada. Da nije bilo problema sa napajanjem elektricnom energijom tokom poslednja tri meseca i niskog vodostaja Dunava u septembru i oktobru protekle godine bila bi to najuspesnija godina od pustanja reaktora u pogon. Broj sigurnosnih zaustavljanja nije bio veci u odnosu na prethodne dve godine i pored poteskoca u poslednjem kvartalu. Osoblje je bilo izlozeno povecanim dozama zracenja usled tri incidenta. Jedan je bio raspadanje kenera sa srebrom (zbog duzeg stajanja u aktivnoj zoni), sto je uzrokovalo kontaminaciju radne platforme, tako da je fon porastao za 10 do 100 puta od normalnohg Druga dva slucaja su bila otkazivanje uredjaja za mesanje goriva u tehnoloskim kanalima. Zamena goriva je radjena cetiri puta u toku godine, utroseno je 499 svezih gorivnih elemenata. Primenjena je metoda mesanja svezih gorivnih elemenata sa koriscenim gorivnim elementima u gorivnom kanalu. Dekontaminacija povrsina bila je na nivou prethodnih godina i pored problema sa srebrom. Kako su sa reaktora tokom godine otisla dva saradnika sa visokom spremom broj ljudi je opao na neophodan minimum za pogon i odrzavanje reaktora. Navrsavajuci u ovoj godini deset godina rada moze se reci da su rad i stanje opreme na tehnicki solidnom nivou. Kako bi se posle deset godina rada izvrsila kontrola vaznih komponenti reaktora i obavila rekoncentracija teske vode, za 1970. godinu je planirano da se proizvodnja smanji na 25000 MWh, a baziran je na istim principima kao i planovi za prethodne

  9. Study of radiation exposure rate on the measurement points in Kartini reactor hall as based to determine operation safety parameters (KBO)

    Mahrus Salam; Elisabeth Supriyatni; Fajar Panuntun

    2016-01-01

    In the operation of nuclear facility there are safety parameters, which is the value of the conservatively maximum limit to ensure that all of the uncertainty in the analysis of facility operations safety have been considered, such as uncertainty of measurement, response time and uncertainty calculation tool, and is get a long to others value of normal operating condition limits, in other words, there are still allowed or permitted. Calculation of the radiation exposure rate on five measurement points (50 cm above the water surface of reactor pool, above interim storage (bulk shielding), reactor deck, thermal column and sub critical facility) and to be compared to the operation safety parameters (KBO) of Kartini reactor. The exposure rate value is obtained by calculating the source term of radioactivity on the core, attenuation resulting from the radiation shielding and measurement distance. From the calculation obtained that the value of gamma exposure rate of 50 cm above the water surface of reactor pool is 96.91 mR/hr (KBO<100 mR/hr), on the deck of Bulk Shielding amounted to 1.70 mR/h (KBO<2.5 mR/hr), on the reactor deck amounted to 5.73 mR/hr (KBO<10 mR/hr), on the Thermal Column amounted to 2.73 mR/hr (KBO<10 mR/hr) and on the sub critical facility amounted to 1.148 mR/hr (KBO<2.5 mR/hr). The value of gamma exposure rate at 5 locations measurements are still less than the operation safety parameters (KBO), it means that the reactor is safe to be operated. (author)

  10. The Neutronic Effect of Zr-rod and Sm2O3-disk in the Model of Kartini Reactor Fuel Element

    Edi-Trijono-Budisantoso; Bambang-Sumarsono; Tri-Wulan-Tjiptono

    2000-01-01

    The model of Kartini fuel element has been constructed using a variationof materials in it fuels. For basic model, the construction of fuel assemblyis a rod type fuel element with SS-304 cladding and UZrH (8.5 % wt U in 20 %enrichment) as a fuel meat and graphite reflector at the both ends of fuelmeat. By using is basic construction, the material then varied in 4 models asthe following: 1) The model with the Zr-rod in 5.76 mm diameter, is insertedat the axis of fuel meat; 2) The model with Sm 2 O 3 -disk in 1.28 mmthickness, is inserted at the both ends of fuel meat; 3) The compound ofmodel 1 and model 2; 4) The basic construction of cell without Zr-rod andSm 2 O 3 -disk. The neutronic-behavior of each model then calculated usingWIMSD4 and the result then represented as a graphics form of the correlationof parameters as the following: 1) The correlation between model and itneutron multiplication factor; 2) The comparison of neutron flux distributionfor each model. By the graphic can be concluded, that Zr-rod in the fuelelement can reduce power peaking factor to 82 % with the effect of neutronmultiplication factor reduced to 98 %, while the insertion of Sm 2 O 3 -disk atthe both ends of fuel meat can make neutron multiplication factor reduce to97 % but unfortunately the neutron peaking factor increase to 101 %. Theinsertion of Zr-rod in the axis of fuel meat, increase the safety margin offuel utilization, while the insertion of Sm 2 O 3 -disk at the both ends offuel meat can make it as the burn-able poison that maintain the neutronmultiplication factor stable for a long time utilization. (author)

  11. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1973; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1973. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1973-12-15

    During 1973, RA reactor was operated at nominal power for 4687 hours and 54 hours at lower power levels. The total production was 30504 MWh which is 1.6% higher than planned. Practically there was no discrepancies from the plan, since the action plan was corrected at the beginning of this year caused by the demand of changing the schedule for refuelling for the purpose of 'power excursion' experiment. The reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of 336 users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in 1973. Total number safety shutdowns was 12, of which 7 were caused by power cuts. Three shutdowns caused by failures of the equipment were caused by failures of new electronic tubes. Two shutdowns were caused by the operators. There have been three shorter interruptions announced power cuts. Total personnel exposure dose was lower than during previous years. There were no accidents during this year. Decontamination of surfaces was less than during previous years. Practically there was no surface contamination, and the quantity of collected radioactive waste was lower than previously. There were no liquid radioactive effluents. It was concluded that the successful operation in 1973 has a special significance taking into account the financial crisis. There still remains a number of unsolved problems related to: completing the inventory of spare parts, exchange of some elements of the equipment, exchange of instrumentation, and purchase of the highly enriched fuel. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1973. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi 4687 sati i 54 sata na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 30504 MWh odnosno 1,6% vise od planiranog. Prakticno nije bilo odstupanja od plana rada koji je pocetkom godine korigovan zbog promene planiranih izmena goriva usled izvodjenja eksperimenta 'ekskurzije snage'. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 336 korisnika. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne

  12. RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1987; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj o radu za 1987. godinu

    NONE

    1987-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1987, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1987. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3509/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjjring RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  13. A pulsed fast reactor; Un reacteur pulse a neutrons rapides; Impul'snyj reaktor na bystrykh nejtronakh; Reactor rapido pulsado

    Blokhin, G. E.; Blokhintsev, D. I.; Blyumkina, Yu. A.; Bondarenko, I. I.; Deryagin, B. N.; Zajmovskij, A. S.; Zinov' ev, V. P.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Krasnoyarov, N. V.; Lejpunskij, A. I.; Malykh, V. A.; Nazarov, P. M.; Nikolaev, S. K.; Stavisskij, Yu. Ya.; Ukraintsev, F. I.; Frank, I. M.; Shapiro, F. Ji.; Yazvitskij, Yu. S. [Akademiya Nauk, Moscow, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    los impulsos de potencia. Asimismo, se efectuaron mediciones del periodo de los neutrones instantaneos, de la fraccion efectiva de neutrones retardados y de los coeficientes de variacion de la reactividad en funcion de la temperatura. (author) [Russian] Impul'snyj reaktor na bystrykh nejtronakh (IBR) rabotaet na nominal'noj moshchnosti v Obedinennom institute yadernykh issledovanij s dekabrya 1960 goda. Reaktor ispol'zuetsya v kachestve impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov dlya fizicheskikh ehksperimentov, provodimykh metodom vremeni proleta. Provodyatsya izmereniya polnogo secheniya, secheniya zakhvata dlya promezhutochnykh nejtronov, issledo- vaniya vzaimodejstviya medlennykh nejtronov s tverdym telom i s zhidkost'yu, izmereniya spektrov nejtronov, ustanavlivayushchikhs ya v. razlichnykh sredakh. V doklade opisany osnovy konstruktsii reaktora i rezul'taty ego issledovanij. Osnovnoj rezhim raboty reaktora-rezhim periodicheskikh impul'sov. Impul'sy moshchnosti voznikayut pri bystrom peremeshchenii podvizhnoj chasti aktivnoj zony reaktora cherez ego nepodvizhnuyu zonu. Podvizhnaya chast' aktivnoj zony zakreplena vo vrashchayushchemsya diske i dvizhetsya so skorost'yu-230 m/sek. Chastota impul'sov moshchnosti mozhet izmenyat'sya s pomoshch'yu vspomogatel'noj podvizhnoj zony v diapazone 2,3-88 im/sek. Srednyaya moshchnost' reaktora - 1 kvt. Polushirina impul'sa moshchnosti - 36 mksek. Reaktor snabzhen sistemoj upravleniya i zashchity, obespechivayushchej avtomaticheskoe podderzhanie srednej moshchnosti reaktora i ego bystruyu ostanovku v sluchae narusheniya rezhima. Reaktor snabzhen sistemoj vakuumirovanny kh nektronovodov, ispol'zuemykh v ehksperimentakh po vremeni proleta. Glavnyj nejtronovod imeet dlinu 1000 m. V protsesse puska i fizicheskikh issledovanij reaktora izuchalos' vliyanie peremeshcheniya organov regulirovaniya i podvizhnykh chastej aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost', izmeryalas' dlitel'nost' impul'sa pri razlichnykh rezhimakh raboty reaktora, izuchalis

  14. APLIKASI TEKNIK AAN DI REAKTOR RSG-GAS PADA PENENTUAN UNSUR ESENSIAL DAN TOKSIK DI DALAM IKAN DAN PAKAN IKAN

    Saeful Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada makalah ini diuraikan tentang aplikasi teknik AAN (Analisis Aktivasi Neutron dalam penentuan konsentrasi unsur-unsur esensial dan cemaran yang terkandung di dalam beberapa spesies ikan dan pakan ikan. Unsur-unsur esensial yang terkandung dalam pakan ikan buatan juga dianalisis untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap ikan. Penentuan unsur menggunakan teknik AAN dengan metode perbandingan dan metode k0-AAN. Sampel diiradiasi di reaktor RSG-GAS yang memiliki fluks neutron thermal 5 x 1013 n.cm-2.s-1 pada daya 15 MW. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 12 unsur di dalam 11 spesies ikan air laut dan air tawar telah ditentukan yaitu As, Br, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. Konsentrasi cemaran As didalam ikan laut sudah melampaui batas maksimum 1 mg/kg, sedangkan konsentrasi cemaran Hg masih dibawah batas maksimum 0,5 mg/kg, baik untuk ikan laut maupun ikan air tawar. Unsur K dan Na merupakan unsur makroesensial sedangkan unsur Cr, Co, Fe, Se and Zn adalah termasuk unsur mikroesensial. Secara umum ditunjukkan bahwa kandungan mineral didalam ikan laut lebih tinggi konsentrasinya dibandingkan ikan air tawar. Br, Cs dan Rb merupakan unsur-unsur non esensial yang teridentifikasi dalam semua ikan yang dianalisis. Penelitian terhadap pakan ikan air tawar menunjukkan bahwa semua unsur yang teridentifikasi juga terdapat di dalam ikan laut dan ikan air tawar. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pakan ikan berkontribusi terhadap konsentrasi unsur di dalam ikan air tawar. Kata kunci : Analisis aktivasi neutron, unsur esensial, unsur cemaran, ikan, pakan ikan   This paper reported on the application of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique in the determination of the concentration of the essential and toxic elements in some species of fish and fish feed. Determination of elements using instrumental NAA technique with comparison and k0-INAA methods. Samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS which has a thermal neutron flux  5.0E +13 ncm-2s-1. The results

  15. RA Research reactor, Annual report 1972; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1972. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Milosevic, D et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1972-12-15

    During 1972, the total production was 31151 MWh which is 3.8% higher than planned. The reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of 381 users, of which 340 from the Institute and 41 external users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in 1972. Discrepancies from the action plan, meaning higher production was achieved due to special demands of the users. Total number of interruptions was lower than during all the previous years, and were caused mainly due to announced power cuts. There was only on scram shutdown during this year caused by a false signal of the reactor control instrumentation. There were no longer interruptions. One shorter interruption (shorter than 24 hours) caused by removal of a UO{sub 2} capsule from the core, placed there for measuring heat transfer. Total personnel exposure dose was lower than during previous years. One accident caused contamination with gases and aerosols containing mainly shot-living isotopes. Decontamination od surfaces was less than during previous years. Practically there was no surface contamination that would demand action of the decontamination team, except for the regular decontamination after refueling. It was concluded that the successful operation in 1972 has a special significance having taking in account the financial crisis caused by the unresolved status of the reactor. It is emphasised, in the plan for the next year that there is an urgent need of making a long-term plan of rector application. It is indispensable to finish preparatory tasks for replacing the fuel with the highly enriched fuel elements by 1974, and building the core emergency cooling system. [Serbo-Croat] Ukupni rad Reaktora RA je u 1972. godini iznosio je 31151 MWh odnosno 3,8% vise od planiranog. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 381 korisnika od cega 340 iz Instituta i 41 za korisnike izvan Instituta. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne podatke o radu i

  16. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels. [Serbo-Croat] Ovo (prvo) poglavlje sadrzi sledece: Opis reaktora RA; semu organizacije rada i rukovodjenja; prava i duznosti direktora i rukovodioca pogona reaktora, propise o rezimu rada i kretanja u zgradi reaktora, propise o izvodjenju eksperimenata, propise o unosenju uzoraka u eksperimentalne kanale reaktora.

  17. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation. [Serbo-Croat] Pored osnovnih karakeristika reaktora RA, organizacije rada i finansijskih pokazatelja, razmatra se stanje opreme reaktora nakon 18 godina rada, pitanja dozvole za rad sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, problem skladistenja isluzenog goriva u bazenu zgrade reaktora i potreba za obnavljanjem komponenti opreme, pre svega elektronske.

  18. Studi Awal Desain Pebble Bed Reactor Berbasis Htr-pm Dengan Skema Resirkulasi Bahan Bakar Once-through-then-out

    Setiadipura, Topan; Pane, Jupiter Sitorus; Zuhair, Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    STUDI AWAL DESAIN PEBBLE BED REACTOR BERBASIS HTR-PM DENGAN RESIRKULASI BAHAN BAKAR ONCE-THROUGH-THEN-OUT. Reaktor nuklir tipe pebble bed reactor (PBR) adalah salah satu reaktor canggih dengan fitur keselamatan pasif yang kuat. Pada desain tipe ini berpotensi untuk dilakukan kogenerasi yang bermanfaat untuk pengolahan berbagai mineral di berbagai pulau di Indonesia. Operasi PBR dapat lebih disederhanakan dengan menerapkan skema pengisian bahan bakar once-through-then-out (OTTO) dimana bahan b...

  19. RELAP5 SIMULATION FOR SEVERE ACCIDENT ANALYSIS OF RSG-GAS REACTOR

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2018-01-01

    SIMULASI RELAP5 UNTUK ANALISIS KECELAKAAN PARAH PADA REAKTOR RSG-GAS. Reaktor riset di dunia diketahui lebih aman dari pada reaktor daya karena desainnya yang lebih sederhana pada teras dan karakteristika operasinya. Namun demikian, potensi bahaya reaktor riset terhadap publik dan lingkungan tidak bisa diabaikan karena beberapa fitur tertentu. Oleh karena itu, level keselamatan reaktor riset harus jelas ditunjukkan dalam Laporan Analisis Keselamatan (LAK dalam bentuk analisis keselamatan yang dilakukan dengan berbagai macam pendekatan dan metode dan didukung dengan alat komputasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mensimulasikan beberapa kecelakaan parah pada reaktor RSG-GAS yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan bahan bakar untuk memperkuat hasil analisis kecelakaan parah yang sudah ada dalam LAK. Simulation dilakukan dengan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 yang memiliki kemampuan untuk memodelkan elemen bahan bakar tipe pelat di RSG-GAS. Tiga kejadian telah disimulasikan yaitu hilangnya aliran primer dan sekunder dengan kegagalan reaktor untuk dipadamkan, tersumbatnya beberapa kanal pendingin bahan bakar pada daya penuh, dan hilangnya aliran primer dan sekunder yang diikuti dengan tersumbatnya beberapa kanal pendingin bahan bakar setelah reaktor padam. Kejadian pertama akan membahayakan pelat bahan bakar dengan naiknya temperatur kelongsong hingga titik lelehnya yaitu 590 °C. Tersumbatnya satu atau beberapa kanal pada satu elemen bahan bakar menyebabkan konsekuensi yang berbeda pada pelat bahan bakar, dimana paling sedikit tersumbatnya 2 kanal akan merusak satu pelat bahan bakar, apalagi tersumbatnya satu elemen bahan bakar. Kombinasi antara hilangnya aliran pendingin primer dan sekunder yang diikuti dengan tersumbatnya satu kanal bahan bakar setelah reaktor dipadamkan menyebabkan naiknya temperatur kelongsong di bawah titik lelehnya yang berarti sirkulasi alam yang terbentuk dan daya yang terus turun cukup untuk mendinginkan elemen bahan bakar. Kata kunci

  20. RA Research nuclear reactor Part 1, RA Reactor operation and maintenance in 1987; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1987. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Badrljica, R; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1987-12-15

    RA research reacto was not operated due to the prohibition issued in 1984 by the Government of Serbia. Three major tasks were finished in order to fulfill the licensing regulations about safety of nuclear facilities which is the condition for obtaining permanent operation licence. These projects involved construction of the emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing special ventilation system, and renewal of the system for electric power supply of the reactor systems. Renewal of the RA reactor instrumentation system was initiated. Design project was done by the Russian Atomenergoeksport, and is foreseen to be completed by the end of 1988. The RA reactor safety report was finished in 1987. This annual report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues, and three special annexes: report on testing the emergency cooling system, report on renewal of the RA reactor and design specifications for reactor renewal and reconstruction. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA nije radio usled zabrane Izvsnog veca Skupstine Srbije od 27. avgusta 1984. U cilju povecanja pouzdanosti rada reaktora a da bi se udovoljilo zakonskim propisima sto je uslov za dobijanje stalne dozvole za rad realizovana su tri velika zahvata na reaktoru RA. Ovi zahvati obuhvatili su izgradnju sistema za hladjenje jezgra reaktora u slucaju nuzde, rekonstukciju postojeceg sistema specijalne ventilacije i rekonstrukciju sistema napajanja elektricnom energijom neophodnih potrosaca reaktora RA. Zapoceti su radovi na modernizaciji intrumentacije reaktora RA, projekat je izradjen u sovjetskoj organizaciji Atomenergoeksport, a trebalo bi da se realizuje do kraja 1989. godine. U cilju povecanja prostora za skladistenje ozracenog nuklearnog goriva i njegovog efikasnijeg koriscenja, izradjen je su projekti za rekonstrukciju postojecih uredjaja za rukovanje gorivom, povecanje smestajnog kapaciteta i preciscavanje vode u bazenima za odlezavanje. Realizaija ovih

  1. Operational report, Advantages of gradual introducing of highly enriched fuel into the RA reactor core from economic aspect and users needs; Radni izvestaj, Prednost postupka parcijalnog uvodjenja visokoobogacenog goriva u reaktor RA sa aspekta ekonomicnosti i potreba korisnika

    Martinc, R et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-10-14

    The possibility of increasing the neutron flux in the RA reactor was considered for a number of years. The possibilities of reactor reconstruction are not realistic and they should be disregarded. The possibility that remains is to achieve higher neutron flux by improving the fueling scheme and above all by introducing highly enriched fuel into the reactor core. Decision to purchase highly enriched fuel was quicker due to the fact that the 2% enriched uranium fuel is not fabricated any more. There are two procedures for exchanging the fuel in the reactor core: a) removal of partially spent 2% enriched fuel and formation of the core with fresh highly enriched fuel; b) gradually introducing the new fuel into the existing RA reactor core according to a special transfer regime. This report includes some comparative analyses of these two procedures from both economic point of view and the needs of users, as well as some technical conditions. These results are in favour of gradual introducing of new fuel into the reactor core. relevant direct savings amount to 3 000 000 dinars. Some of the most important advantages cannot be estimated in this way. This report does not cover the safety analyses results which are presented in a series of other papers. [Serbo-Croat] Vec vise godina razmatra se mogucnost za povecanje neutronskog fluksa u reaktoru RA. Mogucnosti za rekonstrukciju reaktora RA u tom smislu su minimalne i realno ih treba odbaciti. Prema tome preostaje da se povecanje neutronskog fluksa postigne usavrsavanjem seme izmene goriva, a pre svega uvodjenjem goriva sa visokim stepenom obogacenja u reaktor RA. Donosenje odluke o nabavci visokoobogacenog goriva i njegovom uvodjenju u reaktor ubrzano je i cinjenicom da se staro 2% obogaceno uransko gorivo vise ne proizvodi. Postoje dva postupka za prevodjenje reaktora na ovo gorivo: a) Uklanjanjem poluistrosenog 2% obogacenog goriva iz reaktora i formiranjem jezgra iskljucivo od svezeg visokoobogacenog goriva, b

  2. RA Research reactor Annual report 1981 - Part 1, Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA, Deo 1 - Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora u 1981. godini

    Sotic, O; Milosevic, M; Martinc, R; Kozomara-Maic, S; Cupac, S; Radivojevic, J; Stamenkovic, D; Skoric, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1981-12-15

    biggest difficulty was maintenance of reactor instrumentation. During 1981 the reactor was operated safely, there was no accident nor incident that would affect the safety of reactor personnel or the environment. The testing operation will be continued in 1982,and the experience so far shows that the program would be successfully fulfilled on the whole. [Serbo-Croat] Nuklearni reaktor RA prestao je sa radom nakon martovske kampanje 1979. godine usled pojave talozenja oksihidrata aluminijuma na kosuljicama gorivnih elemenata. Odgovarajucim resenjima Sanitarnog inspektorata Republickog sekretarijata za zdravje i socijalnu politiku SR Srbije i generalnog direktora Instituta za nuklearne nauke 'Boris Kidric', Vinca zabranjen je dalji rad reaktora sve dok se ne utvrde uzroci stvaranja oksihidrata aluminijuma i njihovog talozenja, preduzmu mere za njihovo uklanjanje i ne obezbede potrebni uslovi za normalan nastavak rada reaktora. Do kraja 1979. i tokom 1980. godine, nakon niza izvrsenih analiza i utvrdjivanja uzroka koji su doveli do zaustavljanja rada reaktora, izvrsene su sve neophodne pripreme za ponovno pustanje reaktora u rad. Polazeci od cinjenice da na reaktoru RA ne postoji sistem za hladjenje jezgra u slucaju udesa i da ne postoji adekvatan sistem za filtriranje potencijalno zagadjenog vazduha, a saglasno sa novim propisima o pustanju u rad i probnom radu nuklearnih objekata, Sanitarni inspektorat je doneo privremeno resenje kojim se dozvoljava pustanje reaktora u rad, tj. izvodjenje tzv. 'nultog eksperimenta' uz ogranicenje snage na 1% od vrednosti nominalne snage. Na osnovu dobijene dozvole, reaktor RA je ponovo pusten u rad 21. januara 1981. godine, kada je dostignuta kriticnost sa jezgrom sastavljenim iskljucivo od gorivnih elemenata od 80% obogacenog uranijuma. Eksperiment je zavrsen krajem marta, nakon cega je zatrazena dozvola za probni rad na vecim snagama i potom za rad na punoj snazi. Uzimajuci postojece stanje reaktora RA doneto je resenje kojim se

  3. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part I - RA nuclear reactor operation, maintenance and utilization in 1983; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Deo I - Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1983. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Kozomara-Maic, S; Cupac, S; Raickovic, N; Radivojevic, J; Badrljica, R; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1983-12-15

    After regular shutdown in November 1982, inspection of the fuel elements from the RA reactor core which was done from December 1982 - February 1983 has shown that there are deposits of aluminium oxides on the surface of the fuel cladding. After restart The RA reactor was operated at power levels from 1.8 - 2 MW, with 80% enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements. It was found that there was no corrosion of the fuel element cladding and that it was not possible to find the cause of surface deposition on the cladding surfaces without further operation. It was decided to purify the heavy water permanently during operation and to increase the heavy water flow by operating two pumps. This procedure was adopted in order to decrease the possibility of corrosion. The Safety committee of the Institute has approved this procedure for operating the RA reactor in 1983. The core was made of 80% enriched fuel, critical experiments were done until June 1983, and after that the operation was continued at power levels up to 2 MW. [Serbo-Croat] Pregledom nuklearnog goriva iz tehnoloskih kanala reaktora RA koji je izvrsen u periodu decembear 1982-feburuar 1983. godine nakon zaustavljanja reaktora po isteku novembarske kampanje 1982. godine, ustanovljeno je da ponovo dolazi do stvaranja taloga u obliku hidratisanih oksida aluminiuma na kosuljicama gorivnih elemenata. Nakon ponovnog pustanja u rad, reaktor je do novembra 1981. godine neprekidno bio u pogonu na snagama 1,8 - 2 MW. Jezgro je bilo formirano iskljucivo sa od gorivnih elemenata sa 80% obogacenim uran dioksidom. Utvrdjeno je da kosuljica gorivnog elementa nije korodirala, i da se bez nastval rada ne moze utvrditi uzrok pojave taloga na povrsini kosuljice. Da bi se mogucnost korozije aluminjumskih komponenti u primarnom kolu raktora svela na sto manju meru odluceno je da se vrsi neprekidno preciscavanje teske vode i da se istovremeno poveca protok teske vode radom dve pumpe, Komitet za sigurnost Instituta odobrio je ovakav nacin

  4. External irradiation of the personnel operating the reactor RA at Vinca in the period 1963-1966; Spoljasnje ozracivanje osoblja koje opsluzuje reaktor RA u Vinci u periodu 1963-1966

    Ninkovic, M M; Minincic, Z [Institut za nuklearne nauke Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1967-07-01

    The objective of this paper was the analysis of external radiation exposure of the personnel employed at the RA reactor in Vinca during past four years. During 1963 reactor was not operated because of the general repair and maintenance, and it was operated during 1964, 1965 and 1966. The internal irradiation and the estimation of the beta doses on the skin were not analysed in this paper, they should be treated by separate analyses. The evaluation of external irradiation covered only gamma radiation since yhe neutron doses were negligible. The analysis was based on the the irradiation dose data obtained by film and personal dosemeters. Predmet ovog rada je analiza spoljasnjeg ozracivanja osoblja koje je radilo na reaktoru RA u Vinci u poslednje cetiri godine, u toku kojih je reaktor bio u opstem remontu 1963, odnosno u normalnom radu 1964, 1965 i 1966. U ovom radu nismo se upustali u analizu unutrasnjeg ozracivanja, kao ni procenu doza beta zracenja na kozi, sto treba da bude predmet posebnih analiza. Pri proceni spoljasnjeg ozracivanja operisano je samo sa dozama gama zracenja, jer je ozracivanje neutronima zanemarljivo. Celokupna analiza izvrsena je na osnovu podataka o dozama ozracivanja do kojih se doslo ocitavanjem film o penkalo dozimetara.

  5. External irradiation of the personnel operating the reactor RA at Vinca in the period 1963-1966; Spoljasnje ozracivanje osoblja koje opsluzuje reaktor RA u Vinci u periodu od 1963. do 1966. godine

    Ninkovic, M M; Minincic, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1968-06-15

    The paper first gives a survey of the characteristic operations performed on the Vinca reactor RA in which most of the personnel become irradiated. Following is a schematic diagram of the irradiations in the period 1963-1966 in which the reactor was in continual operation. The surveys are given for each month and each year separately, while the irradiated personnel are grouped in several characteristic irradiation dose ranges. In this analysis special emphasis is given to a survey of irradiation of the personnel classified according to their profession, i.e. their post. This kind of analysis is indispensable in planning work, proper disposition of the personnel and undertaking special protective measures for reducing the irradiations (author) [Serbo-Croat] U radu je najpre dat pregled mesta na reaktoru RA, sa topografijom zracenja, na kojima radno osoblje pretezno biva ozracivano. Zatim su dati tabelarno i graficki pregledi ozracivanja za protekli period u kome je reaktor neprekidno radio, tj. od 1963. do 1966. god. Pregledi su dati po mesecima za svaku godinu i to tako sto su ozracivana lica razvrstavana u nekoliko karakteristicnih intervala doza ozracivanja. Posebno mesto u ovoj analizi zauzima pregled ozracivanja osoblja razvrstanog po strukama, odnosno radnim mestima. Ovakva analiza je nuzna za planiranje poslova, pravilan raspored radnog osoblja kao i preduzimanje posebnih zastitnih mera u cilju smanjivanja ozracivanja (author)

  6. STAKEHOLDER THEORY DAN KARYA KESELAMATAN SCHINDLER

    Edward Nicodemus Lontah

    2015-04-01

    Donaldson and Peterson studies have shown that stakeholder theory has a more solid foundation than the epistemology of shareholder theory to analyze the performance of business ethics and moral duty of a company. This article discussed the business activities of Oskar Schindler, an industrialist war-profiteer during World War II. Schindler's business which was originally run by the government under the Nazi regime, eventually opposed the mission of economic and legal liability imposed by the regime. Schindler's transformation of vision and business mission in this article demonstrate the characteristics and connection of layers in descriptive, instrumental and normative stakeholder theory in the concept of "normative, instrumental and descriptive stakeholder theory" according to Donaldson and Peterson.

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  8. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    NONE

    1977-11-30

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  9. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1995, with comparative review for period 1991-1995; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1995. godinu, uz uporedni pregled za period 1991-1995

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1995-12-01

    firmom Atomenergoexport. Prema tom ugovoru trebalo je da celokupna nova instrumentacija za reaktor RA bude isporucena Institutu u Vinci do kraja 1990. godine, ali je do septembra 1991. godine isporuceno svega 56% od predvidjene kolicine. Od tada je svaka isporuka obustavljena, a razlog je privremena zabrana na sve isporuke opreme za Jugoslaviju izrecena od strane ove organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija. Demontirana je postojeca instrumentacija u maksimalno mogucem obimu, kako bi se zadrzala neka osnovna merenja neophodna i u uslovima kada reaktor nije u pogonu. Kontrola i odrzavanje celopkupne opreme postrojenja, kao i remontni radovi izvrsavani su redovno i efikasno. Kontrola goriva od strane inspektora MAAE obavljana je jedanput mesecno. U ovom izvestajnom periodu na reaktoru RA bilo je zaposleno prosecno 47 radnika, sto je dovoljan broj u uslovima remontnih i investicionih radova. Nedostatak finansijskih sredstava za odrzavanje reaktora RA je neresen problem i u ovom periodu. Ovaj izvestaj podeljen je u dve celine: pogon i odrzavanje reaktora i zastita od zracenja na reaktoru RA.

  10. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1990 with the comparative evaluation for the period 1986-1990; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1990. godinu uz uporedni pregled za period 1986 - 1990

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1990-12-15

    Annual report concerning the project 'RA research nuclear reactor' for 1990, financed by the Serbian ministry of science is divided into two parts. First part is concerned with RA reactor operation and maintenance, which is the task of the Division for reactor engineering of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering. Second part deals with radiation protection activities at the RA reactor which is the responsibility of the Institute for radiation protection. Scientific council of the Institute for multidisciplinary studies and RA reactor engineering has stated that this report describes adequately the activity and tasks fulfilled at the RA reactor in 1989. The scope and the quality of the work done were considered successful both concerning the maintenance and reconstruction, as well as radiation protection activities. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj po projektu 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' za 1990. godinu, koji finansira republicka zajednica za nauku SR Srbije po ugovoru br. 3705/1 sastoji se iz dva dela. Prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA, sto predstavlja obavezu Odeljenja za reaktorski inzenjering u sastavu OOUR Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjering RA. Drugi deo obuhvata poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA, sto predstavlja obavezu OOUR Instituta za zastitu od zracenja 'Zastita'. Naucno vece Instituta za multidisciplinarna istrazivanja i inzenjjring RA ocenilo je da sadrzina ovog izvestaja odgovara izvrsenim poslovima na reaktoru RA u 1989. godini. Pozitivno se ocenjuje obim i kvalitet izvrsenih radova kako u pogledu odrzavanja i rekonstrukcije reaktora, tako i u pogledu poslova zastite od zracenja izvrsenih kod njega.

  11. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part 1, RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1993, with comparative review for the period 1991 - 1993, Annex 3; Projekat Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - 1 Deo Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1993. godini, uz uporedni pregled za period 1991 - 1993. - prilog 3

    Sotic, O; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Mikic, N; Tanaskovic, M [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1993-12-15

    RA reactor was not operated during 1993 because of the complete instrumentation exchange. Although it has been planned to exchange the complete instrumentation until the end of 1993, and to start reactor operation in the first half of 1993 this was not fulfilled because the instrumentation was not delivered until the end of 1993. Main activities during past seven years were related to construction of the emergency cooling system; repair and reconstruction of the system for handling the spent fuel and improvement of spent fuel storage conditions; exchange of the aged instrumentation. Other reactor components and systems, reactor core, primary coolant loop and gas circulation system are in good condition concerning future start-up. [Serbo-Croat] U 1993. godini reaktor nije bio u pogonu zbog zamene njegove celokupne instrumentacije. Iako je bilo planirano da se celokupna instrumentacija zameni do kraja 1993. te da reaktor pocne sa radom u prvoj polovini 1993. Ovo nije ispunjeno jer celokupna oprema nije isporucena ni do kraja 1993. godine. Osnovni zahvati koji su u proteklih sedma godina izvrseni, odnosili su se na izgradnju sistema za udesno hladjenje, rekonstrukciju sistema za rukovanje ozracenim gorivom i poboljsanje uslova za stokiranje ovog goriva, zamenu instrumentacije. Ostali sistemi reaktora, reaktorsko jezgro, primarno kolo hladjenja i sistem za cirkulaciju gasa su u dobrom stanju i mogu se nesmetano koristiti u buducem radu.

  12. THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SMR WITH NATURALLY CIRCULATING PRIMARY SYSTEM DURING LOSS OF FEED WATER ACCIDENT

    Susyadi Susyadi

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRAK Reaktor daya kecil modular (SMR memiliki beberapa keunggulan dibanding reaktor daya besar konvensional. Dengan disain yang lebih sederhana dan terintegrasi, penerapan hukum alamiah untuk sistem keselamatannya dan biaya modal yang rendah, reaktor ini sangat cocok untuk dibangun di Indonesia. Salah satunya disain SMR yang sedang dikembangkan menerapkan gaya penggerak alami untuk sistim pendingin primernya. Dengan disain seperti itu, adalah sangat penting untuk memahami implikasinya terhadap aspek keselamatan pada seluruh kondisi operasi. Salah satu yang perlu diinvestigasi adalah kecelakaan kehilangan air umpan (LoFW. Pada studi ini, dilakukan analisis kinerja thermal hidrolik SMR yang menggunakan sistim pendinginan primer sirkulasi alam saat kecelakaan LoFW. Tujuannya adalah untuk menginvestigasi karakteristik aliran sistem primer saat kecelakaan LoFW dan untuk memastikan apakah aliran sirkulasi alam cukup untuk memindahkan panas dari teras guna menjaga kondisi tetap aman selama kecelakaan tersebut. Metoda yang digunakan adalah dengan merepresentasikan sistem reaktor ke dalam model-model generik program RELAP5 dan melakukan simulasi numerik. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa setelah kejadian pemicu dan trip reaktor, pada sisi primer laju alirnya berfluktuasi secara signifikan dan temperatur pendinginnya menurun secara bertahap sedangkan  pada sisi sekunder kondisi uap berubah menjadi uap jenuh. Laju alir turun dari ~711 kg/detik menjadi ~263 kg/detik sebelum kembali naik lagi pada t=~46 detik. Saat laju alir di titik terendah, temperatur pusat bahan bakar dan fluida pendingin adalah sekitar  ~565 K dan  ~554 K, yang menujukkan bahwa temperatur bahan bakar masih jauh di bawah batas disain dan temperatur fluidanya juga berada di bawah titik saturasi. Keadaan ini menunjukkan bahwa saat transien kedua parameter utama termohidrolik reaktor tetap dalam kondisi yang dapat diterima sehingga dapat disimpulkan  bahwa saat  kecelakaan kehilangan air umpan, SMR

  13. RA Research reactor, Part 1, Operation and maintenance of the RA nuclear reactor for 1988; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA, deo 1, pogon i odrzavanje nukleanog reaktora RA u 1988. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Badrljica, R; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1988-12-15

    According to the action plan for 1988, operation of the RA reactor should have been restarted in October, but the operating license was not obtained. Control and maintenance of the reactor components was done regularly and efficiently dependent on the availability of the spare parts. The major difficulty was maintenance of the reactor instrumentation. Period of the reactor shutdown was used for repair of the heavy water pumps in the primary coolant loop. With the aim to ensure future safe and reliable reactor operation, action were started concerning renewal of the reactor instrumentation. Design project was done by the soviet company Atomenergoeksport. The contract for constructing this equipment was signed, and it is planned that the equipment will be delivered by the end of 1990. In order to increase the space for storage of the irradiated fuel elements and its more efficient usage, projects were started concerned with reconstruction of the existing fuel handling equipment, increase of the storage space and purification of the water in the fuel storage pools. These projects are scheduled to be finished in mid 1989. This report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues. [Serbo-Croat] Prema planu za 1988. godinu, reaktor RA je trebalo da pusten u rad oktobra meseca, medjutim nije dobio dozvolu za nastavak rada. Kontrola i odrzavanje opreme izvrsavani su redovno i efikasno, u granicama koje su diktirane raspolozivoscu repromaterijala i rezervnih delova. Najvecu poteskocu pricinjavalo je odrzavanje instrumentacije. Period stajanja u 1988. godini iskoriscen je za remont teskovodnih pumpi u primarnom kolu hladjenja. U cilju povecanja pouzdanosti rada reaktora zapoceti su radovi na modernizaciji instrumentacije, projekat je izradjen u sovjetskoj organizaciji Atomenergoeksport, sklopljen je ugovor o izradi ove opreme koja bi trebalo da bude isporucena do kraja 1990. U cilju povecanja prostora za skladistenje ozracenog

  14. Riset Operasional Peningkatan Kinerja Tim Keselamatan Pasien Berdasarkan Standar Internasional Enam Tujuan Keselamatan Pasien

    Widodo J. Pudjirahardjo, Moh Ainul Yaqin Darmawan Setijanto

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patient safety emphasizes reporting, analysis,and prevention of medical error that often leads to adversehealthcare events. In 2010, there were 60 incidents related topatient safety in Nyai Ageng Pinatih Hospital, Gresik, and thiscondition was incompatible with the hospital mission to providehealth care professionally and safely. The objective was toimprove the performance of patient safety team at motherchildhospital, Nyai Ageng Pinatih Gresik based on the SixGoals International ...

  15. RA Research reactor Annual report 1982 - Part 1, Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Deo 1 - Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1982. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Kozomara-Maic, S; Cupac, S; Radivojevic, J; Stamenkovic, D; Skoric, M; Miokovic, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1982-12-15

    outdated spare parts. Project concerning renewal of the reactor equipment was initiated during the past year according to the contract with the Soviet Atomenergoexport and IAEA which has planned to spend 1 000 000 of rubles for this project. [Serbo-Croat] Probni rad reaktora zapocet septembra 1981. godine na snazi od 2 MW sa 80% obogacenim gorivom nastavljen je u celoj 1982. prema prethodno napravljenom planu. Pocetno jezgro formirano ja sa 44 gorivna kanala sa po deset gorivnih elemenata. Prva polovina godine iskoriscena je za neophodna merenja i ispitivanja radnih parametara rektora i funkcionisanje sistema i opreme u radnim uslovima. U drugoj polovini godine zapocet je program probnog rada na visim snagama. Utvrdjeno je da ugradjeni visak reaktivnosti i kapacitet kontrolnih sipki zadovoljava sigurnosne kriterijume MAAE, ugradjeni visak reaktivnosti moze da omoguci rad na snazi od 4,7 MW u 4 mesecne kampanje sa po 15-20 dana rada, postoje povoljni uslovi za hladjenje jezgra pri pocetnoj konfiguraciji. Izmeren je efekat pocetnog zatrovanja na reaktivnost i raspodelu snage, izmerena je pocetna prostorna raspodela neutronskog fluksa koja iznosi 3,9 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} pri znazi od 2 MW. Odredjena je promena kalibracionog koeficijenta u sistemu za automatsko odrzavanje snage. Svi rezultati ukazuju da ce pri nominalnoj snazi od 4,7 Mw biti zadovoljeni svi kriterijum sigurnosti i postovana ogranicenja u odnosu na koriscenje goriva. Po dobijanju dozvole za rad na punoj snazi morace da se izvrsi dopunski probni rad na snagama od 3, 4, i 4,7 MW. Prelaz od pocetne konfiguracije sa 44 gorivna kanala u jezgru vrsice se postupno da bi se dostigla ravnotezna konfiguracija sa 72 gorivna kanala sa po 10 elemenata. Reaktor nije radio u septembu mesecu zbog radova na zameni dela cevovoda koji povezuje pumpnu stanicu na Dunavu sa horizontalnim taloznikom. Kontrola i odrzavanje opreme izvrsavani su redovno u granicama raspolozivosti rezerbinh delova. Teskocu pricinjava

  16. Housing maintenance of primary cooling pump I of Kartini reactor

    Agung Nugroho; Wahyu Imam W

    2013-01-01

    Housing maintenance of Primary Cooling Pump have been done with purpose to enhance capability of fluid block and stopping leakage. The procedures of modification are follow: Replace mechanical seal type Nock 560 – 1 ½'' by mechanical seal type Nock 560 - 38, modification gland plate/housing with to lathe the diameter of gland plate/housing from diameter of 54 mm to 60 mm, in size setting-up mechanical seal, alignment and then function test. The result of the modification are: mechanical seal has been installed, housing has been modified, and the leakage of primary cooling water has been repaired and operated properly. Conclusion of the maintenance are the primary cooling water pump is working well, because the primary cooling water is not leakage any more. (author)

  17. ANALISIS SKENARIO KEGAGALAN SISTEM UNTUK MENENTUKAN PROBABILITAS KECELAKAAN PARAH AP1000

    D.T. Sony Tjahyani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kejadian Fukushima telah menunjukkan bahwa kecelakaan parah dapat terjadi, maka dari itu sangatlah penting untuk menganalisis tingkat keselamatan pada reaktor daya. Berdasarkan rekomendasi expert mission IAEA setelah kejadian Fukushima, perlu dilakukan upaya untuk meminimalisasi terjadinya kecelakaan parah yaitu dengan melakukan proses pendinginan yang maksimal. Dalam konsep keselamatan fasilitas nuklir, khususnya reaktor daya telah diterapkan konsep keselamatan berlapis (Defence in Depth, DiD. Konsep keselamatan tersebut terdiri atas 5 level pertahanan yang bertujuan mencegah dan mengurangi lepasan produk fisi ke masyarakat dan lingkungan pada saat reaktor daya mengalami kecelakaan. Dalam reaktor telah didesain sistem atau tindakan yang mempunyai fungsi untuk mengatasi setiap level tersebut. Tujuan dari analisis ini adalah menentukan probabilitas kecelakaan parah dengan melakukan skenario kegagalan sistem dalam proses pendinginan di reaktor. Sebagai obyek analisis adalah reaktor daya AP1000, karena jenis reaktor ini sedang banyak dibangun saat ini. Skenario dilakukan dengan mengasumsikan beberapa kombinasi kegagalan sistem yang termasuk dalam DiD level 2 dan 3. Kegagalan sistem kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis pohon kegagalan berdasarkan perangkat lunak SAPHIRE ver. 6.76. Dari analisis didapatkan probabilitas gagal dari kelompok sistem DiD level 2 dan 3 pada AP1000 masih di bawah batas kriteria dari IAEA yaitu lebih kecil dari 10-2, serta probabilitas kecelakaan parah didapatkan sebesar 6,17 x 10-10. Berdasarkan analisis ini disimpulkan bahwa AP1000 mempunyai tingkat keselamatan yang cukup tinggi, karena melalui skenario kegagalan sistem didapatkan probabilitas kecelakaan parah yang sangat kecil.   ABSTRACT Fukushima accident has shown that severe accident could be occurred, therefore it is important to analyze safety level of nuclear power plants. Based on the recommendations of IAEA expert mission after the Fukushima accident

  18. PENGARUH KESELAMATAN KERJA DAN KESEHATAN KERJA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS KERJA KARYAWAN

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources (HR is the most important asset in a company. Employees can be a good potential if managed properly and correctly, but employees can also be a burden if the company can not manage it properly. As the increase in the industry, particularly coal mining industry in East Kalimantan is always the problem that arises is the possibility of the occurrence of occupational accidents, occupational diseases, and environmental pollution. The occurrence of occupational accidents, occupational diseases, and environmental pollution due to poor human resource management can reduce employee productivity and company. Research objectives to be achieved is describing the safety and health of employees produkitivitas particularly in the production of PT. XYZ, Loa Kulu aquatic mammal, and to know the significant influence of each variable. Survey respondents were employees in the production of PT. XYZ, Loa Kulu aquatic mammal with a high of 165 employees. By using the Slovin formula can be determined that a sample of respondents is as many as 99 employees.Based on the description of each item answer the answer of respondents indicated that employees responded positively to the questions given. Multiple regression analysis showed that there were significant effects of occupational safety and health of employee productivity, it can be seen from the significance of each variable is significant <0.05. Significance X1 to Y by 0.000, and the significance of X2 to Y by 0.017. Can be inferred by looking at the results of studies showing that the implementation of occupational safety and health on the productivity of employees of PT. XZY Loa Kulu Kukar, generally not very good, is expected to be further enhanced supervision.

  19. Model Penilaian untuk Kematangan Perencanaan Keselamatan dalam Tahap Pra Konstruksi

    Bambang Endroyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector still has a low achievement in safety issues. Fatal accident rate in construction is higher than average rate in other industries. Because of it, need some attention to minimize the rate of accident in construction. This research examined the key factors of safety planning in the pre-construction stage, and it was based on the theories of accidents causation having the upstream approach. Some theories were: Constraint-Response Theory (CR; Construction Design Management (CDM, and the Process Protocol (Pp. This research broke down the three theories above (CR; CDM; Pp into the concept of the key factors of safety planning in pre-construction. Then, the concept was verified by construction practitioners and academician, using Delphi method three rotations. During the verification, from the first to the third round, there were reduction and the addition concept and language appropriateness. The findings of this research were assessment models of maturity safety planning in the pre construction stages. There were two models, the model of "radar chart" or MISAP 1 and the model of "worksheet" or MISAP 2.

  20. Model Perilaku Keselamatan Kerja Karyawan pada Industri Berisiko Tinggi

    Usep Firdaus Huda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Workplace accident rate in Indonesia is still high and likely to increase each year. The most dominant factor which causes accidents to happen in high-risk industries is because of the low behaviour of the workers' safety work. The research was conducted on the employees of LPG Bulk Filling Station (SPBE in Bogor Region. The aim of this research is conducted to develop a model of the worker's safety behavior on high-risk industries. Some of the factors that have an influence on the safety behavior, among others: safety leadership style, safety climate, job satisfaction, fatigue, and safety motivation. The population of this research is all employees of SPBE ini Bogor region. The samples were taken by using multy stage cluster random sampling technique with two stages. The first stage, SPBE separated by location, and the second, employees is separated by working environment; office and field. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed, of which 92 were returned and 69 were analyzed. Respondent data were analyzed by SEM-PLS using smart PLS software. The resulting model showed that safety leadership by participating and delegating style has a positive effect on safety climate and workers' safety behaviour. Worker's safety motivation has a positive effect on workers' safety behaviour, and worker's safety motivation affected by the safety climate. Keywords: safety climate, safety leadership, safety motivation, safety behaviour, workplace accident

  1. PENGARUH KESELAMATAN KERJA DAN KESEHATAN KERJA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS KERJA KARYAWAN

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Resources (HR is the most important asset in a company. Employees can be a good potential if managed properly and correctly, but employees can also be a burden if the company can not manage it properly. As the increase in the industry, particularly coal mining industry in East Kalimantan is always the problem that arises is the possibility of the occurrence of occupational accidents, occupational diseases, and environmental pollution. The occurrence of occupational accidents, occupational diseases, and environmental pollution due to poor human resource management can reduce employee productivity and company. Research objectives to be achieved is describing the safety and health of employees produkitivitas particularly in the production of PT. XYZ, Loa Kulu aquatic mammal, and to know the significant influence of each variable. Survey respondents were employees in the production of  PT. XYZ, Loa Kulu aquatic mammal with a high of 165 employees. By using the Slovin formula can be determined that a sample of respondents is as many as 99 employees.Based on the description of each item answer the answer of respondents indicated that employees responded positively to the questions given. Multiple regression analysis showed that there were significant effects of occupational safety and health of employee productivity, it can be seen from the significance of each variable is significant <0.05. Significance X1 to Y by 0.000, and the significance of X2 to Y by 0.017. Can be inferred by looking at the results of studies showing that the implementation of occupational safety and health on the productivity of employees of PT. XZY  Loa Kulu Kukar, generally not very good, is expected to be further enhanced supervision.

  2. Budaya Organisasi yang Mendukung Keselamatan Pasien di Rumah Sakit

    Ari Widyanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is one of important factors that contribute to the performance of an organization, including in a hospital. In a hospital, performance can be measured by its level of patient safety. Howover, studies and research that discuss the relationship of organizational culture and patient safety are still very limited, including in Indonesia. This research is conducted to observe organizational culture that support patient safety. This research is conducted in three hospitals in Jakarta. Type of organizational culture is identified using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI questionnaire and the level of patient safety is assessed using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC questionnaire. Once the organizational culture is identified and the level of patient safety culture is observed in each hospital, correlation test and analysis is conducted between types of organizational culture with aspect of patient safety based. Results show that three hospitals do not have dominant organizational culture. However, type of organizational culture that has a significant positive correlation with aspect of patient safety the most is adhocracy culture, eventhough other organizational culture type also support patient safety. The result of this research then used as initial suggestion to make change on organizational culture so that patient safety could be improved

  3. Implementasi Undang-Undang Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja

    Arianto, Henry

    2009-01-01

    There are many Indonesia citizen in particular resident at silvan one is opting work as Labour Of Indonesia beyond seas, as at Saudi's Malaysia and Arab, to weigh working as farmer. If don't chance to abroad go to, therefore village resident is opting become labour at metropolises to weigh as farmer. Base Indonesian state constitution, section 27 sentence 2 UUD ' 45, every citizen really is entitled to work and subsistence that reasonably divides humanitarianism. But of course that citizen ca...

  4. Radiological protection in nucleus reactor; Perlindungan radiologi di reaktor nukleus

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: radiological protection problems of reactor 1. in operation 2. types of reactor i.e. power reactors, research reactors, etc. 3. during maintenance and installation of fuels. 4. nuclear fuels.

  5. The effective lifetime and temperature coefficient in a coupled fast-thermal reactor; Temps de vie effectif et coefficient de temperature dans un reacteur a couplage neutrons rapides-neutrons thermiques; Ehffektivnyj srok zhizni i temperaturnyj koehffitsient nejtronov v dvoyakom reaktore na bystrykh i teplovykh nejtronakh; Vida efectiva y coeficiente de temperatura en un reactor con acoplamiento rapido-termico

    Haefele, W. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    . Teplovoj komponent dejstvuet kak svoego roda zamedlitel' vremeni zhizni nejtronov. Kak i v teorii zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov, ehffekt zapazdyvaniya ischezaet, esli reaktivnost' dostatochno vysoka, chtoby bystryj komponent stal kritichnym sam po sebe. V issledovanii rassmatrivalsya sparennyj reaktor, v kotorom bystryj komponent podvergaetsya dejstviyu vnezapnogo stupenchatogo skachka reaktivnosti {alpha}{sub 0}. Izza vozrastayushchego urovnya ehnergii temperatura podnimaetsya i nachinayut rabotat' dva temperaturnykh koehffitsienta: temperaturnyj koehffitsient bystrogo komponenta i temperaturnyj koehffitsient teplovogo komponenta. Ehta problema rassmatrivaetsya s odnoj gruppoj zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov (v obychnom znachenii). Privoditsya formalizm dlya vyrazheniya ehffektivnogo sroka zhizni i temperaturnogo koehffitsienta vo vremya razlichnykh stadij issledovaniya. Dany takie otkloneniya dlya razlichnykh znachenij {alpha}{sub 0}, pri kotorykh dostigaetsya predel kinetiki reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh. (author)

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN RELIABILITY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR OPERATION

    Sigit Santoso

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRAK Peran dan tindakan operator pada reaktor berpendingin gas akan berbeda dengan peran operator pada operasi tipe reaktor lain. Analisis unjuk kerja operator dan faktor yang berpengaruh dapat dilakukan secara komprehensif melalui analisis keandalan manusia(HRA. Melalui HRA dampak dari kesalahan manusia pada sistem maupun cara untuk mengurangi dampak dan frekuensi kesalahan dapat diketahui. Makalah membahas faktor yang berpengaruh pada tindakan operator, yaitu pada kejadian kecelakaan pendingin reaktor gas bersuhu tinggi-HTGR. Analisis untuk kualifikasi faktor pembentuk kinerja(PSF dilakukan berdasarkan kurva keandalan fungsi waktu, dan metode keandalan manusia yang dikembangkan berdasar pada aspek kognitif yaitu Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM. Hasil analisis berdasar kurva keandalan fungsi waktu menunjukkan komponen waktu berkontribusi positif pada peningkatan keandalan operator (PSF<1 pada kondisi semua fitur keselamatan berfungsi sesuai rancangan. Sedangkan pada metoda analisis dengan pendekatan kognitif CREAM diketahui selain faktor ketersediaan waktu, faktor pelatihan dan rancangan HMI juga berkontribusi meningkatkan keandalan operator. Faktor pembentuk kinerja keseluruhan diketahui sebesar 0,25 dengan faktor kontribusi positif dominan atau berpengaruh pada penurunan kesalahan manusia adalah ketersediaan waktu (PSF=0,01, dan faktor kontribusi negatif dominan adalah prosedur dan siklus kerja (PSF=5. Nilai PSF tersebut sebagai faktor pengali dalam perhitungan probabilitas kesalahan manusia. Analisis faktor pembentuk kinerja perlu dikembangkan pada skenario kejadian lain untuk selanjutnya digunakan untuk perhitungan dan analisis keandalan manusia yang komprehensif dan perancangan sistem interaksi manusia mesin di ruang kendali. Kata kunci: PSF, HTGR, operator, ruang kendali, keandalan manusia

  7. Measurements with a Pulsed and Modulated Source in a Reactor; Mesures au Moyen d'une Source Pulsee et Modulee dans un Reacteur; Izmereniya v reaktore s pomoshch'yu impul'snogo i moduliruemogo is tochnika; Mediciones Efectuadas en Reactor con una Fuente Pulsada y Modulada

    Rotter, W. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1965-10-15

    analizador multicanal. Como el flujo del generador es perfectamente sinusoidal, la respuesta del reactor puede integrarse en cada cuarto de perfodo, puesto que el circuito de medicion esta gobernado por el generador; por consiguiente, el tiempo de medicion es minimo. Los datos registrados sobre cinta perforada se analizan con ayuda de una calculadora numerica. (author) [Russian] Generator, vyhod nejtronov kotorogo izmenjaetsja v zavisimosti ot funkcii kakogo-to vremeni, byl razrabotan v issledovatel'skih laboratorijah Filipsa. Ego prakticheskaja pol'za v oblasti fiziki reaktorov byla prodemonstrirovana na serii izmerenij, provedennyh v reaktore BR-O 2 v podkriticheskom sostojanii. Horoshaja ustojchivost', vozmozhnost' proizvodit' rezkie izmenenija intensivnosti nejtronnogo potoka, impul'sirovat' vyhod ili modulirovat' ego sinusoidal'no, - vse jeto delaet takoj generator ochen' gibkim. On pozvoljaet ustanavlivat' reaktivnost' ({rho} = {Delta}k/{beta}) i vremja zhizni nejtronov ( Script-Small-L /{beta}) po razlichnym nezavisimym metodam. Tochnoe sravnenie jetih metodov vozmozhno, poskol'ku poslednie mogut byt' ispol'zovany bez izmenenija uslovij izmerenija. Ustanovleno: 1) {rho} na osnove zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov putem mgnovennogo umen'shenija vyhoda nejtronov; 2) {rho} na osnove mgnovennyh nejtronov putem ispol'zovanija impul'sov nejtronov; 3) Script-Small-L /{beta} putem soedinenija 1) i 2) dlja 0,5 $ < {rho} < 2 $ ; 4) Script-Small-L /{beta} na osnove peredatochnoj funkcii reaktora dlja moduliruemogo istochnika. Obsuzhdajutsja peredatochnye funkcii dlja oscilljatora reaktivnosti i dlja sinusoidal'no moduliruemogo istochnika. Pokazano, chto izmerenie Script-Small-L /{beta} vozmozhno dlja 0,1 $< {rho} < $ s uchetom primenenija moduliruemogo istochnika. Tot zhe metod takzhe daet reaktivnost' s pomoshh'ju otnoshenija mgnovennyh nejtronov k zapazdyvajushhim nejtronam dlja optimal'noj chastoty, prichem na praktike jeto proishodit nezavisimo ot dannyh, otnosjashhihsja k

  8. DESAIN TERAS PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR (PBMR MENGGUNAKAN PAKET PROGRAM MCNP-5 PADA KONDISI BEGINNING OF LIFE

    Ralind Re Marla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan desain teras Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN untuk jenis Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 70 MWe untuk keperluan proses smelter pada keadaan beginning of life (BOL. Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persen pengkayaan, distribusi suhu dan nilai keselamatan dengan koefisien reaktivitas teras yang negatif pada reaktor jenis PBMR apabila daya reaktor 70 MWe. Analisis menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle-5 (MCNP5 dan dari hasil analisis ini diharapkan dapat memenuhi syarat dalam mendukung program percepatan pembangunan kelistrikan batubara 10.000 MWe khususnya untuk proses smelter, yang tersebar merata di wilayah Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, faktor perlipatan efektif (k-eff Reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe mengalami kondisi kritis pada pengkayaan 5,626 % dengan nilai faktor perlipatan efektif 1,00031±0,00087 dan nilai koefisien reaktivitas suhu pada -10,0006 pcm/K. Dari hasil analisis daat disimpulkan bahwa reaktor jenis PBMR daya 70 MWe adalah aman.   ABSTRACT The core design of Nuclear Power Plant for Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR type with 70 MWe capacity power in Beginning of Life (BOL has been performed. The aim of this analysis, to know percent enrichment, temperature distribution and safety value by negative temperature coefficient at type PBMR if reactor power become lower equal to 70 MWe. This analysis was expected become one part of overview project development the power plant with 10.000 MWe of total capacity, spread evenly in territory of Indonesia especially to support of smelter industries. The results showed that, effective multiplication factor (keff with power 70 MWe critical condition at enrichment 5,626 %is 1,00031±0,00087, based on enrichment result, a value of the temperature coefficient reactivity is - 10,0006 pcm/K. Based on the results of these studies, it can beconcluded that the PBMR 70 MWe design is theoritically safe.

  9. Change of I-V characteristics of SiC diodes upon reactor irradiation; Modification des caracteristiques I-V de jonctions p-n au SiC du fait d'une irradiation dans un reacteur; Izmeneniya kharakteristik I-V vyrashchennogo v SiC perekhoda tipa p-n posle oblucheniya ego v reaktore; Modificaciones que sufren por irradiacion en un reactor las caracteristicas I-V de uniones p-n en SiC

    Heerschap, M; De Coninck, R [Solid State Physics Dept., SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1962-04-15

    distintas procedencias. Las uniones se obtuvieron en el horno de Lely. Midieron las caracteristicas directa e inversa durante la irradiacion, y despues de esta, hasta la temperatura de 150{sup o}C. Se estan realizando mediciones hasta 500{sup o}C. Han encontrado que uno de los tipos de diodo es resistente a los neutrones del BR-1 hasta un flujo integrado de 10{sup 15} neutrones/cm{sup 2}, mientras que el otro soporta hasta 10{sup 17} neutrones/cm{sup 2}. La memoria indica los cambios de las caracteristicas, asi como los resultados de algunos experimentos de recocido. (author) [Russian] V poiskakh poluprovodnikov, kotorye mogli by byt' ispol'zovany v reaktorakh s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka dlya izmereniya raspredeleniya potokov, my obluchali v bel'gijskom reaktore BR-1 perekhody tipa p-n v SiC. Byli oblucheny dva tipa diodov SiC razlichnogo proiskhozhdeniya. EHti perekhody vyrashchivayutsya v pechi Loli. Izmeneniya pryamoj i obratnoj kharakteristik byli izmereny posle i vo vremya oblucheniya vplot' do temperatury 150{sup o}C; v nastoyashchee vremya proizvodyatsya izmereniya vplot' do temperatury 500{sup o}C. Bylo ustanovleno, chto odin tip dioda vyderzhivaet nejtronnoe obluchenie reaktora BR-1 vplot' do integrirovannogo potoka 10{sup 15} nejtronov na kv. sm, togda kak drugoj tip vyderzhivaet obluchenie vplot' do potoka 10{sup 17} nejtronov na kv. sm. Dayutsya izmeneniya kharakteristik, a takzhe rezul'taty nekotorykh ehksperimentov otzhiga. (author)

  10. NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS ON MINI TEST FUEL IN THE RSG-GAS CORE

    Tukiran Surbakti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS ON MINI TEST FUEL IN THE RSG-GAS CORE. Research of UMo fuel for research reactor has been developing  right now. The fuel of  research reactor used is uranium low enrichment with high density. For supporting the development of fuel, an assessment of mini fuel in the RSG-GAS core was performed. The mini fuel are U7Mo-Al and U6Zr-Al with densitis of 7.0gU/cc and 5.2 gU/cc, respectively. The size of both fuel are the same namely 630x70.75x1.30 mm were inserted to the 3 plates of dummy fuel. Before being irradiated in the core, a calculation for safety analysis  from neutronics and thermohydrolics aspects were required. However, in this paper will discuss safety analysis of the U7Mo-Al and U6Zr-Al mini fuels from neutronic point of view.  The calculation was done using WIMSD-5B and Batan-3DIFF code. The result showed that both of the mini fuels could be irradiated in the RSG-GAS core with burn up less than 70 % within 12 cycles of operation without over limiting the safety margin. Power density of U7Mo-Al mini fuel bigger than U6Zr-Al fuel.   Key words: mini fuel, neutronics analysis, reactor core, safety analysis   Abstrak ANALISIS NEUTRONIK ELEMEN BAKAR UJI MINI DI TERAS RSG-GAS. Penelitian tentang bahan bakar UMo untuk reaktor riset terus berkembang saat ini. Bahan bakar reaktor riset yang digunakan adalah uranium pengkayaan rendah namun densitas tinggi.  Untuk mendukung pengembangan bahan bakar dilakukan uji elemen bakar mini di teras reakror RSG-GAS dengan tujuan menentukan jumlah siklus di dalam teras sehingga tercapai fraksi bakar maksimum. Bahan bakar yang diuji adalah U7Mo-Al dengan densitas 7,0 gU/cc dan U6Zr-Al densitas 5,2 gU/cc. Ukuran kedua bahan bakar uji tersebut adalah sama 630x70,75x1,30 mm dimasukkan masing masing kedalam 3 pelat dummy bahan bakar. Sebelum diiradiasi ke dalam teras reaktor maka perlu dilakukan perhitungan keselamatan baik secara neutronik maupun termohidrolik. Dalam makalah ini

  11. The Development Of A Computer Program For Thermohydraulic Analysis Of Kartini Reactor

    Ischaq, Ma'sum; Syarip; BS, Edi Trijono; Suyamto

    1996-01-01

    A computer programming that could be used to calculate the fuel temperature and the reactor core, has been developed. The inside fuel temperature was calculated by explicit method. First, the differential partial equations were arranged the temperature as a function of the fuel radius and lime. T = f(r.t), and then the equations were transformed into the finite difference equations that could be solved numerically by the computer. The convection heal transfer coefficient between the fuel and the coolant was calculated basically by the free convection phenomena that followed the equation Nu = f (Gr, Pr). By this computer programming, the fuel and the core temperature in a certain condition of the reactor power and the fluid could be predicted

  12. The Role of Exponential and PCTR Experiments at Hanford in the Design of Large Power Reactors; Roles Respectifs des Experiences Exponentielles et du Reacteur d'Etude des Constantes Physiques de Hanford dans les Etudes de Grands Reacteurs de Puissance; Znachenie ehksponentsial'nykh opytov i opytov na reaktore PCTR pri proektirovanii bol'shikh ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov v khehnforde; Papel de los Experimentos Exponenciales y del Reactor PCTR de Hanford en el Proyecto de Grandes Reactores de Potencia

    Heineman, R. E. [General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1964-02-15

    introduccion de cambios en el manejo de los reactores ya existentes, como instrumentos de investigacion en la esfera de la fisica de los reactores y como medio de ensenanza. Compara tambien los capitales invertidos en esas instalaciones y los gastos de explotacion. Describe el perfeccionamiento de nuevas tecnicas experimentales que estas instalaciones permiten aplicar con miras a satisfacer la demanda de nuevos datos experimentales. Es menester tener presentes todos estos datos para poder predecir la evolucion de las necesidades y las tendencias futuras en el empleo de estas instalaciones para los estudios de los reactores de potencia. La memoria describe sucintamente el reactor para el estudio de constantes fisicas e indica la manera en que se piensa utilizarlo en el marco de esa evolucion. (author) [Russian] V Hjen- fordskih laboratorijah v techenie pochti 15 let provodjatsja jeksponencial'nye reaktornye iz- merenija na grafito-uranovyh reshetkah. Hotja rezul'taty jetih opytov ispol'zovalis' dlja opredelenija laplasianov predlagaemyh proizvodjashhih reaktorov, oni takzhe sodejstvovali razvitiju ponimanija fiziki reaktorov jetih sistem. Davno priznano, chto poleznost' kri- ticheskogo opyta ogranichena vvidu ego bol'shogo masshtaba i nedostatochnoj chuvstvitel'nosti v otnoshenii nebol'shih lokalizovannyh narushenij sistemy. Zatem mysl' byla napravlena na sozdanie cel'nogo opytnogo reaktora, v kotorom bylo by svedeno do minimuma kolichest- vo materialov, neobhodimyh dlja poluchenija nuzhnyh dannyh. Jeta popytka privela k postrojke usovershenstvovannoj kriticheskoj ustanovki s neskol'kimi zonami reaktora dlja izmerenija fizicheskih konstant PCTR. Ustanovka ispol'zuetsja dlja okazanija sodejstvija pri razrabot- ke proekta po fizike reaktorov dlja neskol'kih jenergeticheskih reaktorov. Krome togo,re- aktor RSTNjavljaetsja ustanovkoj obshhego naznachenija dlja provedenija izmerenij poperechnyh sechenij na reaktore i dlja opredelenija differencial'nyh i integral'nyh fizicheskih para

  13. DULKADIRAN, MEDIA MASYARAKAT SAMPURNAN UNTUK MEMPEROLEH KESELAMATAN, PAHALA, SYAFAAT, DAN SURGA

    Nilna Fadlillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to describe the practice of reading Qur’an in the Dulkadiran tradition practiced by Sampurnan society ethnographically, in order to find its meaning. Based on the interpretation of cultures theory found out that the Sampurnan society recognizes the concepts that are based on the religious basis, which has ultimate meaning as a way to get the salvation, reward, and paradise. These concepts were then believed as the true and real, which then formulated into various symbols in the Dulkadiran tradition. These symbols have meaning that refers to those concepts and suggested certain lifestyle or action, which is delivered persuasively by Kiyai. Through these concepts, people were then motivated to perform Dulkadiran tradition. The practice of this tradition was able to create moods of a person, which then reflected into the daily life, and felt as if to justify the existing concepts, so the motivations and moods seem uniquely realistic.

  14. TIPE MEDIASI IBU RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP KESELAMATAN INTERNET ANAK DAN REMAJA

    Inasari Widiyastuti

    2017-12-01

    Pengguna internet terbesar berada di usia produktif, sebagian besar di antara mereka adalah anak dan remaja. Mereka adalah generasi IoT yang memiliki kemampuan beradaptasi dengan teknologi karena terlahir dalam paparan teknologi maju. Aktivitas anak berinternet cenderung didukung dan difasilitasi oleh lingkungan, terutama keluarga. Padahal bahaya mengintai anak ketika berinternet yang kerap diabaikan orang tua. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat literasi digital dan upaya perlindungan yang diberikan ibu rumah tangga terhadap aktivitas anak dan remaja menggunakan gadget serta berinternet. Survey dilakukan pada ibu rumah tangga peserta pelatihan Internet Safety Online yang diselenggarakan oleh BPPKI Yogyakarta dan Dinas Kominfo Kab. Kulonprogo serta Kab. Gunung Kidul. Hasil survey menunjukkan, ibu rumah tangga memiliki tingkat literasi digital yang baik. Meski demikian, sebagaian besar menerapkan tipe mediasi restriktif dengan membatasi penggunaan waktu. Tidak banyak yang menerapkan tipe mediasi teknik karena merasa tidak mampu mengoperasikan TIK sebaik anaknya.

  15. Rencana Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3) Kontrak pada Pembangunan Gedung Sekolah Dasar Immanuel Pontianak

    Prayetti, Maulidiah Dwi; Rafie, -; Pratiwi, Riyanny

    2017-01-01

    Accident in work can be happened anytime when the construction project has been started, that case happening because of limitation in safety tools, sightseeing to workers, less experience from workers, bad behavior,still bad to planning, or because of the workers usually handling their works and inattentive about the dangerous that always aim them. Accident thats happening can make physical defect or even death.The purpose of this safety and healthy works in construction field to knowing and...

  16. Kritik atas Penafsiran Abdul Moqsith Ghazali tentang Keselamatan Non-Muslim

    Asep Setiawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the interpretation of Abdul Moqsith Ghazali to al Baqarah [2]: 62 and al-Maidah [5]: 69, on the salvation of non-Muslim community according to religious pluralism. He used three methods of interpretation, which are tafsîr mauḍû’i, uṣûl al-fiqh, and hermeneutics. He said that the combination of them will produce a full understanding. Even so, the results are not as expected. Moqsith interprets the verses that seemed to support the idea of pluralism textually, until reject the interpretation of mufassirîn. He concludes that two verses above, do not explain about the obligation of Jews, Christians, and Shabiah in order to believe in Prophet Muhammad, but only explain about the obligation to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and do good deeds as defined in their holy books. Thus, according to him, the Qur’an does not only recognize religious teachings and people of other religions, however, they will be saved by God as far as they practice their religion. It is clear that the results of the interpretation of Moqsith very contradictory and not in accordance with interpretations of the Muslim scholars. Because of Moqsith’s weakness in method of interpretation, so create a partial understanding that the Qur’an legalizes religious pluralism. On the contrary, it is clear that the majority of mufassirûn did not argue that way.

  17. MANAJEMEN RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN JAMBULUWUK HOTEL & RESORT PETITENGET

    Anak Agung Bayu Dharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Work accidents that occur on the construction project will be one of the causes of the disruption or cessation of activities of the project work. The construction sector is the highest contributor to work accidents and occupational illness in Bali. Rampant construction of temporary lodging facilities or hotels in Bali can be one of the contributors to accidents. This study aims to determine the potential hazard and any dominant risk contained in a hotel development process as well as provides preventive measures to reduce such risks. In this research, the method used was descriptive qualitative. The risk of Occupational Health and Safety (K3 was identified through JSA (Job Safety Analysis. Questionnaire survey was carried out to get feedback from the experts regarding the potential hazards identified. The dominant category of risk assessment that was rated by the concept of ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable. The research identified 45 of dominant risks contained in the phase of work structures including 43 risks classified as high risk such as : exposed to maneuver heavy equipment and vehicles, heavy equipment rolled because the excavated area slid down/ subsided, cross rope of Tower Crane disconnected / entangled on the operation, the charge fell from Tower Crane and as many as two risks were classified as very high risk (extreme risk that is : exposed to maneuver mixer and swing Tower Crane over the edge area of the project. The risks tended to be sourced in the work environment factors and work equipment. In order to minimize the impact of K3 risks, it is necessary to conduct risk control, evaluation activities in a daily, weekly, monthly periodic, considering a safe distance hazard source from workers, setting working hours, scenario procedures of an emergency, as well as safe work through work instruction to remind the importance of working in a healthy and safe condition.

  18. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment; Prosiding Presentasi Ilmiah Keselamatan Radiasi dan Lingkungan

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect.

  19. Persepsi Crew dan Manajemen dalam Penerapan Ism Code Bagi Keselamatan Pelayaran dan Perlindungan Lingkungan Laut

    Nurhasanah, Nina; Joni, Asmar; Shabrina, Nur

    2015-01-01

    About 80% shipwreck occurred by human error, human error is 75% due to the poor management system, it must bemade to the management system that is able to create a good and close cooperation between the management boardand land management. International Safety Management Code (ISM Code) is an International standard of safetymanagement regulations for the security and safety of the operation of the ship and the prevention of pollution of themarine environment established by the IMO Maritime Sa...

  20. Budaya Keselamatan di Bengkel Perawatan Pesawat Udara pada Garuda Maintenance Facility (GMF AEROASIA)

    Minda Mora

    2011-01-01

    Safety is the most important thing in aviation. Safety level has to improved in highest performance. One way to improve safety is to implement safety culture in organization. In case of aviation safety, safety is affected by many factors. Aircraft maintenance is of the factor. The goal of his research is to asess the aviation safety culture in maintenance facilities, case study: Garuda Maintenance Facilities (GMF) using Safety Culture Indicator Scale Measurement System (SCISMS). The Safety Cu...

  1. Migrasi dan Keselamatan Insan: Kajian Kes Pemerdagangan Kanak-Kanak di Thailand

    Misran, Firdaus; Othman, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    : Non-military threats appear to have dominated the world's political agenda, mainly consisting of human trafficking, drug trafficking, foreign migrants smuggling and others. Today, the human trafficking issue has turned into the exploitative form such as commercial sex, especially with regards to victimizing children. This phenomenon has extended to almost every corner in the world. This study is carried out in order to comprehend the development and growth of sex industries exploiting child...

  2. Occupational safety and health in Indonesia = Keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja di Indonesia

    Markkanen, Pia K

    2004-01-01

    Reviews key issues in occupational safety and health in Indonesia. Examines policies and regulations, administration and enforcement, key agencies, research, training and information activities and international networking. Addresses issues for workers in hazardous industries and in the informal economy and makes recommendations for future activities.

  3. EVALUASI PENGARUH SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESELAMATAN KERJA DAN KESEHATAN TERHADAP PT X

    Farah Margaretha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction Industry is an industrial sector with high risk of work accident. Every year work accident at construction industry reached 32% from a whole work accident at Indonesia. Direct loss due to this accident can attain 300 billion every year. According ILO, Indonesia’s occupational safety rate in 2007 ranked at 52nd position out of 53 countries in the world that were surveyed by ILO. The objective of this research is to examine influence of Occupational Health and Safety Management System toward PT X performance’s as one of Contractor Company at Indonesia. Company’s performance that is examined is safety & health performance and competitiveness performance. Data in this research obtained from interview and questionnaire. These data then processed by using statistic descriptive method and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM . The result then evaluated to observe Goodness of Fit (GOF between model and data. The results from research shows that Occupational Health and Safety Management System influence safety & health performance and competitiveness performance significantly as indicated by result of the research that fulfill criteria of Goodness of Fit.

  4. Analisis Kepatuhan Crew Pesawat Militer Terhadap Prosedur Keselamatan Penerbangan Di Pusat Penerbangan Semarang

    Rani, Oktaviani Lety; Ekawati, Ekawati; Kurniawan, Bina

    2016-01-01

    Aviation safety is a condition that formed as the result of the right and neatly organized flight operations based on the right operation procedures and technical feasibility of the structure and infrastructure along with supporting flight. Helicopter Bell 42 EP with serial number HA 5171 crashed on March 2016 in Poso, Central Sulawesi caused by the failure of flight safety procedures. Flight safety procedures are the responsibility of the crew that must be carried on the flight activity This...

  5. TANTANGAN SISTEM KOMUNIKASI LAUT DI INDONESIA SEBAGAI FAKTOR PENDUKUNG KESELAMATAN PELAYARAN

    Aulia Windyandari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shipping safety topics lately skyrocketed in the surface and became a hot news, both print and electronic media,along with marine accidents which occurred in late 2006 and early 2007. The role of shipping safety in marinetransportation system is essential for this type of transport is reflected as full-tinged danger and threat of storms,fog, and the movements of the sea as waves, currents, sea corals, sedimentation and cruise lines are fixed andchanged. That’s why our shipping have very high risk, and therefore the safety aspects must be absolutelyguaranteed.Therefore necessary communication equipment that support the safety of the ship sailing. Due to sophisticatedcommunications equipment on board, will reduce the number of ship accidents and casualties in the case ofaccident in shipping.

  6. MANAJEMEN RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN CIPUTRA WORLD JAKARTA

    I Wayan Wiyasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Generally, in Indonesia the subject of Occupational Health and Safety is often forgotten. This is proven with the high number of work accidents in Indonesia. In 2011, there were 99.491 incidents or on average 414 work accidents cases per day. In 2010 there were 98.711 work accidents, 96.314 cases in 2009, 94.736 cases in 2008 and 83.714 cases in 2007. This reserch is intended to asses the possible major risk of Occupational Health and Safety for The Ciputra World Jakarta building Project, and offer solutions to deal with any unexpected risk. This research was conducted with a descriptive and qualitative method. Survey was carried out to get opinions from respondents on Occupational Health & Safety risks during the construction of the Ciputra World Jakarta. There are Seventy eight (78 high risks were identified with the most being Tower Crane operation job, installation of steel column, beam, and wall with 5 risks. The 2 extreme risks were found in column casting and screeding exterior wall with 1 risk. Suggestion given is to organise training relation to Occupational Health and Safety risk to every employee, introduve shift system, allocate alternate day off to employees, provide health/medical check up, and eliminate high risk and dengerous work environment.

  7. Pengurusan Fasiliti Dalam Penyelenggaraan Bangunan:Amalan Kualiti, Keselamatan dan Kesihatan

    Hafizi Zakaria; Kadir Arifin; Shaharuddin Ahmad; Kadaruddin Aiyub; Zahedi Fisal

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a speedy developing country and now struggling to become a developed country with a first class infrastructural network. Towards the vision, various developments have been well planned especially in building construction sectors in order to fulfill the need of society and an organization. In the hasty stream of building construction whether government, private or personal building, the facilities management planning should not be neglected. The planning of building and facilities ...

  8. Pengurusan Fasiliti Dalam Penyelenggaraan Bangunan:Amalan Kualiti, Keselamatan dan Kesihatan

    Hafizi Zakaria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a speedy developing country and now struggling to become a developed country with a first class infrastructural network. Towards the vision, various developments have been well planned especially in building construction sectors in order to fulfill the need of society and an organization. In the hasty stream of building construction whether government, private or personal building, the facilities management planning should not be neglected. The planning of building and facilities management before, during and after a building creation must be parallel to maintain the initial condition of the building and to ensure the surrounding of the building is always in good quality, safe and healthy to all occupants or visitors of the building. Practically the construction management only focuses on before and after building construction. Otherwise the facilities management should focus on three levels that are before, during and after construction. Nowadays, many issues reflected to quality, safety and health originated from the weakness of facilities management especially building maintenance aspect such as impairment, fire, collapse, failure compliance of law and so on. Such events will threat the safety and health of the occupants and visitors of buildings. So, the quality, safety and health practices are two essential elements in building maintenance to ensure that all occupants always comfortable, safe and healthy during occupation of a building. This paper discussed a few factors that should be considered by facilities management organization to maintain a good level of quality, safe and healthy of a building. Some of the factors are developing objective, policy and strategy; implementation of planning; providing budget; procedure development, regulation and standard compliance; and human resources.

  9. MODEL PERAWATAN KESEHATAN KESELAMATAN KERJA BERBASIS AGRICULTURAL NURSING: STUDI ANALISIS MASALAH KESEHATAN PETANI

    Tantut Susanto

    2016-04-01

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of 169 farmers was done to investigate sociodemographic, lifestyles, environment of living and worked, health status and health problem. Data collected by the self administered questionnaire, physical assessment, and blood test. The descriptive and comparative analyses include chi-square tests and ogistic and multinomial regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between factors to the presence of health problems. Results: There was differences between sociodemographic, environment of living and worked and the health problems of farmers (p<0.05. Almost 37.9% of farmers is illness. Among 28.5% of underweight and 9.5% of overweight that related to age, drink of coffe, and excess day of work. 62.6% of anemia that related to gender and smoking habit. Meanwhile, 45.2% of sistolic hypertension and 35.8% diastolic hypertension that caused by worked of overload. Furthermore, 50.3% of pain on join and bone related to age and recess of worked. Discussion: The health problems of farmers was characterized of nutritional problem, anemia, hypertension, and pain that related to sociodemographic environment of biologic, psychologic, and worked. Agricultural nursing model could be develop for assessesment of related factors that formulated diagnoses of health problems on farmers at rural area.

  10. PERJUMPAAN ISLAM DAN KATOLIK (Upaya Mencari Akar Epistemologi Tentang Konsep Keselamatan

    Abdullah Muthalib

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every religion has a concept of salvation based on transcendent values of the religion. Islam as a religion of revelation has the concept of salvation based on the messages contained Allah in the Qur’an and Hadith of the Prophet are valid. With reference to the ethical principles of Islam, the doctrine of salvation is the main point ranging in religion, with this principle, people feel the need to claim to believe and submit to the values of the revealed God. A person of faith is essentially aims to achieve safety, both in his life on earth and in the Hereafter. In the Catholic Christian religion also found a number of principles are the same theology that is taught about the importance of safety. In the book of the old covenant and new covenant be emphasized that the safety ranging point in the theology. In Islam and Catholicism, the concept of divinity is the same both believe in Almighty God (monotheism. Both believe that Isa (Jesus and Muhammad. As the bearer of divine revelation. Although Islam to explain the concept of the deity in various contexts and meanings, while the Catholic meaning of salvation is placed in a variety of different verses, but the meaning remains the same.

  11. REGULASI DAN PENERAPAN KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 RUMAH SAKIT DI PROPINSI SUMATERA BARAT

    Bambang Ristiono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is related to the implementation of regulation’s policy on hospital safety and occupational health in West Sumatera. Hospital will implement regulation that local government established if there is effective mechanism. Regulation is an authoritative ride regarding to detail procedures that declare on local government policy.  The study aims to describe regulation policy of health department on behalf of Local Government for the implementation of hospital safety and occupational health in order to see effective regulation factors to make hospital obedient and will to implement regulation policy that established. Methods: The method of the study was case study with explorative descriptive. Dependent variable in the study was hospital safety and occupational health in West Sumatera, while the Independent variable was regulation policy of local government in implementing hospital safety and occupational health with factors in it, that cover sanction and reward, watch, regulation focus, human resource, financial, commitment, public control, and transparency. Objective: The study was obtained in Health Department and district hospital in West Sumatera that covers 6 district hospitals, ie. 2 hospitals with 12 accredited statuses, 2 hospitals with 5 accredited statuses, 2 hospitals with unaccredited status, and private hospital. Subject of the study was hospital manager and hospital manager in health Department of West Sumatera Province and district/city. Data were collected by dept. interview and spreading questionnaire that was obtained because of the difficulty of location and the busy of respondents. The result of the study shows that regulation of hospital safety and occupational health is weak, low commitment of hospital management toward hospital safely and occupational health, in order to make effective regulation of hospital safety and occupational health, it need the support of human resource, financial, sanction and reward, transparency, and public control. In order to make hospital safety and occupational health implemented well, health department of West Sumatera Province has to: complete the existing rule and socialized it to all hospitals, presence government and hospitals’ presence, increasing hospital's commitment and support to make effective regulation. The result of study wished to be used local government as a reference in implementing and maintaining regulation policy of hospital safety and occupational health, especially in West Sumatera in the future.

  12. Identifikasi Risiko Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja pada Pekerja Pengumpul Sampah Manual di Jakarta Selatan

    Dino Rimantho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is one of the activities that should be performed on the waste management process. This activity can pose a potentially high risk given the dangers that may arise while direct contact with the garbage and activities conducted. This study aims to identify potential risks to the health and safety of workers garbage collector. The survey uses a structured questionnaire distributed to 25 the refuse collector randomly selected in Srengseng SawahJagakarsa, South Jakarta. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The garbage collectors who agreed on the use of personal protective equipment at work is approximately 64% or around 16 respondents. Musculoskeletal disorders suffered by respondents is around 19 people or roughly 76%. The Respondents who suffered puncture wounds as a result of did not use gloves were 23 respondents or approximately 92%. Wrist and lower back are the most common musculoskeletal disorder that affects approximately 23 respondents. Generally, workers require personal protective equipment in order to prevent and reduce accidents. Improvement measures should be always be done such as healthy behavior, use of personal protective equipment and the development of working methods based on ergonomic principles.

  13. ANALYSIS OF GAMMA HEATING AT TRIGA MARK REACTOR CORE BANDUNG USING PLATE TYPE FUEL

    Setiyanto Setiyanto

    2016-10-01

    , telah dilakukan kajian penggunaan bahan bakar jenis pelat seperti yang digunakan oleh RSG-GAS. Berbagai langkah analisis telah disiapkan, termasuk perhitungan desain teras, dan sistem keselamatannya. Penggunaan elemen bakar tipe pelat menghasilkkan reaktor dapat dioperasikan hanya dengan 20 elemen bakar. Dibandingkan teras aslinya, nampak bahwa teras baru menjadi lebih kecil dan kompak, rapat dayanya naik, tetapi menyisakan beberapa ruang kosong yang dimungkinkan untuk menempatkan fasilitas iradiasi di teras. Dengan adanya fasilitas iradiasi di dalam teras, maka pembangkitan panas gamma di teras menjadi faktor baru yang harus diperhatikan. Untuk alasan ini, telah dilakukan perhitungan pembangkitan panas gamma teras reaktor Triga 2000 Bandung mengunakan program Gamset. Perhitungan didasarkan pada persamaan atenuasi liner, sumber garis dan arah perambatan tiga dimensi. Selain panas gamma di teras, akan dihitung juga panas gamma di reflektor (Lazy Susan, dan di CIP untuk berbagai jenis bahan. Diperoleh hasil bahwa panas gamma di CIP cukup signifikan (0,87 w/g, tetapi di posisi Lazy Susan relatif kecil, rata-rata hanya 0,11 w/g. Dari hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan CIP untuk iradiasi perlu mempertimbangkan panas gamma dalam perhitungan LAK nya. Kata kunci: panas gamma, reaktor nuklir, reaktor penelitian, keselamatan reaktor

  14. EFEK DENSITAS BAHAN BAKAR TERHADAP PARAMETER KOEFISIEN REAKTIVITAS TERAS RRI

    Rokhmadi Rokhmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manfaat yang luas penggunaan reaktor riset membuat banyak negara membangun reaktor riset baru. Kecenderungan saat ini adalah tipe reaktor serbaguna (MPR dengan teras yang kompak untuk mendapatkan fluks neutron yang tinggi dengan daya yang relatif rendah. Reaktor riset yang ada di Indonesia usianya sudah tua semuanya. Oleh karena itu diperlukan desain reaktor riset baru sebagai alternatif, disebut reaktor riset inovatif (RRI, kelak pengganti reaktor riset yang sudah ada. Tujuan dari riset ini untuk melengkapi data desain RRI sebagai salah satu persyaratan untuk perizinan desain. Perhitungan dilakukan untuk memperoleh nilai koefisien reaktivitas teras RRI dengan konfigurasi teras setimbang yang optimal dengan konfigurasi teras 5×5 dan daya 20 MW, memiliki panjang operasi satu siklus lebih dari 40 hari. Perhitungan koefisien reaktivitas teras RRI dilakukan untuk bahan bakar baru U-9Mo-Al dengan kerapatan bervariasi. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan paket program WIMSD-5B dan BATAN-FUEL. Hasil pehitungan digunakan untuk melengkapi data desain konseptual teras yang menunjukkan bahwa teras setimbang reaktor RRI dengan konfigurasi 5×5, tingkat muat 235U sebesar 450 g, 550 g dan 700 g memiliki nilai koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar, temperatur moderator, densitas moderator dan void semuanya negatif dan nilainya sangat bervariasi. Hal ini sudah memenuhi kriteria keselamatan desain konseptual teras RRI. Kata kunci: desain konseptual, bahan bakar uranium-molibdenum, koefisien reaktivitas, WIMS, BATANFUEL   The multipurpose of research reactor utilization make many countries build the new reserach reactor. Trend of this reactor for this moment is multipurpose reactor type with a compact core to get high neutron flux at the low or medium level of power. The research reactor in Indonesia right now is already 25 year old. Therefor, it is needed to design a new research reactor as a alternative called it innovative research reactor (IRR and then as

  15. Design of fuel loading for Bohunice V-1 Unit 2 reaktor for fuel cycle No.19

    Majercik, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report contains description of the design of fuel loading for the fuel cycle No. 19 in the V-1 Bohunice Unit 2 reactor. Input data and computer codes used for the development of the design are shown. The fuel loading is characterized by the assortment of the fuel loaded and by the scheme of re shuffling of assemblies in the core. An evaluation of basic neutronic core parameters as relates to the compliance with safety criteria is a part of the report as well

  16. UNJUK KERJA REAKTOR PLASMA DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE UNTUK PRODUKSI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT

    Ardian Dwi Yudhistira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of alternative renewable energy source to substitute diesel fuel. Various biodiesel productionprocesses through transesterification reaction with a variety of catalysts have been developed by previousresearcher. This process still has the disadvantage of a long reaction time, and high energy need. DielectricBarrier Discharge (DBD plasma electro-catalysis may become a solution to overcome the drawbacks in theconventional transesterification process. This process only needs a short time reaction and low energy process.The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of DBD plasma rector in making biodiesel such as: theeffect of high voltage electric value, electrodes gap, mole ratio of methanol / oil, and reaction time. TheResearch method was using GC-MS (Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrofotometry and FTIR (FourierTransform Infrared Spectrofotometry and then it will be analysed the change of chemical bond betweenreactant and product. So, the reaction mechanism can be predicted. Biodiesel is produced using methanol andpalm oil as reactants and DBD plasma used as reactor in batch system. Then, reactants contacted by highvoltage electric. From the results of this research can be concluded that the reaction mechanism occurs in theprocess is the reaction mechanism of cracking, the higher of electric voltage and the longer of reaction time leadto increasing of product yield. The more of mole ratio of methanol / oil and widening the gap between theelectrodes lead to decreased product yield. From this research, product yield maksimum is 89,8% in the variableof rasio mol metanol/palm oil 3:1, voltage 10 kV, electrode gap 1,5 cm, and reaction time 30 seconds.

  17. Analisis Computational Fluid Dynamics untuk Perancangan Reaktor Gasifikasi Sekam Padi Tipe Downdraft

    Dziyad Dzulfansya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is one of biomass type which can be utilized as gasification’s feedstock for producing combustible gas which can be used as fuel in internal combustion engine. The objective of this research was to obtain the best design of small scale rice husk gasifier from among geometry scenarios by applying computational fluid dynamics method. The geometry scenarios used in this study were angle of throat 70O, 80O, and 90O, and also angle of nozzel 10O and 20O. The softwares used in this study were Gambit 2.4.6 (meshing 3D model and Ansys Fluent 13.0 (simulation. The reactions involved in gasification (3 heterogeneous reactions and 6 homogeneous reactions were solved by finite rate/Eddy dissipation model. Results of simulation showed that gasifier with angle of throat 90O and angle of nozzel 10O produced the highest heating value of gas with volume fraction of CO, H2, and CH4 is 14.49%, 9.65%, and 2.39% respectively. This result showed reasonable agreement with experimental data from other researchers on rice husk gasification.

  18. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual report 1992; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1992. godinu

    Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1992 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. First part includes 8 annexes describing reactor operation, activities of services for maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation, financial report and staffing. Second annex B is a paper by Z. Vukadin 'Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions' published in 'Kerntechnik' 56, (1991) No.6 (INIS record no. 23024136. Second part of the report is devoted to radiation protection issues and contains 4 annexes with data about radiation control of the working environment and reactor environment, description of decontamination activities, collection of radioactive wastes, and meteorology data. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj o radu nuklearnog reaktora RA za 1992. godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA. Prvi deo sadrzi 8 priloga, koji opisuju rad reaktora i poslove sluzbi za odrzavanje opreme i komponenti, finansijski izvestaj, kadrovsku strukturu osoblja reaktora. Drugi prilog (B) je rad Z. Vukadina 'Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions' objavljen u casopisu Kerntechnik, 1991. Drugi deo izvestaja o poslovima zastite od zracenja sadrzi 4 priloga sa podacima radijacione kontrole radne sredine i okoline reaktora, opis poslova dekontaminacije i sakupljanja radioaktivnih materija, kao i meteoroloske podatke.

  19. Perhitungan Kebutuhan Cooling Tower Pada Rancang Bangun Untai Uji Sistem Kendali Reaktor Riset

    Awwaluddin, Muhammad; Santosa, Puji; Suwardiyono, Suwardiyono

    2012-01-01

    CALCULATION OF THE NEED FOR COOLING TOWER ON DESIGN OF STRAND TEST RESEARCH REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM. Cooling tower on the strand test engineering research reactor control system functioning as a heat transfer medium from the heat exchanger to air. To get the transfer of heat or cooling is maximal then the determination of cooling tower needs to be precise. Cooling tower is expected to accept and release heat at 1.191 kw from the heat exchanger. To support these needs will require the calculati...

  20. PENENTUAN KOEFISIEN DISPERSI ATMOSFERIK UNTUK ANALISIS KECELAKAAN REAKTOR PWR DI INDONESIA

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmosfer merupakan pathway penting pada perpindahan radionuklida yang lepas dari Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN ke lingkungan dan manusia. Penerimaan dosis pada lingkungan dan manusia dipengaruhi oleh sourceterm dan kondisi tapak PLTN. Untuk mengetahui penerimaan dosis lingkungan untuk PLTN di Indonesia, maka diperlukan nilai koefisien dispersi untuk tapak potensial yang dipilih. Model perhitungan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan model yang diterapkan pada paket program pada modul ATMOS dan CONCERN dari PC-Cosyma yaitu model perhitungan segmented plume model. Perhitungan dilakukan untuk PLTN tipe PWR kapasitas 1000 MWe berbahan bakar UO2, postulasi kejadian untuk kecelakaan DBA, kondisi tapak kasar, untuk 6 tapak contoh tapak Semenanjung Muria, Pesisir Banten, dan tapak yang didominasi oleh stabilitas cuaca C,D,E, dan F. Koefisien dispersi dihitung untuk 8 kelompok nuklida produk fisi yang lepas dari PLTN yaitu: kelompok gas mulia, lantanida, logam mulia, halogen, logam alkali, tellurium, cerium, dan kelompok stronsium & barium. Perhitungan input menggunakan paket program ORIGEN-2 dan Arc View untuk penyiapan input perhitungan. Hasil pemetaan untuk parameter dispersi maksimum rerata diperoleh pada jarak radius 800 m dari sumber lepasan untuk nuklida dari kelompok logam mulia, logam alkali dan kelompok nuklida cerium. Parameter dispersi untuk Tapak Muria maksimum 1,53E-04 s/m3, Tapak Serang adalah 1,40E-03 s/m3, tapak dengan stabilitas C: 1,72E-04 s/m3, stabilitas D: 1,40E-04 s/m3, Stabilitas E: 1,07E-04 s/m3, dan tapak dengan stabilitas F : 2,14E-05 s/m3. Kata kunci: koefisien dispersi, atmosferik, PWR, kecelakaan, Indonesia   The atmosphere is an important pathway in the migration of radionuclides transport from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP to the environment and humans. The dose accepted in the environment and humans is influenced by the sourceterm and NPP siting condition. Distribution of radionuclides in the atmosphere is determined by the dispersion coefficient. To find the environment dose acceptance for nuclear power plants in Indonesia, it is necessary to map the dispersion coefficient for Indonesia potential siting Model calculations in this study using Segmented plume model, which a model that is applied to the ATMOS and CONCERN module of PC-Cosyma software. The calculation has done for PWR 1000 MWe with UO2 fuel, DBA accident postulations, roughnes site conditions, for 8 example site such as Muria Peninsula, Coastal Banten, and the C, D, E, and F stability. Dispersion coefficient was calculated for the 8 fission product groups are: the noble gases, lanthanides, noble metals, halogens, alkali metals, tellurium, cerium, and strontium & barium groups. Input calculation using the program package Origen-2 and Arc View for the preparation of input calculations. The results of the dispersion parameter calculated are: the average maximum is obtained at a distance of 800 m radius from the source, for noble metals, alkali metal and cerium group nuclides. Dispersion parameters for maximum at Muria site is 1.53E-04 s/m3, Serang site is 1.40E-03 s/m3, site with stability C is 1.72E-04 s/m3, stability D is 1.40E-04 s/m3, stability E is 1.07E-04 s/m3, and site with the stability F is 2.14E-05 s/m3. Keywords: dispersion coefficient, atmospheric, PWR, accident, Indonesia

  1. Start-up and Performance Characteristics of a Trickle Bed Reaktor Degrading Toluene

    Misiaczek, O.; Paca, J.; Halecký, M.; Gerrard, A. M.; Sobotka, Miroslav; Soccol, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2007), s. 871-877 ISSN 1516-8913 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : biotrickling filter * constructed mixed population * toluene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2007

  2. RA research reactor - properties and experimental capabilities; Istrazivacki reaktor RA - Tehnicke karakteristike i eksploatacione mogucnosti

    Milosevic, M; Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-05-15

    The brief survey of the Reactor RA exploitation experience, as well as the reactor equipment state, after 18 years of operation is presented. The results of efforts spent on reactor characteristics improvement in order to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation for next 15-20 years, are described. Prikazani su fragmenti iz eksploatacije reaktora kao i stanje opreme, posle 18 godina rada. Na kraju je dat prikaz sta je preduzeto i sta se preduzima da se poboljsaju karakteristike i poveca sigurnost i bezbednost rada za sledecih 15-20 godina.

  3. Reproduction of the RA reactor fuel element fabrication; Reprodukcija izrade gorivnog elementa za reaktor RA

    Novakovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    This document includes the following nine reports: Final report on task 08/12 - testing the Ra reactor fuel element; design concept for fabrication of RA reactor fuel element; investigation of the microstructure of the Ra reactor fuel element; Final report on task 08/13 producing binary alloys with Al, Mo, Zr, Nb and B additions; fabrication of U-Al alloy; final report on tasks 08/14 and 08/16; final report on task 08/32 diffusion bond between the fuel and the cladding of the Ra reactor fuel element; Final report on task 08/33, fabrication of the RA reactor fuel element cladding; and final report on task 08/36, diffusion of solid state metals. Ovaj rad sadrzi devet priloga: 1. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/12, ispitivanje elementa goriva reaktora RA; 2. Koncepcija izrade gorivnog elementa reaktora RA; 3. Ispitivanje mikrostrukture gorivnog elementa reaktora RA; 4. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/13, dobijanje binarnih legura urana sa legirajucim komponentama Al, Mo, Zr, Nb i B; 5. Dobijanje legure U-Al; 6. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadacima 08/14 i 08/16; 7. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/32, difuziona veza goriva i kosuljice gorivnog elementa reaktora RA; 8. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/33, izrada kosuljice gorivnog elementa reaktora RA; 9. Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/36, difuzija kod metala u cvrstom stanju.

  4. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR ORGANIK SECARA BIOLOGI MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR ANAEROBIK LEKAT DIAM

    Indriyati, Indriyati

    2018-01-01

       Organic waste water can be treated biolocally by using anaerobic fixed bed reactor. Fixed bed reactor is bioreactor which is compleeted with support material inside reactor for bacteria fixation in the surface area of support material. The benefit of using this kind of technology are it needs low energy, low nutrien, low sludge production and could treat high organic concentraion waste water.   The support material  has important role in the  Fixed Bed reactor performance, therefore it mus...

  5. Research reactor 'A' 6.5/10 MW; Istrazivacki reaktor 'A' 6,5/10 MW

    Petrovic, M [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1961-07-01

    This booklet includes a short description of the RA research reactor with basic properties of its components: control and safety system, heavy water system, technical water cooling system, heavy water distillation system, cover gas system, dosimetry control system, power supply system. It is used for fundamental research in reactor and nuclear physics, isotope production, materials testing.

  6. RB Research nuclear reactor, 30 years of operation; Istrazivacki nuclearni reaktor RB, povodom 30 godina rada

    Pesic, M; Stefanovic, D [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-06-15

    Paper describes utilization, modifications and changes of construction and control-safety systems done at the RB reactor during 30 years of operation. Experiments performed at the reactor are summarized, new reactor equipment is described and the future plans are shown. Rad prikazuje eksploataciju reaktora RB tokom 30 godina rada, modifikacije i izmene u konstruktivnim i upravljacko-sigurnosnim sistemima. Sumirani su eksperimenti izvedeni na njemu, prikazana je nova oprema i planovi za buduci rad.

  7. Nuclear RB research reactor. Thirty years of anniversary; Istrazhivacki nuklearni reaktor RB. Povodom 30 godina rada

    Pesic, M; Stefanovic, D [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear research reactor RB in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory - NET at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Vinca is the first reactor system built in Yugoslavia in 1958. This year is the thirtieth anniversary of the RB reactor operation, which has survived a series of modifications trying to follow a contemporary nuclear research directions. This report describes its basic technical characteristics and experimental possibilities. Especially, the modifications in the last 25 years are underlined, the experiences gained, and new plans for the future are presented. (author)

  8. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Gedung Serbaguna Purnama di Jl R.A Kartini Bangkalan

    Chairun Nisya Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Era pembangunan pasca jembatan Suramadu diharapkan menjadi tonggak kebangkitan daerah, sehingga kesejahteraan masyarakat yang merupakan cita-cita pembangunan akan terwujud. Akan tetapi fakta yang terjadi di lapangan, beberapa pembangunan mengalami kondisi yang kurang layak secara finansial. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisa HBU pada sebuah lahan gedung serbaguna Purnama Bangkalan. Analisis legal, fisik, keuangan, dan produktivitas maksimum adalah proses dan metodologi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini. Objek studi sebuah lahan gedung yang dianggap kosong seluas 600 m2 terletak di kawasan komersial alun-alun kota Bangkalan. Hasil yang diperoleh yaitu hotel merupakan alternatif penggunaan yang memberikan nilai tertinggi dengan nilai lahan menjadi sebesar Rp 4,086,635/m2 dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum sebesar 253%

  9. Investigations of the chemical states of carrier-free phosphorus-32 as extracted into water from pile-irradiated sulphur; Recherches sur les etats chimiques du phosphore-32 sans entraineur obtenu par extraction aqueuse a partir de soufre irradie dans un reacteur; Issledovanie khimicheskogo sostoyaniya svobodnogo ot nositelya fosfora-32 pri izvlechenii ego v vodu iz obluchennoj v yadernom reaktore sery; Estudio de los estados quimicos del fosforo-32 libre de portador que se obtiene por extraccion acuosa del azufre irradiado en un reactor

    Dahl, J B; Birkelund, O R [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller, Lillestrom (Norway)

    1962-01-15

    {>=} 5). Aucun metaphosphate (cyclique) n'a ete decele dans la solution lors de la production et du stockage. Les resultats indiquent que les composes de polyphosphore ont ete formes dans le materiau de cible au cours de l'irradiation. On a etudie plus particulierement l'adsorption des composes du phosphore-32 sans entraineur par le verre dans les conditions de l'experience. (author) [Spanish] Uno de los metodos que se emplean para obtener fosforo-32 libre de portador consiste en irradiar azufre en un reactor y extraer con agua el fosforo formado. La presente memoria informa sobre los estados quimicos del fosforo-32 en soluciones acuosas durante las diversas fases del proceso normal de obtencion. Los autores han estudiado tambien las modificaciones que el estado quimico de los compuestos de fosforo-32 experimenta en el producto final, en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento. Han encontrado que el fosforo-32 aparece principalmente en forma de orto-fosfato. La proporcion de ortofosfato aumenta durante el tratamiento quimico; al comenzar la extraccion, es del orden del 70 por ciento, en tanto que alrededor del 98 por ciento del fosforo-32 libre de portador obtenido como producto final se encuentra bajo forma de ortofosfato. Los componentes restantes de la mezcla consisten en piro-, tri-, tetra- y polifosfatos de cadena larga (con un numero de atomos de fosforo {>=} 5). Durante la elaboracion y almacenamiento los autores no han encontrado metafosfatos (ciclicos) en ninguna de las soluciones. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los compuestos polifosforicos se formaron en el material del blanco durante la irradiacion. Los autores han prestado especial atencion al estudio de la adsorcion de compuestos de fosforo-32 libre de portador por el material de vidrio en las condiciones experimentales. (author) [Russian] Odnim iz sovremennykh metodov polucheniya svobodnogo ot nositelya fosfora-32 yavlyaetsya izvlechenie ego v vodu iz obluchennoj v yader- nom reaktore sery. V

  10. Sistem Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan (OSHAH:18001 Analisis Kepada Penerimaan Faedah Pelaksanaannya Kepada Organisasi Di Malaysia

    Kadir Arifin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupation Healthy and Safety Management (OSHAH is one of the tool that can be use in voluntary way by the organization to overcome workers safety problems in the work place. For that reason, this paper work is done to see how the effects of OSHAH 18001:1999 implementation from the perspective of the benefits received by organizations which applied it in their organization. These are 26 organization from various sector are been given OSHAH 18001:1999 certification from SIRIM Qas Berhad and all that organization have been chosen to be respondent from this research. The analysis data method in this research have been done by using several test such as comparison test ( T test , related test (khi-square test, relation (pearson correlation test between primary variable and secondary variable. Beside that, this research is using the significant level off 90% (p=0.009 until p= 0.10 and 95% (p=0.01 until p= 0.05 to justify the result of comparison data. Research result shows that there is a significant benefit for the organizations that have been implement OSHAH 18001:1999 such as reduce the accident risk, increase employer awareness and thought and establish awareness among the workers.

  11. Radioactivity and dangerous radiation: safety and worker protection; 1. ed; Keradioaktifan dan sinaran bahaya: keselamatan dan perlindungan pekerja

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept of Physics

    1988-12-31

    This book discussed the aspects of radiological protection for radiation workers and working place in details. It covered all aspect in this subject, from the basic information of radiations which is dangerous for whom did not know much about it, to specific recommendations and procedures in order to work safely with it.

  12. DAMPAK PUBLIC RELATIONS DALAM MANAJEMEN KRISIS KEAMANAN DAN KESELAMATAN ANCAMAN TERORISME DI BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL I GUSTI NGURAH RAI DENPASAR

    Ghannez Novaldi Loreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out how does the public relations may involved in the security and safety crisis management of terrorism threat in  I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar, and how it may affect the image of the airport itself. Several informants were being interviewed and as much as 116 repondents gave their answers related to I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar’s image. This research use descriptive qualitative data analysis technique by collected the data, reductions, presented the results, and draw a conclusion. This research also use the triangulation data technique to ensure the informations given by the informants were valid. The results shown that security and safety crisis management in I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar has twice security check point, using the recent technology, corporate with the authorities, and do the silent investigation. The roles of public relations itself are planning the terrorism encounters training programme, make a positive image of the airport, and build communications during and after the crisis. I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport of Denpasar has a good image of security based on the result of the questioners. There was several issues in the applications of terrorism encounters in the airport such as, some of the check in counter agents didn’t ask the security questions to the passenger and the x-ray officer didn’t check the luggage thoroughly that caused Qatar Airways flight had to return to base in 2015.

  13. ANALISIS FAKTOR KESEHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN KERJA (K3 YANG SIGNIFIKAN MEMPENGARUHI KECELAKAAN KERJA PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN APARTEMENT STUDENT CASTLE

    Saloni Waruwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and Safety (K3 is an effort to create a safe working atmosphere, comfortable and achieve the goal of maximum productivity. K3 is very important to be implemented in all areas of employment without exception building projects such as apartments, hotels, malls. However, to prevent any risk of workplace accidents is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand. Occupational accidents disebab by several factors, among others, occupational safety and health training (X1, the commitment of top management (X2, work environment (X3, awareness of workers (X4, regulations and safety and health procedures (X5, availability rambu- occupational health and safety signs (X6 in the workplace, and communication workers (X7. The most significant factor affecting the accidents are the top management commitment (X2 with a value of 36.4% koefien regression and awareness of workers (X4 of 30.1%. If both of these factors add up the total is 66.5%.

  14. Implementasi Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Dalam Upaya Pencegahan Kecelakaan Kerja Pada Lingkup Industri Di Kota Semarang

    Atikah, Talia; Dwimawanti, Ida Hayu; Marom, Aufarul

    2013-01-01

    The author uses the theory advanced by Van Meter and Van Horn in analyzing the factors that hinder the implementation of SMK3. Lack of government attention on the implementation of Semarang, SMK3 on industrial companies that have a wide range of production equipment that can raise the risk of accidents in the workplace for their employees. Still emerging number of work accidents listed in the document reports on the Department of Manpower and Transmigration Semarang. The provision of the righ...

  15. Pengaruh kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja (K3, dan insentif terhadap motivasi serta kinerja karyawan pada bagian produksi

    Anthony Frans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human factor is an important factor in implementing vision, mission in achieving company target. Human resources aspect need to get more attention from the company. Example of consideration that was given by the company is the provision of Occupational Health and Safety (K3 to the employees. This research examines a hypothesis, known as explanatory research. The research purpose are to explaining and analyzing the effect of work safety to work motivation; effect of work health to work motivation; understanding and analyzing the effect of incentive to employee performance; and explaining and analyzing the effect of motivation to employee performance in CV. Intan Mandiri Pratam, Kupang. In this research, work motivation was set as intervening variable. Direct impact between (K3 and incentive to employee are higher compare to K3 and incentive to motivation as variable. This research found that K3 and incentive are more impactful to worker compare to motivation as variable.

  16. USULAN PERBAIKAN KESELAMATAN KERJA MENGGUNAKAN METODE JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS (JSA DAN FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA

    Ariel Levi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available PT Prima Utama Mitra Anda adalah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang industri pembuatan box karoseri. Proses produksinya banyak menggunakan alat atau mesin yang dapat menyebabkan kecelakaan kerja. Data perusahaan menunjukkan terdapat 73 kasus kecelakaan kerja pada tahun 2013 dan 107 kasus kecelakaan kerja pada tahun 2014. Dengan demikian, perlu dilakukan tindakan perbaikan guna menghindari terjadinya kerugian. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode Job Safety Analysis (JSA dengan pendekatan metode Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Berdasarkan tahapan JSA, terdapat 86 jenis kecelakaan kerja dan diperoleh 5 pekerjaan kritis untuk dianalisis menggunakan metode FMEA. Setelah dilakukan perhitungan RPN, didapatkan 3 pekerjaan dengan tingkat kecelakaan paling tinggi, yaitu pekerjaan menggunakan mesin saw blade, pekerjaan menggunakan mesin las dan pekerjaan menggunakan mesin bor. Selanjutnya, pekerjaan tersebut diberi rekomendasi perbaikan berupa penyusunan Instruksi Kerja (IK. IK berisi langkah dasar pekerjaan, potensi bahaya, serta tata cara kerja yang benar. Selain menyusun IK, tingkat disiplin kerja juga perlu diperhatikan untuk membuktikan penyebab pasti kecelakaan kerja. Tingkat disiplin kerja dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, yaitu tujuan dan kemampuan, teladan pimpinan, balas jasa, keadilan, pengawasan melekat, sanksi hukuman, ketegasan, dan hubungan kemanusiaan. Selain faktor-faktor tersebut, tingkat disiplin kerja dapat dibentuk melalui 2 cara, yaitu dengan disiplin preventif dan disiplin korektif.

  17. Pendekatan Ergonomi Makro sebagai Solusi Perencanaan Sistem Kerja Bergilir untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas, Kualitas dan Keselamatan Kerja Industri

    Lamto Widodo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available According to IEA (International Ergonomics Association, ergonomics or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding or interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. To achieve effectiveness and productivity, work system designer have to consider not only the technological aspects, but also the relationship between user and system. User satisfaction, comfortabillity, adjustablillity and worker safety, for example, are the most important parameters to be considered in the design processea. There are two ergonomics approach in the job design, i.e., micro ergonomics and macro ergonomics. Micro ergonomics analyzes task-sub task, optimize worker, focused on detail design, and generally physical measure such as length, force, lumens, decibels, time, etc. Macro ergonomics analyzezz group of worker, focused on broad overview and generally organizational and/or subjective measures such as number of people, span of controls, attiudes, morals, shift schedules and sosio-technical design. Shift work is well recognized risk factors for occuptional safety and health. Evaluation and design of working time arrangements gain importance due to economical changes and overall reduction of safety and health problems. The aim of this paper is to review the main factors of ergonomics approach applied on shift work design to improve systems productivity and occupation safety and health.

  18. Pengaruh Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Serta Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada PT Coca Cola Amatil Indonesia

    Fauzia, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Occupational Health and Safety (K3) is a program that made workers and employers as an effort to prevent occupational accidents and diseases by recognizing the potential for accidents and occupational diseases as well as anticipatory action in case of accidents and occupational diseases. The goal is to create a safe workplace, healthy so it can suppress the lowest possible risk of accidents and illnesses. Based on a brief description, then formulated the problem in this study is "What is O...

  19. Analisis Pengaruh Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja OHSAS 18001 Terhadap Produktivitas Kerja Karyawan PT. Coca Cola Amatil Medan

    Sitorus, Ummi Salamah

    2016-01-01

    Basically to doing his job, employees are not immune from the called risk in the work. Both the level of risk in mild or severe. To minimize the risk of loss is required a management system for managing safety and health of employees in order to increase employee productivity so companies can compete with other companies. In this case PT. Coca Cola Amatil Medan implement a safety and health Management System (SMK3) OHSAS 18001. The method used is quantitative research with assosiative app...

  20. INVESTIGATION ON THERMAL-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF HTGR CORE USING THERMIX-KONVEK MODULE AND VSOP'94 CODE

    Sudarmono Sudarmono

    2015-03-01

      Kegagalan sistem pembuangan panas pada reaktor berpendingin air jenis PWR, Three Mile Islands dan reaktor BWR Fukushima Daiichi, menyebabkan masyarakat nuklir mulai memikirkan penggunaan reaktor pembangkit daya jenis temperatur tinggi berpendingin gas (HTGR. Bidang Fisika dan Teknologi Reaktor di Pusat Teknologi Reaktor dan Keselamatan Nuklir (PTRKN mempunyai tugas melaksanakan kegiatan litbang desain konseptual reaktor kogenerasi dengan tingkat daya menengah yang berpendingin gas helium dengan daya 200 MWt. Desain HTGR200K merupakan salah satu sistem pembangkit energi yang memiliki efisiensi energi paling besar, dan tingkat keselamatan inheren yang tinggi dan bersih. Komposisi geometri dan struktur teras didesain agar dapat menghasilkan keluaran pendingin gas helium bertemperatur 950 0C sehingga dapat digunakan untuk produksi hidrogen dan atau unit industri proses lainnya secara kogeneratif. Luaran gas helium bertemperatur sangat tinggi ini akan menimbulkan tegangan termal pada bola bahan bakar yang mengancam integritas sistem pengungkungan produk fisi di dalamnya. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan evaluasi karakteristika termal flow untuk menentukan distribusi temperatur bahan bakar bola dan outlet temperatur pendingin gas helium teras HTGR. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan modul Thermix-Konvek yang terintegrasi dalam program VSOP’94. Geometri teras HTGR dikerjakan dalam modul BIRGIT untuk model teras 2-D (R-Z dengan 5 kanal aliran pebble dalam teras aktif arah radial. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa nilai tertinggi dan terendah temperatur yang terdapat pada teras   adalah sebesar 999.3 °C dan 886,5 °C. Demikian pula hasil temperatur tertinggi bahan bakar TRISO dan bahan bakar pebble di dalam teras, yaitu diperoleh sebesar  1510,20°C yang terletak pada lapisan bahan bakar inti UO2, di posisi z= 335.51 cm dan  r=0 cm. Analysis di lakukan pada laju massa aliran pendingin, tekanan dan daya masing-masing sebesar 120 kg/s, 7 Mpa dan 200MWth. Hasil

  1. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  2. RB research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1981; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB, Izvestaj o radu u 1981. godini

    Markovic, H; Sotic, O; Pesic, M; Vranic, S; Zivkovic, B; Bogdanovic, M; Petronijevic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1981-07-01

    The annual report for 1981 includes the following: utilization of the RB reactor; accident and incidents analysis; description of the reactor equipment status; dosimetry and radiation protection; RB reactor staff; financial data. Seven Annexes to this report are concerned with: maintenance of the reactor components and equipment, including nuclear fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water coolant circuit, experimental platforms, absorption rods; maintenance of the electric power supply system, neutron source equipment, crane; control and maintenance of ventilation and heating systems, gas and comprised gas systems, fire protection system; plan for renewal of the reactor components; contents of the RB reactor safety report; reactor staff; review of measured radiation doses; experimental methods; training of the staff; and financial report.

  3. RB research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1982; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB, Izvestaj o radu u 1981. godini

    Markovic, H; Pesic, M; Vranic, S; Petronijevic, M; Zivkovic, B [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1982-12-15

    This report includes data concerned with reactor operation and utilization, status of reactor components and equipment, refurbishment of the equipment, dosimetry and radiation protection, reactor staff, financing. It includes 7 Annexes as follows: Maintenance of reactor equipment in 1982; contents of the RB reactor safety report; review of radiation doses in the reactor building and exposure doses for the reactor staff; utilization of the RB reactor in 1982; and financial data.

  4. Passive device for emergency core cooling of pressurized water reactors. Pasivno ustrojstvo za bezopasnost na vodo-voden atomen reaktor

    Sikora, D

    1984-02-28

    The device proposed ensures additional margin of reactor subcriticality in case of post-accident emergency core cooling (ECC), using concentrated solution of chemical absorber and hot water from the secondary circuit. It consists of: a) a differential cylinder with a differential piston in it, with a lid and a seal, connected to a pipeline for secondary coolant; b) a pipeline for the secondary coolant; c) a volume between the lid and the piston for the secondary coolant from the steam generator; d) a discharge pipeline with a check valve of seal type connecting the inner volume of the differential cylinder to the discharge line; and e) a pipeline from the high-pressure volume of the differential cylinder filled with concentrated chemical absorber solution, to one of the main circulation loops. The device permits ECC innovation of the operating non-standard nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors.

  5. Nový úkol hybridních reaktorů – likvidace jaderného odpadu

    Řípa, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2009), s. 24-a33 ISSN 0040-1064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * ITER * hybrid * nuclear waste * LIFE * FFTS * CFNS * SXD * FDF Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Possibilities of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors; Mogucnosti upotrebe metalnog urana kao goriva za teskovodne reaktore

    Djuric, B; Mihajlovic, A; Drobnjak, Dj [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    There are serious economic reasons for using metal uranium in heavy water reactors, because of its high density, i.e. high conversion factor, and low cost of fuel elements production. Most important disadvantages are swelling at high burnup and corrosion risk. Some design concepts and application of improved uranium obtained by alloying are promising for achievement of satisfactory stability of metal uranium under reactor operation conditions. Postoje ozbiljni ekonomski razlozi za primenu metalnog urana u teskovodnim reaktorima, pre svega zbog njegove velike gustine, odnosno visokog konverzionog faktora, i zbog niskih troskova proizvodnje gorivnih elemenata. Glavne prepreke su bubrenje pri velikim stepenima sagorevanja i opasnost od korozije. Postoje veliki izgledi da se primenom odredjenih projektnih koncepcija i upotrebom legiranjem poboljsanog urana postigne zadovoljavajuca stabilnost metalnog urana u uslovima rada reaktora (author)

  7. German safety engineering in comparison to the Chernobyl reactor; Deutsche Sicherheitstechnik im Vergleich zum Tschernobyl-Reaktor

    NONE

    2014-04-15

    In Germany the Russian RBMK would not have been licensed, since the safety standards in Germany were superior to those in the former USSR. The most significant differences - the containment, the control rod system, the void coefficient and the emergency cooling system are shortly summarized. The consequences for the population are cumulative environmental radiation exposure are reported using the official data of IAEA, WHO and UNDP.

  8. Design of experiment existing parameter physics for supporting of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) method a t the piercing radial beam port of Kartini research reactor

    Indry Septiana Novitasari; Yosaphat Sumardi; Widarto

    2014-01-01

    The experiment existing parameters physics for supporting of in vivo and in vitro test facility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preliminary study at the piercing radial beam port has been done. The existing experiments is needed for determining that the parameter physics is fulfill the BNCT method requirement. To realize the existing experiment have been done by design analysis, methodology, calculation method and some procedure related with radiation safety analysis and environment. Preparation for existing experiment physics such as foil detector of Gold (Au) should be irradiated for 30 minute, irradiation instrument and procedure related with the experiment for radiation safety. (author)

  9. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR (PCMSR

    M. Makrus Imron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan bahan bakar cair berupa garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR meyebabkan pengendalian daya pada PCMSR dapat dilakukan dengan mengendalikan laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Sedangkan dari sistem keselamatan, penggunaan bahan bakar cair menjadikan PCMSR memiliki karakter keselamatan melekat (inherent safety yang baik. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan analisis transien PCMSR pada tiga kondisi, yaitu: ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran bahan bakar, ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran pendingin dan ketika terdapat kegagalan pada sistem pelepasan panas (loss of heat sink. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan reaktor pada kondisi tunak menggunakan paket program. Standart Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC. Selanjutnya dari keluaran paket program SRAC diperoleh data data yang meliputi fluks netron,konstanta grup, kontanta peluran prekusor netron, fraksi netron kasip untuk perhitungan transien. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran bahan bakar sebesar 50 % dari laju bahan bakar sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 78 % dari daya sebelumnya. Dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin sebesar 50 % dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 63 % dari daya sebelumnya. Sedangkan pada saat terjadi loss of heat sink daya PCMSR menunjukkan penurunan. Kata kunci: PCMSR, transien, daya, laju aliran.   The use of liquid fuels in the form of molten salts LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 in Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR makes power control at PCMSR can be done by controlling the flow rate of fuel and coolant. In addition, from safety systems aspect, the use of liquid fuels makes PCMSR has good inherent safety characteristics. In this study transient analysis has been carried out on three conditions of PCMSR, namely when the fuel flow rate is changing, when the coolant flow rate is changing and when there is loss of heat sink condition. This research is

  10. PENGARUH PENGETAHUAN KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA TERHADAP PERILAKU PEKERJA KONSTRUKSI PADA PROYEK JALAN TOL NUSA DUA-NGURAH RAI–BENOA

    Made Bayu Sambira Teja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is incompatibility between the understanding of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS knowledge with the application of construction workers behavior on the Nusa Dua - Ngurah Rai - Benoa Toll Road Project Pack 3, where the toll road project was built above the sea. There are workers who work with unsafe although they already know how it should work safely, and there are also workers who found himself competent, but need direction and guidance. Therefore, need to know the influence of occupational health and safety knowledge on construction workers behavior seen from several aspects such as definitions and initiation, management systems, mechanisms of personal protective devices, facilities and infrastructure, as well as the risk of OHS. The sampling technique used Non probability sampling with Incidental Sampling method. Data were taken from the assessment of respondents' answers to the questionnaire by workers sampled in the research. Correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between knowledge of OHS with worker behavior. Regression analysis was used to explain of the knowledge of OHS aspects influence on construction workers behavior together by using the multiple linear regression analysis and partial by using simple linear regression analysis. The research result showed that there is a positive correlation between knowledge of OHS with worker behavior. In term of the OHS knowledge aspects, the use of personal protective devices mechanism aspects and utilization of facilities and infrastructure at work site affect positively / directly proportional and not significant, while aspects understanding of the definition and initiation, understanding of the OHS management system and an understanding of the risks effect Negative / inversely and not significant on the application of construction workers behavior in a secure and safe.

  11. PELAKSANAAN SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (SMK3 BERDASARKAN OHSAS 1800: 2007 PADA UNIT SPINNING V PT. SINAR PANTJA DJAJA (PT. SPD DI SEMARANG TAHUN 2014

    Korry Apriandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research in PT. SPD Semarang by using the type and design was qualitative and descriptive research the were aims to know the execution of SMK3 application on OHSAS 18001: 2007 in PT. SPD Semarang. From the results show that implementation of SMK3 on OHSAS PT. SPD as much as 131 points (87,3%. For points that haven’t met the standards yet as much as 10 points (6.7%. And for the points which don’t meet as many as 9 points (6%. So, PT. SPD were included in the category level assessment good or equivalent certificate flag gold tally. It was advisable to PT. SPD to enhance the application of SMK3 based on OHSAS with: (1 required to have a manual SMK3 on OHSAS, (2 required to have procedures for identifying, accessing and updating rules K3, (3 required to provide competent resources to SMK3 implementations, (4 the HSE training should be distinguished the responsibilities, competencies, languages, skills and risk, (5 should be doing simulated fire emergency, (6 must have data calibration tools in accordance with the regulations.

  12. Evaluasi Pelaksanaan Sasaran Keselamatan Pasien Sesuai Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Versi 2012 di Rumah Sakit Khusus Ibu dan Anak PKU Muhammadiyah Kotagede Yogyakarta

    Totok Sundoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to knowing description (policy, implementation, barriers, recommendation on compliance efforts in patient safety goals RSKIA PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Kota Gede. Qualitative research with case study design (case study. Subjects were hospital management, the staff of the hospital and the patient. The study object is the implementation of Patient Safety Goals Hospital Accreditation Hospital In Version 2012. Policy and implementation for the implementation of 6 targets have not been fully made patient safety and well-executed yet because there are still adhere to standards that do not, do not know the rules, socialization, and motivation are lacking and there is no management support. Recommendation needs to be done is the hospital management and the need to formulate a policy direction that comes with phasing as a guide to target patient safety in hospitals.

  13. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Persepsi Sopir Angkot (Angkutan Kota) Jurusan K02 Pondok Gede - Terminal Bekasi Tentang Keselamatan Berkendara di Jalan Raya

    Suroto, Suroto; Wahyuni, Ida; Mayasifa, Nabilah

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidents that occurred in the city of Bekasi during January to July 2015 there has been a 134 recorded cases of motor vehicle accidents and cars which is 65% of that occur in urban transportation. City transportation K02 Track Pondok Gede-Terminal Bekasi has the highest accident cases with 32 cases. The high incidence of accidents is because their behavior in the safety aspects of driving on the highway. Theory of planned behavior Ajzen said one factor that determines the direc...

  14. Persepsi Karyawan Tetap Atria Hotel & Conference Malang Atas Pengaruh Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Terhadap Motivasi Kerja Dan Kinerja Karyawan (Studi Karyawan Tetap Atria Hotel & Conference Malang)

    Sinaga, Andri Bennydictus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research to know perception permanent workers the Atria Hotel & Conference Malang over the influence of work safety and health to motivation work and employee performance. Data collection done through the distribution of the questionnaire that has been tested validity and reliability .Research locations was conducted in the Atria Hotel & Conference Malang and population used are employees stick with the number of 118 .Number of employees fixed samples this researc...

  15. Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (Smk3) dengan Kejadian Kecelakaan Kerja di Treat And Ship Operations–facility Operations PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia Duri

    Novianti, Sri; Lubis, Halinda Sari; Tarigan, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems and Work Accident in Treat and Ship Operations-Facility Operations of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia Duri. Occupational Health and Safety Management System gives an important role in reducing the incidence of occupational accidents and prevent health problems because of work, especially in high temperature machines and chemicals in some stages of production. Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Management System is ...

  16. Pengaruh Kesehatan Dan Keselamatan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada PT.Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia (CCAI) Unit Medan Dengan Motivasi Sebagai Variabel Intervening

    Harahap, Debbyanzah Fahmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Health and Safety of the employee's performance at Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia (CCAI) at Medan. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis and path analysis. The study population consisted of 174 employees at Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia (CCAI) at Medan. The sample in this study using simple random sampling, totaling 64 employees. collection of primary data using questionnaires and secondary data collection using case studie...

  17. Research Project 'RB research nuclear reactor' (operation and maintenance), Final report; Naucnoistrazivacki projekt 'Istrazivacki nuclearni reaktor RB, (pogon i odrzavanje), Zavrsni elaborat projekta

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    This final report covers operation and maintenance activities at the RB reactor during period from 1981-1985. First part covers the RB reactor operation, detailed description of reactor components, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, cooling system, equipment and instrumentation, auxiliary systems. It contains data concerned with dosimetry and radiation protection, reactor staff, and financial data. Second part deals maintenance, regular control and testing of reactor equipment and instrumentation. Third part is devoted to basic experimental options and utilization of the RB reactor including training.

  18. RB research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1984, I - III; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB, Izvestaj o radu u 1984. godini, I - III

    Markovic, H; Pesic, M; Vranic, S; Petronijevic, M; Zivkovic, B; Ilic, I [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The annual report for 1984 contains 3 parts. Part one includes the following: description of the reactor, exploitation possibilities of the reactor, reactor operation, accident and incidents analysis; reactor equipment and components; dosimetry and radiation protection; RB reactor staff and financial data. Part two of this report is devoted to maintenance and control of reactor components, electronic and electric equipment as well as auxiliary systems. Part three describes reactor exploitation; development of experimental methods; utilization of the reactor as a radiation source.

  19. RB research nuclear reactor - Annual report for 1986, I - III; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB (Izvestaj o radu u 1986. godini), I-III

    Markovic, H; Pesic, M; Vranic, S; Petronijevic, M; Jevremovic, M; Ilic, I [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1987-07-01

    This report includes data concerning the RB reactor operation in 1986, state of the reactor components, data about the employed personnel and the database of experimental and other reactor related devices. It is made of 3 parts: Engineering description and operation of the RB reactor including dosimetry, reactor staff data and financial report; Reactor facility components and maintenance; RB reactor operation and utilization in 1986. Izvestaj pokazuje podatke o radu reaktora RB u toku 1986. godine, stanje reaktorske opreme, podatke o angazovanom osoblju na reaktoru i datoteku sa podacima o eksperimentalnoj i drugoj opremi reaktora RB. Sastoji se od 3 dela: tehnicki opis, pogon i rad reaktora, oprema postrojenja i njeno odrzavanje, koriscenje reaktora u 1986. godini.

  20. Základy fúzní energetiky II - Základní fyzika fúzních reaktorů

    Entler, Slavomír; Mlynář, Jan; Dostál, V.

    Srpen (2016), č. článku 14538. ISSN 1801-4399 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nuclear fusion * fusion reactors * plasma Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics http://energetika.tzb-info.cz/elektroenergetika/14538-zaklady-fuzni-energetiky-ii-zakladni-fyzika-fuznich-reaktoru

  1. RB Research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1994, I - III; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB, Izvestaj o radu u 1994. godini, I - III

    Stefanovic, D; Milosevic, M; Pesic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, P [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, beograd (Yugoslavia); Kocic, A; Ilic, R; Dasic, N; Ljubenov, V; Petronijevic, M; Jevremovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    1994-12-15

    Report on RB reactor operation during 1994 contains 3 parts. Part one contains a brief description of the reactor, reactor operation and operational capabilities, reactor components, relevant dosimetry and radiation protection issues, personnel and financial data. Part two is devoted to maintenance of the reactor components, namely, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, absorption rods and heavy water level meters, maintenance of electronic, mechanical, electrical and auxiliary equipment. Part three contains data concerned with reactor operation and utilization as well as operation of the VAX-8250 computer.

  2. RB research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1989, I - III; Istrazivacki nukleani reaktor RB (Izvestaj o radu u 1989. godini), I - III

    Stefanovic, D; Pesic, M; Hadimahmutovic, N; Vranic, S; Petronijevic, M; Jevremovic, M; Ilic, I [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1989-12-15

    This report is made of three parts. Part one contains a short description of the reactor, reactor operation, incidents, status of reactor equipment and components (nuclear fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, electronic, electric and mechanical equipment, auxiliary systems and Vax-8250 computer). It includes dosimetry and radiation protection data, personnel and financial data. Second part of this report in concerned with maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation. Part three includes data about reactor utilization during 1989.

  3. RB Research nuclear reactor, Annual report for 1995, I-IV; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB, Izvestaj o radu u 1995. godini, I-IV

    Stefanovic, D; Milosevic, M; Pesic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, P [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Beograd (Yugoslavia); Ilic, R; Dasic, N; Milovanovic, S; Ljubenov, V; Petronijevic, M; Jevremovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-15

    Report on RB reactor operation during 1995 contains 3 parts. Part one contains a brief description of reactor operation and reactor components, relevant dosimetry data and radiation protection issues, personnel and financial data. Part two is devoted to maintenance of the reactor components, namely, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, absorption rods and heavy water level-meters, maintenance of electronic, mechanical, electrical and auxiliary equipment. Part three contains data concerned with reactor operation and utilization with a comprehensive list of publications resulting from experiments done at the RB reactor.

  4. Control of a reactor for conditioning of biogenic waste materials. Final report; Steuerung eines Reaktors zur Aufbereitung von Abfaellen mit biogenen Bestandteilen. Abschlussbericht

    Bartha, B.; Brummack, J.; Kloeden, W.

    2002-10-01

    Mechanical-biological waste treatment implies biological drying and mechanical separation; it produces a pollutant-free fuel fraction with good calorific value and inorganic fractions available for recycling. Apart from some prototypes, mostly static aerobic reactors are used. For moist residues, dynamic reactors may be interesting as they permit coupling of thermal and mechanical processes, i.e. parallel biological drying and mechanical separation. A discontinuous rotary kiln reactor for biological drying of residues was developed in this project. (orig.) [German] Die mechanisch-biologische Aufbereitung von Restabfaellen (MBA) hat sich zu einem Systembaustein innerhalb der Restabfallentsorgung entwickelt. Das Hauptanwendungsziel besteht darin, durch die Kombination von biologischer Trocknung mit mechanischen Stofftrennverfahren eine heizwertreiche und schadstoffentfrachtete Fraktion mit Brennstoffeigenschaften, sowie verwertbare anorganische Fraktionen aus dem Restabfall zu gewinnen. Die Ausgangssituation zeigte, dass, abgesehen von einigen prototypischen Anlagen, in der MBA-Technologie hauptsaechlich statische, aerob arbeitende Reaktoren (Rottetunnel und Rotteboxen) fuer den biologischen Schritt eingesetzt werden. Fuer feuchte Restabfaelle erscheint es interessant, dynamische Reaktoren einzusetzen, die die Kopplung thermischer und mechanischer Prozesse erlauben, die also die biologische Trocknung und den mechanischen Aufschluss parallel zulassen. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde die Steuerung eines diskontinuierlich betriebenen Drehrohrreaktors zur biologischen Trocknung von Restabfaellen entwickelt. (orig.)

  5. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1975. Operation and maintenance; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1975. godinu - Pogon i odrzavanje

    Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-01-15

    The plan for 1975 was successfully fulfilled. This is reflected in research related to improvement of operating properties of the RA reactor, mostly due to the effort of the RA staff employed in operation and maintenance of the reactor. Fuel saving achieved by this activity amounted to about 38% (80% enriched fuel). Preliminary work is done, concerned with new reactor core with highly enriched fuel. This is a significant saving as well. New fuel elements have arrived at the end of this year. It is going to enable increase of neutron flux by 50% without changing the nominal operating power. The possibility of further improvement of the reactor are analyzed, to enable material testing and production of radioactive sources. Mid term plan for reactor operation was made according to this analysis. It is planned to further increase the neutron flux in isolated smaller zones, and building new experimental loops with cooling and fast neutron converters. Much was done to increase the safety level of reactor operation and preparing the safety report. [Serbo-Croat] Izvrsenje zadataka u 1975. godini bilo je uspesno. To se ogleda u povecanju istrazivackog rada vezanog za poboljsanje eksploatacionih karakteristika reaktora RA, pretezno koriscenjem sopstvenog kadra angazovanog u pogonu i odrzavanju reaktora. Ovim radom postignuta je usteda goriva od oko 38% (80% obogaceno gorivo). Izvrseni su preliminarni radovi na prevodjenju reaktora RA na novo gorivo, sto je takodje velika usteda. Novo gorivo je stiglo krajem godine i ono ce obezbediti porast neutronskog fluksa od 50%, bez promene nominalne snage reaktora. Izvrsena je analiza mogucnosti daljeg usavrsavanja reaktora za potrebe ispitivanja materijala kao i proizvodnju radioaktivnih izvora. Na osnovu ove analize nacinjen je srednjorocni program rada reaktora RA sa tezistem na daljem povecanju fluksa u izdvojenim manjim zonama i ugradnju 'hladjenih petlji' i brzih konvertora. Mnogo je ucinjeno na povecanju stepena sigurnosti reaktora RA i izradi sigurnosnog izvestaja.

  6. The Siemens-Argonaut reactor as a driver zone for a high-temperature reactor cell. Der Siemens-Argonaut-Reaktor als Treiberzone fuer eine Hochtemperaturreaktorzelle

    Mueller, H; Schuerrer, F; Ninaus, W; Oswald, K; Rabitsch, H; Kreiner, H [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Reaktorphysik; Neef, R D [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1984-12-15

    To enable a validation of neutron physics calculation methods for pebble bed reactors the inner reflector of an Argonaut research reactor was substituted by a full of about 1200 fuel elements of the AVR-Juelich type. The report describes the measuring instruments and the reactor physical layout of the arrangement by the code packages GAMTEREX, ZUT-D.G.L. and MUPO. Comparison of calculated reaction rates with measurements show good agreement. Application of the codes to high-temperature reactors in abnormal states is envisaged. (Author, translated by G.Q.)

  7. ANALISA PENGARUH SUHU AWAL PELAT PANAS PADA PROSES QUENCHING CELAH SEMPIT REKTANGULAR

    M. Hadi Kusuma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman terhadap manajemen termal apabila terjadi suatu kecelakaan parah reaktor nuklir seperti melelehnya bahan bakar dan teras reaktor, menjadi prioritas utama untuk menjaga integritas bejana tekan reaktor. Dengan demikian hasil lelehan bahan bakar dan teras reaktor (debris tidak keluar dari bejana tekan reaktor dan mengakibatkan dampak lain yang lebih besar ke lingkungan. Salah satu cara yang dilakukan untuk menjaga integritas bejana tekan reaktor adalah dengan melakukan pendinginan terhadap panas berlebih yang dihasilkan akibat dari kecelakaan tersebut. Untuk mempelajari dan mendapatkan pemahaman mengenai hal tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh suhu awal pelat panas dalam proses quenching (pendinginan secara tiba-tiba celah sempit rektangular. Penelitian difokuskan pada penentuan suhu rewetting dari pendinginan pelat panas dengan suhu awal pelat 220 0C, 400 0C, dan 600 0C dengan laju aliran air pendingin 0,2 liter/detik. Eksperimen dilakukan dengan menginjeksikan air pada laju aliran 0,2 liter/detik pada suhu air pendingin 85 0C ke dalam celah sempit rektangular. Data hasil pengukuran digunakan untuk mengetahui suhu rewetting yang terjadi pada pendinginan pelat panas tersebut. Tujuannya adalah untuk memahami pengaruh suhu awal pelat panas terhadap rewetting pada proses quenching di celah sempit rektangular. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa titik rewetting pada pendinginan pelat panas 220 0C, 400 0C, dan 600 0C terjadi pada suhu rewetting yang berbeda-beda. Pada suhu awal pelat panas 220 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 220 0C yaitu langsung ketika air dilewatkan melalui celah sempit rektangular. Pada suhu awal pelat panas 400 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 379,51 0C. Dan pada suhu awal pelat panas 600 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 426,63 0C. Perbedaan suhu awal pelat panas yang sangat signifikan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan sifat fisik benda uji, berbedanya rejim pendidihan yang dialami oleh fluida yang

  8. Studi Model Benchmark Mcnp6 Dalam Perhitungan Reaktivitas Batang Kendali Htr-10

    Jupiter S.Pane, Zuhair, Suwoto, Putranto Ilham Yazid

    2016-01-01

    STUDI MODEL BENCHMARK MCNP6 DALAM PERHITUNGAN REAKTIVITAS BATANG KENDALI HTR-10. Dalam operasi reaktor nuklir, sistem batang kendali memainkan peranan yang sangat penting karena didesain untuk mengendalikan reaktivitas teras dan memadamkan reaktor. Nilai reaktivitas batang kendali harus diprediksi secara akurat melalui eksperimen dan perhitungan. Makalah ini mendiskusikan model Benchmark dalam perhitungan reaktivitas batang kendali reaktor HTR-10. Perhitungan dikerjakan dengan program transpo...

  9. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part II - radiation protection at the RA nuclear reactor in 1984; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Deo II - zastita od zracenja kod nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1984. godini

    Ninkovic, M; Ajdacic, N; Zaric, M; Vukovic, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-12-15

    Radon protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and (4) radioactive wastes, decontamination and actions. Each category is described as a separate annex of this report.

  10. Nuclear power in space. Use of reactors and radioactive substances as power sources in satellites and space probes; Kaernkraft i rymden. Anvaendningen av reaktorer och radioaktiva aemnen som kraftkaellor i satelliter och rymdsonder

    Hoestbaeck, Lars

    2008-11-15

    Today solar panels are the most common technique to supply power to satellites. Solar panels will work as long as the power demand of the satellite is limited and the satellite can be equipped with enough panels, and kept in an orbit that allows enough sunlight to hit the panels. There are various types of space missions that do not fulfil these criteria. With nuclear power these types of missions can be powered regardless of the sunlight and as early as 1961 the first satellite with a nuclear power source was placed in orbit. Out of seventy known space missions that has made use of nuclear power, ten have had some kind of failure. In no case has the failure been associated with the nuclear technology used. This report discusses to what degree satellites with nuclear power are a source for potential radioactive contamination of Swedish territory. It is not a discussion for or against nuclear power in space. Neither is it an assessment of consequences if radioactive material from a satellite would reach the earth's surface. Historically two different kinds of Nuclear Power Sources (NPS) have been used to generate electric power in space. The first is the reactor where the energy is derived from nuclear fission of 235U and the second is the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) where electricity is generated from the heat of naturally decaying radionuclides. NPS has historically only been used in space by United States and the Soviet Union (and in one failing operation Russia). Nuclear Power Sources have been used in three types of space objects: satellites, space probes and moon/Mars vehicles. USA has launched one experimental reactor into orbit, all other use of NPS by the USA has been RTG:s. The Soviet Union, in contrast, only launched a few RTG:s but nearly forty reactors. The Soviet use of NPS is less transparent than the use in USA and some data published on Soviet systems are more or less well substantiated assessments. It is likely that also future space probes, moon and Mars vehicles will be using NPS. Besides the more established users of NPS in space, USA and Soviet Union (today Russia), it is possible that we in a not to distant future will see use of NPS in space by China, India and maybe also ESA (European Space Agency). In 1992 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution regarding principles for the use of NPS in space. The resolution consists of eleven points regarding definitions and usage of NPS in space, and how to handle notification and compensation in case of damages due to a failure involving a satellite with an NPS. The probability of radioactive fallout in Sweden following an incident with a NPS-equipped satellite is very small. Due to the fact that everything placed in orbit around Earth sooner or later will re-enter, it is not possible to use probability of re-entry at any time as a measure of risk. Instead the measure Probability of re-entry within 100 year has been chosen. If the routine use of NPS in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is not taken up again two cases can be defined: - Within about 3 000 years all satellites stored in Nuclear Safe Orbit (NSO) will de-orbit and re-enter the Earth atmosphere. One satellite, Triad OI-IX is in orbit at a lower altitude, and will thus de-orbit earlier. The probability that it does re-enter within 100 years from now is so small that a quantitative measure is deemed not to be meaningful - There is a risk of a launch failure involving a satellite or space probe with a NPS, with a risk of fallout in Sweden. This is not a large risk, but it is orders of magnitude higher than the probability of a satellite that now is in NSO will end up in Sweden within 100 years. If the routine use of NPS in LEO is re-established, the probabilities above are no longer valid

  11. Announcement of recommendations of the Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission. As of 24 July 1997. Joint recommendations of RSK and GPR for safety requirements of future nuclear PWR-type power plants. English versions published in the years 1995 through 1997

    1997-01-01

    The recommendations, most parts given in English, refer to the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and have been established by the German RSK (reactor safety commission), the corresponding French organization GPR and the German SSK (radiation protection commission). This publication continues earlier joint recommendations by the national bodies, last published by the German BMU (responsible German ministry) on 5 May 1995, in BAnz. page 7452. The safety recommendations establish the basis for further activities in the Franco-German project for development of the EPR, a PWR type reactor of the next generation. (CB) [de

  12. Project RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1993 with comparative review for the period 1991 - 1993; Projekat Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Izvestaj za 1993. godinu, uz uporedni pregled za period 1991 - 1993

    NONE

    1993-12-15

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1993 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. First part includes 8 annexes describing reactor operation, activities of services for maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation, financial report and staffing. The ninth separate annex deals with the feasibility of RA reactor applications. Second part of the report is devoted to radiation protection issues and contains 4 annexes with data about radiation control of the working environment and reactor environment, description of decontamination activities, collection of radioactive wastes, and meteorology data. [Serbo-Croat] Godisnji izvestaj o radu nuklearnog reaktora RA za 1993. godinu sastoji se od dva dela: prvi deo obuhvata pogon i odzavanje reaktora RA, a drugi poslove zastite od zracenja na reaktoru RA. Prvi deo sadrzi 8 priloga, koji opisuju rad reaktora i poslove sluzbi za odrzavanje opreme i komponenti, finansijski izvestaj, kadrovsku strukturu osoblja reaktora. Poseban prilog razmatra mogucnosti koriscenja istrazivackog reaktora RA. Drugi deo izvestaja o poslovima zastite od zracenja sadrzi 4 priloga sa podacima radijacione kontrole radne sredine i okoline reaktora, opis poslova dekontaminacije i sakupljanja radioaktivnih materija, kao i meteoroloske podatke.

  13. RA Research reactor, Part 1, Operation and maintenance of the RA nuclear reactor for 1986; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA, deo 1, pogon i odrzavanje nukleanog reaktora RA u 1986. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Badrljica, R; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1986-12-01

    In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, three major tasks started in 1984 were fulfilled: building of the new emergency system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and reconstruction of the power supply system. Simultaneously in 1985/1986 renewal of the instrumentation and reconstruction of the system for handling and storage of the spent fuel in the reactor building have started. Design projects for these tasks are almost finished and the reconstruction of both systems is expected to be finished until 1988 and mid 1989 respectively. RA reactor Safety report was finished according to the recommendations of the IAEA. Investments in 1986 were used for 8000 kg of heavy water, maintenance of reactor systems and supply of new components, reconstruction of reactor systems. This report includes 8 annexes concerning reactor operation, activities of services and financial issues. [Serbo-Croat] Sa ciljem da se obezbedi pouzdan rad reaktora RA a u skladu sa zakonskim propisima, zavrsena su tri velika zahvata zapoceta 1984: izgradnja novog sistema za udesno hladjenje, rekonstrukcija postojeceg sistema za ventilaciju, i modernizacija reaktorske instrumentacije. Istovremeno tokom 1985/1986. zapoceta je modernizacija instrumentacije i rekonstrukcija sistema za rukovanje i skladistenje iskoriscenog goriva u zgradi reaktora. Projekti za navedene radove su vec zavrseni ili su u zavrsnoj fazi, a ocekuje se da ce rekonstrukcija oba sistema biti zavrsena do kraja 1988. odnosno sredine 1989. godine. Izrada izvestaja o sigurnosti reaktora RA, prema preporukama MAAE zavrsena je 1986. Investiciona ulaganja na reaktoru Ra u 1986. iskoriscena su za: nabavku 8000 kg teske vode, za investiciono odrzavanje reaktorskih sistema i nabavku opreme, za rekonstrukciju reaktorskih sistema. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi 8 priloga koji opisuju rad reaktora, rad strucnih sluzbi i finansiranje.

  14. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  15. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  16. Slug-Burst Detection in the G3 Reactor; La detection de rupture de gaine au reacteur G3; Obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki v reaktore G3; Deteccion de fallas del revestimiento en el reactor G3

    Plisson, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Marcoule (France)

    1963-10-15

    The author explains the principles underlying slug-burst detection and describes the construction of the apparatus concerned. The main features are a) fully automatic operation, b) centralization of data in the control room and c) measurement by electrostatic collection on a turntable. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire, l'auteur expose les principes sur lesquels est fondee la detection de rupture de gaines et il decrit la realisation des installations. Les caracteristiques principales sont a) l'automatisme integral, b) la centralisation des informations dans la salle de commande et c) mesure par collection electrostatique sur plaque tournante. (author) [Spanish] El autor expone los principios en que se basa la deteccion de las fallas en los revestimientos de los elementos combustibles y describe las caracteristicas principales de la instalacion, que son: a) automatizacion integral, b) centralizacion de las informaciones en la sala de mandos, y c) medicion por recoleccion electrostatica sobre una placa giratoria. (author) [Russian] Izlagayutsya printsipy, na kotorykh osnovano obnaruzhenie razryva obolochki, opisyvaetsya konstruirovanie ustanovok. Osnovnye kharakteristiki takovy: a) integral'nyj avtomatizm, b) tsentralizatsiya informatsii v komandnom zale i c) izmerenie putem ehlektrostaticheskogo sobiraniya na povorachivayushchejsya plastinke. (author)

  17. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part I - RA nuclear reactor operation, maintenance and utilization in 1984; Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA - Deo I - Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1984. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Badrljica, R; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-12-15

    During the 1984 the reactor operation was limited by the temporary operating license issued by the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. This temporary license has limited the reactor power to 2 MW from 1981. Operation of the primary cooling system was changed in order to avoid appearance of the previously noticed aluminium oxyhydrate on the surface of the fuel element claddings. The new cooling regime enabled more efficient heavy water purification. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, during 1984, three major tasks are planned: building of the new emergency system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor instrumentation. Financing of the planned activities will be partly covered by the IAEA. this Part I of the report includes 8 Annexes describing in detail the reactor operation, and 6 special papers dealing with the problems of reactor operation and utilization.

  18. Development of a methodology for safety classification on a non-reactor nuclear facility illustrated using an specific example; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Sicherheitsklassifizierung fuer eine kerntechnische Anlage ohne Reaktor an einem spezifischen Beispiel

    Scheuermann, F.; Lehradt, O.; Traichel, A. [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To realize the safety of personnel and environment systems and components of nuclear facilities are classified according to their potential danger into safety classes. Based on this classification different demands on the manufacturing quality result. The objective of this work is to present the standardized method developed by NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services for the categorization into the safety classes restricted to Non-reactor nuclear facilities (NRNF). Exemplary the methodology is used on the complex Russian normative system (four safety classes). For NRNF only the lower two safety classes are relevant. The classification into the lowest safety class 4 is accordingly if the maximum resulting dose following from clean-up actions in case of incidents/accidents remains below 20 mSv and the volume activity restrictions of set in NRB-99/2009 are met. The methodology is illustrated using an example. In short the methodology consists of: - Determination of the working time to remove consequences of incidents, - Calculation of the dose resulting from direct radiation and due to inhalation during these works. The application of this methodology avoids over-conservative approaches. As a result some previously higher classified equipment can be classified into the lower safety class.

  19. Report on the interpretation of critical experiments in the Siemens-Argonaut-Reactor Graz to study water ingress into spherical elements. Ergebnisbericht zur Auslegung kritischer Experimente am Siemens-Argonaut-Reaktor Graz zum Studium des Wassereinbruches im Kugelhaufen

    Schuerrer, F [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Reaktorphysik; Neef, R D [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1979-04-15

    The experiments described are of interest in the study of water contamination in HTR fuel elements. The Siemens Argonaut Reactor (SAR) has been considered as a research tool for a simulation experiment. Following a brief description of the SAR, planned programs are discussed in 'dry' and 'wet' cores. Detector foil types and locations are noted. A theoretical model is developed and nuclide concentrations estimated in the various spectral zones. Reactivity calculations have been made and are summarised for various H{sub 2}O percentage concentrations. The discussion is supported by simplified core layout diagrams and graphs of core flux distributions. Neutron diffusion and spectra calculations are referenced to computer programs used by KFA-Juelich, published elsewhere, and include GAM, THERMOS, MUPO and EXTERMINATOR-2. (G.C.)

  20. NPP Grafenrheinfeld. No thank you. Questions and answers concerning the oldest operating crack susceptible reactor in the federal republic; AKW Grafenrheinfeld. Nein danke. Fragen und Antworten zum aeltesten noch laufenden und rissanfaelligsten Reaktor der Republik

    Darge, Tobias

    2014-03-15

    The brochure discusses questions on the NPP Grafenrheinfeld. concerning the following issues: reactor type, operating company, nuclear fuel, licensing, radioactive waste management, susceptibility to damage, stress test results, critical arguments concerning the reactor pressure vessel steel and the containment, cracks in the primary circuit, safety in case of an aircraft crash, possibility of a severe accident, consequences of a severe accident, medical emergency plan, public information for an emergency case, shutdown at the end of 2015, necessity of a new power plant for energy security?.

  1. HUBUNGAN KERJA DALAM INDUSTRI FAST FASHION: ANALISIS ISI TERHADAP FENOMENA EKSPLOITASI (STUDI KASUS FILM THE TRUE COST DAN NIKE SWEATSHOPS

    Tri Apriliani

    2016-06-01

    dari aspekdominan eksploitasi berdasarkan upah, jaminan kesehatan, jaminan keselamatan, waktu, kekerasan fisik dan pembentukan serikat. Selain temuan dari film tesebut, didapati bahwa konteks ekonomi, sosial, dan politik pada periode tertentu serta kebijakan ketenagakerjaan turut mendukung terjadinya eksploitasi tenaga kerja.

  2. ANALISIS EFEK KECELAKAAN WATER INGRESS TERHADAP REAKTIVITAS DOPPLER TERAS RGTT200K

    Zuhair Zuhair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam high temperature reactor, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur yang didesain negatif menjamin reaksi fisi dalam teras tetap berada di bawah kendali dan panas peluruhan tidak akan pernah melelehkan bahan bakar yang menyebabkan terlepasnya zat radioaktif ke lingkungan. Namun masuknya air (water ingress ke dalam teras reaktor akibat pecahnya tabung penukar panas generator uap, yang dikenal sebagai salah satu kecelakaan dasar desain, dapat mengintroduksi reaktivitas positif dengan potensi bahaya lainnya seperti korosi grafit dan kerusakan material struktur reflektor. Makalah ini akan menganalisis efek kecelakaan water ingress terhadap reaktivitas Doppler teras RGTT200K. Kapabilitas koefisien reaktivitas Doppler untuk mengkompensasi reaktivitas positif yang timbul selama kecelakaan water ingress akan diuji melalui serangkaian perhitungan dengan program MCNPX dan pustaka ENDF/B-VII untuk perubahan temperatur bahan bakar dari 800K hingga 1800K. Tiga opsi kernel bahan bakar UO2, ThO2/UO2 dan PuO2 dengan tiga model kisi bahan bakar pebble di teras reaktor diterapkan untuk kondisi water ingress dengan densitas air dari 0 hingga 1.000 kg/m3. Hasil perhitungan memperlihatkan koefisien reaktivitas Doppler tetap negatif untuk seluruh opsi bahan bakar yang dipertimbangkan bahkan untuk posibilitas water ingress yang besar. Efek water ingress lebih kuat pada model kisi dengan fraksi packing lebih rendah karena lebih banyak volume yang tersedia untuk air yang memasuki teras reaktor. Efek water ingress juga lebih kuat di teras uranium dibandingkan teras thorium dan plutonium sebagai konsekuensi dari fenomena Doppler dimana absorpsi neutron di daerah resonansi 238U lebih besar daripada 232Th dan 240Pu. Secara keseluruhan dapat disimpulkan bahwa, koefisien Doppler teras RGTT200K mampu mengkompensasi insersi reaktivitas yang diintroduksi oleh kecelakaan water ingress. Teras RGTT200K dengan bahan bakar UO2, ThO2/UO2 dan PuO2 dapat mempertahankan fitur keselamatan

  3. The future of Asian feminisms: confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts and neo-liberalism

    Katjasungkana, N.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This book on the future of Asian feminisms, confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts, and neo-liberalism is a critical contribution to the rising voices of Asian women’s studies scholars and activists. It is based on the ongoing research and advocacy work of the Kartini Asia Network, founded in 2003

  4. Operation and utilization of Indonesia Research Reactors

    Kuntoro, Iman; Sujalmo, Saiful; Tarigan, Alim

    2004-01-01

    For supporting the R and D in nuclear science and technology and its application, BATAN own and operate three research reactors namely, TRIGA-2000, KARTINI and RSG-GAS having thermal power of 2 MW, 100 kW and 30 MW respectively. The main features, operation and utilization progress of the reactors are described in this report. (author)

  5. E S Kunarti

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. E S Kunarti. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 6 October 2014 pp 1419-1426. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics coated with nanosol composites of silica–titania · I Kartini I Ilmi E S Kunarti Kamariah · More Details ...

  6. PENGARUH PENGALAMAN AUDIT TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KEAHLIAN AUDITOR

    AMIR, YUNITA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Pengaruh Pengalaman Audit terhadap Peningkatan Keahlian Auditor Effect of Audit Experience to Increase The Expertise of Auditor Yunita Amir Mediaty Kartini Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur pengaruh pengalaman audit terhadap peningkatan keahlian auditor. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan pengisian kuesioner oleh auditor di Makassar. Variabel independen dari penelitian ini adalah lamanya masa kerja dan banya...

  7. PENGARUH PENGALAMAN DAN PELATIHAN AUDITOR TERHADAP AUDIT RISK DENGAN PROFESIONALISME AUDITOR SEBAGAI VARIABEL MEDIASI PADA BPKP PERWAKILAN SULAWESI BARAT

    FIRDHAUS MAKURAGA, HIRAZ GHIBRAN

    2017-01-01

    2017 Pengaruh Pengalaman dan Pelatihan Auditor terhadap Audit Risk dengan Profesionalisme Auditor sebagai Variabel Mediasi pada BPKP Perwakilan Sulawesi Barat The Effects of Experience, and Auditor???s Training on Audit Risk with Auditor???s Professionalism as Interveing Variable On BPKP Representative of West Sulawesi Hiraz Ghibran Firdhaus Makuraga Nirwana Kartini Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti pengaruh langsung dari varia...

  8. Põhja-Korea lubas taas jätta tuumaplaanid / Jürgen Tamme

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Pekingis toimunud kuuepoolsete desarmeerimiskõneluste tulemusena on Põhja-Korea nõus andma ülevaate riigi tuumarajatistest ning alustama nende likvideerimist. 14. juulil suleti Yongbyoni tuumakeskuse reaktor. Lisa: Tuumavaidlus

  9. Adamkus : EU might be willing to negotiate on postponing Ignalina reactor closure

    2008-01-01

    President Valdas Adamkus teatas võimalusest, et EL alustab arutelu Ignalina tuumaelektrijaama sulgemise edasilükkamisest. Uue jaama valmimise aeg pole teada ning praegune reaktor on tänu rootslaste abile turvaline

  10. Efek Durasi Pencahayaan Pada Sistem HRAR Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak Solar Dalam Air Limbah

    Dian Puspitasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan minyak di dalam air limbah industri perminyakan umumnya bersifat toksik terhadap mikroorganisme dan mengganggu proses pengolahan secara biologis. Sistem HRAR diperkirakan dapat mengatasi hambatan tersebut melalui proses fotosintesis untuk menghasilkan oksigen yang dibutuhkan mikroorganisme dalam mendegradasi senyawa hidrokarbon. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh perpanjangan waktu pencahayaan pada kemampuan HRAR dalam menurunkan kandungan minyak di dalam limbah. Variabel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah variasi durasi pencahayaan dan variasi penambahan volume minyak solar yang ditambahkan ke dalam reaktor. Variasi durasi pencahayaan yang digunakan adalah pencahayaan selama 12 jam dan pencahayaan selama 24 jam. Sedangkan penambahan volume minyak solar ke dalam masing-masing reaktor adalah sebesar 346 ppm, 519 ppm dan 692 ppm. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah durasi pencahayaan selama 12 jam memiliki efek yang lebih baik terhadap penurunan konsentrasi minyak dibandingkan pencahayaan selama 24 jam. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari baiknya pertumbuhan alga dan bakteri di dalam reaktor serta tingginya penurunan konsentrasi minyak solar di dalamnya. Penurunan konsentrasi minyak solar terbaik terdapat pada reaktor dengan penambahan minyak solar sebesar 346 ppm. Pada reaktor dengan durasi pencahayaan selama 12 jam terjadi penurunan konsentrasi minyak sebesar 78,4%. Sedangkan penurunan kandungan minyak solar pada reaktor dengan durasi pencahayaan selama 24 jam adalah sebesar 73,9%.

  11. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur langfristig kostenguenstige passive Massnahmen wie reaktive Barrieren zur Sanierung in Frage. Grundwasser, das mit mehreren und unterschiedlich reagierenden Stoffen kontaminiert ist, kann jedoch nicht mit Hilfe eines einzelnen reaktiven Materials gereinigt werden, daher wurde die Effektivitaet von Kombinationen unterschiedlicher reaktiver Materialien zur Sanierung untersucht. Von den untersuchten Kombinationen erwies sich die Hintereinanderschaltung von reduzierendem Eisen und Aktivkohle als besonders effektiv. Reduzierbare chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe werden im Eisen entfernt, die verbleibenden Kontaminanten adsorbieren auf der Aktivkohle. Auch die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Sauerstoff abgebenden ORC, in denen ein aerober mikrobieller Abbau statt findet, ist zur Entfernung von Mischkontaminationen geeignet. Eine Kostenschaetzung zeigt, dass die Kombination von Eisen und Aktivkohle in Abhaengigkeit von der Zusammensetzung der Kontamination guenstiger als Aktivkohle allein sein kann und generell guenstiger als die Kombination von Eisen und ORC ist. Ohne ein guenstigeres Verfahren zum Einbringen von Sauerstoff in den Aquifer wird die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Aktivkohle zur Sanierung von Mischkontaminationen empfohlen. Im direkten Abstrom von reaktiven Eisenbarrieren (auch in Kombination mit Aktivkohle) sind die Grenzwerte fuer Fe(II) und pH entsprechend der Trinkwasserverordnung ueberschritten. Im Abstrom von ORC-Reaktoren werden die zulaessigen Werte fuer Mg und pH ueberschritten. Untersuchungen im Abstrom dieser reaktiven Materialien zeigen, dass die hohen pH-Werte durch den Kontakt mit dem Aquifermaterial auf Aquifer-typische Werte gepuffert werden, die ueblicherweise unter den Grenzwerten der Trinkwasserverordnung liegen. Mit Erschoepfen der Pufferkapazitaet des Bodens breitet sich jedoch eine Zone mit erhoehtem pH-Wert im Aquifer aus. Die Geschwindigkeit dieser Ausbreitung haengt vom pH-Wert und dem Aquifermaterial ab. Gerade fuer sehr Organik reiche Boeden wie in Bitterfeld wird auch eine lange anhaltende Desorption von Schadstoffen aus dem Aquifermaterial beobachtet, durch die das saubere Wasser, das die Sanierungsanlage verlaesst, wieder mit Schadstoffen beladen wird, was zu einer anhaltenden Nutzungseinschraenkung fuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Radioactivity in the environment of the RA nuclear reactor in Vinca for the period 1977-1980. Material prepared for the RA reactor safety report; Radioaktivnost okoline nuklearnog reaktora RA u Vinci u periodu 1977-1980, Materijal pripremljen za izradu Sigurnosnog izvestaja za reaktor RA

    Ajdacic, N; Martinc, R [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1980-12-15

    Review of the environmental monitoring data presented in this report is prepared for the RA reactor safety report. These data resulted from four-year monitoring of precipitations and deposited dust. Measurements were done daily. In addition to these data, tables contain mean daily values, total monthly values of beta activities of precipitation from 1977 - 1980. Radioactivity control of the RA reactor environment showed that there was no significant discrepancy compared to the mean values for several years, apart from seasonal variations and meteorological influences. In the period from October 1976 to mid 1978 a number of higher values were recorded probably due to nuclear explosions. During 1979 the general activity level was relatively low, showing increase tendency during 1980.

  13. Standar Operasional Prosedur Penanganan Penumpang Yang Memerlukan Pelayanan Khusus Di PT. Indonesia Air Asia Medan

    Mulia Wanti

    2009-01-01

    PT. Indonesia Air Asia adalah salah satu perusahaan penerbangan di Indonesia yang menyediakan jasa pengangkutan dengan biaya rendah (low cost carrier). Walaupun tercatat sebagai perusahaan penerbangan yang low cost carrier, pelayanan yang diberikan tetap baik dan mengutamakan kenyamanan dan keselamatan penumpang. Adanya tenaga profesional juga mendukung kegiatan penerbangan. Penumpang yang menggunakan jasa transportasi udara ini berasal dari berbagai kalangan dan dalam keadaan tertentu, b...

  14. Perancangan dan Simulasi MRAC untui Proses Pengendalian Temperatur pada Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR

    Amelia Sylvia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperatur merupakan salah satu variabel proses dasar yang dikendalikan untuk menjaga suhu cairan di dalam reaktor. Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC dengan MIT rule dipilih untuk mencapai spesifikasi respon yang diinginkan pada CSTR. Beban yang bervariasi berupa debit aliran likuid yang masuk ke dalam reaktor dapat menyebabkan perubahan parameter yang mempengaruhi perubahan temperatur output produk pada CSTR. Sebuah simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan MATLAB dan hasilnya dianalisa. Respon plant dapat melakukan adaptasi parameter – parameter kontrolernya cukup baik pada nilai gain adaptasi dengan rentang 0.00000010000 sampai 0.00000000001. Waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi beban yang bervariasi berupa debit aliran yang masuk ke dalam reaktor dengan nilai yang maksimal (1.5 m^3/min menghasilkan respon plant lebih cepat 42 detik dari pada debit aliran masuk dengan nilai yang nominal (1 m^3/min 63 detik dan minimal (0.5 m^3/min 75 detik.

  15. Studi Efisiensi Penyisihan COD dalam Lindi dengan Sistem Evapotranspirasi Menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica

    Badrus Zaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available COD dalam lindi merupakan salah satu parameter yang secara umum berada pada konsentrasi yang tiggi sebagai salah satu hasil biodegradasi material organik dan anorganik dalam sampah di TPA. Sistem evapotranspirasi yang menggunakan tumbuhan lokal merupakan salah satu sistem yang menjanjikan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penyisihan COD dalam lindi dengan reaktor evapotranspirasi secara kontinyu yang menggunakan tumbuhan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica. Hasil uji menunjukkan efisiensi pada semua reaktor mulai sekitar hari ke 3 hingga hari ke 25 mengalami fluktuasi yang cenderung menurun (dari ± 75% menjadi ± 50%, tetapi hari selanjutnya cenderung meningkat. Pola tersebut dipengaruhi oleh peran media tanam, bakteri dalam media tanam, bakteri pada akar tumbuhan dan aktivitas metabolisme tumbuhan uji. Secara keseluruhan reaktor yang menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza lebih fluktuatif dibandingkan denga menggunakan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica yang dipengaruhi pola pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya.

  16. Prosedur Strategis Untuk Mengurangi Level Bahaya Arc-Flash Pada Medium Voltage Dengan Metode Koordinasi Proteksi Di PT Ipmomi Paiton

    inas ratnaning zafirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di area sistem kelistrikan, operasi, dan maintenance, perhatian terbesar adalah keselamatan dan keamanan pekerja yang mengoperasikan dan menjaga sistem. Sistem kelistrikan didisain tidak hanya untuk tindakan pencegahan yang diperlukan pada sistem proteksi dan peralatan, tetapi juga harus memperhatikan keselamatan personal untuk tingkat tertentu dari arc-flash atau busur api karena arcing fault. Pada tugas akhir ini, bahaya busur api akan dianalisis dan diperhitungkan. Hasilnya akan diketahui level energi arc-flash atau busur api yang mungkin terjadi sesuai standar NFPA 70E-2004. Data yang nanti digunakan diambil dari plant yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya yaitu PT IPMOMI. Dari data tersebut, parameter – parameter yang diperlukan akan dihitung dan diketahui level busur api. Bila diperlukan, maka juga akan dilakukan resetting atau penambahan rele over current.

  17. Integrating 3D CAD data for manufacturing and fabrication the core model of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Abu Bakar Harun

    2005-01-01

    This paper describe the intrigue integration of digital 3 Dimensional Computer Aided Design (3D CAD) data manipulation for the Core Model fabrication of REAKTOR TRIGA PUSPATI and ready for mass manufacturing. 3 Dimensional CAD data from Computer Aided Design program will be used as an interpreter in the fabrication of this project. The Core Model of REAKTOR TRIGA PUSPATI will be fabricated with the aid of 3D CAD drawings and digital files. The components will be segregated and divided into 2 categories namely Conventional d Rapid Fabrication. (Author)

  18. RISIKO KEJADIAN MEDICATION ERROR DI INSTALASI RAWAT INAP RUMAH SAKIT UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    Ningsih, Yunita; Maidin, Alimin; Kapalawi, Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    Kejadian medication error merupakan indikator penting keselamatan pasien. Medication error yang terjadi di Rumah Sakit Universitas Hasanuddin tahun 2013 terdapat 4 kasus dan tahun 2014 terdapat 1 kasus. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui gambaran risiko kejadian medication error.Jenis penelitian yang digunakan penelitian deskriptif. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan yaitu teknik total sampling sebanyak 115 responden. Analisis data yang dilakukan adalah analisis univariat. Hasil peneli...

  19. Asuhan Keperawatan pada An. A dengan Prioritas Masalah Kebutuhan Dasar Istirahat dan Tidur di RS. dr. Pirngadi Medan

    Saragih, Siska Oktavia

    2015-01-01

    Kebutuhan dasar manusia merupakan sesuatu yang harus dipenuhi untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan. Menurut Abraham Maslow, manusia mempunyai lima kebutuhan yang membentuk tingkatan yang dikenal dengan “Hierarki Maslow” yang disusun berdasarkan kebutuhan yang paling penting hingga yang tidak terlalu krusial, adapun kebutuhan yang dimaksud meliputi fisiologis, kebutuhan keamanan dan keselamatan, kebutuhan cinta dan memiliki,kebutuhan harga diri dan kebutuhan aktualisasi diri (Alimul, 2012). ...

  20. Penataan Menara BTS (Cell Planning)

    Prijono, Wahyu Adi

    2010-01-01

    Penataan menara/BTS merupakan proses master plan penataan menara telekomunikasi seluler berdasarkan estetika dan kesesuaian dengan KKOP ( Kawasan Keselamatan Operasional Penerbangan ) dan tata ruang wilayah suatu daerah guna mendapatkan jumlah menara yang optimal di suatu wilayah.Penataan Menara Master plan meliputi, analisis potensi pengguna telepon seluler sampai 5 tahun ke depan, Prediksi deman BTS, perhitungan kapasitas BTS 5 tahun kedepan, pemetaan pola penataan pemakaian menara / tower ...

  1. Services provided to other organizational units, Annex 7; Prilog 7 - Usluge drugim organizacionim jedinicama

    NONE

    1965-12-15

    During 1965, the RA reactor staff provided services to other organizational units in: designing new systems, repair of electronic equipment, installing measuring devices, constructing mechanical elements in the workshop. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1965. godine reaktor RA je pruzio usluge drugim jedinicama i to: projektovanjem novih sistema, popravkom elektronskih uredjaja, instaliranjem mernih sistema, izradom mehanickih elemenata i sklopova u mehanickoj radionici.

  2. Ultrasonics aids the identification of failed fuel rods

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Over a number of years Brown Boveri Reaktor of West Germany has developed and commercialized an ultrasonic failed fuel rod detection system. Sipping has up to now been the standard technique for failed fuel detection, but sipping can only indicate whether or not an assembly contains defective rods; the BBR system can tell which rod is defective. (author)

  3. Eesti Energia valib Ameerikas tuumajaamale reaktoreid / Andres Reimer

    Reimer, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Energia liitus rahvusvahelise tuumareaktoriprojektiga IRIS, projekti eesmärk on luua lihtsa konstruktsiooniga, ohutu ja suhteliselt odav reaktor. Jürgen Ligi sõnul saab Eesti oma IRIS-tüüpi tuumajaama juba 2019. aastal. Joonis: Potentsiaalne tuumajaam

  4. Na velikosti nezáleží - je to fraktální

    Řípa, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, červen (2014) Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * tokamak * fractal * turbulence * Bohm diffusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://3pol.cz/1614-na-velikosti-nezalezi-je-to-fraktalni-aneb-slunecni-termojaderny-reaktor

  5. Pengolahan Sampah Secara Pirolisis dengan Variasi Rasio Komposisi Sampah dan Jenis Plastik

    Qonita Rachmawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada tahun 2012, sampah yang dihasilkan sebesar 1200 ton/hari. Jika permasalahan sampah di Kota Surabaya tidak ditangani dengan baik maka akan menimbulkan beberapa masalah antara lain: masalah kesehatan dan masalah kebersihan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan metode yang dapat mengolah sampah namun tidak menimbulkan masalah baru lainnya. Salah satu metode pengolahan sampah yang telah dikembangkan, yaitu metode pirolisis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh jenis plastik dan komposisi terhadap produk hasil pirolisis. Pada penelitian ini digunakan reaktor dengan kapasitas 500 g yang berbahan stainless steel. Variabel yang digunakan yaitu jenis sampah plastik dan komposisi sampah. Jenis sampah yang digunakan yaitu sampah plastik HDPE (High Density Polyethylene, PET (Poly Ethylene Terephthalate, dan PS (Poly Styrene. Komposisi sampah yang digunakan antara lain: 100:0, 75:25, dan 50:50. Temperatur yang digunakan pada reaktor yaitu 500°C dengan waktu 30 menit. Penelitian dimulai dari persiapan bahan uji, persiapan reaktor, percobaan pendahuluan, dan penelitian dengan reaktor pirolisis. Selanjutnya dilakukan analisis untuk masing-masing hasil produk. Penelitian ini jenis sampah plastik yang menghasilkan gas tertinggi yaitu jenis plastik PET sebesar 45,40% dan jenis plastik yang menghasilkan wax tertinggi yaitu jenis plastik HDPE sebesar 69,91%. Sedangkan komposisi yang menghasilkan gas tertinggi yaitu komposisi dengan ranting 25% dan PET 75% sebesar 71,24% dan komposisi yang menghasilkan wax tertinggi yaitu komposisi dengan ranting 25% dan PS 75% sebesar 61,36%.

  6. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  7. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting; Metoda Bioassay Uranium dalam urin dengan pencacahan Netron Kasip

    Suratman,; Purwanto,; Sukarman-Aminjoyo, [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 {mu}g.

  8. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting

    Suratman; Purwanto; Sukarman-Aminjoyo

    1996-01-01

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 μg

  9. Self Assessment for the Safety of Research Reactor in Indonesia

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung

    2008-01-01

    At the present Indonesia has no nuclear power plant in operation yet, although it is expected that the first nuclear power plant will be operated and commercially available in around the year of 2016 to 2017 in Muria Peninsula. National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) has three research reactor; which are: Reactor Triga Mark II at Bandung, Reactor Kartini at Yogyakarta and Reactor Serbaguna (Multi Purpose Reactor) at Serpong. The Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors establishes 'best practice' guidelines for the licensing, construction and operation of research reactors. In this paper the author use the requirement in code of conduct to review the safety of research reactor in Indonesia

  10. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Critical Experiment and its Application to Thorium Absorption Rates; Experience Critique pour l'Etude d'un Reacteur a Haute Temperature, Refroidi par un Gaz et son Application a la Determination des Taux d'Absorption du Thorium; Kriticheskij opyt, postavlennyj na vysokotemperaturnom reaktore s gazovym okhlazhdeniem, i primenenie ego dlya opredeleniya stepeni pogloshcheniya toriya; Experimento Critico Efectuado en un Reactor de Elevada Temperatura Refrigerado por Gas y su Aplicacion para Calcular los Indices de Absorcion del Torio

    Bardes, R. G.; Brown, J. R.; Drake, M. K.; Fischer, P. U.; Pound, D. C.; Sampson, J. B.; Stewart, H. B. [General Dynamics Corporation,San Diego, CA (United States)

    1964-04-15

    In developing the concept of the HTGR and its first prototype at Peach Bottom, General Atomic made the decision that a critical experiment was required to provide adequately certain necessary input data for the nuclear analysis. The specific needs of the nuclear design theory for input data relating to thorium absorptions led to an experimental design consisting of a central lattice-type critical assembly with surrounding buffer and driver regions. This type of assembly, in which the spectrum of interest can be established in the relatively small central lattice having a desired geometry, provides a useful tool for obtaining a variety of input data for nuclear analysis surveys of new concepts. The particular advantages of this approach over that of constructing a mock-up assembly will be discussed, as well as the role of the theory in determining what experiments are most useful and how these experiments are then used in verifying design techniques. Two relatively new techniques were developed for use in the lattice assembly. These were a reactivity oscillation technique for determining the thorium Doppler coefficient, and an activation technique for determining both the resonance integral of thorium dispersed in graphite and its temperature dependence (activation Doppler coefficient). The Doppler coefficient measurement by reactivity oscillation utilized the entire central fuel element in a technique which permitted heating this fuel element to 800 Degree-Sign F and accurately subtracting experimentally the thermal-base effects, that is, those effects not contributing to the thorium resonance capture. Comparison of results with theory for a range of conditions shows excellent agreement. The measurement of the thorium resonance integral and its temperature dependence will be described. The technique developed for measuring resonance capture makes use of gold as the standard and vanadium as die material giving the 1/v absorption rate. This technique is dictated by the fact that the thorium is dispersed in graphite and the usual cadmium-ratio technique is difficult to apply. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results shows excellent agreement over a range of variables. In addition, the results of both activation and reactivity measurements of Doppler coefficient are in agreement, a fact which is felt to be significant in view of the disparity between results from these two techniques in the literature. (author) [French] Lors de l'etude du reacteur HTGR a haute temperature refroidi par un gaz, et de son premier prototype a Peach Bottom, la General Atomic Division de la societe General Dynamics a decide qu'il fallait proceder a une experience critique pour obtenir certaines donnees d'entree necessaires pour l'analyse nucleaire. Aux fins de l'etude nucleaire theorique, les besoins particuliers en donnees d'entree relatives aux absorptions par le thorium ont amene les ingenieurs a concevoir un assemblage experimental critique compose d'un reseau central entoure d*une region tampon et d'une region de commande. Ce type.d'assemblage, dans lequel on peut creer le spectre a mesurer dans le reseau central relativement petit ayant la geometrie voulue, permet d'obtenir des donnees d'entree tres diverses pour les etudes de projets nouveaux, au point de vue de l'analyse nucleaire. Le memoire indique les avantages particuliers que presente cette methode par rapport a celle qiu consiste a construire une maquette, ainsi que le role de la theorie pour determiner quelles experiences sont le plus utiles et comment utiliser ensuite ces experiences dans la verification des procedes d'etude. Les auteurs ont mis au point deux methodes relativement nouvelles qui peuvent etre utilisees avec l'assemblage decrit ci-dessus: une methode d'oscillation de la reactivite pour determiner le coefficient Doppler pour le thorium; une methode d'activation pour determiner a la fois l'integrale de resonance pour le thorium disperse dans le graphite et ses variations en fonction de la temperature (coefficient Doppler d'activation). Pour mesurer le coefficient Doppler par oscillation de la reactivite, on se sert de la totalite de la cartouche centrale au cours d'une operation qui permet de la porter a une temperature pouvant atteindre 425 Degree-Sign C et d'eliminer experimentalement les effets qui ne contribuent pas a la capture de neutrons de resonance par le thorium. Pour toute une gamme d'experiences, les resultats obtenus concordent bien avec les resultats theoriques. Le memoire decrit la mesure de l'integrale de resonance pour le thorium et ses variations en fonction de la temperature. Dans le procede que l'on a mis au point pour mesurer la capture de resonance, on utilise l'or comme etalon et le vanadium comme matiere donnant le taux d'absorption en 1/v. Ce procede a ete choisi parce que le thorium est disperse dans le graphite et qu'il est difficile d'appliquer le procede habituel du rapport cadmium. Les resultats empiriques concordent bien avec les resultats theoriques dans une large gamme de variables. En outre, les resultats des mesures du coefficient Doppler par les deux methodes (oscillation de la reactivite et activation) concordent. Les auteurs estiment que ce fait merite d'etre releve, car dans les ouvrages publies jusqu'ici ces deux procedes donnaient des resultats differents. (author) [Spanish] Al definir los principios teoricos del reactor de elevada temperatura refrigerado por gas, y de su primer prototipo en Peach Bottom, la General Atomic decidio efectuar un experimento critico con miras a reunir ciertos datos de entrada requeridos para el analisis nuclear. Debido a las necesidades especificas de la teoria de las construcciones nucleares, en lo que atane a los datos de entrada acerca de la absorcion del torio, los autores elaboraron un sistema experimental formado por un conjunto critico con reticulado central rodeado por una region amortiguadora y otra activado'. Este tipo de conjunto, en el que el espectro que se ha de analizar puede limitarse al reticulado central relativamente pequeno, y cuya geometria puede determinarse a voluntad, permite obtener diversos datos de entrada para los estudios relativos a analisis nucleares de instalaciones nuevas. Los autores describen las ventajas de este metodo en comparacion con el de una maqueta y la funcion de la teoria, consistente en determinar cuales son los experimentos mas utiles y la manera en que deben utilizarse para comprobar los proyectos. Los autores elaboraron dos tecnicas relativamente nuevas para su utilizacion en un conjunto dotado de reticulado. Una se basa en la tecnica de oscilacion de la reactividad para determinar el coeficiente Doppler correspondiente al torio, y la otra en la activacion para determinar la integral de resonancia del torio dispersado en el grafito y su variacion en funcion de la temperatura (coeficiente Doppler de activacion). Para medir el coeficiente Doppler por oscilacion de la reactividad, se utilizo todo el elemento combustible situado en el centro, calentando este elemento hasta 800 Degree-Sign F y procediendo a una sustraccion experimental exacta de los efectos que no contribuyen a la captura por resonancia en el torio. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los valores teoricos en diversas condiciones. Los autores describen la medicion de la integral de resonancia en el torio y su variacion en funcion de la temperatura. En la tecnica que han elaborado para medir la captura por resonancia, se utiliza oro como patron y vanadio como el material que cumple la ley 1/v. La eleccion de esta tecnica obedece al hecho de que el torio se dispersa en el grafito y a la dificultad de aplicar el metodo basado en la razon cadmica. Los resultadoe experimentales concuerdan con los teoricos en diversas condiciones. Asimismo, concuerdan entre si las mediciones del efecto Doppler efectuadas por activacion y la realizadas por determinacion de la reactividad, lo que se considera significativo debido a que en las obras publicadas subsiste cierta divergencia en los resultados obtenidos con ambas tecnicas. (author) [Russian] Pri razrabotke idei reaktora HTGR i ego pervogo prototipa v Pich- Bottome prishli k resheniju o neobhodimosti obespechit' sootvetstvujushhie ishodnye dannye dlja provedenija jadernogo analiza. Konkretnye potrebnosti teorii jadernogo proektirovanija na ishodnyh dannyh otnositel'no pogloshhenija torija priveli k sozdaniju jeksperimental'nogo proekta, sostojashhego iz kriticheskoj sborki tipa sborki s central'noj reshetkoj s okruzhajushhim ammortizatorom i peredvizhnymi aktivnymi zonami. Sborka takogo tipa, v kotoroj v sravnitel'no nebol'shoj central'noj reshetke s zhelaemoj geometriej mozhet byt' ustanovlen predstavljajushhij interes spektr, javljaetsja poleznoj ustanovkoj dlja poluchenija raznoobraznyh ishodnyh dannyh v celjah provedenija jadernogo analiza novyh idej. Obsuzhdajutsja konkretnye preimushhestva jetogo metoda po sravneniju so stroitel'stvom sborki-modeli, a takzhe rol' teorii v opredelenii, kakie opyty javljajutsja naibolee poleznymi i kak jeti opyty zatem ispol'zujutsja pri proverke metodov proektirovanija. - Byli razrabotany dva sravnitel'no novyh metoda dlja ispol'zovanija v sborke reshetok - metod izmerenija kolebanij reaktivnosti dlja opredelenija kojefficienta Dopplera dlja torija i metod aktivacii dlja opredelenija kak rezonansnogo integrala torija, dispergirovannogo v grafite, tak i ego zavisimosti ot temperatury (kojefficient aktivacii Dopplera). Pri izmerenii kojefficienta Dopplera putem opredelenija kolebanij reaktivnosti ves' central'nyj toplivnyj jelement ispol'zovalsja takim obrazom, chto byla vozmozhnost' osushhestvit' nagrev toplivnogo jelementa do 800 Registered-Sign F i tochno opredelit' opytnym putem teplovye jeffekty, t.e. te jeffekty, kotorye ne okazyvajut vlijanija na velichinu rezonansvogo zahvata torija. Sravnenie rezul'tatov s teoriej dlja rjada uslovij svidetel'stvuet o prekrasnom soglasovanii. Daetsja opisanie izmerenija rezonansnogo integrala torija i ego zavisimosti ot temperatury. Pri jetom metode dlja izmerenija rezonansnogo zahvata v kachestve standarta ispol'zuetsja zoloto, a v kachestve materiala, dajushhego velichinu pogloshhenija, podchinjajushhujusja zakonu 1/v, -vanadij. Jetot metod obuslovlivaetsja tem faktom, chto torij dispergiruetsja v grafite i trudno primenjat' obychnyj metod kadmievogo otnoshenija. Sravnenie jeksperimental'nyh i teoreticheskih rezul'tatov svidetel'stvuet o prekrasnom soglasvi vo vsem diapazone peremennyh.. Krome togo, soglasujutsja rezul'taty izmerenija kojefficienta Dopplera kak metodom aktivacii, tak i metodom opredelenija reaktivnosti,-fakt, kotoryj, kak polagajut, javljaetsja vazhnym vvidu nalichija rashozhdenija mezhdu rezul'tatami primenenija jetih dvuh metodov, imejushhimisja v literature. (author)

  11. The differences of caries prevalence and caries index of children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS in Kota Batam

    Ratna Ayu Alia Zulkarnain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to describe the caries prevalence and caries index of children in primary school with UKGS (SD Kartini I and without UKGS (SD 009 Bulang in Kota Batam. Total samples of this research were 193 persons, it is consist of 107 persons from SD Kartini I and 86 persons from SD 009 Bulang. The Chi-Square Test and U Mann-Whitney Test were conducted in this research. The statistical analysis was significant for caries prevalence between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS with χ2table = 2.71 and χ2calculate = 3.73, whereas def-t index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with - Ztable = - 1.96 and Zcalculate = - 2.91 with α = 0.05. The DMF-T index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with Ztable = 1.96 and Zcalculate = 6.32 with α = 0,05. The conclusions of this study indicate that there were differences of caries prevalence and caries index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS.

  12. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1992, Part 1; Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktoro RA u 1992. Godini

    Sotic, O; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Majstorovic, D; Tanaskovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-12-01

    During 1992 Ra reactor was not in operation. All the activities were fulfilled according to the previously adopted plan. Basic activities were concerned with revitalisation of the RA reactor and maintenance of reactor components. All the reactor personnel was busy with reconstruction and renewal of the existing reactor systems and building of the new systems, maintenance of the reactor devices. Part of the staff was trained for relevant tasks and maintenance of reactor systems. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1992 godine poslovi u okviru projekta 'Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RA' obavljani su u skladu sa programom i planom rada. Osnovne aktivnosti na kojima je radjeno odnosile su se na revitalizaciju reaktora RA, kao i na odrzavanje opreme. U ovom periodu reaktor nije bio u pogonu. Svo osoblje je bilo angazovano na poslovima rekonstrukcije i modernizacije postojecih i dogradnje novih reaktorskih sistema, na odrzavanju opreme a deo tehnickog osoblja je bio obucavan za vrsenje odgovarajucih poslova u pogonu i odrzavanju opreme.

  13. Pengolahan Limbah Rumah Makan dengan Proses Biofilter Aerobik

    Laily Zoraya Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berkembangnya rumah makan/restoran yang semakin pesat dapat dipastikan akan turut menambah buangan air limbah domestik dengan kadar organik yang tinggi dalam jumlah yang tidak sedikit yang dibuang ke badan air.Tingginya kadar organik dalam limbah domestik rumah makan akan menyebabkan aroma yang tidak sedap jika tidak ada pengolahan terlebih dahulu, maka pengolahan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengolah air limbah rumah makan tersebut adalah proses biofilter aerobik. Penelitian dilakukan dengan proses biofilter aerobik dengan aliran downflow dan menggunakan sistem intermitten.Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah media biofilter berupa kerikil dan batu alam serta Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT 8 jam. Parameter pencemar yang diukur efisiensinya adalah BOD, COD, dan TSS. Besarnya penyisihan parameter BOD, COD dan TSS dengan menggunakan biofilter aerob berturut-turut mencapai 94,83%, 92,95%, dan 95%. Reaktor paling baik dalam mengolah air limbah adalah reaktor biofilter dengan media kerikil pada HRT 8 jam.

  14. FRACTURE MECHANICS UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN THE RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL: (2D SUBJECTED TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

    Entin Hartini

    2016-06-01

    BEJANA TEKAN REAKTOR: 2D DENGAN BEBAN INTERNAL PRESSURE. Bejana tekan reaktor (RPV merupakan pressure boundary dalam reaktor tipe PWR yang berfungsi untuk mengungkung material radioaktif  yang dihasilkan pada proses reaksi berantai. Maka dari itu integritas bejana tekan reaktor harus senantiasa terjamin baik reaktor dalam keadaan operasi normal, maupun kecelakaan. Dalam melakukan analisis integritas RPV, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan pecahnya bejana tekan reaktor akibat adanya retak dilakukan analisis secara fracture mechanics. Adanya ketidakpastian input seperti sifat mekanik bahan, lingkungan fisik, dan input pada data, maka dalam melakukan analisis keandalan tidak hanya dilakukan secara deterministik saja. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melakukan analisis ketidakpastian input pada perhitungan fracture mechanik pada evaluasi keandalan bejana tekan reaktor PWR. Pendekatan untuk karakter random dari kuantitas input menggunakan  teori probabilistik. Analisis fracture mechanics dilakukan berdasarkan metode elemen hingga (FEM menggunakan perangkat lunak MSC MARC. Analisis ketidakpastian input dilakukan berdasarkan probability density function dengan Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS menggunakan python script. Output dari MSC MARC adalah nilai J-integral untuk mendapatkan nilai stress intensity factor pada evaluasi keandalan bejana tekan reactor 2D. Dari hasil perhitungan dapat disimpulkan bahwa SIF probabilistik lebih dulu mencapai nilai batas fracture tougness  dibanding  SIF deterministik. SIF yang dihasilkan dengan metode probabilistik adalah 105,240 MPa m0,5. Sedangkan SIF metode deterministik adalah 100,876 MPa m0,5. Kata kunci: Analisis ketidakpastian, fracture mechanics, LHS, FEM, bejana tekan reaktor

  15. The reactor accident in the Three Mile Island-2 reactor plant. (Harrisburg, USA)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The presentation of the accident development is based on the bulletin of the Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) from the 6th of April, 1979. In addition, there are some short pieces of information, No. 14 and 15 of the association for reactor security as well as written and verbal information of the firms Brown, Boveri and Co/Babcock-Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH (BBC/BBR). (orig.) [de

  16. Annual report of the group for maintenance of electrical equipment; Godisnji izvestaj elektro grupe

    Rajic, M [Odelenje odrzavanja, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-12-15

    This report includes detailed description of repairs and revisions of the electrical equipment of the RA reactor which were done according to the annual plan during the periods when reactor was not operated. Unplanned repairs are part of this report as well. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis remontnih i revizionih radova na elektroopremi reaktora RA izvrsenih prema godisnjem planu u periodima kada reaktor nije radio. Vanplanski poslovi ukljucujuci popravke elektroopreme su takodje deo ovog izvestaja.

  17. Quality management in an international nuclear power plant project

    Brion, J.; Crustin, J.

    1975-01-01

    SNR (Schneller Natriumgekuehlter Reaktor) is the fast reactor power plant being erected at Kalkar, Federal German Republic. Quality management in this project is a contractual obligation. Quality management is subdivided into quality engineering, set of actions performed before manufacturing, and quality control, set of material controls performed during fabrication. The two successive phases of the quality management are presented. The difficulties and improvment possibilities are discussed [fr

  18. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Farida Crisnaningtyas; Hanny Vistanty

    2016-01-01

    Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr) pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate) 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih ...

  19. Pra Desain Pabrik Sorbitol dari Tepung Tapioka dengan Hidrogenasi Katalitik

    Hellen Kartika Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol yang dikenal juga sebagai glusitol, adalah suatu gula alkohol yang dimetabolisme lambat di dalam tubuh. Sorbitol banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku untuk industri barang konsumsi dan makanan seperti pasta gigi, permen, kosmetika, farmasi, vitamin C, termasuk industri tekstil dan kulit. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku tepung tapioka. Pabrik sorbitol ini direncanakan akan didirikan di Propinsi Jawa Tengah tepatnya di Kabupaten Batang dengan kapasitas produksi 30.000 ton/tahun. Proses produksi Sorbitol menggunakan proses hidrogenasi katalitik. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku pati melalui dua tahap proses utama yaitu proses perubahan starch menjadi glukosa melalui hidrolisa double enzym. Enzim yang digunakan yaitu α-amylase dan glukoamylase. Proses hidrogenasi katalitik dilakukan dengan mereaksikan larutan dekstrose dan gas hidrogen bertekanan tinggi dengan menambahkan katalis nikel dalam reaktor (Reaktor Hidrogenasi. Gas hidrogen masuk dari bawah reaktor secara bubbling dan larutan dekstrose diumpankan dari atas reaktor sehingga kontak yang terjadi semakin baik. Sorbitol yang di hasilkan dalam pradesain pabrik sorbitol ini dengan konsentrasi 58,2%. Pendirian pabrik sorbitol memerlukan biaya investasi modal tetap (fixed capital sebesar Rp 168.801.192.952, modal kerja (working capital  Rp 29.788.445.815, investasi total Rp 198.589.638.767, Biaya produksi per tahun Rp 368.832.813.809 dan  hasil penjualan per tahun Rp 540.000.078.750. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 26,32%. ROI sesudah pajak 48,5 %, POT sesudah pajak 2,14 tahun. Dari segi teknis dan ekonomis, pabrik ini layak untuk didirikan.

  20. Inspection and repair of nuclear components

    Lahner, K.; Poetz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Despite careful design, manufacturing and operation, some of the important safety-relevant components show deterioration with time. Because of activation and contamination of these components, their inspection and repair has to be performed with manipulators. Some sophisticated manipulators are described, built by ABB Reaktor and used for inspection, maintenance and repair of PWR steam generators, fuel alignment pins, core baffle former bolts and reactor pressure vessel head penetrations. (Z.S.) 7 figs

  1. The training of the staff for work with radioactive materials and work on nuclear reactor in the Institute; Obuka kadrova za rukovanje radioizotopima i pogon nuklearnih reaktora u Institutu 'Boris Kidric' - Vinca

    Milosevic, M; Mladjenovic, O; Sotic, O [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1978-05-15

    A short informational review of the activities in the 'Boris Kidric' Institute on the training courses for the use of radioactive materials and for operating nuclear reactors including power reactors. The survey of the courses is given in the enclosures. (author) Kratak informativni pregled delatnosti u IBK na kursevima za obuku kadrova u rukovanju readioaktivnim materijalima i pogonu nuklearnih reaktora, ukljucujuci reaktore snage. pregled kurseva i materijala za njih dati su u prilozima. (author)

  2. Comparative studies in farther-reaching waste water cleaning in different reactor systems; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur weitergehenden Abwasserreinigung in unterschiedlichen Reaktorsystemen

    Dockhorn, T. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Three semi-technical pilot plants (completely mixed reactor, cascade, SBR) were operated in parallel under equal starting conditions. The influence of the type of reactor on the processes COD elimination, nitrification, denitrification and biological P elimination under operating conditions was studied. (orig.) [German] Es wurden drei halbtechnische Versuchsanlagen (volldurchmischter Reaktor, Kaskade, SBR) unter gleichen Ausgangsbedingungen parallel betrieben. Hierbei wurde der Einfluss des Reaktortyps auf die Prozesse CSB-Elimination, Nitrifikation, Denitrifikation sowie biologische P-Elimination unter Betriebsbedingungen untersucht. (orig.)

  3. Activity of the RA Reactor Physics group in 1980 - Definition of the Operation conditions for future safe and economical RA reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel; Prilog Ia - Rad sluzbe za fiziku reaktora RA u 1980. godini - Definisanje pogonskih uslova za dalji siguran i ekonomican rad reaktora RA sa 80% obogacenim gorivom

    Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1980-12-15

    During 1980. the RA reactor was not in operation. That is why this period was devoted to definition of operating conditions for further reactor operation with 80% enriched fuel. The fuel elements which were in the core at the moment of shutdown in March 1979will not be used again (388 80% enriched fuel elements, and 511 2% enriched fuel elements). The reactor will be operated only with 80% enriched fuel, staring with initiat core configuration with 440 elements on the borders gradually changing to equi;librium core with 720 fuel elements. The analyses were concerned with safety issues of future operation. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA tokom 1980 godine nije radio. Zbog toga je ovaj period iskoriscen za intenzivan rad na definisanju pogonskih uslova za dalji rad reaktora sa 80% obogacenim gorivom. Gorivo sa kojim je reaktor prestao da radi marta 1979. godine (388 gorivnih elemenata 80% obogacenoh i 511 elementa 2% obogaceno) nece biti vraceno u jezgro, vec ce reaktor raditi samo sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, pocev od konfiguracije sa 440 elemenata na periferiji do ravnotezne konfiguracije sa 720 elemenata. Sve nalize su se bavile sigurnosnim aspektima rada reaktora sa visokoobogacenim gorivom u jezgru.

  4. Penurunan Logam Timbal (Pb pada Limbah Cair TPA Piyungan Yogyakarta dengan Constructed Wetlands Menggunakan Tumbuhan Eceng Gondok (Eichornia Crassipes

    Eko Siswoyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu permasalahan lingkungan yang ditimbulkan dari adanya lindi di TPA Piyungan yaitu pencemaran pada badan air, sungai dan air tanah. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini salah satunya dengan sistem Constructed Wetlands dengan menggunakan tumbuhah eceng gondok. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat penurunan konsentrasi Timbal (Pb yang terdapat dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan dengan Constructed Wetlands menggunakan tumbuhan eceng gondok dan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kapasitas serapan tumbuhan eceng gondok terhadap kandungan Timbal (Pb dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan.Dalam penelitian ini digunakan reaktor yang terbuat dari kayu yang dilapisi plastik dengan ukuran 0,5 m x 1,0 m. Setiap reaktor diberi media tanah 5 cm, dan diberi tumbuhan sebanyak 14 buah. Reaktor tersebut diberi perlakuan dengan konsentrasi limbah yang bervariasi (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, dan 0%, dan waktu pengambilan sampel (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 hari. Dengan menggunakan metode SSA (Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom.Berdasarkan pengujian diperoleh bahwa penurunan logam Pb pada limbah cair TPA Piyungan hari ke- 12, yaitu sebesar 0.0501mg/L pada konsentrasi 100%, 0.0295mg/L pada konsentrasi 75%, 0.0267mg/L pada konsentrasi 50% dan 0.0041 mg/L pada konsentrasi 25%.

  5. Kajian Pemilihan Sumber Mikroorganisme Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC Berdasarkan Jenis dan Volume Sampah, Power Density dan Efisiensi Penurunan COD

    Ganjar Samudro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikroorganisme merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam proses Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC untuk degradasi bahan organik dan transfer elektron. Pemilihan sumber mikroorganisme menjadi metode yang paling sederhana untuk dikaji sebagai informasi awal ketersediaan dan identifikasi jenis mikroorganisme yang mendukung proses SMFC. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk memilih sumber mikroorganisme tanah, septic tank dan sedimen sungai yang tepat digunakan dalam proses SMFC berdasarkan jenis dan volume sampah, power density, dan efisiensi penurunan COD. Kajian ini didasarkan pada hasil penelitian menggunakan reaktor SMFC tipe single chamber microbial fuel cell dengan variabel jenis dan volume sampah , serta sumber mikroorganisme. Metode perbandingan secara kuantitatif dilakukan berdasarkan kecenderungan nilai power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi di antara jenis dan volume sampah kantin, dedaunan dan komposit kantin-dedaunan. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 2/3 dari volume reaktor, sedangkan sumber mikroorganisme septic tank tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 1/2 dari volume reaktor. Sumber mikroorganisme dari septic tank menunjukkan kinerja power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD yang lebih rendah dibandingkan sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai.

  6. Wpływ czasu napowietrzania na pracę reaktora SBR i SBBR

    Małgorzata Makowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono efekty oczyszczania małych ilości ścieków w bioreaktorach porcjowych. Przebadano dwa równolegle pracujące reaktory, z czego jeden był klasycznym systemem SBR, a drugi to reaktor SBBR ze złożem ruchomym. Obydwa ciągi technologiczne oczyszczały taką samą ilość ścieków bytowych wstępnie podczyszczonych w piaskowniku. Trzy kolejne serie badań różniły się długością napowietrzania. Porównano pracę reaktorów w kolejnych seriach oraz analizowano wyniki uzyskane w obu systemach. Największą skuteczność usuwania związków węgla organicznego (jako ChZT i azotu (jako N-NH4 uzyskano w reaktorze SBBR w trzeciej serii badań (średnio odpowiednio 90 i 62%. Reaktor SBBR pracował bardziej stabilnie oraz usuwał na drodze biologicznej fosfor z największą średnią skutecznością 83% w serii trzeciej. Ścieki oczyszczone w tym reaktorze charakteryzowały się mniejszym stężeniem zawiesiny, co świadczy o skuteczniejszej pracy reaktora z wypełnieniem w fazie sedymentacji.

  7. ANALISA KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK PLASTIK HASIL DUA KALI PROSES PIROLISIS

    Untung Surya Dharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah plastik dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku minyak plastik dengan menggunakan proses pirolisis. Minyak plastik yang dihasilkan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai zat aditif atau campuran bahan bakar pada mesin. Pada Penelitian ini, proses pembuatan minyak plastik menggunakan dua kali proses pirolisis. Suhu reaktor pada proses pirolisis yang pertama dan kedua berbeda berturut-turut yaitu 200 oC dan 150 oC. Dari hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pada proses pirolisis pertama dengan suhu reaktor 200 oC, dari 25 kg bahan baku menghasilkan 15,5 liter minyak plastik dalam waktu 80 jam. Sedangkan pada proses pirolisis kedua dengan suhu reaktor 150 oC, dari 15 liter minyak plastik dari hasil proses pirolisis pertama menghasilkan 11,6 liter minyak plastik dalam waktu 3,33 Jam. Adapun karakter minyak plastik yang dihasilkan adalah massa jenis 771,4 kg/m3, Viskositas 0,501 m2/s dan Nilai kalor 10518 kJ/kg

  8. USE OF MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN YOGYAKARTA : SOME OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS

    Peter Conrad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cedera kepala merupakan sebab utama kematian dalam kecelakaan sepeda motor. Penelitian di Ame­rika Serikat, menunjukkan pemakaian helm mengurangi risiko cedera dan kematian. Penelitian ini mene­liti ketaatan terhadap peraturan pemakaian helm di Yogyakarta. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi sistematik (N=9242 dan wawancara terbuka (n=150 di lima jalan utama yang berbeda di seluruh kota. Ketaatan umum terhadap peraturan pemakaian helm adalah 87% untuk pengemudi, dengan variasi kepen­tingan terhadap waktu dan tempat.Hanya 55% pengemudi memakai helm dengan baik (dengan tali di ikatkan dan hanya 20% penumpang memakai helm. Jadi hanya 50% orang yang naik sepeda motor terlindungi secara maksimum. Di dalam wawancara, responden mengatakan ketidak-enakan fisik dan "malas" sebagai alasan paling umum untuk tidak memakai helm; beberapa orang menyatakan helm tidak perlu di jalan-jalan kota dan di waktu malam. Wawancara mengisyaratkan bahwa orang yang naik sepeda motor memakai helm kebanyakan karena takut di tegur polisi dan responden hanya tahu sedikit tentang nilai keselamatan helm. Banyaknya pemakaian helm sekarang ini merupakan ketaatan semu ("token compliance" terhadap peraturan. Dari hasil studi diusulkan cara-cara agar keselamatan pemakaian helm di Indonesia bisa di­tingkatkan.

  9. Photokeratoconjunctivitis Symptoms among Informal Welding Operators in North Samarinda, Indonesia

    Iwan Muhamad Ramdan

    2017-08-01

    Sektor informal telah berkontribusi terhadap perekonomian nasional, namun praktik kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja pada sektor ini masih belum memuaskan. Salah satu usaha sektor informal yang banyak dijumpai di Samarinda Utara adalah usaha pengelasan dengan potensi bahaya utama paparan sinar ultraviolet yang dapat menyebabkan photokeratoconjunctivitis. Penelitian ini bertujuan menginvestigasi kejadian photokeratoconjunctivitis dan faktor yang memengaruhinya pada operator las informal di Kelurahan Samarinda Utara. Penelitian cross-sectional telah dilakukan terhadap 40 responden pada bulan Maret sampai November 2016. Pengumpulan data menggunakan UV detector meter, clamp meter, dan kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square, Pearson’s correlation product moment, dan multiple linear regression. Lima puluh persen responden mengalami gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis. Alat pelindung diri (APD (p=0,004, durasi paparan UV (0,056, pengetahuan tentang kesehatan, dan keselamatan kerja (K3 (p=0,055 dan jumlah hari kerja (p=0,001 berhubungan signifikan dengan kejadian photokeratoconjunctivitis. Lokasi kerja (p=0,244, tingkat pendidikan (p=0,680, usia (0,167, intensitas radiasi UV (p=0,206, dan kuat arus las (p=0,085 tidak berhubungan dengan gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis. Simpulan, gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan APD, durasi paparan UV, pengetahuan K3, dan jumlah hari kerja. Faktor yang paling dominan memengaruhi gejala photokeratoconjunctivitis adalah durasi paparan UV.

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Output Radiation Dose on X-Ray Device over 10 Years at Hospitals in Medan City

    Herty Afrina Sianturi

    2018-01-01

    Adhikari, Suraj Raj. 2012. Effect And Application      Of Ionization Radiation (X-Ray In Living  Organism. Kaski: Volume 3.The Himalaya  Physics. Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir, Peraturan Kepala BAPETEN No. 8 Tahun 2011  tentang Keselamatan Radiasi dalam Penggunaan Pesawat Sinar-X Radiologi Diagnostik dan Intervensional, 2011. BAPETEN, 1999, Surat Keputusan Kepala Bapeten nomor 01/Ka-Bapeten/V-99 tentang Kesehatan terhadap radiasi pengion, Jakarta BATAN, 2005, Disain Penahan Ruang Sinar – X, Pusdiklat, BATAN, Jakarta Bushong, Steward C. 2013. Radologic Science for Technologists. 10th edition.United State of  America : CV. Mosby Company. Kramer, H. M., dan Selbach, H. J. 2008. Extension of the Range of Definition of the Practical Peak Voltage up to 300 kV. The British Journal of  Radiologhy (81:693-698. Rassad, S. dkk, Radiologi Diagnostik, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia Rumah Sakit Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta (2000. Suryanto, Sigit Bachtiar. 2011. Analisis Pembentukan Gambar Dan Batas Toleransi Uji Kesesuaian Pada Pesawat Sinar-X Diagnostik. Prosiding Seminar Penelitian Dan Pengelolaan Perangkat Nuklir. Trikasjono, T. dkk. 2009. Analisis Keselamatan Pesawat Sinar-X di Instalasi Radiologi Rumah Sakit Umum daerah Sleman Yogyakarta. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir PTNBR – BATAN. Vassileva, J. 2004. A Phantom for Dose Image Quality Optimization in Chest Radiography. The British Journal of Radiologhy 75:837-842. Wadianto, Azis Muslim. 2017. Uji Akurasi Tegangan Tinggi Alat Rontgen Radiography Mobile. INOVASI, Volume XIX Nomor 1,Januari 2017

  11. Potensi Bencana Geologi Pada Penambangan Emas dan Lempung di Desa Cihonje Kecamatan Gumelar Kabupaten Banyumas

    Asmoro Widagdo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desa Cihonje di Kecamatan Gumelar, Kabupaten Banyumas, memiliki sumber daya mineral seperti emas dan tanah liat kaolin. Kedua mineral ini telah dilakukaneksploitasi oleh masyarakat setempat. Pemanfaatan sumber daya ini telah memberikan kemakmuran bagi warga setempat. Namun, upaya pertambangan tidak dalam kondisi baik dan masih belum berlisensi. Penggalian emas dan tanah liat di sekitar area perumahan telah membawa dampak yang sangat mengkhawatirkan terhadap keselamatan para penambang dan lingkungan sekitarnya. Penelitian ini pada potensi bencana yang mungkin menjadi ancaman bagi masyarakat setempat dilakukan dengan pengamatan langsung. observasi lapangan ini dilakukan dengan memetakan lokasi operasi pertambangan, perubahan lingkungan dilakukan deskripsi, mengambil gambar dan wawancara dengan penduduk dan para penambang. pertambangan emas primer mengambil urat mineral dengan membuat sumur vertikal dan horizontal. sumur ini sangat dalam dan mencapai puluhan meter. Hal ini telah mengancam keselamatan para penambang, mengganggu penggunaan lahan sebagai daerah pertanian, yang mempengaruhi ketersediaan sumber air tanah, menyebabkan tanah longsor dan mencemari sumber air sungai. pertambangan emas sekunder pada deposito aluvial di tepi sungai telah menyebabkan kerusakan lahan pertanian, erosi sungai dan pencemaran air. Pertambangan tanah liat telah menyebabkan perubahan dalam pengaturan lingkungan dan potensi longsor.

  12. JALUR SEPEDA SEBAGAI BAGIAN DARI SISTEM TRANSPORTASI KOTA YANG BERWAWASAN LINGKUNGAN

    A Artiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Menciptakan kota berwawasan lingkungan dapat diupayakan dengan mengurangi volume kendaraan, misalnya melalui penggunaan angkutan umum massal atau penggunaan kendaraan ramah lingkungan. Penggunaan sepeda sebagai kendaraan ramah lingkungan di Jakarta, telah diinisiasi oleh komunitas yang menerapkan gaya hidup berwawasan lingkungan, misalnya komunitas B2W (Bike to Work. Sepeda menjadi pilihan menarik karena biaya operasionalnya yang murah, dan kesanggupan memperpendek waktu tempuh di jalanan yang macet, serta kemampuannya bermanuver di sela-sela kendaraan lain. Namun sekarang ini jalur khusus sepeda, maupun lahan parkir khusus sepeda di per-kotaan masih terbatas. Akibatnya, muncul ancaman terhadap keselamatan pengguna sepeda, karena harus berkendara pada kondisi jalan tanpa pemisah jalur kendaraan bermotor dan tidak bermotor. Akibatnya ada okupansi pedestrian menjadi jalur sepeda, yang akhirnya mengancam keselamatan pe-jalan kaki. Banyak hal patut dipertanyakan. Apa urgensi jalur sepeda pada pengembangan infratruktur jalan di perkotaan? Apakah kemudian upaya pengembangan jalur sepeda tidak akan menjadi hal yang kontra produktif dalam penataan ruang? Mengingat, penciptaan kota berkelanjutan melalui perenca-naan dan pengelolaan sistem transportasi baru efektif jika terintegrasi dengan strategi pengelolaan penggunaan lahan dan lingkungan. Alokasi jalur sepeda di perkotaan bukanlah upaya yang berdiri sendiri, namun harus menjadi salah satu bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari rangkaian strategi pem-bangunan berkelanjutan yang dilakukan secara simultan.

  13. Religion for Revolution: Shifting Perceptions of Bodily Ritual in the Lebanese Shi‘a Community

    Savannah Danielle Dodd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Cartesian and Weberian theories of rationalization and Leslie Sharp’s concept of bodily commodification to the transition in the observance of Ashura from practices of bodily mortification to blood donation among the Shi‘a community in Lebanon. The author argues that this shift politicizes salvation and sacralises revolution through a process of rationalization, made possible through the invocation of the Karbala Paradigm, in order to facilitate the commodification of blood for political activism. This shift in ritual practice for the commodification of blood has occurred as a result of three key transitions: (i from body/self-unity to body/self-dualism; (ii from salvation in the next world to salvation in this world; and (iii from personal salvation to societal salvation.[Dengan merujuk teori rasionalisasi model Descartes dan Weber serta konsep komodifikasi tubuh dari Leslie Sharp, tulisan ini menelusur pergeseran yang terjadi pada ritual Ashura dari praktik melukai diri menjadi kegiatan donor darah di kalangan Syiah di Lebanon. Proses ini, menurut penulis, telah mengubah konsep penyelamatan dan revolusi sakral melalui proses rasionali­sasi. Hal ini terjadi dengan memakai Paradigma Karbala sebagai media komodifikasi darah untuk aktivisme politik. Pergeseran komodifikasi darah dalam praktik ritual ini terjadi melalui tiga transisi utama: (i dari kesatuan diri menjadi dualisme diri; (ii dari keselamatan akhirat menjadi keselamatan dunia; dan (iii dari penyelamatan pribadi menjadi penyelamatan sosial].

  14. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  15. Representasi Wanita Dalam Media Massa Masa Kini

    Errika Dwi Setya Watie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Media audience, in general, using representation of women in the media to "see" women. How does the media show the figure of a woman often becomes references and examples used to assess women in general. Not only how man seeing woman, but women see themselves and other women see each other. This condition seemed to reinforce the encouragement of women to remain in the view of women in the past is loaded with socio-political. In many media, women are still portrayed as "mere body" related to sexuality. Besides the still dominant view that shows women as "a figure in the kitchen", the less equilibrate view that showing women in the intellectual and career figures, reinforce the representation of "traditional" women. And finally appeared in public perception will remain the same. Representation of woman according to the spirit of emancipation of women only appears in the commemoration of Kartini day, mothers day, and other momentum associated with women.

  16. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PRODUKSI RENGGINANG KETAN MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI PENGERING BUATAN

    Saptariana Saptariana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rengginang is one of Indonesian traditional food made from glutinous rice ingredient white or black, generally in the form of a circle of a certain size, taste sweet or savory, and have a crisp texture. Based on surveys and interviews directly to employer partners, pernasalahan which can be grouped into three aspects: 1. The production aspect, for this small entrepreneurs are still using technology rengginang glutinous drying naturally., 2. The quality aspect, drying techniques used in rengginang causing substances do not meet the standard of food in accordance with SNI. In addition, the packaging has not been done properly and the result produced rengginang perishable or quickly fizzled, 3. Aspects of Business Management and Marketing. During this segment of the market rengginang production glutinous mother and mother Kartini Murti Mardiyah about 90% for the traditional market Pecangaan districts, the district of Jepara.

  17. Penilaian Tingkat Keberhasilan Relokasi PKL di Kawasan Pasar Waru Dan Simpang Lima, Semarang

    Ummi Hanifah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Di Kota Semarang jumlah PKL setiap tahunnya semakin meningkat dan mulai memberikan dampak negatif karena menempati ruang publik. Artikelini bertujuan untuk menilai tingkat keberhasilan implementasi penertiban PKL menurut pandangan pedagang dan pemerintah serta faktor penyebabnya. Kebijakan penertiban PKL yang menjadi fokus penelitian adalah program relokasi PKL Citarum dan Kartini ke Pasar Waru serta program penataan sarana aktivitas PKL Simpang Lima. Pelaksanaan relokasi PKL dinilai sulit dilaksanakan karena terjadi penolakan dan menganggap Pasar Waru tidak representatif untuk berdagang. Sedangkan pelaksanaan penataan PKL Simpang Lima tergolong cukup lancar. Namun setelah adanya penataan, pendapatan pedagang justru semakin menurun. Berdasarkan analisis diketahui bahwa menurut pedagang dan pemerintah relokasi telah berhasil pada aspek fisik namun tidak berhasil pada aspek ekonomi.Kata kunci: Relokasi, pedagang kaki lima, SemarangAbstract: The number of street vendors in the city of Semarang is increasing every year and starting to give a negative impact because they occupy public space. This study aims to assess whether the implementation is successful from the point of view of the government as well as its contributing factor. The focus of this research are the relocation of Citarum and Kartini street vendors to Waru Market and the facility planning for Simpang Lima street vendors. The street vendor relocation is considered difficult to implement due to the vendors’ rejection; whereas, the planning of street vendor facilities in Simpang Lima is considered as succesful. However, after the relocation, the revenue of the merchants decreased. The analysis shows that the relocation is successful in physical aspect only but unsuccessful in economic aspect.Keywords:Relocation, street vendors, Semarang.

  18. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  19. Aplikasi Metode Lean Six Sigma Untuk Usulan Improvisasi Lini Produksi Dengan Mempertimbangkan Faktor Lingkungan. Studi Kasus: Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya

    Miftachul Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya merupakan produsen lampu pijar. Pada pelaksanaan proses produksinya, perusahaan menemui beberapa kendala yang terkait dengan waste. Analisis lean six sigma dengan menggunakan value stream mapping menunjukkan terjadi defect di mesin finishing dan waiting di mesin mounting. EHS waste juga muncul yang mengindikasikan adanya dampak terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan serta keselamatan pekerja. Pencarian akar permasalahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tools RCA (5 whys dan FMEA hingga memunculkan 15 penyebab utama terjadinya ketiga waste tersebut. Pembentukan tim Total productive maintenance, penelitian perbaikan kualitas bulb dan flare, serta eksperimen pengurangan jumlah jenis coil menjadi usulan alternatif yang bisa dilakukan perusahaan. Dengan menggunakan konsep value management didapatkan alternatif terbaik dengan melakukan pembentukan dan pelatihan tim Total productive maintenance. Alternatif ini meningkatkan nilai sigma defect dari 2,92 menjadi 3,08 dan sigma waiting dari 2,83 menjadi 2,89. Indikator dampak lingkungan juga mengindikasikan penurunan yang sejalan.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN KINERJA PERAWAT TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN INFEKSI FLEBITIS DI RUMAH SAKIT

    Noor Amaliah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flebitis merupakan masalah serius karena mengancam kesehatan dan keselamatan pasien. Flebitis mempunyai dampak terhadap kualitas pelayanan dan peningkatan pembiayaan pelayanan kesehatan. Kejadian flebitis yang tinggi mencerminkan rendahnya mutu pelayanan keperawatan dalam hal pencegahan dan pengendalian infeksi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini menganalisis pengembangan model kinerja perawat terhadap pencegahan infeksi flebitis di Rumah Sakit Islam Banjarmasin. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan desain Explanatory Research menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional dan Focus Group Discussion. Populasi 69 orang perawat pelaksana. Sampel berjumlah 65 responden. Tekhnik sampling menggunakan purposive sampling. Hasil penelitian ini adalah tidak terdapat pengaruh faktor individu, faktor psikologis dan faktor organisasi terhadap kinerja perawat terhadap pencegahan infeksi flebitis dengan nilai T-Statistik > 1,96 dan p Value < 0,05. Kesimpulan penelitian adalah tidak terdapat pengaruh faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kinerja perawat terhadap pencegahan infeksi flebitis. Saran dari penelitian ini diharapkan agar perawat dapat meningkatkan kinerjanya terhadap pencegahan infeksi flebitis melalui sikap, motivasi maupun dukungan dari supervisi.

  1. Problematika Pengertian Aanslag-Aanslag tot en feit: Perbandingan Makar dalam KUHP, WvSNI dan Sr.

    Widati Wulandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Makar dalam praktik penegakan hukum pidana di Indonesia sering kali ditafsirkan terlalu luas dan karenanya menjangkau perbuatan yang tidak selayaknya dikategorikan sebagai tindak pidana yang mengancam keselamatan negara. Tulisan ini hendak menelusuri kembali pemaknaan dua konsep penting dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana Indonesia (Wetboek van Strafrecht Nederlands-Indie; WvSNI, yaitu aanslag maupun aanslag tot en feit. Metoda yang digunakan adalah metode penemuan hukum dan perbandingan hukum. Temuan terpenting adalah adanya kekeliruan penerjemahan istilah aanslag dan aanslag tot en feit secara otomatis sebagai makar dalam berbagai pasal KUHP. Koreksi terhadap itu seharusnya dilakukan agar penegakan hukum pidana tidak memunculkan ketidakadilan dalam wujud reaksi negara yang tidak proporsional dengan kadar kesalahan.

  2. The development of quality assurance program in Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rizal Mamat; Mohamad Zaid Mohamad; Mohd Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2007-01-01

    One of the trivial issues in the operation of Nuclear Reactor is the safety of the system. Worldwide publicity on a few nuclear accidents as well as the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing has always bring about general public fear on anything related to nuclear. IAEA has always emphasized on the assurance of nuclear safety for all nuclear installations and activities. According to the IAEA safety guides, all research reactors are required to implement quality assurance programs to ensure the conduct of operations are in accordance with the safety standards required. This paper discusses the activities carried out toward the establishment of Quality Assurance Program for Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). (Author)

  3. Design Of Pump Monitoring Of Primary Cooling System

    Indrakoesoema, Koes; Sujarwono

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring of 3 primary cooling pumps done visually by operator on the spot. The operator must be check oil in a sight glass, oil leakage during pump operation and water leakage. If reaktor power increase about more than 3 MW, the radiation exposure also increase in the primary cell and that's way the operator can not check the pumps. To continuing monitor all pump without delay, one system has been added I.e Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). This system using 3 video camera to monitor 3 pumps and connected to one receiver video monitor by coaxial cable located in Main Control Room. The sequence monitoring can be done by sequential switcher

  4. The treatment of uranyl nitrate from the AMOR process for VKTA Rossendorf

    Boessert, W.; Krempl, R.; Miller, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The blending of uranyl nitrate solutions at VKTA and its subsequent treatment at BNFL-Sellafield is a significant step towards the safe and effective treatment of these enriched uranyl nitrate solutions. Overall the integration of the expertise of the international company BNFL/Westinghouse will lead to the achievement of a successful solution. This success has involved the integration of the project management and operational facilities of BNFL Sellafield with the local planning, design and manufacture capacities of Westinghouse Reaktor GmbH. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of atmosphere stratification in the HDR test facility with the CONTAIN code

    Skerlavaj, A.; Mavko, B.; Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    The test E11.2 'Hydrogen distribution in loop flow geometry', which was performed in the Heissdampf Reaktor containment test facility in Germany, was simulated with the CONTAIN computer code. The predicted pressure history and thermal stratification are in relatively good agreement with the measurements. The compositional stratification within the containment was qualitatively well predicted, although the degree of the stratification in the dome area was slightly underestimated. The analysis of simulation results enabled a better understanding of the physical phenomena during the test.(author)

  6. Action plan during reactor shutdown in October 1965, Annex 5; Prilog br. 5 - Plan radova u toku stajanja reaktora u mesecu oktobru 1965. godine

    Nikolic, M [Reaktor RA, Odelenje odrzavanja, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-12-15

    The action plan of the division for reactor maintenance during reactor shutdown includes detailed list of tasks for mechanics, electronic and electrical equipment group during the reactor shutdown period in October 1965. It contains tasks for planned shutdown periods in September, August, July, May, April, March, and February 1965. [Serbo-Croat] Plan radova Odelenja odrzavanja reaktora RA za period stajanja reaktora u oktobru mesecu 1965. sadrzi detaljnu listu zadataka masinske grupe, elektro grupe i elektronske grupe. Ovaj prilog sadrzi i zadatke koji ce biti obavljeni tokom planiranih perioda kada je reaktor zaustavljen u septembru, avgustu, julu, junu, maju, aprilu, martu i februaru 1965.

  7. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 13, Causes of possible accidents

    1986-11-01

    This volume includes the analysis of possible accidents on the RA research reaktor. Any unwanted action causing decrease of integrity of any of the reactor safety barriers is considered to be a reactor accident. Safety barriers are: fuel element cladding, reactor vessel, biogical shield, and reactor building. Reactor accidents can be classified in four categories: (1) accidents caused by reactivity changes; (2) accidents caused by mis function of the cooling system; (3) accidents caused by errors in fuel management and auxiliary systems; (4) accidents caused by natural or other external disasters. The analysis of possible causes of reactor accidents includes the analysis of possible impacts on the reactor itself and the environment [sr

  8. Kinetics parameter measurements on RSG-GAS, a low-enriched fuel reactor

    Jujuratisbela, U; Arbie, B; Pinem, S.; Tukiran; Suparlina, L.; Singh, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetics parameter measurements, such as reactivity worths of control rods and fuel elements, beam tube void reactivity, power reactivity coefficient and xenon poisoning reactivity have been performed on different cores of Reaktor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS). In parallel, a programme was also initiated to measure the other kinetics parameters like effective delayed neutron life time, prompt neutron decay constant, validation of period reactivity relationship and zero power frequency response function. The paper provides the results of these measurements. (author)

  9. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1994, Part 1; Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1994. godini

    Sotic, O; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Mikic, N; Tanaskovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1994-12-01

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The planned major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor power supply system. The existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Renewal of the reactor instrumentation was started but but it is behind the schedule because the delivery of components from USSR was stopped for political reasons. The spent fuel elements used from the very beginning of reactor operation are stored in the existing pools. Project concerned with increase of the storage space and the efficiency of handling the spent fuel elements has started in 1988 and was fulfilled in 1990. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. Training of the existing personnel and was done regularly, but the new staff has no practical training since the reactor is not operated. Lack of financial support influenced strongly the status of RA reactor. [Serbo-Croat] U proteklom periodu reaktor RA nije bio u pogonu zato sto je 30. jula Republicki komitet za zdravlje i socijalnu politiku republike Srbije, zabranio njegov rad zbog toga sto reaktor ne poseduje sistem za udesno hladjenje i ne poseduje odgovarajuce filtere u sistemu specijalne ventilacije. Zavrseni su radovi na izgradnji sistema za udesno hladjenje, rekonstrukciji postojeceg sistema specijalne ventilacije i rekonstrukciji sistema za napajanje elektricnom energijom. Zapoceti su radovi na modernizaciji, odnosno zameni instrumentacije reaktora ali njegova realizacija kasni

  10. Atomic Energy Research benchmark activity

    Makai, M.

    1998-01-01

    The test problems utilized in the validation and verification process of computer programs in Atomic Energie Research are collected into one bunch. This is the first step towards issuing a volume in which tests for VVER are collected, along with reference solutions and a number of solutions. The benchmarks do not include the ZR-6 experiments because they have been published along with a number of comparisons in the Final reports of TIC. The present collection focuses on operational and mathematical benchmarks which cover almost the entire range of reaktor calculation. (Author)

  11. Towards rational design of redox-stratified biofilms

    Lackner, Susanne

    Biologisk kvælstoffjernelse er en central proces indenfor avanceret spildevandsrensning. Denne afhandling beskriver anvendelsen af beluftede membran biofilm reaktorer (eng: MABRs) til fuld autotrof kvælstoffjernelse. Denne ret nye kvælstofomsætningsvej baseres på delvis omdannelse af ammonium til....... Som illustreret ved modelundersøgelserne, kan biofilm afrivning påvirke rektorfunktionen alvorligt. Den udførte forsøg for at vurdere om kemisk modificering af biofilmoverfladen kan øge dens modstandsdygtighed overfor afrivning og give forbedret biofilm tykkelseskontrol. Alt i alt kan MABR, hvor ilt...

  12. COMPARISON OF FOUR METHODS TO DETECT ADVERSE EVENTS IN HOSPITAL

    Inge Dhamanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDeteksi terjadinya kejadian yang tidak diharapkan (KTD telah menjadi salah satu tantangan dalam keselamatan pasien oleh karena itu metode untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD sangatlah penting untuk meningkatkan keselamatan pasien. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk membandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari beberapa metode untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD di rumah sakit, meliputi review rekam medis, pelaporan insiden secara mandiri, teknologi informasi, dan pelaporan oleh pasien. Studi ini merupakan kajian literatur untuk membandingkan dan menganalisa metode terbaik untuk mendeteksi KTD yang dapat diimplementasikan oleh rumah sakit. Semua dari empat metode telah terbukti mampu untuk mendeteksi terjadinya KTD di rumah sakit, tetapi masing-masing metode mempunyai kelebihan dan kekurangan yang perlu diatasi. Tidak ada satu metode terbaik yang akan memberikan hasil terbaik untuk mendeteksi KTD di rumah sakit. Sehingga untuk mendeteksi lebih banyak KTD yang seharusnya dapat dicegah, atau KTD yang telah terjadi, rumah sakit seharusnya mengkombinasikan lebih dari satu metode untuk mendeteksi, karena masing-masing metode mempunyai sensitivitas berbeda-beda.AbstractDetecting adverse events has become one of the challenges in patient safety thus methods to detect adverse events become critical for improving patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to compare the strengths and weaknesses of several methods of identifying adverse events in hospital, including medical records reviews, self-reported incidents, information technology, and patient self-reports. This study is a literature review to compared and analyzed to determine the best method implemented by the hospital. All of four methods have been proved in their ability in detecting adverse events in hospitals, but each method had strengths and limitations to be overcome. There is no ‘best’ single method that will give the best results for adverse events detection in hospital. Thus to

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RELAP5 SIMULATION OF DVI LINE BREAK ACCIDENT IN THE ATLAS FACILITY USING BEST ESTIMATE PLUS UNCERTAINTY METHOD

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2017-03-01

    STUDI AWAL SIMULASI KECELAKAAN PUTUSNYA JALUR DVI PADA FASILITAS ATLAS MENGGUNAKAN RELAP5 DENGAN METODE ESTIMASI TERBAIK DAN KETIDAKPASTIAN. Metode Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU adalah metode analisis keselamatan deterministik yang bertujuan untuk melakukan evaluasi keterbatasan program perhitungan dalam mensimulasikan sifat-sifat fisis instalasi secara realistik dengan mengkuantifikasi rentang ketidakpastian dari hasil perhitungan. Metode tersebut telah diterima secara luas dalam perijinan PLTN oleh badan pengatur dunia seperti di Amerika (USNRC, di Argentina, dan Kanada. Evaluasi ketidakpastian dalam metode BEPU dilakukan dengan beberapa metode yang berbeda seperti GRS, IRSN, ENUSA, AEAT, dan UNIPI. Atas dasar kompleksitas metode-metode yang lain, tujuan makalah ini adalah untuk menggambarkan aspek penting dari proses BEPU dengan metode GRS dengan melakukan simulasi putusnya jalur DVI sebesar 50% luasan pada fasilitas ATLAS karena analisis keselamatan yang dilakukan selama ini baru berupa perkiraan terbaik secara deterministik. Sebagai perbandingan dari simulasi perkiraan terbaik yang dilakukan dengan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 digunakan data-data eksperimen yang telah terdokumentasi. Setelah dilakukan 100 simulasi, rentang ketidakpastian dari transien temperatur puncak kelongsong pemanas dan tekanan primer hanya mendekati data eksperimen pada 250 detik di periode awal. Oleh karena itu keakuratan dari simulasi perkiraan terbaik secara keseluruhan memiliki peranan penting pada hasil akhir dari analisis ketidakpastian karena perambatan perbedaan dengan data eksperimen akan terus terjadi selama simulasi. Setelah itu, pemilihan parameter yang penting untuk dikembangkan secara random harus dilakukan secara cermat dengan mempelajari fenomena-fenomena penting yang terkait dengan kejadian yang dianalisis dan model instalasinya. Kata kunci: perkiraan terbaik dan ketidakpastian, putusnya jalur DVI, fasilitas ATLAS, RELAP5, simulasi

  14. TINJAUAN YURIDIS SERTIFIKAT KESEHATAN SEBAGAI PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI PENERBANG SIPIL DI INDONESIA

    Benny Hosiana Tumbelaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini meninjau secara yuridis akan keabsahan Sertifikat Kesehatan Penerbangan Sipil di Indonesia dalam kurun waktu, sejak diterbitkan sampai habis masa berlakunya. Metode pendekatan yang dipergunakan adalah metode pendekatan yuridis normatif berdasarkan Undang Undang RI nomor 1 tahun 2009 tentang Penerbangan, dan Peraturan Pemerintah RI nomor 3 tahun 2001 tentang keamanan dan keselamatan Penerbangan beserta beserta Peraturan Pelaksanaan dari perundang undangan tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini, bahwa regulasi bidang Keselamatan penerbangan yang berlaku di Indonesia tentang fungsi pengawasan memperoleh Sertifikat Kesehatan, khususnya pada Penerbang Sipil Airline Transport Pilot (Sertifikat Kesehatan kelas satu, telah sesuai dengan standar ICAO, yaitu Keputusan Direktur Jendral Perhubungan Udara Nomor: SKEP/62/V/2004 tentang Sertifikat Kesehatan Personil Penerbangan. Didapatkan juga bahwa langkah yang diambil agar Sertifikat Kesehatan Penerbang Sipil di Indonesia yang berlaku 6 bulan ke depan, belum ada, baik aturannya, mekanismenya bahkan SDM belum memadai secara kualitas dan kuantitas. Sehingga sertifikat tersebut belum dapat terjaga keabsahannya. Sedangkan Penerbang yang mendapatkan medical flexibility perlu dilindungi statusnya dengan Surat keputusan Menteri bagi Tim penilai kesehatan (Medical Asessor dan Tim Pakar kesehatan Penerbangan (Aeromedical Consultation Service yang merekomendasi kasus ini. Penerbang tersebut selain mengisi checklist, ia dijadwalkan secara tetap untuk memeriksakan kekurangannya dan melaporkan pada dokter penerbangan. Sebagai saran dalam penelitian ini agar diusulkan kepada Menteri Perhubungan melalui Dirjen Perhubungan Udara beberapa hal, yaitu untuk mengeluarkan keputusan tentang tata kerja menjamin keabsahan Sertifikat Kesehatan Penerbang Sipil di Indonesia. Mengusulkan penambahan personil fungsional pada Pusat Kesehatan Penerbangan Sipil sehingga dapat melaksanakan tugas dan fungsinya sesuai Keputusan Menhub

  15. Inkarnasi:Realitas Kemanusiaan Yesus

    Peniel C.D. Maiaweng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inkarnasi adalah doktrin Kristen yang bersumber pada Alkitab, yaitu Firman adalah kekal, Ia bersama Allah, Ia adalah Allah, dan Ia menjadi manusia.  Ia adalah Anak Tunggal Bapa yang menjadi manusia yang sempurna.  Kehadiran-Nya di bumi menyatakan Bapa dan melaksanakan kehendak Bapa, yaitu mengerjakan keselamatan bagi orang berdosa melalui kehidupan, pelayanan, kesengsaraan, penyaliban, dan kematian di Kayu Salib.  Semua peristiwa yang terjadi dalam kehidupan Yesus selama Ia berada di bumi berkaitan langsung dengan keselamatan manusia. Sebelum Yesus naik ke surga, Ia telah menunjukkan realita kemanusiaan-Nya, relasi sosial-Nya, pelayanan-Nya, dan mempersiapkan para murid sebagai pemimpin yang meneruskan pelayanan yang telah dilaksanakan-Nya dan melaksanakan pemberitaan bahwa Yesus adalah satu-satunya Juruselamat dunia.Incarnation is a Christian doctrine which originates from the Bible and which explains that the Word is eternal, the Word was together with God, the Word was God, and the Word became human. The Word is the one and only Son of the Father who became the perfect man. His coming to earth manifested the Father and implemented the will of the Father, that is, effected the salvation of sinful man through His life, ministry, suffering, death on the Cross, and resurrection. All of the events that happened in the life of Jesus as long as He was on earth are directly related to the salvation of mankind. Before Jesus ascended to heaven, He showed the reality of His humanity through His social relationships and His ministry, and prepared the disciples as leaders to continue the ministry that He initiated and to promulgate the preaching that Jesus is the one and only Savior of the world.

  16. Possibilities for power reactor structural material and fuel testing in reactor RA; Mogucnosti reaktora RA za testiranje konstrukcionih materijala i goriva energetskih reaktora

    Martinc, R; Lazarevic, Dj; Stefanovic, D; Cupac, S; Pesic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-05-15

    Nuclear reactor RA at Vinca has been designed as a high flux general purpose research reactor. Among other it was intended to play a role of material testing reactor. A scope of activities of Material Laboratory and Reactor RA Department of Boris Kidric Institute is presented in this report. Reactor RA capacity for reactor structural material and fuel irradiation is also described. The increase of RA reactor irradiation capacity is based on the improvement of VISA type fuel channel for fast neutron irradiations, as well as on the general neutron flux increase, due to introduction of highly enriched uranium fuel into reactor core and the advanced in-core fuel management. The irradiation capacities described allow for the reactor material and fuel testing to the considerable extent. Istrazivacki reaktor RA u Vinci je projektovan kao visokofluksni istrazivacki reaktor opste namene. Pored ostalog, on je namenjen i za testiranje reaktorskih konstrukcionih materijala i goriva. U radu je dat pregled aktivnosti Laboratorije za materijale IBK i reaktora RA na tom podrucju, kao i opis povecanih mogucnosti reaktora RA za ozracivanje reaktorskih materijala i goriva u cilju njihovog testiranja. Povecanje mogucnosti reaktora RA zasniva se na usavrsavanju specijalnog gorivnog kanala tipa VISA (za ozracivanje materijala brzim neutronima), kao i na opstem povecanju neutronskog fluksa na osnovu uvodjenja i nacina koriscenja visokoobogacenog uranskog goriva u reaktoru RA. Opisane mogucnosti reaktora RA dozvoljavaju u znatnoj meri ispitivanje konstrukcionih materijala i goriva energetskih reaktora.

  17. Efektivitas Pengolahan Air Limbah Batik dengan Cara Kimia dan Biologi

    Istihanah Nurul Eskani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kebanyakan industri batik membuang air limbah ke lingkungan tanpa diolah terlebih dahulu dengan alasan keterbatasan tempat, dana dan penguasaan teknologi. Beberapa cara pengolahan air limbah telah dilakukan untuk mengatasi penurunan mutunlingkungan akibat pembuangan air limbah.Telah dilakukan penelitian proses pengolahan air limbah batik secara kimia, biologi aerob dan biologi anaerob. Proses kimia dilaksanakan dengan menambahkan koagulan tawas dan kapur ke dalam air limbah batik. Proses biologi aerob dijalankan dalam reaktor terbuka selama 5 hari, sedang proses biologi anaerob  dijalankan dalam reaktor tertutup selama 12 hari. Hasil proses kemudian diukur parameter warna, COD dan alkalinitasnya.Hasil penelitian pengolahan air limbah batik secara kimia dapat menurunkan parameter warna yang berasal dari zat warna Naphtol sebesar 83,15 %, COD sebesar 28,82% dan pH hasil proses 7. Proses biologi anaerob menurunkan parameter warna sebesar 94,95%, COD sebesar 59,89% dan pH hasil proses 5. Proses biologi aerob dapat menurunkan parameter warna yang berasal dari zat warna Naphtol sebesar 97,82%, COD sebesar 72, 88% dan pH hasil proses 6,5. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengolahan limbah cair batik secara biologi aerob lebih efektif daripada pengolahan secara biologi anaerob maupaun secara kimia. Kata kunci : pengolahan air limbah batik, proses kimia, proses biologi

  18. Data concerning operation and application of RA reactor in 1975, Annex 1; Prilog 1 - Podaci o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora RA u 1975. godini

    Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-01-15

    RA reactor was operating according to the plan for 1975 adopted in December of the previous year. It was planned for reactor to be operated at nominal power first 10-20 days each month, three following days were reserved for different power levels according to the users' demand. Four fuel exchanges were planned and fulfilled with minor delay. Data concerning planned and real operation, as well as delays from the plan and shorter interruptions are presented in tables of this Annex. It is shown that all the delays and interruptions which amounted to 104 hours were compensated. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je radio prema planu rada za 1975. godinu, nacinjenom u decembru prethodne godine. Planirano je da reaktor radi neprekidno prvih 10-20 dana u mesecu na nominalnoj snazi, tri sledeca dana je rezervisano za rad na drugim snagama zavisno od potreba korisnuka. Planirane su i 4 izmene goriva. Podaci o planiranom i ostvarenom radu kao i odstupanjima od plana i kracim prekidima u radu reaktora dati su u tabelama ovog priloga. Vidi se da su sva odstupanja i prekidi u ukupnom trajanju od 104 sata u celini nadoknadjeni.

  19. ANALISA PENGASUTAN MOTOR INDUKSI 3 FASA 2500 KW SEBAGAI PENGGERAK FAN PADA BAG FILTER

    Budi Yanto Husodo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu persoalan yang timbul pada pengoperasian motor induksi adalah arus pengasutan yang tinggi yang nilainya bisa mencapai sepuluh kali arus nominal. Arus pengasutan yang besar ini mengakibatkan penurunan tegangan sesaat (sag pada sistem jaringan. Selain itu juga menyebabkan tingginya pemakaian daya hingga sebesar 1,5 - 2,5 kali daya nominal yang berakibat pada tingginya energi pemakaian pada saat pengasutan. Metode pengasutan diperlukan untuk mengurangi arus pengasutan dan pemakaian energi yang besar tersebut. Pada makalah ini dilakukan perbandingan tiga metode pengasutan motor induksi yaitu berupa autotrafo, reaktor dan rangkaian star-delta. Dengan menggunakan software ETAP, pengujian dilakukan pada motor induksi 6 kV, 279 A, 2500 kW, dan faktor daya sebesar 0,879, sebagai penggerak fan pada bag filter. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa autotrafo memberikan penurunan arus pengasutan yang paling besar yaitu 73,82% dari arus pengasutan motor tanpa bantuan alat pengasutan. Sedangkan konsumsi energi yang paling kecil didapatkan dengan mengunakan pengasutan reaktor, di mana energi pemakaian berkurang dari 31,102 kWh tanpa pengasutan menjadi 17,676 kWh atau setara dengan 43,17%.

  20. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1989, Part 1; Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1989. godini

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-12-15

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in July 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The following major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the power supply system. Project concerned with renewal of RA reactor complete instrumentation was started at the end of 1988. Contract was signed between the IAEA and Soviet Atomenergoexport for supplying the new instrumentation for the RA reactor. Project concerned with increase of the storage space and the efficiency of handling the spent fuel elements has started in 1988. In 1989, device for water purification designed by the reactor staff started operation and spent fuel handling equipment is being mounted. Training of the existing personnel and was done regularly, but the new staff has no practical training since the reactor is not operated. Lack of financial support influenced strongly the status of RA reactor. [Serbo-Croat] U proteklom periodu reaktor RA nije bio u pogonu zato sto je 30. jula 1984. Republicki komitet za zdravlje i socijalnu politiku republike Srbije, zabranio njegov rad zbog toga sto reaktor ne poseduje sistem za udesno hladjenje i ne poseduje odgovarajuce filtere u sistemu specijalne ventilacije. Zavrseni su radovi na izgradnji sistema za udesno hladjenje, rekonstrukciji postojeceg sistema specijalne ventilacije i rekonstrukciji sistema za napajanje elektricnom energijom. Krajem 1988, medjunarodna agencija za atomsku energiju potpisala je ugovor sa sovjetskom firmom Atomergexport za izradu novog sistema instrumentacije. Sa ciljem da se poveca i efikasnije koristi prostor za skladistenje ozracenog goriva, 1987. godine zapoceta je realizacija projekata preciscavanja vode u bazenima za odlezavanje

  1. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    trayek angkutan umum penumpang membutuhkan penambahan armada atau pengurangan armada, sedangkan faktor-faktor yang digunakan sebagai variabel bebas dalam menganalisis penggunaan angkutan umum bus Damri adalah keselamatan, efektivitas, efisiensi, pelayanan dan kehandalan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pihak operator dalam hal ini Perum Damri tidak perlu melakukan penambahan maupun pengurangan jumlah armada bus Damri untuk jalur B.04 karena menurut perhitungan didapatkan hasil sebesar 0,6. Untuk faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penggunaan bus Damri jalur B.04 adalah variabel keselamatan, efektivitas dan efisiensi, sedangkan variabel pelayanan dan kehandalan tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penggunaan bus Damri jalur B.04.

  2. Perencanaan Lingkungan Perkotaan yang Aman dari Ancaman Kriminalitas Terhadap Anak: Sebuah Studi Kasus dari Negeri Jepang

    Riela Provi Drianda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Isu keselamatan anak selama berada di ruang publik telah menjadi perhatian masyarakat perkotaan di berbagai negara. Ruang publik modern kini dipersepsikan sebagai arena berbahaya bagi seorang anak untuk bergerak dan beraktivitas tanpa pengawasan orang tua maupun orang dewasa yang dapat dipercaya oleh orang tua. Persepsi ini telah membuat sejumlah anak di berbagai belahan dunia menghadapi penurunan kesempatan untuk mengeksplorasi lingkungan sehari-harinya secara aktif dan hal ini ternyata berdampak pada kesehatan anak serta kemampuan anak untuk menjadi pengguna lingkungan yang independen. Namun demikian, studi kami mencatat bahwa masih ada satu negara di dunia yang merespon isu keselamatan anak di ruang perkotaan dengan cara yang berbeda. Keberadaan anak tidaklah ditarik dari ruang publik maupun semi publik seperti yang umum terjadi di beberapa negara barat. Di Jepang, pemerintah dan komunitas lokal justru melaksanakan berbagai intervensi agar anak tetap dapat beraktivitas secara mandiri di lingkungan hariannya. Artikel ini mengupas mengenai tiga tipe intervensi yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat Jepang untuk meningkatkan keamanan di lingkungan perkotaan dari ancaman kriminalitas terhadap anak. Ketiga tipe intervensi yang dimaksud adalah peningkatan aksi komunitas untuk pencegahan tindak potensi kriminal, penggunaan teknologi untuk pencegahan tindak potensi kriminal, dan desain dan manajemen ruang kota.Kata Kunci: Keamanan Kota, kriminalitas, anak, JepangAbstract. The issue of child safety in public space has attracted a considerable attention from urban society in many countries. Modern public space has been perceived as a dangerous zone for children to move around and play without the supervision of their parents or adults trusted by their parents. This perception has made a number of children around the world to experience a decline in their opportunities to actively explore their daily environment and this has an impact on the children

  3. Pengembangan Pelatihan Pengangkutan Zat Radioaktif untuk Pemangku Kepentingan yang Terkait

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2017-12-01

    radioaktif dari suatu tempat ketempat lain melalui jaringan lalu lintas umum, baik menggunakan angkutan darat, laut, maupun udara. Keberadaan zat radioaktif di area public pada saat berlangsungnya pengangkutan memerlukan pemenuhan persyaratan keselamatan radiasi dan keamanan sesuai standar yang berlaku. Dengan demikian dibutuhkan pemahaman dan standar kompetensi untuk setiap pemangku kepentingan terkait. Telah dilakukan kajian pustaka dalam rangka pengembangan silabus pelatihan pengangkutan zat radioaktif untuk pemangku kepentingan yang terkait. Standar kompetensi dimaksud harus mencakup aspek pengetahuan (knowledges, ketrampilan (skills, dan sikap (attitudes. Standar kompetensi yang teridentifikasi selanjutnya diwujudkan ke dalam mata pelatihan, meliputi pengantar materi, aspek teknis keselamatan radiasi, penanganan bungkusan zatradioaktif di kawasan kepabeanan, aspek teknis keamanan, prosedur pengawalan pengangkutan bahan berbahaya dan beracun, sistem menajemen, kesiapsiagaan dan penanggulangan kedaruratan, tata laksana administratif, dan praktikum penanganan bungkusan zat radioaktif. Untuk setiap mata pelatihan harus dirumuskan rincian kompetensi dasar dan indikator keberhasilan kerja yang menjadi acuan dalam penyusunan kurikulum, silabus, hingga bahan ajar dan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran. Kata-kata Kunci: pelatihan, zat radioaktif, radiasi pengion, pengangkutan

  4. Human Resources Training Requirement on NPP Operation and Maintenance

    Nurlaila; Yuliastuti

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the human resources requirement on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation and maintenance (O&M) phase related with the training required for O&M personnel. In addition, this paper also briefly discussed the availability of training facilities domestically include with some suggestion to develop the training facilities intended for the near future time in Indonesia. This paper was developed under the assumptions that Indonesia will build twin unit of NPP with capacity 1000 MWe for each using the turnkey contract method. The total of NPP O&M personnel were predicted about 692 peoples which consists of 42 personnel located in the head quarter and the rest 650 people work at NPP site. Up until now, Indonesia had the experience on operating and maintaining the nonnuclear power plant and several research reactors namely Kartini Reactor Yogyakarta, Triga Mark II Reactor Bandung, and GA Siwabessy Reactor Serpong. Beside that, experience on operating and maintaining the NPP in other countries would act as one of the reference to Indonesia in formulating an appropriate strategy to develop NPP human resources particularly in O&M phases. Education and training development program could be done trough the cooperation with vendor candidates. (author)

  5. Distribution of Heavy Metal Elements in the Sea Water, Algae and Fish ofMuria Peninsula Area

    Djati-Pramana, J; Agus-Taftazani; Sudarmadji

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of heavy metal elements in the specimens of sea water, brownalgae and kerapu fish from two area sampling Lemah Abang and Semat beach byINAA method was done. The same of such specimens from Krakal beach was takenfor control specimen. The aim of this investigation was to obtain a part ofinput data for EMSB program. Preparation after sampling was performed asfollows. Sea water sample was concentrated using 1/5 times of the initialvolume. Algae and fish specimens were crushed using N 2 liquid, dried at thefreeze dryer than were homogenized and screened through 100 mesh. The threeof those specimens were irradiated together for 12 hours in the Lazy Susanirradiation facility of Kartini reactor. Flux neutron was 5.85 . 10 10 n/cm 2 .sec. The heavy metal elements that could be identified were Sm, Se,Cr, Zr, Fe and Co. Concentration in the specimens from Muria peninsula wasrelatively higher comparated to control specimens. This might be use to thefound of these indicators to concentrated that of heavy metals from sea wateror their environment which has a higher concentration. From t test for 95 %probability to control specimens was showed that these was a significantdifference from all the detected elements. From the obtained data there was apollution indication in the area at the period of sampling. (author)

  6. Representasi Perempuan Indonesia Dalam Ajang Penghargaan Televisi (Studi Feminisme pada Penghargaan Indihome Women Award Di Metro TV

    Ahmad Toni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Television personality award for the motor marketing television programs itself, the need to raise the rating and share. The awards were recently held by MetroTV devoted to female finalists Indonesia called modern Kartini. This study aimed to describe the representation of women in the awards Indihome Women Award at Metro TV. The method used consciousness-raising method, a method to generate knowledge and awareness in terms of women's issues and women movement within the frame of the mass media (television. This study used a qualitative descriptive method with emphasis on the reality of the media that have a relationship or context with social reality in Indonesia. The results showed the awards event Indihome Women Award in Metro women disepresentasikan as duality and ambiguity in the system of nation building; (1 Women look no further indicate the identity and values alignment on national development map but are represented at the level of the worse off, (2 Women made a movement which is represented as a capitalist agent, (3 Women and the movement into the implementation of a number of representations of themselves and movements performed in the frame of self falsehood.

  7. Assessment for the potential of Stuxnet attack on research reactor in Indonesia

    Eko H Riyadi

    2013-01-01

    Since discovered in June of 2010, the malware that named Stuxnet was directly electrify the world. The malware is interested the attentions of the media and security experts since infect instrumentation and control systems in industrial and caused significant damage. Stuxnet is a sophisticated kind of computer malware designed to sabotage industrial processes controlled by Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and PCS7. Even the malware developed to attack Iran's nuclear facilities have very specific goals and designed to infect Siemens SCADA systems are set up to control and monitor industrial processes. In Indonesia there are 3 research reactors i.e. Kartini in Jog jakarta, TRIGA in Bandung and RSG GA Siwabessy in Serpong. Last reactor has the largest capacity that was using the instrumentation and control system of the Siemens made. This study aims to determine the potential of the Stuxnet attack on research reactor with use methods and analysis the learning to the malware. With the configuration of the control system on research reactors, it is not impossible will be target of the Stuxnet attacks like as Iran's nuclear facility in Natanz. Although some security experts and anti virus have develop system patch and removal to fix this malware, but still needed the role of regulatory bodies to ensure that instrumentation and control system in research reactors are totally safe and secure from malware attacks. (author)

  8. PERKEMBANGAN STUDI PEREMPUAN, KRITIK, DAN GAGASAN SEBUAH PERSPEKTIF UNTUK STUDI GENDER KE DEPAN

    A. A. I. N. Marhaeni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to improve gender equity and equality have been taken place for yearssince the struggle of R.A. Kartini. Up to present, the efforts are still in place, however, notyet gain expected results. Preservation of gender inequality can be reproduced in family,society, as well as in the country.The increasing attention to gender is forced by women conference conducted by theUN. Four paradigms are identified: 1 Women in Develoment (WID concept thatemerging researches on womwn participation in development process; 2 Gender andDevelopment (GAD concept in which female is related to male; 3 Women’sempowerment; 4 Gender Mainstreaming. All of these paradigms have been implemented,but the results are not as expected.This condition reflects the needs of more critical attention in the implementation.For instances by considering women heterogeneity in terms of culture, social, andeconomis values, and thus it is necessary to take a need assessment in individual andinstitution levels. Men are also needed to take participation in gender studies to avoid bias.It ia also important to carry out program of education information communication tospread the information about women programs that have been and will be conducted toimprove women participation. Also, government commitment is crucial to increase gendersensitivity in public bureaucracy

  9. Experience in the implementation of quality assurance program and safety culture assessment of research reactor operation and maintenance

    Syarip; Suryopratomo, K.

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of quality assurance program and safety culture for research reactor operation are of importance to assure its safety status. It comprises an assessment of the quality of both technical and organizational aspects involved in safety. The method for the assessment is based on judging the quality of fulfillment of a number of essential issues for safety i.e. through audit, interview and/or discussions with personnel and management in plant. However, special consideration should be given to the data processing regarding the fuzzy nature of the data i.e. in answering the questionnaire. To accommodate this situation, the SCAP, a computer program based on fuzzy logic for assessing plant safety status, has been developed. As a case study, the experience in the assessment of Kartini research reactor safety status shows that it is strongly related to the implementation of quality assurance program in reactor operation and awareness of reactor operation staffs to safety culture practice. It is also shown that the application of the fuzzy rule in assessing reactor safety status gives a more realistic result than the traditional approach. (author)

  10. Status report of Indonesian research reactor

    Arbie, B.; Supadi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of three Indonesian research reactor, its irradiation facilities and its future prospect are described. Since 1965 Triga Mark II 250 KW Bandung, has been in operation and in 1972 the design powers were increased to 1000 KW. Using core grid form Triga 250 KW BATAN has designed and constructed Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta which started its operation in 1979. Both of this Triga type reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilization such as training manpower in nuclear engineering, radiochemistry, isotope production and beam research in solid state physics. Each of this reactor have strong cooperation with Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung and Gajah Mada University at Yogyakarta which has a faculty of Nuclear Engineering. Since 1976 the idea to have high flux reactor has been foreseen appropriate to Indonesian intention to prepare infrastructure for nuclear industry for both energy and non-energy related activities. The idea come to realization with the first criticality of RSG-GAS (Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Siwabessy) in July 1987 at PUSPIPTEK Serpong area. It is expected that by early 1992 the reactor will reached its full power of 30 MW and by end 1992 its expected that irradiation facilities will be utilized in the future for nuclear scientific and engineering work. (author)

  11. ILK statement on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Taking stock after twenty years

    2006-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident was the consequence of a reactor design which was not inherently safe, and of a lack of 'safety culture'. The RBMK-type reactor (a Russian graphite-moderated light water reactor design: reaktor bolshoi moshnosty kanalny=high-power channel reactor) had not been designed to a satisfactory safety level, and the operating staff were not informed on the weak spots in plant design. The combination of these factors caused the worst nuclear accident, completely destroying the reactor. The consequences may be seen as the product of two severe accidents superimposed upon each other: the explosion of the reactor, and core melt-down associated with an intense, persistent fire of the graphite moderator. The Statement contains analyses of these points: Release, Propagation and Deposition of Radioactive Materials; Protective Measures; Impact on the Environment and Agriculture; Assessment of Radiation Exposure; Health Impact; Psychological and Societal Impacts; Potential Residual Risks. (orig.)

  12. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  13. Vermikompos Sampah Kebun dengan Menggunakan Cacing Tanah Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida

    Etik Rahmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Durasi yang panjang diperlukan dalam pengomposan konvensional sampah organik yang memerlukan waktu selama 2-3 bulan. Pengurangan waktu pengomposan dapat dilakukan dengan digunakannya cacing sebagai dekomposer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat degradasi sampah kebun menggunakan proses vermikomposting dan menentukan pengaruh jenis cacing Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida. Empat reaktor berukuran 8 L digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Percobaan dilakukan secara duplo selama 60 hari. Parameter yang dianalisis pada penelitian ini adalah ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, nitrat nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN, dan C/N. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat degradasi sampah kebun dengan pengolahan vermikomposting yang dapat dicapai adalah 64,94-72,52%. Produksi kompos yang lebih tinggi dengan penggunaan Eisenia fetida.

  14. German Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program

    Seipel, H.G.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rittig, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program, which is part of the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany, is presented in this article. The program, for which the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany is responsible, is subdivided into the following four main problem areas, which in turn are subdivided into projects: (1) improvement of the operational safety and reliability of systems and components (projects: quality assurance, component safety); (2) analysis of the consequences of accidents (projects: emergency core cooling, containment, external impacts, pressure-vessel failure, core meltdown); (3) analysis of radiation exposure during operation, accident, and decommissioning (project: fission-product transport and radiation exposure); and (4) analysis of the risk created by the operation of nuclear power plants (project: risk and reliability). Various problems, which are included in the above-mentioned projects, are concurrently studied within the Heiss-Dampf Reaktor experiments

  15. Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor, Vol. I; Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA, Album I

    Pavicevic, M; Pavlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-06-15

    Project 'independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the vertical experimental channels of the RA reactor' is presented in two volumes: volume I - head of the low temperature coolant loop for reactor RA, and volume II - Outer low-temperature reactor coolant loop. Volume I includes: the design specifications for the head of the low-temperature coolant loop, technical description, thermal calculation, calculations of mechanical loads, antireactivity and activation of the components of the coolant loop head, engineering schemes and drawings, cost estimation data. [Serbo-Croat] Projekat 'Nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u vertikalnim eksperimentalnim kanalima reaktora RA', sastoji se od dva albuma: album I - Glava niskotemperaturno rashladne petlje za reaktor RA, album II - Spoljno kolo niskotemperaturne rashladne petlje za reaktora. Album I sadrzi projektni zadatak glave niskotemperaturne petlje, tehnicki opis, termicki proracun, proracun mehanickih naprezanja, antireaktivnosti i aktivacije kontrukcionih elemenata glave petlje, konstrukcione seme i crteze glave petlje, predracun.

  16. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-05-01

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained.

  17. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained

  18. RA reactor operation and maintenance in 1990 with comparative evaluation from 1986-1990, Part 1; Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1990. godini, uz uporedni pregled za period 1986-1990. godina

    Sotic, O; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Vasovic, B; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1990-12-15

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. The new emergency cooling system and the reconstruction of the existing ventilation system were finished in 1989, the conditions for further reactor operation were fulfilled. In the meantime new licensing regulations adopted in 1988 were not demanding the mentioned conditions for reactors operated at power less than 10MW, RA reactor power being 6.5 MW. But the reactor could not be restarted due to planned renewal of the reactor instrumentation. It is planned to exchange the complete instrumentation by the end of 1991. Training program for the staff operating and maintaining the reactor components was prepared in 1985. Reconstruction, modification and construction of components demanded new documentation needed for further safe reactor operation. New version of RA reactor safety report was finished in 1986 according to the recommendations of IAEA and licensing regulations of Yugoslavia. In 1989, new documents were written covering regulations and instructions for reactor operation. The new reactor experimental loop was designed in 1986, and constructed and tested in 1990. All the reactor components were maintained by specific reactor services. Financing of the reactor remains a permanent problem. [Serbo-Croat] U proteklom periodu reaktor RA nije bio u pogonu zato sto je 30. jula 1984. godine Republicki komitet za zdravlje i socijalnu politiku republike Srbije, zabranio njegov rad zbog toga sto reaktor ne poseduje sistem za udesno hladjenje i ne poseduje odgovarajuce filtere u sistemu specijalne ventilacije. Radovi na izgradnji sistema za udesno hladjenje i rekonstrukciji postojeceg sistema specijalne ventilacije zavrseni su 1989. godine. Uslovi za nastavak rada reaktora

  19. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  20. Experimental verification of reflector savings calculated by REDIR code using two-group method; Eksperimentalna provera dvogrupnog racunanja reflektorske ustede koriscenog u REDIR-u

    Sotic, O; Martinc, R [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1968-12-15

    Radial buckling and reflector savings for heavy water reactor with 2% enriched uranium fuel were measured and calculated by the REDIR code. A comparison of the obtained values is presented in this paper dependent on the reactor lattice pitch and reflector thickness. Experimental results obtained for lattice pitch of 16 cm prove the validity of applying the REDIR code for power reactors. U radu je dato uporedjenje izmedju izmerenih i teorijski izracunatih vrednosti (prema programu REDIR) radijalnih baklinga i reflektorske ustede za teskovodni reaktorski sistem sa 2% obogacenim uranskim gorivom u zavisnosti od koraka resetke i debljine reflektora. Rezultati dobijeni eksperimentima pri koraku resetke od 16 cm potvdjuju ispravnost primene programa REDIR za energetske reaktore. (author)

  1. Pengaruh Jenis Bahan pada Proses Pirolisis Sampah Organik menjadi Bio-Oil sebagai Sumber Energi Terbarukan

    M. Sigit Cahyono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampah organik merupakan potensi sumber energi yang melimpah di Indonesia. Sampah organik berupa daun dan ranting kering bisa dikonversi menjadi bahan bakar berupa bio-oil melalui proses fast pirolisis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis bahan terhadap rendemen dan nilai kalor bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari proses pirolisis sampah organik. Bahan baku berupa daun dan ranting kering campuran tanaman angsana, mahoni dan mangga dengan komposisi daun bervariasi 0%, 50%, dan 100%, dipotong-potong dengan ukuran maksimal 10 cm. Kemudian bahan baku tersebut dipanaskan di dalam reaktor pirolisis pada suhu 500 C selama 1 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor tertinggi (5175,35 J/g dan rendemen tertinggi (24,5% didapatkan pada bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis ranting 100%. Kata kunci: Sampah Organik, Bio-oil, Pirolisis, Rendemen, Nilai Kalor

  2. Komposit Nano TiO2 Dengan PCC, Zeolit atau Karbon Aktif Untuk Menurunkan Total Krom dan Zat Organik Pada Air Limbah Industri Penyamakan Kulit

    Bumiarto Nugroho Jati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menurunkan total krom dan zat organik pada limbah industri penyamakan kulit dengan menggunakan nano TiO2 yang dikompositkan dengan adsorben karbon aktif, zeolit, dan precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC dalam suatu reaktor fotokatalitik yang disusun secara batch dan dilengkapi dengan 6 buah lampu UV dan magnetic stirrer. Penurunan kadar krom total diukur dengan menggunakan Atomic Absorption Spectro-photometer (AAS dan penurunan zat organik dianalisa dengan menggunakan titrasi permanganatometri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengolahan terbaik untuk penurunan kadar krom total adalah dengan menggunakan komposit TiO2:PCC = 8:2 yang dapat menurunkan total krom hampir 100% pada menit ke-170 dengan konsentrasi awal 214,35 mg/L. Untuk penurunan kadar zat organik, pengolahan terbaik dengan menggunakan komposit TiO2:PCC = 9:1 yang dapat menurunkan kadar zat organik hingga 100% pada menit ke-180. 

  3. RA reactor Action plan for 1978 - Annex VI; Prilog VI - Plan rada reaktora RA za 1978. godinu

    NONE

    1977-12-15

    This annex include a detailed monthly action plan of the RA reactor for 1978. It was planned that the reactor will operate at nominal and lower power levels for 158 days. The plan is made with the aim to achieve same annual neutron flux as in 1977, which is somewhat higher then the annual production in the period from 1968-1975. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj prilog sadrzi detaljan plan rada reaktora RA za 1978. godinu. Planirano je da reaktor radi na nominalnoj snazi of 6,5 MW i na manjim snagama ukupno 158 dana. Plan je napravljen tako da se ostvari godisnja proizvodnja neutronskog fluksa u obimu koji je relaizovan 1977. godine sto je nesto vise od godisnje proizvodnje u periodu 1968-1975.

  4. The Ellweiler uranium plant - a demolition and recycling project

    Mika, S.; Rohr, T.; Seehars, R.; Feser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The uranium plant at Ellweiler, district of Birkenfeld, was used for the production and storage of uranium concentrates. The owner of the Ellweiler uranium plant (UAE), Gewerkschaft Brunhilde GmbH, ceased processing uranium ore and recycling in 1989 and has been in liquidation since September 1991. The State of Rhineland-Palatinate, had safety measures adopted in a first step, getting the plant into a safe state by former plant personnel. The entire plant was demolished in a second step. The contract for demolishing the former uranium plant was awarded to ABB Reaktor as the general contractor in August 1996. Demolition work was carried out between April 1997 and May 1999. A total of approx. 7900 Mg of material was disposed of. At present, recultivation measures are being carried out. (orig.) [de

  5. Fuel element transfer cask modelling using MCNP technique

    Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    Full text: After operating for more than 25 years, some of the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) fuel elements would have been depleted. A few addition and fuel reconfiguration exercises have to be conducted in order to maintain RTP capacity. Presently, RTP spent fuels are stored at the storage area inside RTP tank. The need to transfer the fuel element outside of RTP tank may be prevalence in the near future. The preparation shall be started from now. A fuel element transfer cask has been designed according to the recommendation by the fuel manufacturer and experience of other countries. A modelling using MCNP code has been conducted to analyse the design. The result shows that the design of transfer cask fuel element is safe for handling outside the RTP tank according to recent regulatory requirement. (author)

  6. Fuel Element Transfer Cask Modelling Using MCNP Technique

    Darmawan, Rosli; Topah, Budiman Naim

    2010-01-01

    After operating for more than 25 years, some of the Reaktor TRIGA Puspati (RTP) fuel elements would have been depleted. A few addition and fuel reconfiguration exercises have to be conducted in order to maintain RTP capacity. Presently, RTP spent fuels are stored at the storage area inside RTP tank. The need to transfer the fuel element outside of RTP tank may be prevalence in the near future. The preparation shall be started from now. A fuel element transfer cask has been designed according to the recommendation by the fuel manufacturer and experience of other countries. A modelling using MCNP code has been conducted to analyse the design. The result shows that the design of transfer cask fuel element is safe for handling outside the RTP tank according to recent regulatory requirement.

  7. Outlook on to fuel cycle perspectives at WWER-440

    Stech, S.; Bajgl, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current internal fuel cycle in NPP Dukovany 4x440 MWe is shortly characterized with new types of fuel assemblies and advanced fuel cycles which have been introduced in the last years. The modernization activities accomplished until now might be extrapolated to the further period in fuel design - mechanic, thermal-hydraulic and neutronic respectively - with additional increase in fuel enrichments and burnups on the way to the 6-year cycle. Reaktor power up rating together with Unit thermal efficiency improvements could bring an increase in the electric output to the value nearly 500 MWe. The reasons are given for long-term cooperation with Fuel Supplier and Plant Designer in the area of fuel cycle as well as in Unit Design Basis. All innovations mentioned in the article including future fuel and fuel cycle changes might be a quite realistic perspective at the end of the first decade of the new century (Authors)

  8. Determination of bedrock depth by using microtremor array survey at the RDE Site Serpong

    Hadi Suntoko; Sriyana

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Strategic Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Tangerang Selatan 2011-2031, PUSPIPTEK Serpong has been appointed as high technology zone, therefore this area is selected as the site for Experimental Power Reactor (Reaktor Daya Eksperimental, RDE). In order to assure safety, site evaluation from several aspects have to be performed, one of which is seismological aspect. Refer to BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 8 year 2013, site evaluation should cover the assessment of subsurface geological condition of the site. The objective of this study is to acquire information regarding the subsurface geological condition particularly the bedrock depth of the RDE site area. Method used in this study is micro tremor array (MA). The result shows that RDE site has a bedrock type of Bojongmanik Formation at a depth of 391 meter from the surface. (author)

  9. Operation and maintenance of the RA reactor, RA Research reactor. Annual report 1976; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1976. godini

    Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    During 1976 the Ra reactor was operating for about 30% shorter period than usual. The reason were extraordinary repair activities within regular and investment maintenance as well as repair of failures caused by neglected maintenance during previous 6 years. Delay was caused by unavailability of fuel (2% enriched fuel elements are spent) and the new 80% enriched fuel demanded experimental and theoretical analyses before being introduced into the core. Safety analyses concerned with using 80% enriched fuel both experimental and theoretical were successfully fulfilled. The December 1976 successful experimental campaign can be marked as end of the 17 years period of using 2% enriched fuel and start of the new period of using highly enriched fuel. This is significant not only for the reactor itself but for the users, because it would result in increase of neutron flux by 50% with the increase of costs by only 4%. Demand was submitted for obtaining the final license for transition operating regime with highly enriched fuel which would save at least 2 200 000 dinars. This will enable reactor operation in 1977 and later on, without interruption by 'critical' and other experiments related to new highly enriched fuel. A high number of repair and other urgent activities were fulfilled in order to enable safe operation. Some of these activities were done never before and some were neglected during past 6 years. The most important tasks were: purchase of Al tubes made of special alloy, fabrication and mounting of the fuel channel; overall investigation of reactor vessel leakage; repair of the heavy water pump; exchange of two vertical channels. basic equipment for construction of emergency cooling system was purchased. Hot cells are equipped for independent utilisation. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1976. godini radio za oko 30% krace vreme od uobicajenog. Razlog su bill izuzetno veliki obim remontnih i drugih radova u okviru tekuceg i investicionog odrzavanja, kao i krupnih

  10. Activities of the Service for maintenance of the RA reactor electronic equipment in 1979 - Report - Annex IV; Prilog IV Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje elektronske opreme reaktora RA u 1979. godini - Izvestaj -

    Milosevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1979-12-15

    Within the organizational structure of the RA reactor staff, the Service for instrumentation maintenance has the following tasks: maintenance of the existing electronic equipment; participating in experiments planning and preparation of electronic equipment; purchasing new equipment, spare parts and components; construction of new equipment for internal needs; implementation of new equipment. Basic instrumentation of the reactor facility includes: control and protection system, and dosimetry system. [Serbo-Croat] U okviru organizacione seme OOUR nuklearni reaktor RA sluzba za odrzavanje instrumentacije postrojenja ima sledece zadatke: odrzavanje postojece elektronske opreme; ucesce u planiranju eksperimenata i priprema elektronske opreme; nabavka nove opreme, rezervnih delova i komponenti; rad na izradi elektronske opreme i uredjaja za sopstvene potrebe i izrada projekata u domenu reaktorske opreme i ucesce u ugradnji nove opreme. Osnovna instrumentacija postrojenja obuhvata: sistem za upravljanje i zastitu, sistem za tehnolosku kontrolu i sistem za dozimetrijsku kontrolu.

  11. Fission gas release from the sintered UO{sub 2} fuel; Oslobadjanje fisionih gasova iz goriva od sinterovanog UO{sub 2}

    Sigulinski, F; Stevanovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1966-11-15

    This paper shoes the phenomena which control fission gases release from the sintered UO{sub 2} dependent of the burnup rate: ejection, release, diffusion, increased fission gas accumulation causing structural changes in the fuel. release of fission gases from the fuel for power reactors was studied as well. The influence of factors as temperature, characteristics of fuel, burnup rate and burnup level was analyzed. Prikazani su mehanizmi koji kontrolisu izdvajanje fisionih gasova iz sinterovanog UO{sub 2} pri razlicitim brzinama izgaranja: izletanje, izbijanje, difuzija, povecano izdvajanje fisionih gasova koje prati strukturne promene u gorivu. Razmatrano je proucavanje izdvajanja fisionih gasova iz goriva za reaktore snage. Analiziran je uticaj faktora kao sto su temperatura, karakteristike goriva, brzina i stepen izgaranja (author)

  12. Definition of task (Phase II) B, 'Leak testing'; Definicija zadatka (II faza) B, 'Ispitivanje hermeticnosti'

    Pavicevic, M; Nikolic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-01-15

    In order to ensure safe Ra reactor operation and fulfilling the conditions for performing irradiation experiments it was necessary to test and verify the leak tightness of the sample containers and thermocouples, as well as the irradiation capsule before it was placed in the VISA-2 channel. Leak testing of VISA-2 channel with capsules and thermocouples was done before and after it was built-in the reactor. [Serbo-Croat] U cilju bezbednosti i sigurnosti rada reaktora RA i ispunjavanja uslova ozracivanja izvrsena je provera hermeticnosti kenera sa uzorcima i termoparovima, kao i hermeticnost kapsule pre ugradjivanja kapsule u kanal VISA-2. Izvrseno je i ispitivanje hermeticnosti kanala VISA-2 sa kapsulama i termoparovima pre ugradjivanja u reaktor i posle montaze.

  13. Progress in the development of uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel at BATAN

    Suripto, A.; Soentono, S.

    1995-01-01

    After successful fabrication of two full-size prototype fuel elements containing ∼3.0 gU/cm 3 in the form of U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion now undergoing irradiation in the Reaktor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) core since 1990, further development in U 3 Si 2 -A2 dispersion fuel element manufacturing has been pursued, whose progress in discussed in this paper, with a special attention on the use of much higher-loading aimed at obtaining a better understanding on the influence of higher-loading on fuel core and plate manufacturing and quality. At present, high-loading U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion miniplates are being manufactured for preparing some mini-fuel elements to be test-irradiated in the new MTR in-pile loop of the RSG-GAS. (author)

  14. MASYARAKAT MADURA DAN RENCANA PEMBANGUNAN PLTN; PERSPEKTIF TEOLOGI

    Abd. A'la

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abd A’la   (Staf pengajar pada program Pascasarjana IAIN Sunan Ampel dan Asiten Direktur Bidang Akademik pada lembaga yang sama       Abstrak : Setiap pemanfaatan energi selalu memiliki resiko environmental. Resiko dalam dunia ilmu dapat ditolelir jika hal itu telah terkalkulasikan sehingga merupakan caculable risk. Sementara untuk energi nuklir, sampai saat ini, belum dapat dilakukan terutama terkait dengan teknologi pengamannya sehingga Fitjof Capra menyebutnya sebagai rasionalitas yang tidak bertanggung jawab. Masyarakat Madura merupakan komunitas Sunny dan dalam merespon setiap perkembangan selalu berjangkar pada prinsip-prinsip Sunny yang dicirikan dengan kehati-hatian dan moderasi. Terkait dengan rencana PLTN madura, masalah data tentang kebutuhan hal itu harus segera diperoleh untuk menjawab perlu tidaknya PLTN di Madura. Kekhwatiran bahwa kebutuan itu hanya merupakan rekayasa perusahaan reaktor nuklir patut di pertimbangkan karena memang sangat beralasan Kata Kunci : masyarakat madura, nuklir, PLTN

  15. ANALISA THERMOGRAVIMETRY PADA PIROLISIS LIMBAH PERTANIAN

    Bagus Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan karakterisasi degradasi termal dari limbah pertanian untuk dijadikan suatu bahan bakar padat alternatif. Penelitian diawali dengan tahap pengumpulan bahan yang dilanjutkan penyeragaman ukuran sampel uji hingga berukuran 20 mesh. Setelah itu masing-masing sampel dikeringkan hingga kadar air maksimal 12 %. Sebelum Sampel seberat 20 gram diuji pirolisis dengan menempatkan sampel dalam reaktor yang telah dialiri nitrogen dengan laju 100 ml/menit. Sampel diuji dengan kondisi heating rate 15 oC/menit, temperatur akhir 600 oC dan holding time 10 menit. Data yang didapat berupa penurunan massa dan perubahan temperatur dicatat dalam laptop dengan menggunakan software RS-Key, Ms Excel dan Adam.NET Utility. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan campuran serbuk gergaji dan jerami memiliki temperatur pirolisis paling rendah, sementara campuran sekam padi dan kulit singkong memiliki massa arang paling banyak.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    Stadlbauer, E.A.; Oey, L.N.; Weber, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M 3 .d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 1, Introduction; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 1, Uvod

    NONE

    1986-11-01

    Based on the agreement between governments of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and USSR of January 28 1956, a contract was signed about construction of RA research reactor in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences. Building of the RA reactor started in 1956, and has reached criticality in 1959. Since then it has been in almost permanent operation, except for five longer shutdown periods: in 1963 because of heavy water and primary coolant system contamination with cobalt; in 1970 because of transporting the heavy water to France for isotopic regeneration; in 1979/1980 and 1983 because of aluminium oxyhydrate deposition on the fuel element cladding in reactor active region; in 1985/1986 because of ventilation system reconstruction and construction of emergency core cooling system. RA reactor is a heavy water cooled and heavy water moderated research reactor. Since the beginning of its operation, 2% enriched metal uranium fuel was used. From 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide fuel elements were used partially in some core regions and since 1981 the complete core was filled with this highly enriched fuel. RA reactor was designed to operate under normal conditions at 6.5 MW power and at 10 MW power under forced regime. As a powerful neutron source the reactor was meant to be used for research in the field of reactor and neutron physics, solid state physics, radiation chemistry, biology and radioactive isotopes production. RA reactor was build by Yugoslav companies based on USSR basic design project. Main components of the systems were produced in USSR. [Serbo-Croat] Na osnovu Sporazuma izmedju vlada SFRJ i SSSR od 28. januara 1956. godine, sklopljen je ugovor o izgradnji istrazivackog reaktora RA u Institutu za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric u Vinci. Reaktor RA je poceo da se gradi 1956. godine, a kriticnost je postigao 1959. godine. Od tada je takoreci neprekidno bio u radu, izuzev u pet slucajeva duzeg stajanja: 1963. godine - zbog kontaminacije teske vode

  18. RA reactor operation and maintenance, Annual report 1974; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA - Izvestaj o radu u 1974. godini

    Milosevic, D et al [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1974-12-15

    During 1974, RA reactor was operated at nominal power for 194 days and 13 days at lower power levels. The total production was 30711 MWh which is 2.4% higher than planned. Practically there were no discrepancies from the plan. The reactor was used for irradiation and experiments according to the demand of 437 users. This report contains detailed data about reactor power and experiments performed in 1974. Total number of afety shutdowns was 11, of which 8 were caused by power cuts, and 3 due to human error. Maximum individual personnel exposure dose was 50% of the maximum permissible dose. There were no accidents during this year. Decontamination of surfaces was less than during previous years. About 805 m{sup 2} of surfaces and 178 objects were decontaminated. It was concluded that the successful operation in 1974 has a special significance taking into account the financial problems. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u 1974. godini radio na nominalnoj snazi 194 dana i 13 dana na manjim snagama. Ukupni rad iznosio je 30711 MWh odnosno 1,4% vise od planiranog. Prakticno nije bilo odstupanja od plana rada. Reaktor je koriscen za ozracivanja i eksperimente za 437 korisnika. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne podatke o radu i eksperimentima koji su obavljani. U toku godine bilo je 11 sigurnosnih zaustavljanja, od cega 8 zbog elektricnog napona i 3 usled greske osoblja. Ukupna doza ozracivanja ljudstva bila je manja nego prethodnih godina. Maksimalna doza po oveku bila je 50% manja od maksimalno dozvoljene doze. Nije bilo ni jednog akcidenta. Dekontaminirano je znatno manje povrsina nego ranijih godina, i sakupljeno manje otpada nego prethodnih godina, dok tecnih efluenata nije bilo. Zakljuceno je da uspesan rad reaktora u 1974. godini ima poseban znacaj kada se imaju na umu problemi finansiranja reaktora.

  19. Report on the activity of the RA reactor operation for the period from July 1 1961 - Sept. 30 1961; Tromesecni izvestaj za period od 1.VII do 30.IX 1961. g

    Zecevic, V [Laboratorija za eksploataciju reaktora RA, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-09-15

    During the reporting period the reactor was permanently ready for operation and responding to the demands of the experimenters. The reactor was operating for 408.5 hours at power levels from 50 - 5000 kW, or 1985 MWh in total, burnup of the first batch of fuel was 22.55%. Reactor core was made of 56 fuel channels. Activities related to construction of new and improvement of the existing equipment was continued in order to enable safe operation and successful utilization of the RA reactor. Exchange of the electronic tubes was continued in order to increase the stability of the reactor control and reactor protection systems. About 65% of tubes planned to be exchanged this year was done. Cooperation with the CEN Saclay, France related to construction of experimental loops VISA-1 and VISA-2 was continued as well as cooperation with Poland concerned with exchange of experts. The problem of lack of properly trained staff was nor solved. [Serbo-Croat] U izvestajnom periodu reaktor je uvek bio spreman za rad i odgovarao je zahtevima eksperimentatora. Reaktor je radio 408,5 casova na snagama od 50-5000 kW, odnosno ukupno 1985 MWh, pri cemu je ukupan utrosak prve sarze goriva bio 22,55%. Jezgro reaktora bilo je sacinjeno od 56 tehnoloskih kanala. Radi bezbednijeg pogona i sto uspesnije eksploatacije reaktora RA nastavljeno je sa radovima na realizaciji novih i poboljsanju postojecih uredjaja. U cilju povecanja stabilnosti elektronskih instrumenta u sistemu upravljanja i zastiti reaktora nastavljeno je sa zamenom elektronskih cevi, do sada je zamenjeno oko 65% radova predvidjenih za ovu godinu. Nastavljena je saradnja sa nuklearnim centrom u Saclay, Francuska na izradi petlje VISA-1 i VISA-2 i saradnja sa Poljskom u razmeni strucnjaka. Problem nedostatka kadrova nije resen.

  20. Commissioning Experience from the Agesta Nuclear Power Plant; Experience acquise lors des essais de mise en service de la centrale nucleaire d'Agesta; Opyt po vvedeniyu v ehkspluatatsiyu yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj ustanovki Agesta; Experiencia adquirida con la puesta en marcha de la central nucleoelectrica de Agesta

    Rydell, N. [Aagesta Kraftvarmewerk, Farsta (Sweden)

    1963-10-15

    The Agesta Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized heavy water reactor of the pressure vessel type, fuelled with natural uranium. It was commissioned with light water from December 1962 to May 1963. Observations of a more general interest were made during this commissioning essentially on the following topics; (a) cleanliness of primary circuit (b) valve operation (c) pressurization of the primary circuit (d) water leakage (e) refuelling machinery (f) containment testing. (author) [French] Il s'agit d'un reacteur a uranium naturel et a eau lourde pressurisee, du type a caisson sous pression. Les essais de mise en service ont ete faits avec de l'eau ordinaire, de decembre 1962 a mai 1963. La mise en service a permis de faire des observations d'interet general sur les sujets suivants: a) non-contamination du circuit primaire; b) fonctionnement des vannes; c) maintien sous pression du circuit primaire; d) fuites d'eau; e) appareils de chargement du combustible; f) essais d'isolement. (author) [Spanish] La central nucleoelectrica de Agesta posee un reactor de agua pesada del tipo de recipiente de presion, con combustible de uranio natural. Se mantuvo en funcionamiento con agua ligera entre diciembre de 1962 y mayo de 1963. Durante esta prueba, se efectuaron observaciones de interes mas general, relacionadas esencialmente con las siguientes cuestiones: a) limpieza del circuito primario; b) funcionamiento de las valvulas; c) presion del circuito primario; d) perdidas de agua; e) dosposiciones de reposicion del Combustible; f) ensayos de confinamiento. (author) [Russian] Yadernaya ehnergeticheskaya ustanovka Agesta predstavlyaet soboj tyazhelovodnyj reaktor pod davleniem, ispol'zuyushchij prirodnyj uran v kachestve topliva. Reaktor byl vveden v ehkspluatatsiyu na obychnoj vode v period s dekabrya 1962 goda po maj 1963 goda. Zamechaniya bolee obshchego kharaktera byli sdelany vo vremya ehkspluatatsii v osnovnom po sledukhshchim temam: a) chistota pervichnogo kontura; b

  1. Perancangan Sistem Pemantauan Gas dan Peringatan pada Ruangan melalui Jaringan Nirkabel

    Gunawan Kunto Bhasworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Udara adalah suatu campuran gas yang terdapat pada  lapisan yang mengelilingi bumi. Gas CO merupakan salah satu gas yang mengandung  zat yang tidak baik yang tidak dapat ditangkap oleh panca indera, gas tersebut bersifat membunuh makhluk hidup termasuk manusia. Hidrogen sulfida  (H2S adalah gas yang tidak berwarna, beracun, mudah terbakar dan berbau seperti telur busuk. . Konsentrasi H2S dalam jumlah yang rendah, dapat membahayakan keselamatan manusia. Dalam konsentrasi 100 PPM dapat menyebabkan kematian dalam waktu 2-5 menit. Tidak kalah berbahayanya adalah hydrocarbon gas exploison atau ledakan yang diakibatkan kebocoran LPG (metana pada ruang tertutup. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang dan mengimplementasikan sebuah sistem pemantau gas dan peringatan pada ruangan melalui jaringan nirkabel. Dengan menggabungkan PC (Personal Computer, Arduino, Arduino Wifi shield, Router, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display, Buzzer serta sensor gas TGS 2620 dan 2602 serta 2442 yang merupakan sensor-sensor dengan sensitivitas yang tinggi terhadap gas LPG (metana dan H2S serta CO dengan konsumsi daya rendah. Di peroleh sistem pemantau gas dan peringatan pada ruangan melalui jaringan nirkabel yang dapat mendeteksi dan memberikan peringatan apabila ada gas-gas berbahaya CO, H2S dan LPG (metana

  2. Analisis Remaining Life dan Penjadwalan Program Inspeksi pada Pressure Vessel dengan Menggunakan Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI

    Dyah Arina Wahyu Lillah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan eksplorasi minyak dan gas bumi di dunia, perusahaan minyak dan gas di Indonesia juga turut berlomba-lomba untuk mendapatkan ladang minyak dan gas bumi sebanyak-banyaknya. Perkembangan ini turut dipengaruhi oleh aturan-aturan pemerintah mengenai keselamatan dan pencegahan bahaya baik pada unit yang dikelola maupun tenaga kerja pengelola. Untuk itu semua perlatan-peralatan (unit kerja harus dijamin kehandalaannya agar tidak menimbulkan bahaya baik bagi pekerja maupun lingkungan. Subjek penelitian dalam tugas akhir ini ialah pada pressure vessel yang dimiliki oleh Terminal LPG Semarang. Kemungkinan bahaya yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada pressure vessel perlu dianalisis agar dapat meminimalkan resiko yang akan terjadi. Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI diharapkan dapat meminimalkan resiko yang ada pada pressure vessel. Penilaian resiko dalam tugas akhir ini mengacu pada standar API RP 581. Untuk mengetahui besarnya resiko yang ada pada plant, maka terlebih dahulu harus dihitung besarnya probabilitas kegagalan dan konsekuensi apabila terjadi kegagalan. Langkah selanjutnya ialah membandingkan besarnya resiko yang didapat dengan target resiko yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan. Dari hasil perbandingan ini dapat diketahui tingkat resiko pressure vessel, sehingga dapat ditentukan jadwal inspeksi dan metode inspeksi yang tepat.

  3. PENGARUH IKLIM DALAM PERANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR

    Irfandi Irfandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Bangunan sebagai hasil perancangan arsitektur dimaksudkan untuk memberikan kenyamanan dan mendukung aktifitas manusia yang berada di dalam bangunan. Kondisi ruangan yang baik dapat membuat manusia sebagai pemakai bangunan beraktifitas dengan baik sesuai dengan kehendaknya. Kondisi ini menuntut ruangan sebagai wadah aktifitas manusia untuk dapat memenuhi persyaratan kenyamanan yang meliputi kenyamanan terhadap suara (acoustics, pencahayaan (lighting, dan kenyamanan termal (thermal comfort. Oleh karena itu dalam perancangan arsitektur harus memperhatikan faktor iklim ini sehingga dapat tercipta lingkungan dan bangunan yang memberikan kenyamanan, kenikmatan, dan keselamatan terhadap pemakainya.   Kata kunci: Iklim, Pengaruh Iklim, dan Perancangan Arsitektur   Abstracts. Building as a product of architectural design is attempted to give comfort and to encourage human activities within building. Condition of well organized room will encourage people as building user to do their activities as good as they want. This condition will require the room as activities’ place for human being to fulfill the requirement of comfort which include acoustics, lighting, and thermal comfort. Therefor, in architectural design, should concern about climate factor, thus it will created building and enviroment which giving comfort, and savety for the users.   Keyword: climate, climate effect, architectural design

  4. PEMBANGUNAN PERANGKAT LUNAK BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE DI DINAS PERHUBUNGAN KABUPATEN BANDUNG BARAT

    Raden Harry Martiadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PKB (Pengujian Kendaraan Bermotor merupakan UPTD (Unit Pelaksana Teknis Daerah yang menguji kendaraan bermotor yang berdasarkan kepada peraturan mentri 133 tahun 2015. Bila dilihat dari Tugas Pokok dan Fungsi (Tupoksi jabatannya, para penguji kendaraan bermotor adalah penegak kelancaran dan kesesuaian kendaraan yang harus disesuaikan dengan keperuntukannya. Dengan menguji seluruh kendaraan angkutan barang dan angkutan orang UPTD Pengujian Kendaraan Bermotor selalu mengayomi masyarakat untuk menjaga dan merawat kendaraan bermotor supaya tetap berfungsi maksimal untuk digunakan sehari-hari, UPTD PKB juga merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam upaya peningkatan perekonomian dan keselamatan masyarakat, juga sebagai indikator kemajuan yang telah dicapai oleh suatu daerah. Penelitian ini bertujuan membangun sistem informasi pengujian kendaraan bermotor menggunakan Business Intllegence untuk memudahkan pegawai dan KA UPTD di Dishub Kabupaten Bandung Barat khususnya pada data analisis kendaraan data analisis pemohon dengan menggunakan kategori-kategori untuk membuat laporan dengan mengimplementasikan Dashboard Business Intellegence. Hasil penelitian ini adalah memberikan solusi alternatif bagi KA UPTD untuk lebih cepat tanggap terhadap kegiatan yang ada di Pengujian kendaraan serta mampu memberikan informasi, pengolahan data pengujian dan mengurangi timbulnya human error dalam pengujian kendaraan bermotor di Dishub Kabupaten Bandung Barat.

  5. Fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd Razzak B; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia's Social Security organization, the Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO). We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the 5-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PERFORMA NEUTRONIK BAHAN BAKAR LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 PADA SMALL MOBILE-MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    S. N. Rokhman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis terhadap performa neutronik bahan bakar garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Small Mobile-Molten Salt Reactor (SM-MSR. Penyesuaian konfigurasi teras dan temperatur operasi harus dilakukan untuk penggunaan bahan bakar baru tersebut agar mencapai keff > 1 dan CR (conversion ratio > 1 pada fraksi 0,5% 233U, 20% 232Th, 28% Li, 51,5% Be. Setelah didapat nilai keff ≈ 1 dan CR ≈ 1, dilakukan analisis pengaruh perubahan Th terhadap Be dan Be terhadap Li yang terlihat dalam perubahan parameter keff dan CR. Setelah itu fraksi 233U divariasi antara 0,5–0,46% untuk memperoleh keff > 1 dan CR > 1. Dalam perhitungan koefisien reaktifitas temperatur (αT, temperatur teras dinaikkan sebesar +25K dan +50K., dan untuk koefisien reaktifitas void (αV, densitas bahan bakar dikurangi hingga 90%. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan Th terhadap Be menyebabkan penurunan nilai CR dan naiknya keff akibat berkurangnya material fertil. Sebaliknya penambahan Be terhadap Li mengakibatkan terjadi kenaikan nilai keff dan menurunkan CR, akibat laju serapan Li lebih besar dari Be. Pada 5 (lima fraksi 233U dalam rentang 0,5–0,49%, hasil perhitungan keff dan CR masing-masing bervariasi dalam rentang 1,00001 - 1,00327 dan 1,00016 - 1,00731. Untuk faktor puncak daya (PPF, hasil perhitungan memberikan nilai dalam rentang 2,4311 -2,4714. Sedangkan untuk parameter keselamatan, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur (αT dan reaktivitas void (αV masingmasing bernilai negatif dalam rentang 4,972×10-5 - 5,909×10-5 dan 2,596×10-2- 2,8287×10-2 ∆k/k/K. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa teras SM-MSR memberikan nilai negatif di kedua koefisien reaktivitas tersebut untuk setiap fraksi,, sehingga memenuhi kriteria keselamatan dan keselamatan melekat. Kata kunci: SM-MSR (small mobile-molten salt reactor, bahan bakar LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, keselamatan melekat, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur, koefisien reaktivitas void   The analysis of neutronic performance has

  7. PERANCANGAN APLIKASI SISTEM REPAIR SCHEDULE PADA KAPAL PENYEBERANGAN MERAK-BAKAUHENI BERBASIS WEB MENURUT ATURAN BIRO KLASIFIKASI INDONESIA

    Samuel Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reparasi kapal (docking merupakan keharusan guna menjamin sertifikat kelaikan maupun keselamatan. Minimal setiap setahun sekali kapal harus docking. Saat ini di pelabuhan Merak–Bakauheni terjadi antrian yang panjang terutama pada saat high season karena kurangnya armada kapal yang disebabkan jadwal docking pada high season dan kurangnya komunikasi dan pengawasan docking kapal tersebut. Untuk menghindari hal tersebut, peneliti merancang dan membuat sistem informasi docking schedule berbasis web yang dilengkapi dengan reminder dalam bentuk email dan sms untuk memudahkan PT. ASDP sebagai pengelola transportasi di pelabuhan merak-bakauheni dalam mengatur jadwal dan melakukan pengawasan pada kapal. Pengembangan aplikasi dimulai dengan identifikasi kebutuhan sistem yang menghasilkan desain sistem, yang didefinisikan dengan Data Flow Diagram (DFD, Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD, Use case Diagram. Implementasi aplikasi berdasarkan desain sistem diterapkan pada lingkungan web dengan MySQL dan PHP dan sms gateway. Sistem penjadwalan reparasi dan survey berbasis web dengan pesan pengingat melalui Email dan SMS ini mampu  memberikan informasi jadwal repair dan survey dengan cepat dan dapat diakses kapanpun dan dimanapun dan dari hasil uji coba sistem, menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi yang dibangun telah dapat memenuhi semua kebutuhan sistem pengguna.

  8. Understanding Engineering Ethics

    Abdi O. Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering ethics aims to enhance engineer’s ability to confront moral issues raised by engineering activities. It covers engineering as social experimentation, the engineer’s responsibility for safety, and the rights of engineers. What constitutes engineering ethics is the underlining question of this research. Hence, the objective of the research is to systematically provide answers to the aforementioned question. The research also studies the scope and the origin of the subject matter. At the same time, the research highlights the significance of the subject from diverse perspectives; including Western and Islamic perspectives. ABSTRAK: Etika kejuruteraan bertujuan meningkatkan keupayaan juruera menghadapi isu-isu moralyang timbul dari aktiviti-aktiviti kejuruteraan. Ia merangkumi kejuruteraan sebagai eksperimentasi sosial, tanggungjawab jurutera terhadap keselamatan dan hak-hak jurutera. Persoalan utama penyelidikan ini adalah apa yang merangkumi etika kejuruteraan. Penyelidikan ini juga mengkaji skop dan asal usul etika kejuruteraan. Kajian ini turut membincangkan subjek kajian dari pelbagai perspektif, Barat dan Islam.KEYWORDS: engineering ethics; engineer; akhlaq; values; confidentiality; corruption; conflict of interest; whistle-blowing

  9. Perancangan Sistem Kontrol PID Untuk Pengendali Sumbu Elevasi Gun Pada Turret-Gun Kaliber 20 Milimeter

    Dimas Kunto Ariwibowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertahanan negara pada hakikatnya adalah segala upaya pertahanan yang bersifat semesta yang didasarkan pada kesadaran atas hak dan kewajiban warga negara serta keyakinan pada kekuatan sendiri dengan tujuan untuk menjaga dan melindungi kedaulatan negara, keutuhan wilayah NKRI dan keselamatan segenap bangsa. Salah satu alat pendukung pertahanan yaitu senjata laras panjang, Turret-Gun.  Adapun langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam merancang pengendali PID Turret-Gun kaliber 20mm ini diawali dengan studi literatur serta studi lapangan mengenai mekanisme dan parameter-parameter yang terdapat pada Turret-Gun pada sumbu elevasi. Setelah itu dilakukan perancangan transmisi dan sistem kontrol Turret-Gun untuk dievaluasi grafik responnya yang akan digunakan sebagai acuan untuk merancang pengendali PID yang sesuai. Selanjutnya pengendali PID yang telah dirancang lalu disimulasikan, sehingga menghasilkan grafik respon yang sesuai dengan kriteria yang dibutuhkan. Hasil yang telah didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah konstanta PID yang direkomendasikan untuk , , dan secara berturut-turut adalah sebesar 23061.024, 37820.07 dan 3515.4 yang menghasilkan transient response dengan nilai overshoot sebesar 19.9 % , steady state error sebesar 0 % serta settling time sebesar 0.935 detik. Hasil analisa kestabilan untuk sistem kontrol dengan konstanta PID tersebut menunjukkan bahwa sistem kontrol telah stabil, baik menggunakan metode Root Locus maupun metode Routh-Hurwitz.

  10. 'KONSEP SEDULUR' SEBAGAI FAKTOR PENGHALANG TERBENTUKNYA RUANG EKSKLUSIF PADA PERMUKIMAN KAUM SAMIN

    Retno Hastijanti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Saminist is Saminism followers. Their culture based on the history of the Samin's rebellion against the Dutch. In 1940, The Dutch exploded Saminist cleansing. For saving their life, the Saminist then made an unwritten-agreement among them to undercover and blend in the middle of society surround, and always assumed the society as sedulur. This unwritten-agreement became their way of life and was reflected in their settlement. This research is qualitative-phenomenology research and using meaning-translation method for analyzing the exclusive space of the Saminist settlement. It had been found that sedulur concept anticipated the formed of exclusive space of Saminist settlement. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kaum Samin merupakan sekumpulan orang pengikut Saminisme. Budaya Saminisme, berlatar belakang sejarah pemberontakan Samin Surontiko melawan penjajahan Belanda (1890. Pada th.1940, Belanda melakukan 'pembersihan' Kaum Samin, sehingga jumlah mereka menyusut dan tercerai berai. Demi keselamatan mereka, Kaum Samin membuat kesepakatan tak tertulis untuk menyamar dan membaur dengan orang disekitar mereka dan selalu menganggap orang sekeliling mereka adalah sedulur. Kesepakatan tersebut tidak hanya menjadi konsep hidup mereka tetapi tercermin pula dalam permukiman mereka. Melalui penelitian kualitatif-phenomenologis dan penggunaan metoda penerjemahan makna, dilakukan analisa terhadap ruang eksklusif pada permukimannya. Dan terbukti bahwa konsep sedulur mengantisipasi terbentuknya ruang eksklusif pada permukiman kaum Samin. Kata kunci: Kaum samin, Konsep sedulur, Ruang eksklusif.

  11. ANALISIS PENGARUH KEPUASAN KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN DENGAN PENDEKATAN KANSEI ENGINEERING PERUSAHAAN XYZ (Analysis of Job Satisfaction and Its Influence to the Worker Performance Using Kansei Engineering of XYZ Company

    Riza Ovita Risqi

    2015-05-01

    karyawan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besar pengaruh kepuasan kerja dan beban kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan Perusahaan XYZ. Beban kerja dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan kerja. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pendekatan Kansei Engineering. Kansei Engineering merupakan metode yang digunakan untuk mengolah nilai Kansei sebagai input menjadi atribut sistem kerja baru sebagai outputnya. Selain itu metode ini juga digunakan untuk mengetahui gap antara respon verbal dan non-verbal. Nilai Kansei diperoleh melalui wawancara yang disertai dengan pemutaran video sebagai sumber imajinasi karyawan. Hasil dari kuesioner kepuasan dan pengukuran beban kerja kemudian dianalisis menggunakan regresi berganda dengan hasil kuesioner kinerja. Input dari penelitian adalah faktor kepuasan kerja dan beban kerja, sedangkan output adalah kinerja karyawan. Hasil penelitian diperoleh nilai r square yaitu diketahui bahwa nilai korelasi model regresi linier berganda ini adalah sebesar 77,5%, sedangkan adjusted r square sebesar 44,1% menunjukkan bahwa kinerja karyawan variabel Y dapat dijelaskan oleh variabel X yang meliputi faktor fisiologis, keselamatan dan keamanan, sosial, penghargaan, aktualisasi diri, dan beban kerja sebesar 44,1%. Persentase sisanya sebesar 55,9% dijelaskan oleh variabel lainnya. Kata kunci: Kepuasan kerja, kinerja karyawan, Kansei Engineering, Kansei word

  12. Nurses’ Intention and Behavior in Reporting Adverse Event: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Ni Putu Ekayani

    2017-02-01

    Data menunjukkan bahwa secara global jumlah pelaporan insiden keselamatan pasien masih rendah, begitu juga di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu, Jawa Timur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara sikap, norma subjektif, dan perceived behavioral control (PBC terhadap niat dan untuk menentukan hubungan antara PBC dan niat terhadap perilaku perawat dalam melaporkan kejadian tidak diharapkan (KTD. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan potong lintang dan dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu pada tanggal 16-31 Maret 2016. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang dibagikan kepada 82 (dari 85 perawat yang bekerja di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi linier berganda dan korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap (B = 0.496; nilai p = 0.000 dan PBC (B = 0.766; nilai p = 0.037 secara signifikan memengaruhi niat untuk melaporkan KTD, sedangkan norma subjektif (B= -0.087; nilai p = 0.540 tidak berpengaruh terhadap niat melaporkan KTD. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara PBC (r = 0.037; nilai p = 0.739 dan niat (r = 0.031; nilai p = 0.783 terhadap perilaku melaporkan KTD. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa niat perawat dalam melaporkan KTD dipengaruhi oleh sikap dan PBC, bukan norma subjektif. Sebaliknya, niat dan PBC tidak berhubungan dengan perilaku melaporkan KTD.

  13. MENJEMBATANI KRISIS ADVOKASI TERHADAP TKW INDONESIA DILUAR NEGERI

    Hasanatul Jannah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai salah satu penghasil devisa negara dan mendapat julukan yang begitu tehormat dari negara sebagai Pahlawan Devisa, TKW Indonesia seharusnya mendapat perhatian tersendiri dari pemerintah maupun pihak yang terkait, sehingga terkirimnya para TKW keluar negeri memiliki jaminan keselamatan. Untuk itu diperlukan adanya kesepakatan antara pihak pengirim dengan penerima TKW agar kehadiran TKW bisa memperoleh perlindungan di Negara tempat mereka bekerja. Seharusnya berbagai kasus yang banyak menimpa para TKW selama ini seperti penganiaaan, pelecehan seksual dan tindak kekerasan lainnya baik yang di ketahui publik maupun tidak, menjadi pelajaran penting bagi bangsa Indonesia.   As one of state foreign exchange producer and the hero of foreign exchange, Indonesian migrant workers should get sufficient attention from the government and all parts which are related to their process of being migrant workers in order they get safety guarantee in the countries they work. Therefore, it is a need to have an agreement between internal agent (that sends the workers and external agent (that accept and manage the workers to make sure that the migrant workers will get protection. What have been experienced, so far, by migrant workers such as mistreatment, sexual harassment and  violence which are publicly known or ice versa should be an important lesson for Indonesia.

  14. MEMBENTUK LINGKUNGAN PENDIDIKAN YANG ISLAMI

    Wartono *

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Islam adalah agama yang sempurna. Kesempurnaan Islam meliputi seluruh aspek-aspek kehidupan. Mulai dari pen-ciptaan manusia, proses terjadinya manusia, tujuan penciptaan manusia, bahan baku manusia, penciptaan langit dan bumi, penciptaan jin, lingkungan hidup, ekonomi, politik, sejarah, angkatan bersenjata, pendidikan dan lain-lain. Bertolak dari kesempurnaan Islam sebagaimana tersebut di atas, maka sudah semesinya setiap muslim menjadikan Islam sebagai rujukan setiap persoalan yang dihadapinya. Hanya kembali kepada Islamlah manusia akan mendapatkan keselamatan,  kebaikan, kedamaian, kebahagiaan keuntungan dunia dan akhirat. Dengan Islamlah manusia dapat membentuk lingkungan pedidikannya dengan baik. Sebab Islam senantiasa memberi perhatian yang sangat serius dan utama  terhadap lingkungan  pendidikan yang islami. Manusi tidak akan menjadi hamba yang taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya jika tidak dididik berdasarkan Islam. Tidak ada konsep dan teori di luar Isalam yang mampu memberikan kontribusi secara integral terhadap pendidikan manusia seutuhnya,sehingga manusia  menajdi orang yang beriman. Yang paling tahu tentang manusia bukanlah manusi itu sendiri, akan tetapi yang menciptakan manusia yaitu Allah . Allah Ta’ala memilih Muhammad seorang Rasul dengan tujuan agar beliau menyampaikan risalah-Nya. Risalah yang dibawa oleh Nabi itu berisi nilai-nilai yang sangat tinggi sehingga dapat mengangkat derajat manusia dan martabat pada tingkat yang tinggi.Jika manusia mau menjalankan risalah yang dibawa oleh Muhammad secara benar, maka mereka akan mendapatkan predikat mu’min dan pada gilirannya orang-orang mu’min itu akan ditempatkan di dalam surga.

  15. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF PENGENDALIAN BAHAYA TEMPAT KERJA DI PERUSAHAAN MACHINERY PT. X BEKASI

    Wahyu Setia Wisesa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan wajib menerapkan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja, tetapi bagaimana manajemen dan karyawan dalam mempraktekan pengendalian bahaya di tempat kerja perlu dilakukan pengkajian. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mencari pengaruh pengendalian bahaya di tempat kerja secara kuantitatif pada perusahaan machinery PT. X Bekasi. Metode yang digunakan adalah kuesioner dan pengamatan lapangan dengan melibatkan 56 karyawan secara acak sebagai responden. Secara kuantitatif kuesioner diolah menggunakan uji statistik dengan SPSS versi 21 untuk mencari korelasi secara linier regresi sedangkan secara kualitatif pengamatan didokumentasikan berdasarkan kelengkapan penunjang pengendalian bahaya di tempat kerja. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan adanya korelasi secara linier antara pengendalian bahaya di tempat kerja (Y, terhadap desain organisasi (X1, faktor pengendalian manusia (X2 dan pengendalian teknis (X3 dalam bentuk : Y= -5,355 + 1,037 . X1 + 0,996 . X2 + 1,017. X3 dengan koefisien determinasi = 0,994. Hasil pengamatan kualitatif di lapangan menunjukkan masih perlu peran aktif dari pihak manajemen perusahaan dan karyawan dalam menerapkan peraturan K3 serta mengendalikan bahaya di tempat kerja.

  16. MAHASISWA DAN KEPATUHAN HUKUM: Studi Pelaksanaan Pasal 106 UU No. 22 TH. 2009 tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan

    Rif’ah Roihanah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kepatuhan terhadap hukum adalah merupakan hal yang substansial dalam membangun budaya hukum. Masyarakat Indonesia banyak yang tidak patuh terhadap hukum, hal ini karena individu dan masyarakat dihadapkan pada dua tuntutan kesetiaan dimana antara tuntutan kesetiaan yang satu bertentangan dengan tuntutan kesetiaan yang lain, yaitu antara “setia terhadap hukum” atau “setia terhadap kepentingan pribadi”. Kenyataan yang terjadi bahwa masyarakat menjadi lebih berani untuk tidak patuh terhadap hukum demi ke­pentingan pribadinya. Mahasiswa STAIN Ponorogo dengan status mahasiswa dapat mewakili sekelompok masyarakat yang mempunyai latar belakang dan tingkat pendidikan yang boleh dibilang tinggi, tentunya dapat menjadi obyek dari penelitian ini. Bertitik tolak pada pasal 106 ayat (8 UU No. 22 Tahun 2009 tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkut an Jalan yang berbunyi:“Setiap orang yang mengemudikan sepeda motor dan penumpang sepeda motor wajib menggunakan helm yang memenuhi Standar Nasional Indonesia”. Suatu ketentuan yang di ciptakan demi keamanan dan keselamatan masyarakat itu sendiri. Walaupun di dalam praktiknya banyak terjadi penyimpangan­-penyimpang an di dalam pelaksanaannya.

  17. PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK DAN FASILITAS HUNIAN RUKOST BERDASARKAN KEBUTUHAN KONSUMEN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PANGSA PASAR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ASPEK ERGONOMI

    Leola Dewiyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini Karawang dikenal sebagai daerah industri yang paling berpotensi di wilayah Jawa Barat. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan banyaknya pabrik yang didirikan di tanah Pasundan ini. Dengan banyaknya usaha baik berupa pabrik maupun yang lainnya, Karawang menjanjikan aneka macam peluang di berbagai bidang usaha yang bisa mendatangkan keuntungan. Perusahaan ini tentu membutuhkan tenaga kerja yang cukup banyak, tidak hanya buruh lebih dari itu tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan juga berasal dari level menengah ke atas hingga staf profesional, hal ini yang menjadi daya tarik bagi pengembang untuk membangun bisnis properti di Karawang yaitu RuKost (rumah kos. Akan tetapi Tata Letak interior kamar yang ada di RuKost saat ini berdasarkan penelitian pendahuluan yang dilakukan peneliti belum memenuhi standar dan juga belum memperhatikan kenyamanan, kepuasan, keselamatan dan kesehatan karena desain layout interior yang ada pada kamar RuKost saat ini kurang memperhatikan prinsip-prinsip ergonomik. Berdasarkan kondisi di atas maka akan dilakukan suatu redesign terhadap tata letak interior kamar RuKost. Metode perancangan yang akan digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah antropometri dan physiological performance.

  18. KAJIAN SANITASI TERMINAL DI PROVINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA TAHUN 2016

    Dani Febriyanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanitasi adalah suatu usaha untuk mengawasi beberapa faktor lingkungan fisik yang berpenga-ruh pada manusia terutama terhadap hal-hal yang mempunyai efek merusak perkembangan fi-sik, kesehatan, dan kelangsungan hidup. Berdasarkan uji pendahuluan yang dilakukan pada 2-4 April 2016, diketahui bahwa terdapat beberapa sarana atau fasilitas terminal bus yang tidak se-suai dengan persyaratan. Hal tersebut memiliki dampak yang buruk bagi lingkungan dan kese-hatan manusia di tempat umum tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambar-an kondisi sanitasi terminal bus di Provinsi D. I. Yogyakarta, dengan melakukan penelitian survei dengan analisis deskriptif. Dari 16 populasi terminal yang ada, yang dijadikan sampel penelitian adalah Terminal Wates, Terminal Jombor, Terminal Giwangan, dan Terminal Dhaksinarga yang diambil dengan metoda area probability sampling. Ada lima variabel yang diamati dengan mela-kukan inspeksi sanitasi, yaitu: penyehatan lingkungan luar, penyehatan ruang dan bangunan, fa-silitas sanitasi, kenyamanan dan keselamatan, serta higiene makanan dan minuman. Hasil dan kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah kondisi sanitasi terminal bus di Provinsi D. I. Yogyakarta masih kurang baik, karena hanya Terminal Giwangan yang berkategori laik sehat dengan prosentase 89 %.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PENDIDIKAN SOFT SKILL MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK MESIN FT UM

    Dwi Agus Sudjimat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop the soft skill education model at the Mechanical Engineering Education Study Program, State University of Malang included the curriculum and its implementation on the instructional activities. The research found that: (1 the soft skill curriculum needed by the Mechanical Engi­neering Education Study Program consists of fundamental skill, personal skill, and social skill; and (2 for implementing the soft skill curriculum entire the instructional activities strive for each lecture to take one or more soft skills statement for development, using the various strategies/methods of teaching refer to student-centered, giving tasks, and introducing the HES (Health and Environment Safety particularly in the practicum activities. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan model pendidikan soft skill pada Program Studi Teknik Mesin Universitas Negeri Malang termasuk kuriku­lum dan implementasinya dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Temuan penelitian ini adalah: (1 kurikulum soft skill yang diperlukan oleh Program Studi Teknik Mesin terdiri dari keterampilan dasar, keterampilan pribadi, dan keterampilan sosial, dan (2 menerap­kan kurikulum soft skill dalam pembelajaran pada masing-masing dasar, mengambil satu atau lebih soft skill untuk dikembangkan, menggunakan berbagai strategi/metode pengajaran berpusat pada mahasiswa, memberikan tugas, dan memperkenalkan K3 (Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja, terutama dalam kegiatan praktikum.

  20. Diagnosis by Liver Scintigraphy; Gepatoskennograficheskaya semiotika

    Zubovskij, G. [Nauchno-Issledovatel Skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Institut M3 RSfSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1969-05-15

    principles of liver scintigraphy makes it possible to improve the diagnostic efficacy of the scanning process for various liver diseases. (author) [Russian] Gepatoskennografija stala odnim iz vazhnyh metodov diagnostiki' zabolevanij pecheni. ' Chashhe vsego jetot metod ispol'zuetsja s cel'ju obnaruzhenija ochagov destrukcii. Obsledovano 2000 bol'nyh. U 1200 - sostojanie pecheni mozhno bylo schitat' dostoverno ustanovlennym, iz nih: u 335 - na osnovanii revizii, v processe operacii, u 180 -na osnovanii punkcionnoj biopsii, u 55-na osnovanii autopsii, u ostal'nyh - putem kliniko-laboratornyh issledovanij i dlitel'nogo nabljudenija. 102 bol'nym, narjadu so skennirovaniem, byli provedeny takzhe kontrastnye rentgenologicheskie issledovanija sosudov pecheni. U 500 bol'nyh predpolagalis' ochagovye porazhenija pecheni (luchevye fibrozy pecheni, kisti i opuholi), u ostal'nyh 700 - diffuznye (cirrozy, gepatity, sistemnye zabolevanija krovi i dr.). Analiz skennogramm u J200 bol'nyh s dostoverno ustanovlennym sostojaniem pecheni daet osnovanie razrabotat' kriterii gepatosken.nograficheskoj semiotiki, po tipu ispol'zuemyh v rentgenodiagnosticheskoj praktike. K takim kriterijam otnosjatsja izmenenija topografii, formy, razmerov pecheni,. sravnitel'noj kontrastnosti ee izobrazhenija, a takzhe vyjavlenie selezenki i zhelchnogo puzyrja. Bylo ustanovleno, chto, v zavisimosti ot tipa patologicheskogo processa i ego rasprostranjonija, obnaruzhivajutsja ves'ma harakternye priznaki izmenenija gepatoskenno-graficheskoj kartiny, uchet kotoryh pozvoljaet bolee pravil'no delat' zakljuchenie ne tol'ko o lokalizacii processa, no i o ego prirode. Opredeleny takzhe izmenenija gepatoskenno- graficheskoj kartiny, nabljudaemye pri zabolevanijah okruzhajushhih pechen' organov, naprimer, legkih, diafragmy, podzheludochnoj zhelezy. Na osnovanii detal'nogo analiza88 skennogramm obsledovannyh bez priznakov porazhenija pecheni razrabotany ponjatija normal'nogo, skennograficheskogo izobrazhenija pecheni, v

  1. Identification of chemical composition and measurement of V, As, Cr and Fe in Yogyakarta ambient air particulate by neutron activation method

    Gede-Sutresna W; Sutjipto

    1996-01-01

    Activation neutron analysis can be used to identify chemical composition and measure V, As, Cr and Fe contents in Yogyakarta ambient particulate. The air sampling has been done around Yogyakarta city such as: Gg. Narada Gandok around North Ring road (A1 post), Mentri Supeno cross road (A2 post), Purbanegaran GK II (A3 post), Wirobrajan cross road (A4 post), Adisutjipto (A5 post), and in front of Sentul market on JI. Sultan Agung with low volume sampler equipped with AP millipore fiber glass filter. Other places used for air sampling were around PPNY, JI. Babarsari (B1) and Jl. Gejayan (B2) by using high volume sampler equipped with TF A 21133 series filter. The filter was irradiated at Kartini reactor at the average of 1.04 x 10 1 1 n.cm -2 .s -1 on January 10, 1995. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air around Yogyakarta respectively was: 81.5 - 264.9 ng/m 3 air; 56.7 - 596.4 ng/m 3 air; 30.5 - 153.8 ng/m 3 air and 22.4 - 108μg/m 3 air. The accuracy of the analysis method was checked by comparing the analysis result to the certificate label of the reference material SRM 1633a. The accuracy was: 21.1%; 13.9%; 7.7% and 13.3% for V, As, Cr and Fe. The V, As, Cr and Fe content in air particulate around Yogyakarta is still the below permissible level of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1987

  2. Geological study of Ujungwatu area as support for NPP planning in Muria Central Java

    Srijono

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with growth of life in Java, the need for electricity is also growing accordingly. Efforts to provide electricity such as planning to build nuclear power plant (NPP) has been in the debate for a while. There are many factors to be considered in this planning, such as its environmental condition. Geological factor is one of the important one to be considered. Surface geological conditions around NPP area at Ujungwatu needed include stratigraphy, geological structure, geomorphology, and environmental geology. Geology in Ujungwatu at radius 5 km is quite interesting. This area is part of Genuk volcano group which is laid at south and Ujungwatu coast at north. Genuk mountain group is divided into mountain slope, mountain back, and mountain skeleton. Coastal area is composed of coast sand. Sand up to broken rock was present along river gullies. Others were volcanic rocks which was composed of lapili tuff, trachite, pyroxene andesite, tuff breccia, tephrite-andesitic tuff breccia, and basaltic tuff breccia. Volcanic structure is well reflected by morphological feature as lineaments and half circular form in mount Genuk. This structure was predominantly in NW-SE direction, and less dominant in NE-SW direction. Ujungwatu, from environmental view, is deserved to be developed because of its underground potency. Iron sand, fluvial tuff, kaolin, mud, riverstone, volcanic rock, tuff and marble were easily found underground. Those could be benefited to the people in the area so that it could change socio-economical condition of the people which in turn electricity is becoming a necessity. Last but not least, Portuguese fort as potential touristic object is also situated at Kartini beach near Ujungwatu. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs, 5 figs

  3. Status report of Indonesian research reactors

    Arbie, B.; Supadi, S.

    1995-01-01

    A general description of the three Indonesia research reactors, their irradiation facilities and future prospect are given. The 250 kW Triga Mark II in Bandung has been in operation since 1965 and in 1972 its designed power was increased to 1000 kW. The core grid from the previous 250 kW Triga Mark II was then used by Batan for designing and constructing the Kartini reactor in Yogyakarta. This reactor commenced its operation in 1979. Both Triga reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilization such as for manpower training in nuclear engineering, radiochemistry, isotope production, and beam research in solid state physics. The Triga reactor management in Bandung has a strong cooperation with the Bandung Institute of Technology and the one in Yogyakarta with the Gadjah Mada University which has a Nuclear Engineering Department at its Faculty of Engineering. In 1976 there emerged an idea to have a high flux reactor appropriate for Indonesia's intention to prepare an infrastructure for both nuclear energy and non-energy industry era. Such an idea was then realized with the achievement of the first criticality of the RSG-GAS reactor at the Serpong area. It is now expected that by early 1992 the reactor will reach its full 30 MW power level and by the end of 1992 the irradiation facilities be utilizable fully for future scientific and engineering work. As a part of the national LEU fuel development program a study has been underway since early 1989 to convert the RSG-GAS reactor core from using oxide fuel to using higher loading silicide fuel. (author)

  4. Dosimetry boron neutron capture therapy in liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) by means of MCNP-code with neutron source from thermal column

    Irhas; Andang Widi Harto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using physics principle when B 10 (Boron-10) irradiated by low energy neutron (thermal neutron). Boron and thermal neutron reaction produced B 11m (Boron-11m) (t 1/2 =10 -2 s). B 11m decay emitted alpha, Li 7 (Lithium-7) particle and gamma ray. Irradiated time needed to ensure cancer dose enough. Liver cancer was primary malignant who located in liver (Hepatocellular carcinoma). Malignant in liver were different to metastatic from Breast, Colon Cancer, and the other. This condition was Metastatic Liver Cancer. Monte Carlo method used by Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Software. Probabilistic approach used for probability of interaction occurred and record refers to characteristic of particle and material. In this case, thermal neutron produced by model of Collimated Thermal Column Kartini Research Nuclear Reactor, Yogyakarta. Modelling organ and source used liver organ that contain of cancer tissue and research reactor. Variation of boron concentration was 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 47 µg/g cancers. Output of MCNP calculation were neutron scattering dose, gamma ray dose and neutron flux from reactor. Neutron flux used to calculate alpha, proton and gamma ray dose from interaction of tissue material and thermal neutron. Variation of boron concentration result dose rate to every variation were 0,059; 0,072; 0,084; 0,098; 0.108; 0,12; 0,125 Gy/sec. Irradiation time who need to every concentration were 841,5 see (14 min 1 sec); 696,07 sec(11 min 36 sec); 593.11 sec (9 min 53 sec); 461,35 sec (8 min 30 sec); 461,238 sec (7 min 41 sec); 414,23 sec (6 min 54 sec); 398,38 sec (6 min 38 sec). Irradiating time could shortly when boron concentration more high. (author)

  5. Experimental operation of the RA reactor with 4 fuel channels containing 80% enriched dispersion fuel - Operational Report; Radni izvestaj - Eksperimentalna kampanja reaktora RA sa 4 kanala sa 80% obogacenim disperzionim gorivom

    Martinc, R; Milosevic, M; Cupac, S; Kozomara, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    Start of utilization of the new 80% enriched dispersion nuclear fuel is underway in the RA reactor core. Both economic and technical analyses were in favor of introducing the new fuel elements gradually into the RA reactor core. Thus overall theoretical and experimental analyses as well as other preparations are directed to transition regime based on gradual introducing of new fuel into the core, i.e. reactor core with two types of fuel. The objective of these analyses and preparation is establishment of conditions for safe reactor operation during transition period. The analyses and preparations are almost completed. The experimental data about fuel burnup during a time period of operation at nominal power i.e. daily decrease of excess reactivity is missing. This data is needed for planning the refueling (quantity of fresh fuel and frequency of refueling) during the transient period. This data can be obtained only by normal operation of the reactor during a period of time significantly longer than the period of attaining equilibrium poisoning, as time between two D{sub 2}O condensate overflows into the RA reactor core. Thus a ten day experimental campaign was planned to be done in December 1976. This report presents the most important results of safety analyses and preparation which show that, during this experimental period, the reactor operation is absolutely safe taking into account the most important parameters influencing reactor safety, as reactivity, thermal and temperature limits for fuel and the reactor, etc. Data to be obtained during this experimental campaign are significant because they would enable definition of future supply of fresh fuel during the transition period. [Serbo-Croat] Predstoji pocetak koriscenja novog 80% obogacenog uranskog disperzionog goriva u reaktoru RA. Ekonomske i tehnicke analize dale su prednost postupku postepenog uvodjenja novog goriva u reaktor RA. Prema tome, obimne teorijske i eksperimentalne analize i druge pripreme

  6. PENGEMBANGAN ISI KURIKULUM PENDIDIKAN TEKNIK ALAT BERAT BERBASIS KEBUTUHAN INDUSTRI

    Mochamad Bruri Triyono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui rumusan kompetensi tenaga mekanik alat berat sesuai standar industri; (2 mengetahui kualifikasi tenaga instruktur alat berat yang dibutuhkan industri sesuai standar industri; (3 merumuskan isi kurikulum untuk materi ajar produktif untuk menciptakan tenaga kerja di bidang alat berat. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan model pilihan pengembangan kurikulum Task Analysis. Penelitian dilaksanakan di industri yang bergerak di bidang alat berat dan institusi pendidikan perguruan tinggi dan SMK yang bekerja sama dengan industri alat berat yaitu PT Thiess Contractors Indonesia, PT United Tractors Indonesia, dan PT Trakindo Utama. Hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa: (1 kompetensi mekanik alat berat meliputi: menerapkan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja, menguasai dasar mekanik alat berat, melaksanakan perawatan dan perbaikan engine, sistem hidrolik, powertrain, sistem vehicle control, serta sistem kelistrikan alat berat minimal pada level capable (di bawah supervisi; (2 kualifikasi tenaga instruktur alat berat meliputi: memiliki kemampuan mekanik alat berat level III, memiliki kemampuan mengelola pelatihan, memiliki pengalaman kerja, serta mendapatkan pelatihan instruktur; (3 isi kurikulum untuk materi ajar produktif mekanik alat berat meliputi: dasar mekanik alat berat dan keselamatan kerja, dasar engine, dasar hidrolik, dasar vehicle control, dasar kelistrikan, materi sistem engine lanjut, sistem hidrolik lanjut, sistem powertrain lanjut, sistem vehicle control lanjut, sistem kelistrikan lanjut, product training, serta electronic machine control. Kata kunci: kompetensi, instruktur alat berat, isi kurikulum, materi ajar   THE CONTENT CURRICULLUM DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION TECHNIC IN HEAVY EQUIPMENT BASED ON INDUSTRIAL NEEDS ABSTRACT This study aims to: (1 find out the formula of competency for heavy equipment mechanic based on industry needs, (2 determine the qualifications of instructors in heavy

  7. Professional Nuclear Materials Management; Gestion Industrielle des Matieres Nucleaires; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami na professional'nom urovne; Administracion Eficiente de Materiales Nucleares

    Forcella, A. A.; O' Leary, W. J. [Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1966-02-15

    manipulacion y su transporte resulten economicos y sea facil sustituirlos. La programacion de las operaciones de fabricacion debera reducir al mfnimo las perdidas de ingresos debidas a un almacenamiento improductivo excesivamente largo de materiales de costo elevado. Para la etapa de su empleo en el reactor, sera necesario un programa adecuado de redistribucion de los elementos combustibles a fin de lograr el grado maximo de combustion del material fisionable. Ademas, habra que reducir en la medida de lo posible los paros improductivos del reactor debidos a la redistribucion del combustible, a las inspecciones, etc. Cuando el combustible haya llegado a un grado predeterminado de agotamiento, el administrador tendra que disponer la forma mas economica de regeneracion de los materiales fisionables y de recuperacion de los subproductos. La administracion de materiales nucleares es por consiguiente un factor esencial para la reduccion de los costos del ciclo del combustible y para lograr que el costo unitario de la energia producida resulte economicamente interesante. (author) [Russian] Daets ja opisanie ob{sup e}ma rabot na tipichnom jenergetichesko m reaktore v SShA. Poskol'ku jetot reaktor finansiruetsja chastnym kapitalom, odna iz osnovnyh objazannostej operatora sostoit v obespechenii sohrannosti kapitalovlozhenij i poluchenii opredelennoj pribyli. Vvidu bol'shoj sebestoimosti jadernyh materialov neobhodimo postojanno obespechivat' nadlezhashhuju bezopasnost' i uchet s cel'ju svedenija k minimumu poter', ne svjazannyh s obespe- cheniem bezopasnosti i ucheta jadernyh materialov. Neobhodimo vse tshhatel'no produmyvat' i planirovat' zaranee, chtoby izbegat' nenuzhnyh zatrat i rashodovanija kapitala ili snizhe- nija razmerov pribyli v rjade oblastej. Pojetomu administrator, vedajushhij jadernymi materialami, dolzhen zaranee uchityvat' vse nepredvidennye obstojatel'stva i osushhestvljat' postojannyj kontrol' nad otklonenijami ot standartov pri planirovanii vo vremja a

  8. RA reactor operation in 1991, Part 1; Deo 1 - Pogon i odrzavanje nuklearnog reaktora RA u 1991. godini

    Sotic, O; Cupac, S; Sulem, B; Zivotic, Z; Majstorovic, D; Sanovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-01-01

    During the previous period RA reactor was not operated because the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care has cancelled the operation licence in August 1984. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, during 1991, three major tasks were fulfilled: building of the new emergency cooling system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor power supply system. Renewal of the reactor instrumentation was started but but it is behind the schedule in 1991 because the delivery of components from USSR is late. Production of this instruments is financed by the IAEA according to the contract signed in December 1988 with Russian Atomenergoexport. According to this contract, it has been planned that the RA reactor instrumentation should be delivered to the Vinca Institute by the end of 1990. Since then any delivery of components to Yugoslavia was stopped because of the temporary embargo imposed by the IAEA for political reasons. In 1991 most of the existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Training of the existing personnel was done regularly, but lack of financial support prevented employment of new workers that would be needed for operation in shifts and regular maintenance. [Serbo-Croat] U proteklom periodu reaktor RA nije bio u pogonu zato sto je 30. jula Republicki komitet za zdravlje i socijalnu politiku republike Srbije, zabranio njegov rad zbog toga sto reaktor ne poseduje sistem za udesno hladjenje i ne poseduje odgovarajuce filtere u sistemu specijalne ventilacije. Kako bi se ubuduce mogao obezbediti

  9. KETAHANAN KOROSI PADUAN Al-Mg 5052 DI DALAM AIR PENDINGIN NETRAL MENGANDUNG KLORIDA

    Dicky Tri Jatmiko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available KETAHANAN KOROSI PADUAN Al-Mg 5052 DI DALAM AIR PENDINGIN NETRAL MENGANDUNG KLORIDA. Paduan Al-Mg 5052 adalah material yang biasa digunakan untuk kelongsong elemen bakar nuklir karena serapan fluks netronnya rendah dan tahan korosi di dalam air demineralisasi pada kondisi operasi reaktor. Makalah ini difokuskan untuk mengetahui ketahanan korosi paduan Al-Mg 5052 di dalam air dengan pH netral dan mengandung klorida sebagai pengganti air demineralisasi pendingin primer Reaktor Serba Guna GA Siwabessy (RSG-GAS. Penelitian mencakup pengukuran laju korosi menggunakan metode Tafel, prediksi mekanisme korosi menggunakan metode voltametri siklik dan analisa produk korosi dengan metode difraksi sinar X. Percobaan dilakukan dengan variasi temperatur 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, dan 45°C, serta variasi konsentrasi larutan natrium  klorida 0,05 M, 0,25 M, dan 0,5 M. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa paduan Al-Mg 5052 terkorosi dengan kategori “dapat diabaikan” hingga “sedang” dalam larutan natrium klorida menjadi produk yang larut dalam air pada satu tahap reaksi oksidasi irreversible.   CORROSION RESISTANCE OF Al-Mg ALLOY 5052 IN CHLORIDE CONTAINING NEUTRAL COOLING WATER. Al-Mg alloy 5052 is a material used as nuclear fuel element cladding due to its low neutron flux absorption and high corrosion resistance in demineralized water. This research is focused to know of the corrosion resistance of Al-Mg alloy 5052 in chloride containing neutral water used as demineralized primary cooling water substitute in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS. This research covers the corrosion rate measurement using the Tafel method, corrosion process prediction using cyclic voltammetry method and corrosion product analysis using X-Ray Diffraction method. The experiments are carried out at temperature variation of 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 45°C, as well as sodium chloride concentration of 0.05 M, 0.25 M and 0.5 M. The research results show that Al-Mg alloy 5052

  10. Influence of dissolved product gas on organism retention in biogas tower reactors; Der Einfluss geloester Produktgase auf den Organismenrueckhalt in Biogas-Turmreaktoren

    Pietsch, T.; Maerkl, H. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Bioprozess- und Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    In biogas tower reactors, considerable oversaturations of CO{sub 2} dissolved in molecular form in the liquid phase can occur, compared to the thermodynamic steady state with the gas phase. In buildings of low height, upflow designs cause biological CO{sub 2} production along the reactor to saturate the liquid phase with carbonic acid, and also cause the pH value increasing from acid degradation to bind CO{sub 2} in the form of hydrogen carbonate HCO{sup -}{sub 3}. Where buildings are very high, the liquid phase becomes degassed through a decrease in CO{sub 2} partial pressure because of decreasing hydrostatic pressure along the length of the reactor. Rising gas bubbles in the liquid phase as well as enclosed gas bubbles in biomass particles slow down their sedimentation considerably and can result in flotation of biomass particles owing to gas expansion from declining hydrostatic pressure. A sedimentation characteristics for biomass under decreasing hydrostatic pressure is given. Conditions critical to biomass retention are energy input into CO{sub 2}-oversaturated liquids as well as dynamically rapid drops in pH value owing to associated CO{sub 2} degassing. (orig.) [German] In Biogas-Turmreaktoren koennen erhebliche Uebersaettigungen von molekular geloestem CO{sub 2} in der Fluessigphase gegenueber dem thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtszustand mit der Gasphase auftreten. Bei geringer Bauhoehe fuehrt bei upflow-Konzepten die biologische CO{sub 2}-Produktion entlang des Reaktors zu einer Aufsaettigung der Fluessigphase mit Kohlensaeure und der durch Saeureabbau ansteigende pH-Wert zu einer Bindung des CO{sub 2} in Form des Hydrogencarbonats HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Sehr grosse Bauhoehen fuehren zu einer Entgasung der Fluessigphase durch Abnahme des CO{sub 2}-Partialdruckes aufgrund des abnehmenden hydrostatischen Druckes entlang der Reaktorhoehe. Aufsteigende Gasblasen in der Fluessigphase sowie eingeschlossene Gasblasen in Biomassepartikeln mindern deren

  11. PENGELOLAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PT. LONSUM DI KECAMATAN UJUNG LOE KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    Almuhajir Haris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at the management and the benefits of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility PT Lonsum in District Ujung Loe Bulukumba. The method used in this penelitiian is a qualitative description of the approach. The sample in this study as many as 10 people. Data collection techniques in this research is observation, interview, and documentation. The results showed that (a planning conducted by PT. LonSum in doing a CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility are correct (b Implementation of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility is felt directly by the people. (C Supervision in CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility involved by the government and society (d The effectiveness of the activity of management of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility directional well. (E The benefits to society kec, Ujung Loe. Kab. Bulukumba. Give benefits in the field of improving the local economy, community empowerment and environmental safety.  Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengelolaan dan manfaat CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility PT Lonsum di Kecamatan Ujung Loe Kabupaten Bulukumba. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitiian ini adalah pendekatan deskripsi kualitatif. Sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 10 orang. Teknik pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (a Perencanaan yang dilakukan oleh PT. LONSUM dalam melakukan suatu kegiatan CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility sudah tepat (b Pelaksanaan kegiatan CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility dirasakan langsung oleh masyarakat. (c Pengawasan dalam kegiatan CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility melibatkan oleh pihak pemerintah dan masyarakat (d Efektifitas pengelolaan kegitan CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility terarah dengan baik. (e Manfaat pada masyarakat kec, Ujung Loe. Kab. Bulukumba. Sangat memberikan manfaat dalam bidang peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat, pemberdayaan masyarakat dan keselamatan lingkungan.

  12. HAK-HAK ASASI MANUSIA DALAM HUKUM ISLAM

    Tutik Hamidah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Human rights objectively aim noble. It grants basic rights to human beings without distinction of origin, race, color, sex, language or religion. The concept of human rights in maqasid al syariah is Islamic sharia is prescribed in order to protect the human benefit by protecting the interests, safety and welfare of human beings both in life in the world and in the hereafter. The fundamental problem, if Islamic law is confronted with human rights is at least in family law. There arose some offers of methods of understanding nas in order to respond to human development. A verse of qatb'i is by analyzing a number of verses so that a unified understanding of the verses can be obtained. The collaboration of some of these verses shows that the understanding contained therein is definite and undeniable. then the tension in Islamic law, especially allegations of discrimination against women and non-Muslims can be avoided without any need to have allegedly left the Qur'anic verses.   Hak-hak Asasi manusia secara obyektif bertujuan mulia. la memberi hak-hak dasar kepada manusia tanpa membedakan asal-usulnya, baik ras, warna kulit, jenis kelamin, bahasa maupun agama. Konsep HAM dalam maqasid al syariah yaitu syariah Islam disyariatkan dalam rangka melindungi kemaslahatan manusia dengan melindungi kepentingan, keselamatan dan kesejahteraan manusia baik dalam hidup di dunia maupun di akhirat. Problem yang mendasar, jika hukum Islam dihadapkan kepada HAM paling sedikit adalah pada hukum keluarga. Muncullah beberapa tawaran metode memahami nas dalam upaya merespon perkembangan kemanusiaan. Suatu ayat qatb 'i adalah dengan menganalisis sejumlah ayat sehingga bisa diperoleh suatu pengertian yang searah dari ayat-ayat tersebut. Kolaborasi sejumlah ayat tersebut menunjukkan bahwa pengertian yang terkandung di dalamnya bersifat pasti dan tak terbantah. maka ketegangan dalam Hukum Islam, khususnya tuduhan diskriminasi terhadap wanita dan non-muslim bisa dihindarkan

  13. COMPARISON OF RESORT SIGN SYSTEM BASED ON EFFECTIVENESS IN VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN GOAL (Case Study: Kuta Beach Bali-Indonesia and Haeundae Beach Busan-Korea

    Listia Natadjaja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know there are many resorts in Indonesia especially in Bali. Each resort needs a sign system for information and safety. We need a field study from other countries to compare our sign system condition%2C so we can get some description of how to create an effective sign system and what we should do to make a better environment. This case study represents two famous beaches in two countries which are Kuta Beach in Bali–Indonesia and Haeundae Beach in Busan-Korea. Through a study of another sign system%2C hopefully we can create an effective sign system that meets the Visual Communication Design Goal. Each area has a unique character%2C so a sign system can be developed by looking at the environment and local culture to reach a global understanding. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Seperti yang kita ketahui ada begitu banyak tempat rekreasi di Indonesia utamanya di Bali. Tiap-tiap tempat rekreasi memerlukan sistem tanda untuk informasi dan keselamatan. Diperlukan suatu studi lapangan untuk membandingkan kondisi sistem tanda antar negara%2C sehingga didapatkan beberapa gambaran bagaimana menciptakan suatu sistem tanda yang efektif dan apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk membuat lingkungan yang lebih baik. Studi kasus yang diambil mewakili dua tempat rekreasi yaitu pantai yang terkenal di masing-masing negara yaitu pantai Kuta Bali-Indonesia dan pantai Haeundae di Busan-Korea. Dengan mempelajari sistem tanda yang berbeda%2C diharapkan dapat diciptakan suatu sistem tanda yang efektif untuk mencapai tujuan desain komunikasi visual. Tiap-tiap lokasi memiliki karakter yang unik%2C jadi sistem tanda dapat dikembangkan dengan melihat lingkungan dan budaya lokal untuk mencapai pengertian secara global. resort%2C sign system%2C effective%2C visual communication design goal.

  14. Perencanaan Terpadu Penanganan Pekerja Anak (Studi Pada Dinas Sosial Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Kabupaten Bandung Barat

    Nur Kamilah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anak merupakan karunia yang berharga bagi orang tua, lingkungan, bangsa dan negara untuk masa kini dan masa yang akan datang. Anak merupakan generasi penerus bangsa yang mempunyai hak asasi atau hak dasar. Salah satu hak dasar anak adalah adanya jaminan untuk tumbuh kembang secara optimal baik secara fisik, mental, sosial dan intelektual. Namun pada kenyataannya tidak semua anak mempunyai kesempatan untuk mendapatkan hak dasar tersebut secara optimal. Bagi keluarga yang kurang mampu secara ekonomi akan mendorong anak-anak ini untuk bekerja. Membantu orang tuanya dalam mencari nafkah. Tidak jarang anak-anak ini bekerja pada bentuk-bentuk pekerjaan terburuk untuk anak (BPTA. Mereka bekerja pada bentuk-bentuk pekerjaan yang sifatnya dapat membahayakan keselamatan dan kesehatan anak tersebut dan  tentunya akan  berpengaruh pula pada tumbuh kembangnya. Latar belakang penelitian ini adalah mengenai perencanaan terpadu dalam menangani pekerja anak. Dimana anak-anak yang bekerja tersebut adalah anak-anak yang putus sekolah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis penanganan pekerja anak di Dinas Sosial Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi Kabupaten Bandung Barat serta mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis perencanaan terpadu  dalam penanganan pekerja anak di Kabupaten Bandung Barat. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara, observasi dan studi dokumen serta menggunakan analisis data kualitatif model interaktif (Miles dan Huberman.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penanganan pekerja anak di Kabupaten Bandung Barat sudah dilaksanakan melalui upaya preventif, kuratif dan represif dengan melibatkan stakeholders di Kabupaten Bandung Barat. Para stakeholders sudah berpartisipasi aktif pada upaya penanganan pekerja anak melalui Program Pengurangan Pekerja Anak dalam mendukung Program Keluarga Harapan (PPA-PKH. Namun masih harus lebih meningkatkan

  15. IBM KELOMPOK USAHA SOUVENIR SABLON DIGITAL

    Maria krisnawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan IbM dilaksanakan pada kelompok souvenir sablon digital di Desa Sidodadi dan Karanglo Kecamatan Tawangnangu Kabupaten Karanganyar. Kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk: 1 meningkatkan motivasi wirausaha mitra; 2 meningkatkan pemahaman mitra tentang perencanaan bisnis dan manajemen usaha; 3 meningkatkan kemampuan SDM dalam teknik produksi dan pemasaran; serta 4 mengembangkan jejaring kewirausahaan pemuda untuk menopang pengembangan ekonomi kreatif. Target yang akan dicapai melalui IbM adalah pada aspek produksi dan manajemen. Aspek produksi, yaitu meningkatnya teknologi produksi pembuatan souvenir, meningkatnya kemampuan dalam bidang desain melalui program corel draw dan Adobe photoshop serta pemantapan prosedur produksi dengan memperhatikan kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja. Aspek manajemen, yaitu pada manajemen keuangan, mengadakan pengelolaaan keuangan yang baik dengan pembukuan yang teratur, melalui manajemen pemasaran menghasilkan bentuk-bentuk promosi melalui berbagai media, perluasan jaringan pasar dan mempermudah akses konsumen memesan produk. Melalui manajemen SDM dapat meningkatkan kemampuan SDM dengan pelatihan, pemberian motivasi wirausaha dan pemberdayaan diri.Kegiatan IbM dilaksanakan melalui tahapan 1 Tahap Persiapan; 2 Tahap Assesment; 3 Tahap Perencanaan Program atau Kegiatan; 4 Tahap Pemformulasian Rencana Aksi; 5 Tahap Pelaksanaan (Implementasi Program atau Kegiatan; serta 6 Tahap Evaluasi. Diharapkan melalui tahapan yang akan dilaksanakan dapat membantu menyelesaikan permasalahan dan memenuhi kebutuhan mitra.Kata kunci : IbM, pelatihan, pembinaan, pendampingan, souvenir, sablon digital.

  16. Studi Biblika Dan Teologis Surat 2 Petrus Pasal 3

    Eliezer Lewis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pengajaran yang benar tentang Kedatangan Kristus yang kedua kali sangat penting agar umat Allah tetap setia menanti kedatangan Kristus yang kedua kali. Kemunculan guru-guru palsu yang memberikan pengajaran yang tidak benar yang dialami oleh gereja mula-mula, menjadi pembelajaran bagi gereja masa kini. Ajaran guru-guru palsu berkaitan dengan adanya penolakan terhadap firman Allah, penolakan terhadap keilahian Kristus, dan penolakan terhadap kedatangan Kristus yang kedua kalinya. Secara biblika, Surat 2 Petrus 3 mengajarkan tentang penciptaan dan peristiwa air bah. Secara teologis surat ini menekankan tentang Kedatangan Kristus yang kedua kali, langit baru dan bumi baru, keselamatan untuk hidup yang kekal dan Alkitab sebagai firman Allah yang berotoritas.Kata-kata kunci: guru-guru palsu, Kedatangan Kristus kedua kali, penciptaan, pengajaran KristenCorrect teaching concerning the Second Coming of Christ is essential so that the Church is faithful in waiting for Jesus Christ’s return. The emergence of false teachers which was experienced by the early church serves as a lesson for the contemporary church. The teaching of the false teachers is related to rejection of the Word of God, the rejection of the divinity of Christ, and the rejection of theteaching about the Second Coming of Christ. From a biblical point of view, 2 Peter 3 teaches about creation and the flood. Theologically, this letter emphasizes the Second Coming of Christ, a new heaven and earth, salvation that leads to eternal life, and the Bible as the authoritative Word of God. Keywords: false teachers, the Second Coming of Christ, creation, Christian teaching

  17. MOTIVASI PEKERJA PADA BEBERAPA PROYEK KONSTRUKSI DI SURABAYA

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of worker motivation is very important in improving construction productivity. In order to increase the motivation, it is essential for management to understand needs of the workers as well as factors motivating and demotivating. This paper aims to determine the needs level, motivators, and demotivators of construction workers in Surabaya based on Maslow and Herzberg’s theories. For the methodology, the study conducted a questionnaire survey, and 263 workers participated in the survey. It is found out that the workers are still at the physiological needs level. Good salary and safety programs are two most important motivators for workers, whereas two most important demotivators are bad treatment by supervisor and insufficient material availability. The paper discusses the findings and proposes solutions to increase workers motivation. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Motivasi kerja memiliki peranan yang penting dalam peningkatan produktifitas dalam industri konstruksi. Untuk dapat meningkatkan motivasi kerja pekerja perlu diketahui kebutuhan pekerja pada saat ini, serta pemahaman motivator dan demotivator pekerja oleh supervisor. Berdasarkan latar belakang ini, penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menentukan tingkat kebutuhan, motivator dan demotivator pekerja konstruksi. Untuk tujuan tersebut digunakan dua teori motivasi, yaitu teori Maslow dan teori Herzberg, dan dilakukan survei di beberapa proyek konstruksi di Surabaya dengan menggunakan kuesioner. Secara keseluruhan, 263 orang pekerja berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pekerja konstruksi di Surabaya masih berada pada level physiological needs. Upah yang baik dan program keselamatan kerja yang baik menempati posisi tertingi sebagai motivator bagi pekerja. Sedangkan demotivator terpenting bagi pekerja adalah perlakuan yang buruk oleh atasan dan ketersediaan material yang kurang baik. Makalah ini membahas hasil yang didapatkan dan memberikan beberapa

  18. PERAWATAN BANGUNAN SEKOLAH DALAM MANAJEMEN BERBASIS SEKOLAH

    Sutrisno Sutrisno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available School building with minimum maintenance will suffer in destruction quickly. When a small destruction is not repaired immediately then it will go badly. The teaching-learning process will be interupted and at the worse situation it can threath the safety. This article is objected to find the effective model of building maintenance using school based management. The results show that (1 the head of school should pro-active in the school building maintenance efforts; (2 the head of schools can co-operate with school commitee, communities, and local government in financial support; (3 the head of school can use the cleaning service staffs to handle the building maintenance; (4 evaluation can be divided into input, process, control, and output of the organisation; (5 the maintenance activities program can be wooden/concrete/steel structure repair, wall, door/windows, ceiling, electric/water/ drainage instalation, septictank; and (6 in conducting the his duty, the head of school is responsible to the school commitee, government, and public. Bangunan sekolah yang kurang diperhatikan akan segera mengalami ke­rusak­an. Bila kerusakan kecil tidak segera ditangani, maka kerusakan menjadi makin parah. Belajar-mengajar dapat tertanggu bahkan dapat membahayakan keselamatan jiwa murid. Artikel ini bermaksud mendapatkan model perawatan bangunan sekolah yang efektif dalam manajemen berbasis sekolah. Hasil pembahasan (1 kepala se­kolah perlu proaktif dalam upaya perawatan bangunan sekolah; (2 dalam hal pen­danaan, kepala sekolah dapat bekerja sama dengan komite sekolah, masyarakat, dan pemerintah daerah; (3 kepala sekolah dapat memanfaatkan tenaga kebersihan sebagai pelaksana perawat bangunan; (4 sebagai evaluasi, organisasi dapat dibagi dalam input, proses, kontrol, dan output; (5 program kegiatan perawatan dapat berupa perbaikan struktur kayu/beton/baja, dinding, pintu/jendela, plafon, jaringan listrik/air bersih/drainase, septictank; dan (6 dalam

  19. Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators With Fuzzy TOPSIS Based on Subjective and Objective Weights

    Nang Idayu Nik Zahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS

  20. PENENTUAN FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH DALAM FAULTY BEHAVIOR RISK MELALUI PENDEKATAN METODE FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Rizal Irfan Fuadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Manajemen keselamatan merupakan pengorganisasian, sumber daya manusia, kebijakan dan prosedur interaktif yang bertujuan untuk mengurangi kemungkinan kerusakan dan kerugian di tempat kerja. Salah satu cara untuk memperbaiki manajemen keselamatan di perusahaan adalah dengan melakukan penelitian mengenai faktor yang berpengaruh dalam risiko kesalahan perilaku. Secara umum, faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keselamatan kerja tidak memiliki struktur fisik. Untuk itu, maka masalah pada kondisi nyata dapat direpresentasikan dengan cara yang lebih baik menggunakan angka fuzzy untuk mengevaluasi faktor-faktor ini. Pada penelitian ini, pendekatan Fuzzy AHP bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat Faulty Behavior Risk (FBR pada sistem kerja.Penentuan faktor yang berpengaruh dalam Faulty Behavior Risk (FBR/risiko dari perilaku yang salah dimulai dengan menentukan responden, penyusunan kuesioner, uji validitas dan reliabilitas, hasil dari kuesioner dijadikan inputan dalam pengolahan data dengan metode FuzzyAnalytic Hierachy Process (FAHP. Kuesioner ini dibuat berdasarkan konsep safety management yang terdiri dari 4 faktor, yaitu faktor organisasi, faktor pribadi, faktor pekerjaan dan faktor lingkungan. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Bay 2.1 yang memproduksi panel dan bay 7.1 yang memproduksi finning. Berdasarkan perhitungan FBR pada bay 2.1 menunjukkan nilai 0,4793 yang berarti risiko kesalahan perilaku di antara batas bawah (0,25 dan batas atas (0,50. Sedangkan pada bay 7.1 sebesar 0,5317 yang berarti risiko kesalahan perilaku memiliki potensi tinggi karena berada di atas batas atas. Dari hasil penentuan FBR didapatkan nilai  pada bay 2.1 yang memiliki risiko penyebab tertinggi terdapat pada sub faktor kurang persiapan (0,0788 sedangkan pada bay 7.1 dengan nilai FBR sebesar 0,5317 yang memiliki risiko tertinggi terdapat pada sub faktor kelelahan kerja (0,0970. Melalui penelitian ini, faktor penyebab kesalahan perilaku kerja dapat diketahui dan diberikan

  1. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  2. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor, Annual report for 1980; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1980. godini

    Milosevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1980-12-15

    During 1980 the activities of RA reactor staff was conducted in two directions: repair works and determination of the state of the existing equipment; and preparing and constructing additional equipment and completing the documentation needed to fulfill the new legal regulations. preparation of the existing equipment for future operation was finished, but construction of the additional equipment (according to the regulations) is not done at planned rate due to different reasons such as lack of budget, administration, import. This report includes a chapter devoted to the analysis of the operation difficulties that caused prohibition of reactor operation as well as difficulties in achievement of the planned activities for 1980. Data about financial issues are included as well. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1980. godine rad OOUR-a Nuklearni reaktor RA odvijao se u dva smera: remontnim radovima i utvrdjivanju stanja postojece opreme i u pripremi i ugradnji potrebne dodatne opreme i kompletiranju neophodne dokumentacije prema novim zakonskim propisima. Priprema postojece opreme za rad je u potpunosti izvrsena, dok se projekti i ugradnja dodatne opreme (prema zakonskim obavezama) ne odvija potrebnom brzinom zbog raznih objektivnih razloga, kao nedostatak sredstava, odobrenja, uvoza. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi poglavlje posveceno analizi teskoca u radu koje su dovele do zabrane rada reaktora, i teskoca u realizovanju plana rada u 1980. godini, ako i podatke o finansiranju projekta 'pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA'.

  3. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  4. KONVERSI KATALITIK MINYAK SAWIT UNTUK MENGHASILKAN BIOFUEL MENGGUNAKAN SILIKA ALUMINA DAN HZSM-5 SINTESIS

    Nurjannah Nurjannah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Terbatasnya sumber energi fosil menyebabkan perlunya pengembangan energi terbarukan yang berasal dari alam dan dapat diperbaharui. Penggunaan bahan bakar minyak bumi, baik dari penggunaan berupa alat transportasi maupun dari penggunaan oleh industri sangat mencemari lingkungan karena tingkat polusi yang ditimbulkan sangat tinggi sehingga perlu mencari bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar gasoline, solar, dan kerosene dari minyak nabati. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yaitu sintesa katalis dan proses katalitik cracking. Silika alumina disintesa menggunakan metode Latourette dan HZSM-5 disintesa menggunakan metode Plank. Hasil sintesa dikarakterisasi dengan Penyerapan Spektroskopi Atomis (AAS menunjukkan bahwa silika alumina dan HZSM-5 mempunyai Si/Al 198 dan 243. Luas permukaan  silika alumina dan HZSM-5 diperoleh dari analisa Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET yaitu 149,91-213,35 m2.g-1 dan ukuran pori rata-rata adalah 13oA. Perengkahan katalitik dilakukan dalam suatu mikroreaktor fixed bed pada temperatur 350-500°C dan laju alir gas N2 100-160 ml.min-1 selama 120 min. Hasil perengkahan dianalisa dengan metode gas kromatografi. Hasil yang diperoleh untuk katalis HZSM-5 fraksi gasoline dengan yield tertinggi 28,87%, kerosene 16,70%, dan diesel 12,20%  pada suhu reaktor 4500C dan laju gas N2 100 ml/menit.

  5. Operational experience gained with the failed fuel rod detection system in nuclear power plants

    Boehm, H.H.; Forch, H.

    1985-01-01

    Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH together with Krautkramer Company developed such a FAILED FUEL ROD DETECTION SYSTEM (FFRDS) which allows to located defective fuel rods without dismantling the fuel assembly or pulling of individual rods. Since 1979 the FFRDS is employed successfully in various nuclear power plants in Europe, USA, Japan, and Korea. The short inspection time and the high reliability of the method make the FFRDS a true competitor to the sipping method. In this paper the authors discuss the method and the design of the system, the equipment set-up, its features and the experience gained so far. The system has been performed and automated to such an extent that within a short installation period series of fuel assemblies can be tested with relatively short intervals of time (5 minutes for BWR and 7 minutes for PWR fuel assemblies per side). The ability of the system for deployment under various conditions and the experience gained during the past six years have made this system universally applicable and highly sensitive to the requirements of NDT during outages and for transport of FAs to intermediate storage facilities. Comparison of FFRDS to conventional sipping has indicated in several instances that the FFRDS is superior to the latter technique

  6. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment To Test The Stable Operation Of A PIUS Type Reactor

    Irianto, Djoko; Kanji, T.; Kukita, Y.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced type of reaktor concept as the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor was based on intrinsically passive safety considerations. The stable operation of a PIUS type reactor is based on the automation of circulation pump speed. An automatic circulation pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed the PIUS-type reactor. In principle this control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at average of the fluid temperatures below and above the lower density lock. This control system will prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments using atmospheric pressure thermal-hydraulic test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. The experiments such as: start-up and power ramping tests for normal operation simulation and loss of feedwater test for an accident condition simulation, carried out in JAERI

  7. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 4, Reactor

    1986-11-01

    RA research reactor is thermal heavy water moderated and cooled reactor. Metal uranium 2% enriched fuel elements were used at the beginning of its operation. Since 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide dispersed in aluminium fuel elements were gradually introduced into the core and are the only ones presently used. Reactor core is cylindrical, having diameter 40 cm and 123 cm high. Reaktor core is made up of 82 fuel elements in aluminium channels, lattice is square, lattice pitch 13 cm. Reactor vessel is cylindrical made of 8 mm thick aluminium, inside diameter 140 cm and 5.5 m high surrounded with neutron reflector and biological shield. There is no containment, the reactor building is playing the shielding role. Three pumps enable circulation of heavy water in the primary cooling circuit. Degradation of heavy water is prevented by helium cover gas. Control rods with cadmium regulate the reactor operation. There are eleven absorption rods, seven are used for long term reactivity compensation, two for automatic power regulation and two for safety shutdown. Total anti reactivity of the rods amounts to 24%. RA reactor is equipped with a number of experimental channels, 45 vertical (9 in the core), 34 in the graphite reflector and two in the water biological shield; and six horizontal channels regularly distributed in the core. This volume include detailed description of systems and components of the RA reactor, reactor core parameters, thermal hydraulics of the core, fuel elements, fuel elements handling equipment, fuel management, and experimental devices [sr

  8. Hydrogen Mixing Studies (HMS) assessment manual

    Lam, K.L.; Wilson, T.L.; Travis, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents some calculations performed to assess the Hydrogen Mixing Studies (HMS) code. Results are presented first for some analytical test problems, including laminar flow and mass diffusion. The von Karman vortex street problem and the Sandia FLAME Facility and Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment facility test problems are then discussed. For the analytical problems, the code gave results that agree exceptionally well with the analytical solutions. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. The last assessment problem involves modeling the experiment T31.5. The experiment was carried out in the HDR containment building, which is a large, multi-compartment facility (11 300 m 3 free volume in 72 compartments). In the experiment, a steam-water mixture was first injected into the containment to simulate a large-break blowdown of a pressure vessel, and then superheated steam was injected that was followed by a release of helium-hydrogen light gas. The calculated results (pressure, temperature, and gas concentrations) agree reasonably well with the experimental data

  9. The Quality Standard 50-SG-Q8 Application On Research And Development Activities In P2TRR

    Nababan, N.; Rofei, A.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of nuclear reactor installation should reference safety, Environment, and instalation requrement, and shoul incorporate user requirement. The requirement are adequately addressed in the IAEA standar No. 50-sg-Q8 for R and D work in nuclear instalation. A study to this standar has been carried out and it is found that there are three important factor of QA methodologi necessary to be aplied for R and D activities. They are management responsibilities, performance of the R and D works, and carrying out assesment over the R and D project. The R and D activities performing in Centre for Recearch Reaktor Technology Development (P2TRR) shoul meet the requirement in the R and D program assigned by Batan management, Such as Strastegy and Policy (jakarta), Strategic Plan (Restra), and Five-Year Plan. A study to this program also has been carried out and it is found that QA methodologies are necessary to be aplied, Especially during the data gathering activities, and its contribution to the safety function or as input to actual nuclear reactor installation or systems

  10. PEMBUATAN KALSIUM KARBONAT DARI BITTERN DAN GAS KARBON DIOKSIDA SECARA KONTINYU

    Soemargono Soemargono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kalsium karbonat  yang  digunakan  dalam  industri- industri cat, karet, dan  kertas  harus  mempunyai  mutu yang  tinggi, terutama  kemurnian  dan kehalusannya.Untuk itu, Indonesia masih  mendatangkan  kalsium  karbonat murni dari luar negeri dalam jumlah yang cukup besar. Bittern merupakan bahan buangan industri garam yang disebut juga air tua, mengandung senyawa kalsium. Karbon dioksida biasanya berasal dari hasil pembakaran yang masuk ke udara. Kandungannya di udara kecil, tetapi berpotensi sebagai pencemar. Dengan mereaksikan kalsium yang terkandung dalam bittern dengan gas CO2 akan terbentuk CaCO3 dalam suasana basa. Pembentukan kalsium karbonat dilakukan dengan proses kontinyu dalam reaktor kolom bersekat miring. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa pengendapan magnesium dengan larutan ammonia menyebabkan kandungan kalsium ikut terdegradasi. Hasil terbaik yang diperoleh dicapai pada kondisi pH awal, kecepatan alir gas CO2, kecepatan alir cairan, dan suhu masing-masing pada 8,7; 2265 mL/menit; 10 mL/menit; dan 303 K, dengan konversi sebesar 38,40%. Produk berupa CaCO3, yang diperoleh mempunyai kemurnian sebesar 21,34%.

  11. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general safety analysis, the reliability against structural damage due to an aircraft crash on a nuclear powered ship is evaluated. This structural analysis is an aid in safety design. It is assumed that a Phantom military jet-fighter hits a nuclear powered ship. The total reaction force due to such an aircraft impact on a rigid barrier is specified in the guidelines of the Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission (German Safety Advisory Committee) for pressurized water reactors. This paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structure. (Auth.)

  12. Investigation of corrosion of materials of the irradiation device in the RA reactor; Ispitivanje korozije materijala uredjaja za ozracivanje na reaktoru RA

    Zaric, M; Mance, A; Vlajic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Devices for sample irradiation in the vertical RA reactor channels will be made of aluminium alloys. According to the regulations concerned with introducing materials into the RA reactor core, corrosion characterisation of these materials is an obligation. Corrosion properties of four aluminium alloys were investigated both in contact with stainless steel and without it. First part of this report deals with the corrosion testing of aluminium alloys in water by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. Bi-distilled water at temperatures less than 100 deg C was used. Second part is related to aluminium alloys corrosion in carbon dioxide gas under experimental conditions. The second part of research was initiated by the design of the head of the independent CO{sub 2} loop for samples cooling. [Serbo-Croat] Uredjaji za ozracivanje u vertikalnim kanalima reaktora RA, bice napravljeni od legura aluminjuma. Prema propisima o unosenju materijala u RA reaktor materijali se moraju prethodno ispitati i sa stanovista korozije. Ispitivane su korozione pojave na cetiri aluminjumske legure sa i bez kontakta sa nerdjajucim celikom. Prvi deo ovog rada tretira pitanje korozije legura aluminijuma u vodi gravimetrijskim i elektrohemijskim metodama. Koriscena je bidestilovana voda na temperaturi do 100 deg C. Drugi deo se odnosi na ispitivanje ponasanja legura aluminijuma u gasovitom ugljen dioksidu pod uslovima eksperimenta. Drugi deo istrazivanja izvrsen je za potrebe izgradnje glave petlje nezavisnog kola za hladjenje uzoraka gasovitim CO{sub 2}.

  13. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH PETERNAKAN SAPI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KAPASITAS PRODUKSI PADA KELOMPOK TERNAK PATRA SUTERA

    Danang Dwi Saputro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kelompok ternak Patra Sutera di Desa Ledok Kecamatan Sambong Kabupaten Blora yang berdiri pada tahun 2013 telah mempunyai sapi 8 ekor yang berada di kandang komunal yang dikelola oleh 6 anggota kelompok. Dalam satu hari setiap ekor sapi dapat menghasilkan limbah padat sebanyak 20-30 kg dan limbah cair sebanyak 100-150 liter yang selama ini belum dikelola dengan baik. Limbah dari kegiatan ternak belum terolah dengan baik dan dibuang ke lingkungan sehingga menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi kesehatan masyarakat sekitar kandang. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi kondisi ini adalah dengan memberikan pelatihan keterampilan atau pendampingan bagaimanakah teknik pembuatan pupuk organic dan reaktor biogas sederhana, mengoperasikan, serta memanfaatkan gas yang dihasilkan. Dalam kegiatan ini akan diberikan pelatihan keterampilan bagaimana cara mengolah limbah ternah untuk dijadikan pupuk dan pestisida organik,serta pengelolaan biodigester. Dari kegiatan ini Anggota kelompok ternak Patra Sutera mendapat pengetahuan dan mengolah limbah kotoran ternak (padat dan cair yang keliar dari biodigester menjadi pupuk yang lebih bermanfaat.

  14. PERANCANGAN PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SAMPAH ORGANIK ZERO WASTE DI KABUPATEN TEGAL (STUDI KASUS DI TPA PENUJAH KABUPATEN TEGAL

    Abdul Muiz Liddinillah Sanfiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan sistem pengolahan sampah yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal adalah masih menggunakan sistem Open Dumping. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS Kabupaten Tegal pada tahun 2016, komposisi sampah organik adalah yang terbesar kedua setelah sampah plastik dan sangat berpotensi mengalami penambahan setiap tahunnya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat perancangan pembangkit listrik tenaga sampah organik zero waste di Kabupaten Tegal, dengan studi kasus di Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA sampah Penujah. Objek dalam penelitian ini adalah sistem pengolahan sampah organik yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal dengan menggunakan sistem pengolahan sampah zero waste. Sistem pengolahan sampah organik zero waste adalah sistem pengolahan sampah yang tidak menghasilkan sampah kembali. Jadi, diharapkan jumlah sampah organik akan berkurang secara bertahap. Sampah organik dapat dirubah menjadi biogas melalui proses fermentasi yang dibantu oleh bakteri secara anaerob di dalam reaktor biodigester. Biogas tersebut ditampung di dalam tempat penampungan untuk kemudian didistribusikan ke dalam genset biogas sebagai bahan bakar pembangkit listrik. Sisa pengolahan biogas dapat dirubah menjadi pupuk cair dan pupuk kompos yang bernilai ekonomis.

  15. Research reactor RB, technical characteristics and experimental possibilities; Zbornik radova, Konferencija o koriscenju nuklearnih reaktora u Jugoslaviji

    Sotic, O; Vranic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1978-05-15

    Nuclear research reactor RB tn the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences 'Boris Kidric' in Vinca is the first reactor system built in Yugoslavia in 1958. In this report, the basic technical characteristics of this reactor are described, as well as the experimental possibilities it offers to the users. Its relatively simple construction and flexibility enables direct measurements of a series of physical parameters, and the absence of the biological protection shield makes it very useful for Various biological and other irradiations and dosimetric measurements Where strong neutron source is required. (author) Istrazivacki nuklearni reaktor RB u Laboratoriji za nuklearnu energetiku i tehnicku fiziku Instituta za nuklearne nauke 'Boris Kidric' u Vinci je prvi reaktorski sistem izgradjen u Jugooslaviji 1958. godine. U ovom radu opisane su osnovne tehnicke karakteristike tog reaktora, kao i mogucnosti za izvodjenje eksperimenata koje on pruza korisnicima. Njegova relativno jednostavna konstrukcija i fleksibilnost omogucavaju da se na njemu izvrse direktna merenja niza fizickih parametara, a s druge strane odsustvo bioloskog zastitnog omotaca cini ga veoma pogodnim za razna bioloska i druga ozracivanja, a takodje i dozimetrijska merenja gde se zahteva snazan izvor neutrona. (author)

  16. Parní generátor reaktoru ESFR

    Bátěk, David

    2012-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá parním generátorem pro reaktory ESFR (Evropský Rychlý Sodíkem Chlazený Reaktor), jenž je vyhříván tekutým sodíkem. V úvodních kapitolách jsou teoretické informace o parametrech ESFR a porovnání s výměníky tepla v jaderných elektrárnách pracujících na stejném principu (sodík jako chladivo). Následuje návrhová část, kam patří úvod do problematiky výpočtu, volba materiálu a koncepce výměníku a samotná výpočtová část, která zahrnuje tepelný, hydraulický a pevnostní ...

  17. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: Manufacturing technology, operational experience and development objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the Federal Republic of Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized-, boiling- and heavy-water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are Reaktor-Brennelement Union (RBU) and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilities to produce UO 2 -gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem manufactures mixed-oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 fuel and fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by Nuklearrohr-Gesellschaft (NRG) and Mannesmannroehren-Werke (MRW). Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control, an integrated quality assurance system has been established between the reactor vendor's fuel design and engineering division and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. Operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and has shown good performance. Possible reasons for a small fraction of defective rods could be identified quickly by a fast feedback system incorporating close co-operation between Kraftwerk Union (KWU) and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and pool-side service facilities as well as fuel technology linked to manufacturing. The responsibility of KWU for core and fuel design, which enabled an integral optimization, was also an important reason for the successful operation and design flexibility. (author)

  18. Data base formation for important components of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    Jordan, R; Mavko, B; Kozuh, M [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    The paper represents specific data base formation for reactor TRIGA MARK II in Podgorica. Reactor operation data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. Two groups of collected data were formed. The first group includes components data and the second group covers data of reactor scrams. Time related and demand related models were used for data evaluation. Parameters were estimated by classical method. Similar data bases are useful everywhere where components unavailabilities may have severe drawback. (author) [Slovenian] V referatu smo prikazali raziskavo, v okviru katere smo za raziskovalni reaktor TRIGA MARK II v Podgorici izoblikovali specificno bazo podatkov. Zbrali smo podatke obratovanja reaktorja od leta 1985 do 1990. Rezultate raziskave dogodkov smo razdelili v dve glavni skupini. V prvo spadajo obratovalni podatki o komponentah, v drugo skupino pa spadajo zagoni oz. zaustavitve reaktorja. Podatke smo ovrednotili z modelom v casovnem prostoru in z modelom na zahtevo. Parametre modelov smo dolocili s klasicno metodo. Opisane baze podatkov so uporabne povsod, kjer so lahko posledice nezanesljivega delovanja sistemov velike. [author].

  19. Remerschen nuclear power station with BBR pressurized water reactor

    Hoffmann, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of many decades of successful cooperation in the electricity supply sector with the German RWE utility, the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg and RWE jointly founded Societe Luxembourgeoise d'Energie Nucleaire S.A. (SENU) in 1974 in which each of the partners holds a fifty percent interest. SENU is responsible for planning, building and operating this nuclear power station. Following an international invitation for bids on the delivery and turnkey construction of a nuclear power station, the consortium of the German companies of Brown, Boveri and Cie. AG (BBC), Babcock - Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH (BBR) and Hochtief AG (HT) received a letter of intent for the purchase of a 1,300 MW nuclear power station equipped with a pressurized water reactor. The 1,300 MW station of Remerschen will be largely identical with the Muelheim-Kaerlich plant under construction by the same consortium near Coblence on the River Rhine since early 1975. According to present scheduling, the Remerschen nuclear power station could start operation in 1981. (orig.) [de

  20. Validation of CESAR Thermal-hydraulic Module of ASTEC V1.2 Code on BETHSY Experiments

    Tregoures, Nicolas; Bandini, Giacomino; Foucher, Laurent; Fleurot, Joëlle; Meloni, Paride

    The ASTEC V1 system code is being jointly developed by the French Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) and the German Gesellschaft für Anlagen und ReaktorSicherheit (GRS) to address severe accident sequences in a nuclear power plant. Thermal-hydraulics in primary and secondary system is addressed by the CESAR module. The aim of this paper is to present the validation of the CESAR module, from the ASTEC V1.2 version, on the basis of well instrumented and qualified integral experiments carried out in the BETHSY facility (CEA, France), which simulates a French 900 MWe PWR reactor. Three tests have been thoroughly investigated with CESAR: the loss of coolant 9.1b test (OECD ISP N° 27), the loss of feedwater 5.2e test, and the multiple steam generator tube rupture 4.3b test. In the present paper, the results of the code for the three analyzed tests are presented in comparison with the experimental data. The thermal-hydraulic behavior of the BETHSY facility during the transient phase is well reproduced by CESAR: the occurrence of major events and the time evolution of main thermal-hydraulic parameters of both primary and secondary circuits are well predicted.

  1. Slovak brown coals as a feedstock for the active coke production

    Sobolewski Aleksander

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available V èlánku sa venuje pozornos možnostiam výroby aktívneho koksu zo slovenského hnedého uhlia Bane Cíge¾. Príprava aktívneho koksu bola uskutoènená v laboratórnych podmienkach a v poloprevádzke. Surové uhlie sa podrobilo vysokoteplotnej pyrolýze v retorte s pevným roštom, v klasickej rotaènej peci, ako aj vo fluidnom reaktore. Následne boli urèované adsorpèné charakteristiky získaného aktívneho koksu, ktoré sa porovnávali s charakteristikami komerène vyrábaného koksu. V príspevku sa taktiež diskutujú možnosti aplikácie pripraveného aktívneho koksu v technológiách ochrany životného prostredia.

  2. Neutron Diffractometer; Neutronski difraktometar

    Zivadinovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    RA nuclear reactor is considered as a relatively strong neutron source producing the thermal neutron flux of about 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec when operating at nominal power of 6.5 MW. Neutron diffraction method is applied in the field of solid state physics, material science, crystallography, magnetism, nuclear physic. Neutron diffractometer at the RA reactor consists of: system for obtaining collimated neutron beam from the horizontal experimental channel neutron monochromator; goniometer and electronic equipment for measurements and collecting the the measurement data. Nuklearni reaktor RA koji pri radu na snazi od 6,5 MW ima fluks termalnih neutrona oko 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec predstavlja relativno jak izvor neutrona. Tehnika difrakcije neutrona primenjuje se u istrazivanjima fizike crvstog stanja, strukture materijala, kristalografije, magnetizma, nuklearne fizike. Neutronski difraktometar na reaktoru RA sastoji se od sistema za dobijanje kolimisanog snopa neutrona kroz horizontalni kanal reaktora; neutroskog monohromatora; goniometra i elektronskih uredjaja za merenja i registrovanje rezultata. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis i seme neutronskog difraktometra sa pratecom opremom i elektronskim komponentama.

  3. Failed fuel rod detection system and computerized manipulator during outages

    Boehm, H.H.; Foerch, H.

    1984-01-01

    During regular outages spent fuel assemblies need to be replaced and relocated within the core. Defective fuel rods in particular fuel assemblies have to be removed from further service and before delivery of such faulty fuel assemblies to a reprocessing plant. The system which Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH and Krautkraemer have developed in the Federal Republic of Germany is capable of directly locating the defective rods in a proper fuel assembly. Inspection times are comparable to those of standard sipping methods, with the advantages of immediately available results and direct identification of the defective fuel rods. During the repair of fuel assemblies this system allows withdrawal of individual defective rods. With the sipping method all the fuel rods of a defective fuel assembly need to be removed and inspected by eddy current testing. During steam generator inspection and repair personnel are exposed to ample radiation. A remotely controlled, computerized manipulator was used to significantly reduce the radiation dose by automating steps in the procedures; at the same time inspection and repair times were reduced. The main features of the manipulator are a rigid component construction of the leg and two arms, and a resolver control for horizontal and vertical motion that enables rapid and accurate access to a desired tube (author)

  4. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Meningkatnya jumlah penduduk berdampak pada peningkatan kebutuhan energi. Di lain pihak, industri pembangkit energi dituding sebagai salah satu penyumbang karbon dioksida sekitar 25% dari total emisi CO2 di seluruh dunia. Disisi lain, produksi biogas yang bertujuan untuk mengatasi peningkatan kebutuhan energi justru menghasilkan karbon dioksida pada kisaran 25 – 50% volume. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, diperlukan metode yang murah, optimum dan efisien serta ramah lingkungan dalam mengurangi kadar CO2 dengan menggunakan spirulina platensis.  Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat model matematik dan menemukan kecepatan aliran yang optimum untuk menurunkan kadar CO2 dengan menggunakan Spirulina Platensis. Penelitian ini menggunakan reaktor tubularterbuat dari kaca (D = 2,6 cm pada suhu 30°C dan disinari dengan lampu TL Philips fluoresen 36 Watt, temperatur warna: 6.200K cool daylight, light output: 2.600 lm, 72 lm/W. Reaktor tubular ditempatkan dalam kotak yang dilapisi dinding dengan kertas perak pada ketiga sisinya. Dengan model matematik reaktor tubular, dapat diprediksi konstanta kecepatan reaksinya. Berdasarkan grafik hasil perhitungan data, kecepatan volumetrik optimumnya juga dapat diprediksi. Variasi flowrate yaitu 0,25 mL/detik, 0,35 mL/detik, 0,5 mL/detik, 0,75 mL/detik, 1 mL/detik. Sumber karbon adalah CO2 99,99%. Pengamatan pertumbuhan Spirulina dilakukan pada flow rate 0,25 mL/detik dengan kadar berat kering mula – mula 2,1208 g/L. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa aliran lambat (flowrate rendah merupakan cara yang lebih efektif dalam mengurangi karbon dioksida menggunakan spirulina platensis (= 2,82×10-4 detik-1. Nilai konversi tertinggi diperoleh pada kecepatan aliran volumetrik 0,25 mL/detik dan kecepatan optimumnya pada kisaran 0,3 – 0,4 mL/detik. Laju flux CO2 masuk sebaiknya kurang dari 0,047 mL/cm2.detik. Nilai Specific Growth Rate (µ Spirulina Platensis dalam penelitian ini yaitu 2,56×10-2 menit-1.   Kata Kunci: Spirulina platensis, reaktor tubular

  5. SAFIRA project B.3.3: in-situ-treatment of contaminated ground water by catalytic oxidation. Final report; Sanierungsforschung in regional kontaminierten Aquiferen (SAFIRA). Projekt B.3.3: In situ-Behandlung von kontaminierten Grundwaessern durch katalytische Oxidation. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Teilvorhaben 2: Tests in der bench-scale-Anlage und Teilvorhaben 3: Die Erprobung in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort. Abschlussbericht

    Hofmann, J.; Haentzschel, D.; Freier, U.; Wecks, M.

    2003-06-27

    A new technology for treatment of contaminated ground water was developed. In this process heterogeneous catalysts (full metal catalyst, mixed oxide catalyst or iron-containing zeolites) in combination with hydrogen peroxide are used. In the reactor catalytic oxidation and aerob biological degradation occur simultaneously. A complete degradation of chlorobenzene was observed in a bench-scale-equipment (2 liter) and also in the pilot plant at the model site located in Bitterfeld (30 liter reactor). The technology can be applied to the ground and waste water treatment. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Behandlung von Grundwaessern, die mit organischen Schadstoffen belastet sind, wurde ein neuartiges Verfahren entwickelt. Bei der katalytischen Oxidation werden heterogene Katalysatoren in Form von Vollmetall-, Mischoxid- und Traegerkatalysatoren in Verbindung mit Wasserstoffperoxid als Oxidationsmittel eingesetzt. In den Katalysereaktoren laufen die heterogen-katalytische Oxidation und der aerob-biologische Abbau nebeneinander ab. Es werden synergistische Effekte erzielt. Mit dem Verfahren wurde in einer bench-scale-Angle (2 Liter) und in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort in Bitterfeld (30 l Reaktor) der Schadstoff Chlorbenzol vollstaendig umgesetzt. Das Verfahren kann zur Grund- und Abwasserbehandlung eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  6. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Farida Crisnaningtyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan dua opsi proses: (1 fisika-kimia, dan (2 aerob. Koagulan alumunium sulfat dan flokulan kationik memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi (73% pada kecepatan putaran masing-masing 100 rpm dan 40 rpm. Uji coba aerob dilakukan pada kisaran MLSS antara 4000-5000 mg/L dan mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 97%. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi penurunan COD total yang dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan teknologi anaerob-aerob adalah 97%, sedangkan kombinasi anaerob-koagulasi-flokulasi hanya mampu menurunkan COD total sebesar 72,53%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, kombinasi proses anaerob-aerob merupakan teknologi yang potensial untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi. 

  7. Combination of biological treatment of waste air and liquid effluents in small and medium-sized businesses by using spherical carrier media in exchange with each other. Final report; Kombination der biologischen Behandlung von Abluft- und Abwasserreinigung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen durch die Verwendung von kugeligen Traegermaterialien im gegenseitigen Austausch. Abschlussbericht

    Kunz, P.M.; Brunk, M.; Bentz, P.; Bach, K.; Marcos del Rio, O.; Stahl, B.; Wolf, C.

    2002-05-08

    A combined system for biological treatment of solvent-contaminated liquid and gaseous effluents was to be constructed. The system was to be mobile for demonstration purposes in industrial processes and was to serve for dimensioning of full-scale systems. The system works by a combined process via exchange of spherical carriers with a growth of micro-organisms. Two pilot systems of the Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik, one for liquid and one for gaseous effluents, were combined for this purpose, ensuring exchange of carrier materials between the two units. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe im Rahmen dieses F+E-Vorhabens war es gewesen, eine kombinierte biologische Abluft- und Abwasserreinigungsanlage - speziell fuer loesungsmittelhaltige Abluft und Abwaesser - zu untersuchen. Dazu sollte eine Anlage aufgebaut werden, die auch als Demonstrations- und Versuchsanlage zu Industriebetrieben gebracht und dort zur Dimensionierung von full-scale-Anlage eingesetzt werden kann. Idee fuer dieses Vorhaben war gewesen, die Kombination beider Behandlungssysteme ueber den Austausch von mit Mikroorganismen bewachsenem Traegermaterial herzustellen. Am Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik existierte bereits eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Abwasserreinigung mit kugeligem Traegermaterial (Vario-Bio-Reaktor) und eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Behandlung von Abluft nach dem Trickling-Filter-Prinzip mit ebenfalls kugeligem Traegermaterial. Diese beiden Anlagen sollten miteinander kombiniert und der Austausch des Traegermaterials hergestellt werden. (orig.)

  8. Operation and maintenance of the RA nuclear reactor for 1977, Report Annex I; Rad i iskoriscenost reaktora RA u 1977. godini, izvestaj Prilog I

    Martinc, R; Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1977-12-15

    RA reactor operation plan was fulfilled, meaning 28583 MWh. In addition to 183 days of operation at full power, during 1977 the reactor was operated for 14 days at lower power level according to the demand of users. The utilization level of rector irradiation capability (neutron flux and time of operation) was 14%. This annex includes detailed statistical data about reactor operation, utilization, power level, savings concerned with new 80% enriched fuel. All the 9 vertical experimental channels were used for irradiation in the reactor core. Digression from the action plan were caused by refueling and demand od the users. There have been 11 safety shutdowns, of which 6 caused by power cuts, 4 due to failure of the instruments, and 1 due to earthquake in March 1977. [Serbo-Croat] Planirani rad reaktora na nominalnoj snazi ostvaren je u iznosu od 28583 MWh. U toku 1977. godine reaktor je radio 14 dana na manjim snagama i u posebnom eksperimentalnom rezimu na zahtev korisnika. Iskoriscenost kapaciteta reaktora za ozracivanje uzoraka (na bazi neutronskog fluksa i vremena rada reaktora) bila je 41%. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljne statisticke podatke o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora, podatke o ustedi goriva prelaskom na 80% obogaceno gorivo. Korisceno je svih 9 vertikalnih eksperimentalnih kanala u aktivnoj zoni. Uzroci odstupanja od plana rada osim zamene goriva bili su zahtevi korisnika. Bilo je 11 sigurnosnih zaustavljanja, 6 usled nestanka napona, 4 usled kvarova opreme i instrumentacije, i 1 put usled zemljotresa u martu.

  9. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  10. Sintesis Furfural dari Bagas Tebu Via Reaksi Hidrolisa dengan Menggunakan Katalis Asam Asetat pada Kondisi Atmosferik

    Nine Tria Rossa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang hidrolisa bagas tebu menggunakan asam asetat sebagai katalis. Sebanyak 30 gram dihidrolisa dalam 300ml air yang mengandung katalis asam menggunakan  asetat sebesar 7 sampai 9% v/v dengan variabel waktu dan temperatur hidrolisa selama 1 sampai 4 jam dan 80oC sampai 103oC pada kondisi atmosferik menggunakan reaktor tipe batch. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh temperatur dan waktu hidrolisa, serta konsentrasi katalis asam asetat terhadap perolehan furfural. Kemudian untuk menemukan kondisi paling efisien untuk memproduksi furfural menggunakan Response Surface Methodology (RSM dengan Software Design Expert 7.0.0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan waktu dan temperatur hidrolisa akan meningkatkan perolehan furfural. Perolehan asam asetat juga meningkat rata-rata hingga 2 kali dari konsentrasi asam asetat awal. Hal ini terjadi karena pemutusan gugus acetyl dari fraksi hemiselulosa pada bagas tebu. Perolehan kondisi optimum yakni pada waktu dan temperatur hidrolisa 2 jam dan 103oC, konsentrasi katalis 9%, dengan konsentrasi furfural 4,10 mg/ml dan konsentrasi asam asetat 2,62 mmol/ml.

  11. Shielding design of highly activated sample storage at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been one of the most important things considered in Reaktor Triga PUSPATI (RTP) management. Currently, demands on sample activation were increased from variety of applicant in different research field area. Radiological hazard may occur if the samples evaluation done were misjudge or miscalculated. At present, there is no appropriate storage for highly activated samples. For that purpose, special irradiated samples storage box should be provided in order to segregate highly activated samples that produce high dose level and typical activated samples that produce lower dose level (1 - 2 mR/ hr). In this study, thickness required by common shielding material such as lead and concrete to reduce highly activated radiotracer sample (potassium bromide) with initial exposure dose of 5 R/ hr to background level (0.05 mR/ hr) were determined. Analyses were done using several methods including conventional shielding equation, half value layer calculation and Micro shield computer code. Design of new irradiated samples storage box for RTP that capable to contain high level gamma radioactivity were then proposed. (author)

  12. Selective separation of anaerobic sludge by means of hydrocyclones; Selektive Abtrennung von Anaerobschlamm mit Hydrozyklonen

    Mueller, M.; Bohnet, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrens- und Kerntechnik

    1999-07-01

    In anaerobic waste water cleaning, biomass concentration constitutes a central problem because of long generating times and low biomass sinking speeds. In order to decouple hydraulic retention time from biomass retention time, biomass must be fed back into the reactor. The fact that separation by means of common gravitational separators such as sedimentation tanks and baffle plate thickeners is unspecific results in the enrichment in the reactor of inorganic solids, whose presence is corollary to the anaerobic sludge process. Hence, industry has a great interest in separating anaerobic sludge into organic and inorganic constituents as a means of safeguarding high operating stability and degradation efficiency of anaerobic reactors. Hydrocyclones, permitting selective separation, are an obvious approach. (orig.) [German] Bei der anaeroben Abwasserreinigung ist die Biomassekonzentrierung aufgrund langer Generationszeiten und geringer Sinkgeschwindigkeiten der Biomasse ein zentrales Problem. Zur Entkopplung der hydraulischen Verweilzeit von der Verweilzeit der Biomasse ist eine Rueckfuehrung der Biomasse erforderlich. Da bisher eingesetzte Schwerkraftabscheider, wie Absetzbecken und Lamellenklaerer, unspezifisch trennen, kommt es zu einer Anreicherung anorganischer Feststoffe im Reaktor, die sich prozessbedingt im Anaerobschlamm befinden. So hat die Industrie ein grosses Interesse an einer Auftrennung des Anaerobschlamms in organische und anorganische Bestandteile, um eine hohe Betriebsstabilitaet und Abbauleistung der Anaerobreaktoren zu gewaehrleisten. Hierzu bieten sich Hydrozyklone an, weil mit ihnen eine selektive Trennung moeglich ist. (orig.)

  13. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    Usang, M. D., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P. [Reactor Department, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  14. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  15. CRITICALITY ANALYSIS OF URANIUM STORAGE FACILITY WITH FORMATION RACKS

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2017-03-01

    ANALISIS KRITIKALITAS DI FASILITAS PENYIMPANAN BAHAN URANIUM DENGAN FORMASI PENGATURAN RAK. Bahan uranium dibutuhkan untuk produksi bahan bakar reaktor penelitian dan radioisotop. Bahan uranium sebelum digunakan terlebih dahulu disimpan pada fasilitas penyimpanan. Salah satu prasyarat fasilitas penyimpanan bahan uranium adalah fasilitas tersebut harus dalam kondisi sub-kritis. Bila kondisi kritis terjadi mengakibatkan proses fissi pada bahan uranium tidak terkendali, sehingga akan menimbulkan suhu yang sangat tinggi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisa kondisi kritikalitas dari fasilitas penyimpanan bahan uranium yang berada di PT. INUKI (Persero untuk menjamin fasilitas tersebut dalam kondisi sub-kritis. Analisis kritikalitas dilakukan menggunakan program MCNP-5 untuk mengetahui tingkat kritikalitas dari tiga fasilitas penyimpanan bahan uranium untuk kondisi awal dan kondisi setelah ditambahkan rak penyimpanan. Untuk fasilitas penyimpanan 1 dan 2 dibuat tiga skenario pengaturan container pada rak penyimpanan, sedangkan pada fasilitas penyimpanan 3 dilakukan 1 skenario.  Hasil ini menunjukkan seluruh fasilitas penyimpanan pada kondisi awal dan setelah ditambah rak penyimpanan dalam kondisi sub-kritis (k-eff<1. Hasil tersebut selanjutnya dipergunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyusun manejemen pengelolaan bahan uranium. Selain itu juga digunakan sebagai dasar untuk pembuatan ijin dari badan pengawas (BAPETEN. Kata Kunci : kritikalitas, fasilitas penyimpanan berbahan uranium,  k-eff

  16. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive

  17. Upgrade of Control and Protection System of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    Wright, Ronald E.; Fletcher, Norman; Sidnev, Victor E.; Bickel, John H.; Vianello, Aldo; Pearsall, Raymond D.

    2003-01-01

    The Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) Units 1 and 2 are Soviet-designed, RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoi Moschnosti Kipyashchiy), channelized, large power-type reactors. The original-design electrical capacity for each unit was 1500 MW. Unit 1 began operating in 1983, and Unit 2 was started up in 1987. In 1994, the government of Lithuania agreed to accept grant support for the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program with funding supplied by the Nuclear Safety Account of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As conditions for receiving this funding, the Ignalina NPP agreed to prepare a comprehensive safety analysis report that would undergo independent peer review after it was issued. The EBRD Safety Panel oversaw preparation and review of the report. In 1996, the safety analysis report for Unit 1 was completed and delivered to the EBRD. Part of the analyses covered anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The analysis showed that some ATWS scenarios could lead to unacceptable consequences in <1 min. The EBRD Safety Panel recommended to the government of Lithuania that the Ignalina NPP develop and implement a program of compensatory measures for the control and protection system before the unit would be allowed to return to operation following its 1998 maintenance outage. A compensatory control and protection system that would mitigate the unacceptable consequences was designed, procured, manufactured, tested, and installed. The project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy

  18. Methods for measuring nuclear properties of materials, Safety coefficient method and measurement of effective absorption coefficient of graphite by safety coefficient method; Razvijanje metoda merenja nuklearnih karakteristika materijala, Razrada metode koeficijenta opasnosti i merenje efektivnog apsorpcionog preseka grafita metodom koeficijenta opasnosti

    Maglic, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-11-15

    Reactivity of a reactor depends on production, absorption and leaking of neutrons. Change of absorption causes reactivity change, and this fact is used for determining the neutron absorption cross section for the sample inserted in the reactor core. Method for determining the absorption cross section based on reactivity change is called method of safety coefficient. Measurements of neutron absorption cross section for graphite was done in the RA reactor vertical experimental channel VK-5. taking into account the results obtained for five types of graphite this method is considered to be reliable for use. Comparison of nuclear properties of different types of graphite was done as well. Reaktivnost reaktora zavisi od proizvodnje neutrona, apsorpcije i isticanja neutrona. Promena apsorpcije izaziva promene reaktivnosti reaktora pa se ova osobina koristi za odedjivanje neutronskog apsorpcionog preseka uzorka koji se unosi u reaktor. Metoda merenja apsorpcionog preseka na bazi promene reaktivnosti nazvana je metodom koeficijenta opasnosti. Merenje apsorpcionog preseka grafita uradjeno je na reaktoru RA u vertikalnom eksperimentalnom kanalu VK-5. S obzirom na rezultate koji su dobijeni za pet vrsta grafita moze se smatrati da je opravdano koriscenje ove metode. Izvrseno je i poredjenje nuklearnih osobina pomenutih tipova grafita.

  19. Impact Of Secondary-Primary Pumps Operating Sequence On The Electrical Power Supply System

    Suwoto; Rusdiyanto; Kiswanto

    2001-01-01

    The operating procedure of the reactor cooling system has decided that the primary cooling pump should be operated before secondary cooling pump as known primary-secondary pumps operating sequence. This decision is based on consideration that starting current of the primary pump is higher than secondary pump. Therefore, the primary-secondary pumps operating sequence can avoid the power supply system failure. However, this operating procedure has to take a consequence that in case of primary pump failure, the shutdown time period of the reaktor to be longer caused to re operate the primary pump has required that the running secondary pump should be shutted off. To solve this problem, an impact analysis of the secondary-primary pumps operating sequence on the electric power supply system was carried out to identify the revision possibility of the cooling pump operating procedure. The analysis by discussion of the measuring results of the secondary and primary pump starting current related to another electrical loads has been measured. From discussion it can be concluded that secondary-primary pumps operating sequence has no impact to failure in electric power supply system

  20. Pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada Proses Pirolisis terhadap Hasil Gasifikasi Batubara Bituminus dengan medium Gas CO2

    Saripah Sobah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan batubara melalui proses gasifikasi perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut karena proses ini dapat dijadikan alternatif untuk menggantikan peranan  gas alam sebagai sumber gas sintesis. Di samping itu, proses ini dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan karena teknologi gasifikasi merupakan teknologi yang bersih dan dapat mengurangi jumlah gas CO2 yang dibuang ke lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis terhadap hasil gasifikasi arang batubara bituminus dengan medium gas CO2. Reaksi karbon dari arang batubara dengan gas CO2 pada proses gasifikasi merupakan reaksi endotermis dan berlangsung sangat lambat pada suhu di bawah 1000oC sehingga digunakan Ca(OH2 sebagai katalisator. Proses gasifikasi batubara dijalankan dalam reaktor fixed bed. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gasifikasi arang batubara dengan penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis memberikan pengaruh terhadap komposisi gas hasil yaitu berkurangnya kadar gas CO2 dan menyebabkan berkurangnya kadar belerang pada arang hasil pirolisis dan gasifikasi. Proses ini juga dapat mengurangi kadar gas CO2 sebesar 63,17% dan untuk  gasifikasi tanpa Ca(OH2 , CO2 dapat dikurangi kadarnya sampai 35,2%.

  1. Pirolisis Campuran Sampah Plastik Polistirena Dengan Sampah Plastik Berlapisan Aluminium Foil (Multilayer

    Yebi Yuriandala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sampah plastik yang dulunya merupakan masalah lingkungan, saat ini dapat diubah menjadi bahan bakar alternatif dengan menggunakan proses daur ulang yang memanfaatkan energi panas yaitu pirolisis. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis terhadap minyak (liquid yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis sampah plastik Polistitren (PS, plastik berlapisan aluminium foil (kemasan/ multilayer (AL dan campuran plastik tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kuantitas produk dan senyawa kimia yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis sampah plastic PS, kemasan dan campuran keduanya. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menempatkan 50 gram PS (PS, 50 gram plastik berlapisan aluminium foil (AL (multi layer,dan PS dengan campuran 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% AL didalam reaktor pirolisis yang terbuat dari stainless steel berbentuk silinder dengan volume 0,96 m3 dengan temperatur akhir 450oC. hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak penambahan Plastik berlapisan aluminium foil maka semakin cepat naiknya temperatur mencapai titik optimum yang ditetapkan (450oC. Sedangkan senyawa kimia yang dihasilkan pada pirolisis yang mengandung PS sebagian besar berupa senyawa aromatic, sedangkan pada pirolisis AL sebagian besar berupa senyawa olefin.

  2. Safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels, Vol. VI; Album VI: Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA

    NONE

    1964-07-01

    First part of the safety report for the Independent CO{sub 2} loop for cooling the samples irradiated in the RA reactor vertical experimental channels contains descriptions of the independent CO{sub 2} loop, system for regulation, measurement and control od the loop parameters, description of the dosimetry system, and the plan for testing the experimental device before start-up. Second part of this analysis describes the influence of of the experimental device on the reactor operation under steady state conditions as follows: influence of the head of the independent coolant loop on the reactivity of the reactor core and influence on the reactor temperature coefficient. Third part of the report includes the analysis of possible accidents during operation of the independent CO{sub 2} coolant loop in the reactor. Izvestaj o sigurnosti za nezavisno kolo CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka ozracivanih u VEK reaktora RA sadrzi u prvom delu: opis nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2}, sistema za regulaciju, merenje i kontrolu parametara nezavisnog kola, sistema dozimetrijske kontrole i plan ispitivanja eksperimentalnih uredjaja pre pustanja u rad. Drugi deo ove analize obuhvata uticaj eksperimentalnog uredjaja na reaktor u normalnom rezimu rada i to: uticaj glave petlje nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} za hladjenje uzoraka na reaktivnost reaktora i uticaj uredjaja na temperaturni koeficijent reaktora. Treci deo sadrzi analizu mogucih akcidenata u toku rada nezavisnog kola CO{sub 2} u reaktoru.

  3. Fluidized-bed gasification of biomass: Conversion of fine carabon particles in the freeboard; Biomassevergasung in der Wirbelschicht: Umsatz von feinen Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard

    Miccio, F [Ist. Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, Napoli (Italy); Moersch, O; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    1998-09-01

    The conversion of carbon particles in gasification processes was investigated in a fluidized-bed reactor of the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Steam Boiler Technology of Stuttgart University. This reactor is heated electrically to process temperature, and freeboard coal particles can be sampled using an isokinetic probe. The fuel used in the experiments consisted of beech wood chips. The temperature and air rating, i.e. the main parameters of the process, were varied in order to investigate their influence on product gas quality and carbon conversion. The conversion rate is influenced to a significant extent by grain disintegration and discharge of carbon particles. In gasification conditions, a further conversion process takes place in the freeboard. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird die Umsetzung von Kohlenstoffpartikeln unter Vergasungsbedingungen untersucht. Die Versuche wurden an einem Wirbelschichtreaktor des Instituts fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen der Universitaet Stuttgart durchgefuehrt. Dieser Reaktor wird elektrisch auf Prozesstemperatur beheizt. Mit Hilfe einer isokinetischen Sonde koennen Proben von Kohlenstoffpartikeln im Freeboard genommen werden. Als Brennstoff wurden zerkleinerte Buchenholz-Hackschnitzel eingesetzt. Variiert wurden als Hauptparameter des Prozesses Temperatur und Luftzahl. Untersucht wurde der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf die Qualitaet des Produktgases und die Umsetzung des Kohlenstoffes. Kornzersetzungs- und Austragsvorgaenge von Kohlenstoffpartikeln spielen eine wichtige Rolle fuer den Kohlenstoffumsatz. Unter Vergasungsbedingungen findet im Freeboard eine weitere Umsetzung der Partikel statt. (orig.)

  4. Conceptual Design of On-line Based Licensing Review and Assesment System of Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Materials ('PRIBEN')

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung

    2008-01-01

    At the present Indonesia has no nuclear power plant in operation yet, although it is expected that the first nuclear power plant will be operated and commercially available in around the year of 2016 to 2017 in Muria Peninsula. There are only three research reactors, one nuclear fuel fabrication plant for research reactors, and one experimental fuel fabrication plant for nuclear power, one isotope production facility and some other research facilities. All the facility is under Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) controlling through regulation, licensing and inspection. The organizations operation submits licensing application to BAPETEN before utilizing the facility. According to the regulation before BAPETEN give license they perform review and assessment for the utility application. Based on the review and assessment result, BAPETEN may stipulate, reject, delay or terminate the license. In anticipation of expansion of the nuclear program in Indonesia, BAPETEN should have an integrated and updated system for review and asses the licensing application. For this reason, an expert system for the review and asses the licensing application, so-called PRIBEN (Perizinan Reaktor, Instalasi dan Bahan Nuklir/Licensing of Reactor, Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Materials), is developed which runs on the online-based reality environment

  5. Heavy water pumps; Pumpe D{sub 2}O

    Zecevic, V; Nikolic, M

    1963-12-15

    Continuous increase of radiation intensity was observed on all the elements in the heavy water system during first three years of RA reactor operation. The analysis of heavy water has shown the existence of radioactive cobalt. It was found that cobalt comes from stellite, cobalt based alloy which was used for coating of the heavy water pump discs in order to increase resistance to wearing. Cobalt was removed from the surfaces due to friction, and transferred by heavy water into the reactor where it has been irradiated for 29 876 MWh up to 8-15 Ci/g. Radioactive cobalt contaminated all the surfaces of aluminium and stainless steel parts. This report includes detailed description of heavy water pumps repair, exchange of stellite coated parts, decontamination of the heavy water system, distillation of heavy water. [Serbo-Croat] U toku prve tri godine eksploatacije reaktora RA uocen je neprekidni porast intenziteta zracenja na svim elementima u teskovodnom sistemu. Analizom teske vode utvrdjeno je postojanje radioaktivnog kobalta. Ustanovljeno je da kobalt potice od stelita, legure na bazi kobalta kojim su presvuceni rukavci vratila teskovodnih pumpi radi otpornosi na habanje. Kobalt je trenjem skidan sa povrsina, u toku rada prenosen je teskom vodom u reaktor i ozracivan u toku 29 876 MWh do specificne aktivnosti 8-15 Ci/g. Radioaktivni kobalt je kontaminirao sve povrsine od aluminijuma i nerdjajuceg celika. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis remonta pumpi, zamene delova teskovodnih pumpi novim delovima bez stelitnog sloja, dekontaminacije teskovodnog sistema, destilacije teske vode.

  6. Opinion about difficulties of RA reactor operation under conditions of high activity of the heavy water system - Annex 2; Prilog 2 - Misljenje o teskocama eksploatacije reaktora RA u uslovima visoke aktivnosti teskovodnog sistema

    Nikolic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    It was concluded that reactor the reactor operation is very dangerous for the reactor installation as well as safety of the staff under conditions of heavy water increased activity. Two fundamental arguments in favour of this conclusion are: insufficient possibility of reactor components inspection during maintenance and operation in the future period; difficulties in prevention of accidents that could occur is equally dangerous for the reactor facility and the environment. Cleaning and decontamination of the complete heavy water system is needed before the reactor operation starts in order to avoid possible failures or accidental events. [Serbo-Croat] Zakljuceno je da je eksploatacija reakora u uslovima postojece aktivnosti teskovodnog sistema veoma opasna po sam reaktor i po personal. Dva osnovna razloga u prilog ovog zakljucka su: nedovoljna mogucnost kontrole ispravnosti svih elemenata reaktora u toku remonta i ekspolatacije u predstojecem periodu; teskoca borbe sa udesima, koji bi se eventualno dogodili podjednako je opasna po instalaciju i okolinu. Pre no sto se nastavi sa daljom ekspolatacijom reaktora potrebno ciscenje, dekontaminacija sistema teske vode kako bi se izbegla moguca ostecenja ili akcidentalne situacije.

  7. Book Reviews

    Gerard Termorshuizen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available - Adriaan Bedner, Joachim Sterly, Simbu plant-lore; Plants used by the people in the Central Highlands of New Guinea; Volume 1: The people and their plant-lore; Volume 2: Botanical survey of Simbu plants; Volume 3: Ethnographical key. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1997, 23 9 + 323 + 275 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Jan Rensel, Home in the islands; Housing and social change in the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1997, vii + 264 pp., Margaret Rodman (eds. - Peter van Eeuwijk, Norbert Kohnen, Traditionelle Medizin auf den Philippinen; Angstbewältigung und kognition bei Krankheiten. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1992, 396 pp. [Beiträge zur Südasienforschung 154.] - C.D. Grijns, William A. Smalley, Linguistic diversity and national unity; Language ecology in Thailand. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, xv + 436 pp. - Nico Kaptein, Ulrike Freitag, Hadhrami traders, scholars, and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. Leiden: Brill, 1997, x + 392 pp., William G. Clarence-Smith (eds. - Elsbeth Locher-Scholten, Raden Ajeng Kartini, On feminism and nationalism; Kartini’s letters to Stella Zeehandelar 1899-1903, translated and with an introduction by Joost Coté. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Instiute, Monash University, xxiii + 129 pp. - Alison Murray, L. Manderson, Sites of desire, economies of pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, xii + 367 pp., M. Jolly (eds. - Chris Penders, Harry A. Poeze, Politiek-Politioneele Overzichten van Nederlandsch-Indië, Deel IV, 1935-1941. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1994, xciv + 485 pp. - Kathryn Robinson, Henk Schulte Nordholt, The spell of power; A history of Balinese politics 1650-1940. Leiden: The KITLV Press, 1996, ix + 389 pp. [VKI 170.] - Eric Tagliacozzo, Carl A. Trocki, Gangsters, democracy, and the state in Southeast Asia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1998, 94 pp. [Cornell University Southeast Asia Program

  8. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Indonesia

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-01-01

    Indonesia has participated in cooperative technical programs with the IAEA since 1957, and has cooperated with regional partners in all of the traditional areas where nuclear science is employed: in medicine, public health (such as insect control and eradication programs), agriculture (e.g. development of improved varieties of rice), and the gas and oil industries. Recently, Indonesia has contributed significantly to the Reduced Enrichment Research and Training Reactor (RERTR) Program by conducting experiments to confirm the feasibility of Mo-99 production using high-density low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, a primary goal of the RERTR Program. Indonesia's first research reactor, the TRIGA Mark II at Bandung, began operation in 1964 at 250 kW and was subsequently upgraded in 1971 to 1 MW and further upgraded in 2000 to 2 MW. This reactor was joined by another TRIGA Mark II, the 100-kW Kartini-PPNY at Yogyakarta, in 1979, and by the 30-MW G.A. Siwabessy multipurpose reactor in Serpong, which achieved criticality in July 1983. A 10-MW radioisotope production reactor, to be called the RPI-10, also was proposed for construction at Serpong in the late 1990s, but the project apparently was not carried out. In the five decades since its nuclear research program began, Indonesia has trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff who not only operate and conduct research with the current facilities, but also represent the nucleus of a skilled labor pool to support development of a nuclear power program. Although Indonesia's previous on-again, off-again consideration of nuclear power has not gotten very far in the past, it now appears that Indonesia again is giving serious consideration to beginning a national nuclear energy program. In June 2006, Research and Technology Minister Kusmayanto Kadiman said that his ministry was currently putting the necessary procedures in place to speed up the project to acquire a nuclear power plant, indicating that, ''We will need around

  9. The Analysis of Heavy Metal in Sea Water and Sediment from MuriaPeninsula Coastal Area by NAA Method

    TS, Susanna; Sukirno

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal in sea water and sediment taken from Muriacoastal sites in Central Java has been carried out. This research aimed tosupport the EMSB and Ocean Radioecology programme. The sea water sample wasdried with electrical brazier till crystal form, and balanced. Whereas thesediment sample was cleaned, dried at opened air, powdered, screened andhomogenized. Irradiation of samples and standard were done for twelve hoursusing Lazy Susan facility, Kartini reactor with neutron flux of 5.85 x10 10 .n.cm -2 .s -1 . Comparative method of measurements was used foravoiding the effects of neutron flux parameters on the results. Using gammaspectrometer equipment with a Ge(Li) detector and multi channel analyzer with4096 channels, 7 elements were concealed in the sea water; i.e. Fe, Se, Co,Cr, Ce, Sm and Sc were detected, whereas in the sediment sample concealed 10elements were detected, i.e. Fe, Se, Co, Cr, As, Ce, Sm, Th, U and Sc. It wasfound that the elements concentrations in the sediment sample from Muria baywere higher than those elements concentrations in the sea water sample. Theconcentrations of Fe, Se, Co, Cr, Ce, Sm and Sc in the sediment sample fromMuria peninsula coastal area were Fe = 19.923 ± 2.162%, Se = 1.320 ±0.141 ppm, Co = 0.570 ± 0.066 ppm, Cr = 0.410 ± 0.031 ppm, As = 0.500± 0.043 ppm, Ce = 0.774 ± 0.210 ppm, Sm = 1.860 ± 0.210 ppm, Th1.930 ± 0.173 ppm, U = 0.663 ± 0.027 ppm, dan Sc = 0.190 ± 0.003ppm, whereas the concentration elements in the sea water sample were Fe 0.112± 0.007%, Se = 0.305 ± 0.008 ppm, Co = 0.047 ± 0.002 ppm, Cr 0.023± 0.001 ppm, Ce = 0.022 ± 0.001 ppm, Sm = 14 ± 0.8 ppb dan Sc = 2.4ppb, respectively. (author)

  10. The physics design of EBR-II; Physique du reacteur EBR-II; Fizicheskij raschet ehksperimental'nogo reaktora - razmnozhitelya EVR-II; Aspectos fisicos del reactor EBR-II

    Loewenstein, W. B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    hexagonal del reactor los datos obtenidos en geometrias simples idealizadas, analiticas o experimentales. Se compara el rendimiento nuclear, incluso el de reproduccion, del reactor real con el del modelo teorico y se describen las variaciones a largo plazo de la reactividad y de la generacion de energia en la envoltura fertil, refiriendolas a los ciclos propuestos para el combustible y la envoltura fertil. La memoria formula consideraciones sobre la seguridad estudiando en particular la introduccion de indices de reactividad normales y anormales y la consecuencia de supuestos efectos de reactividad, que se basan en el comportamiento fisico de la aleacion combustible y de la estructura del reactor, asi como en la extrapolacion al sistema del EBR-II de los experimentos realizados con el conjunto TREAT. Por ultimo, examina el problema de la fusion del cuerpo del reactor EBR-II. (author) [Russian] Vychisleniya statisticheskogo, dinamicheskogo i dlitel'nogo rezhima reaktivnosti ehksperimental'nog o reaktora-razmnozhitel ya EBR-II dayutsya sovmestno s rezul'tatami i analizom ehksperimentov na reaktore EBR-II po dostizheniyu kritichnosti v sukhom sostoyanii i otdel'nykh ehksperimentov na reaktore ZPR-III. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya problemam fizicheskogo rascheta reaktora, kotorye voznikayut posle opredeleniya printsipial'noj skhemy i do sooruzheniya ili vvoda reaktora v ehkspluatatsiyu. Opisyvayutsya analiz bezopasnosti reaktora i soobrazheniya po otsenke opasnostej, a takzheikh vliyanie na raschet reaktora. V doklade opisyvaetsya sposob ispol'zovaniya modeli EBR-II na osnovanii poluchennykh na reaktore ZPR-III dannykh, a takzhe dannykh sukhoj kritichnosti reaktora EBR-II. EHti ehksperimenty, ikh analiz i teoreticheskie vykladki yavlyayutsya osnovoj dlya opredeleniya fizicheskogo povedeniya reaktornoj sistemy. Bolee podrobno issleduyutsya ogranicheniya, prisushchie primeneniyu ehksperimental'nykh dannykh k rassmatrivaemo j ehnergeticheskoj reaktornoj sisteme. Syuda otnosyatsya

  11. EVALUASI PENERAPAN ABg (AKTIF BERBAGI SISTEM SEBAGAI UPAYA MENGURANGI ANGKA KECELAKAAN KERJA DI PT. COCA-COLA AMATIL INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Asep Alvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia Central Java (CCAI-CJ pada tahun 2013 telah menerapkan program ABg (Aktif Berbagi Sistem, pada tahun tersebut terdapat peningkatan kasus kecelakaan kerja di area kerja dari tahun sebelumnya sebanyak 2 kasus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran evaluasi dan rekomendasi dari kendala-kendala dalam penerapan ABg Sistem sebagai upaya mengurangi angka kecelakaan kerja di PT. CCAI-CJ. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan pendekatan etnografi. Teknik pengambilan sumber informasi yang digunakan adalah teknik snowball sampling, jumlah informan awal yaitu dua orang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan masih terdapat kendala dalam penerapan ABg Sistem yaitu: pelaksanaan pengawasan Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3 yang belum berjalan konsisten. Konsistensi penerapan peraturan dan prosedur K3 yang belum optimal serta adanya sanksi yang tidak sesuai dengan prosedur penerapan ABg Sistem. Kurangnya komunikasi antara manajemen dengan pekerja dan kurangnya pemahaman pekerja tentang informasi K3. Kurangnya keterlibatan pekerja dalam pelaporan kejadian kecelakaan/kondisi berbahaya. Saran yang dapat diberikan yaitu: konsistensi pelaksanaan pengawasan K3 sesuai prosedur, sanksi yang diberikan lebih baik berupa arahan bagi pekerja untuk dapat bekerja lebih aman, melakukan komunikasi kepada pekerja sesuai dengan prosedur komunikasi internal, diadakan peningkatan kompetensi melalui pelatihan awareness K3, serta dilakukan pelatihan mengenai prosedur pelaporan kecelakaan/kondisi berbahaya kepada pekerja. PT. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia Central Java (CCAI-CJ in 2013 has implemented ABg (Aktif Berbagi system program, there are two accident cases increase in 2013 at the working areas. The purpose of this study is to describe the evaluation and recommendation of the constraints in the implementation of ABg System as an effort to reduce the number of accidents in the workplace. This research design is a

  12. KAJIAN DAERAH RAWAN GELOMBANG TINGGI DI PERAIRAN INDONESIA

    Roni Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Berkaitan dengan pentingnya informasi tentang gelombang laut, terutama bagi keselamatan beragam kegiatan di laut, berdasarkan data periode tahun 2000-2010, dilakukan studi tentang gelombang tinggi di perairan Indonesia. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa variasi spasial dan temporal tinggi gelombang dan frekuensi terjadinya gelombang tinggi mempunyai pola yang berasosiasi dengan siklus angin monsunal, periode monsun Australia (Desember, Januari, Februari dan monsoon Australia (Juni, Juli, Agustus. Daerah rawan gelombang tinggi pada periode monsun Asia umumnya lebih luas daripada pada periode monsun Australia. Pada periode peralihan antar monsun, sebagian besar wilayah perairan Indonesia tidak rawan gelombang tinggi. Daerah rawan gelombang tinggi pada periode peralihan antar monsun umumnya lebih sempit dan terdapat di perairan Indonesia yang menjadi bagian dari Laut Cina Selatan, Samudera Pasifik dan Samudera Hindia, terutama selatan Jawa sampai Bengkulu. Meskipun korelasinya tidak signifikan, berlangsungnya El- Nino menyebabkan meningkatnya tinggi gelombang di wilayah perairan Indonesia bagian timur, terutama utara ekuator dan berlangsungnya La-Nina menyebabkan meningkatnya tinggi gelombang di perairan Indonesia yang berada di Samudera Hindia terutama di selatan Jawa. Sedangkan terjadinya IODM negatif menyebabkan meningkatnya tinggi gelombang di perairan barat Sumatera sebelah utara ekuator.   Related to the importance of information about ocean waves, especially for the safety of a variety activities at sea, based on data in the period 2000-2010 obtained by numerical wave model, conducted a study of high waves in the Indonesian waters.The study shows that the spatial and temporal variations in wave height and frequency of high waves have a pattern associated with monsunal wind cycle, Australia monsoon period (December, January, February and the Australian monsoon (June, July, August. High waves prone areas in the period of monsoon Asia are

  13. ARSITEKTUR VERNAKULAR NABIRE DAN KONDISI NABIRE PASCA GEMPA

    C. Sri Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural disaster in Nabire in February 2004 and November 2004 has left a noumerous effects on buildings. Many buildings have destroyed because of the terrifying effect of natural disaster which caused a big loss both for material and for the human safety. However, the misapplication of construction and inappropriate choice of material almost cause the terrible damage. After the natural disaster passed, the only left is mostly on the long time needed to build the buildings for people who suffer from the disaster. Because of this problem above, many people usually stay in uncomfortable places such a tend, and this condition creates social and health problems. Concerning the problem above, it is needed to create the "quick built house" which is hopefully can be accepted by the community to cope with the terrifying effect of the natural disaster.In the first year of this research, the data concerning traditional architecture and vernacular architecture in Nabire will be collected. This step will be done in order to understand more detail about all the problem faced and identified all the potential aspects which can be developed to build house for people. The deepest study of vernacular architecture is expected not only to make the house close to the uniqueness of the local activities and culture, but also to make it understandable and built easily by the people/community, because its construction and architecture have become part of their life. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada saat bencana alam di Nabire yang terjadi Februari 2004 dan November 2004, banyak bangunan roboh dan rusak. Kerugian sangat besar dan mengakibatkan kerugian baik material maupun keselamatan manusia. Kerusakan yang parah sering diakibatkan oleh salahnya penerapan konstruksi dan salah dalam pemilihan bahan bangunan. Sementara itu pasca bencana, menyisakan kesulitan berupa lamanya membangun bangunan penampungan korban bencana, sehingga seringkali korban bencana hanya

  14. The intercomparison of 137Cs irradiator output measurement and personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), using TLD and film

    Nazaroh; Susetyo Trijoko; Sri Inang Sunaryati

    2010-01-01

    Intercomparison of output measurement of 137 Cs irradiator and personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) using TLD and film have been carried out in the year of 2006 to 2008. According to IAEA recommendation, intercomparison is one of audit activities but it is performed in the spirit of collaboration and support rather than in the spirit of inspection. The aim of intercomparison of output measurement of 137 Cs irradiator is to verify the dose stated by the participant laboratories. Intercomparison is also to assess the competency of the participant, to keep traceability and consistency of measurement result, to assure that instrument work correctly and the result of evaluation was in agreement, and also for fulfilling one of the clauses of ISO-17025-2005. Besides that, this intercomparison aimed to facilitate link between the system and members of national measurement and transfer of experience in measurement technique and dose evaluation of radiation. The benefit of intercomparison is important among others as tests of proficiency in dose evaluation or measurement, upgrading quality of service and for obeying supervisor body legislation (BAPETEN). TLD was used as a means of output 137 Cs irradiator measurement, whereas film and TLD were used for dose intercomparison. This paper presented result of intercomparison of output measurement and evaluation of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) in the year of 2006 to 2008 followed by 6 participants: Balai Pengamanan Fasilitas Kesehatan (BPFK) Jakarta, Medan, Surabaya, Makasar, PTLR and Laboratory of Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Lingkungan (KKL)-PTKMR BATAN. In this intercomparison, the dose of TLD stated by participant were compared with the dose measured by Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LMR), and the results showed the differences were within 10 %, so it was satisfied. The results of intercomparison of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) were evaluated based on ISO/IEC Guide 43-1, 1997 analysis and expressed as E n . The values of E n

  15. KONSELING ISLAMI MELALUI PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN SEKSUAL DALAM ISLAM PADA REMAJA

    Sugianto Sugianto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memberikan informasi yang tepat tentang kondisi kebutuhan remaja yang sesuai dengan tugas perkembangannya yaitu: mengenal fungsi perbedaan jenis kelamin, organ reproduksi dan persiapan pernikahan agar dapat mengenali fungsi anatomi tubuh sesuai dengan nilai-nilai Islam, misalnya tentang kesehatan seksual dalam Islam. Meskipun data yang ditemukan terdapat beragam problematika remaja tentang seksual,  sehingga dibutuhkan profesi konseling  Islami untuk membantu remaja tumbuh kembang secara optimal dalam berprestasi dibidang kognitif-afektif-psikomotorik.  Kemampuan kognitif dengan diupayakannya  pengayaan pengetahuan tentang alam semesta beserta fenomena alam, kemampuan  afektif dengan trampilnya mengolah dan mengendalikan emosi ke arah positif  kepada sesama makhluk hidup,  sedangkan kemampuan psikomotorik dengan adaptifnya manusia dalam bersikap ketika berinteraksi di lingkungan dengan keragaman budaya Bhineka Tunggal Ika. Dengan berdasar pada nilai-nilai pendidikan Islam maka manusia dapat mengoptimalkan 3 daya dengan berdasarkan pada al-Qur’an yang memberikan keselamatan  dan kebahagiaan  pada remaja untuk memahami kesehatan seksual dalam Islam. Kata Kunci: Konseling Islam, Pendidikan  Seksual, Pemuda THROUGH THE ISLAMIC COUNSELLING SEXUAL HEALTH EDUCATION IN ISLAM IN ADOLESCENT. This paper provides precise information  about the conditions in accordance with the needs of adolescent development tasks are: to know the function of gender, reproductive organs and wedding preparations in order to identify the function of anatomy of the body in accordance with Islamic values, example about sexual health in Islam. Although the data were found to contain a variety of sexual problems of adolescence, so it needs the counseling profession Islamic to help teens grow and develop optimally in achievement in the field of cognitive-affective-psychomotor. Cognitive abilities with the enrichment begun all the knowledge of the universe

  16. Strategi Pengelolaan Usaha Jasa Rumah Pemotongan Hewan Ruminansia Secara Berkelanjutan (MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE RUMINANT-CATTLE SLAUGHTERHOUSE (RC-S SERVICES

    Maya Dewi Dyah Maharani

    2017-04-01

    mendapatkan beberapa faktor-faktor penting, yaitu ketersediaan air bersih dan status kesehatan hewan untuk dimensi ekologi; kesediaan melaksanakan perlakuan yang higienis dan sanitasi pada tingkatan skala usaha; orientasi usaha jasa; ketersediaan hewan; pengaturan jadwal waktu pemotongan untuk dimensi ekonomi; keselamatan dan keamanan pekerja (dimensi sosial; ketidaktaatan penggunaan sarana dan prasarana oleh pengelola, pekerja dan pengguna jasa; kurang dipenuhinya persyaratan rangka bangunan (dimensi peraturan; dan teknologi pengolahan (dimensi teknologi. Strategi prioritas yang dihasilkan adalah pelayanan penyediaan pangan asal ternak layak untuk dijadikan komponen yang wajib dalam program ketahanan pangan melalui program pembangunan dan renovasi rumah pemotongan hewan ruminansia yang efektif.

  17. PERBANDINGAN HUKUM PENGATURAN STANDARDISASI MENURUT AGREEMENT TBT DAN UNDANG-UNDANG NO. 7 TAHUN 2014 TENTANG PERDAGANGAN

    Syukri Hidayatullah

    2016-11-01

    perdagangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian hukum normatif. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan pendekatan perbandingan hukum. Derajat perbandingan objek penelitian dibahas menggunakan analisis ekonomi terhadap hukum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa analisis ekonomi mengasumsikan perilaku rasional Negara untuk mencapai kemakmuran yang sebesar-besarnya melalui perjanjian dagang multilateral. Perjanjian multilateral merupakan pilihan sikap yang efisien karena menghasilkan perjanjian yang universal. Dengan demikian, alokasi norma standardisasi dalam Undang-undang No.7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan sinkron dengan Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade. Standardisasi bekerja sebagai instrumen hukum dalam pasar bebas melalui perlindungan lingkungan, keselamatan konsumen, kemanan dan kesehatan publik. Instrumen standardisasi membantu konsumen membandingkan karakteristik produksi dan menambah preferensi bagi konsumen untuk produk sejenis.

  18. PERANCANGAN COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM DALAM MENGANALISA HUMAN ERROR DI PERKERETAAPIAN INDONESIA

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kecelakaan kereta api (KA yang terjadi secara beruntun di Indonesia sudah berada pada tingkat kritis. Berdasarkan data dari Direktorat Jendral Perkeretaapian, dalam kurun 5 tahun terakhir (2005-2009 total terdapat 611 kecelakaan KA.  Banyak faktor yang berkontribusi menyebabkan terjadinya kecelakaan, antara lain: sarana, prasarana, SDM operator (human error, eksternal, dan alam.  Kegagalan manusia (Human error merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpotensi menyebabkan terjadinya suatu kecelakaan KA dan dinyatakan sebagai faktor utama penyebab terjadinya suatu kecelakaan kereta api di Indonesia. Namun, tidak jelas bagaimana teknik analisis ini dilakukan. Kajian human error yang dilakukan Komite Nasional Keselamatan Transportasi (KNKT masih relatif terbatas, tidak dilengkapi dengan metode yang sistematis. Terdapat beberapa metode yang telah dikembangkan saat ini, tetapi untuk moda transportasi kereta api masih belum banyak dikembangkan. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS merupakan metode analisis human error yang dikembangkan dan disesuaikan dengan sistem perkeretaapian Indonesia. Guna meningkatkan keandalan dalam analisis human error, HFACS kemudian dikembangkan dalam bentuk aplikasi berbasis web yang dapat diakses di komputer maupun smartphone. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dimanfaatkan oleh KNKT sebagai metode analisis kecelakaan kereta api khususnya terkait dengan human error. Kata kunci : human error, HFACS, CAS, kereta api   Abstract Train wreck (KA which occurred in quick succession in Indonesia already at a critical level. Based on data from the Directorate General of Railways, during the last 5 years (2005-2009 there were a total of 611 railway accidents. Many factors contribute to cause accidents, such as: facilities, infrastructure, human operator (human error, external, and natural. Human failure (Human error is one of the factors that could potentially cause a train accident and expressed as the main factors causing

  19. Kajian Praktik Kefarmasian Apoteker pada Tatanan Rumah Sakit

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Undang-undang Republik Indonesia No. 36 tahun 2009 tentang kesehatan dan peraturan pemerintah No. 51 tahun 2009 menyatakan bahwa tenaga kesehatan harus mempunyai kualifikasi minimum yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah. Studi kualitatif secara potong lintang pada tahun 2010 untuk mengidentifikasi kualifikasi apoteker rumah sakit dalam memenuhi persyaratan tersebut di Bandung, Yogyakarta dan Surabaya. Data dikumpulkan dengan wawancara mendalam terhadap 10 orang apoteker dari enam rumah sakit dan empat orang direktur/wakil direktur rumah sakit, masing-masing satu orang apoteker dari enam perguruan tinggi farmasi, tiga pengurus Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia, tiga dinas kesehatan provinsi dan kabupaten/kota. Observasi praktek kefarmasian dengan menggunakan daftar tilik dilakukan pada tiap rumah sakit dan data sekunder terkait dokumentasi pemantauan dan evaluasi obat, kepuasan pasien, standar operasional prosedur dan kurikulum perguruan tinggi farmasi juga dikumpulkan. Analisis dilakukan dengan metode triangulasi dan hasil menunjukkan bahwa pengelolaan obat dalam hal pengadaan, distribusi dan penyimpanan dilaksanakan dengan baik oleh apoteker rumah sakit. Praktek farmasi klinik dan keselamatan pasien masih sangat terbatas karena alasan sumber daya manusia dan dokumentasi yang memadai. Informasi obat dan konseling kadang dilakukan tanpa fasilitas yang cukup dan apoteker juga terlibat dalam berbagai tim di rumah sakit seperti penanggulangan infeksi nosokomial dan komite farmasi dan terapi. The Indonesian Health Law No. 36 in 2009 and the Government Regulation No. 51 in 2009 state that health-care providers, including pharmacist, shall have minimum qualification set by the government. A qualitative cross sectional was conducted to to identify hospital pharmacist qualification as health care professionals in meeting the requirements was done in 2010 in Bandung, Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Data were collected through indepth interviews with pharmacists involving ten

  20. EKSPLOITASI PADA PEREMPUAN SALES PROMOTION GIRLS

    Nur Afta Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Terjadi perubahan posisi perempuan yang semula hanya berada di sektor domestik, kini beralih ke sektor publik. Kondisi di perkotaan yang relatif lebih heterogen membuka peluang perempuan untuk bekerja di berbagai bidang, salah satunya adalah sales promotion girls (SPG. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengeksplorasi bagaimana profil SPG dan eksploitasi yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi dalam pengambilan datanya. Penampilan cantik dan menarik menjadi modal utama dalam pekerjaan ini. Sales Promotion Girls pada industri rokok dan minuman  berumur sekitar 21-30 tahun dengan jam kerja sekitar 5-7 jam perhari. Alasan bekerja di bidang ini adalah bahwa bidang ini merupakan pekerjaan ringan dan tidak memerlukan pendidikan yang tinggi, walaupun di sisi lain mereka hanya mendapatkan upah yang rendah. Perempuan dalam pekerjaan ini seringkali mengalami eksploitasi fisik berupa pelecehan seksual dan eksploitasi ekonomi berupa waktu kerja yang sampai malam hari dan tidak terpenuhinya hak-hak pekerja perempuan seperti faktor keselamatan dan hak untuk cuti. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, maka perlindungan terhadap perempuan bekerja pada umumnya dan sales promotion girls pada khususnya menjadi hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.A change in economic condition in Indonesia brings about a change of woman position, from formerly domestic sector to recently public sector. Urban areas that is relatively more heterogeneous than rural ones open opportunities for women to work in various fields, one of which is sales promotion girls (SPG. In this study, the author seeks to explore the SPG profile and the exploitation they experienced. The method used in this study are qualitative approach, with observation, interviews, and documentation. The research uncovered the following facts. Beautiful and attractive appearance becomes a priority in this work. Sales promotion girls on cigarettes

  1. VIDEO EDUKASI ANIMASI 2 DIMENSI MENGENAI BAHAYA MERKURI TERHADAP MASYARAKAT KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH SEBAGAI DAMPAK PENAMBANGAN EMAS ILEGAL

    I Made Marthana Yusa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Merkuri adalah salah satu jenis logam berat yang banyak ditemukan di alam dan tersebar dalam batuan, tanah, air dan udara sebagai senyawa anorganik dan organik. Merkuri dapat dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai bidang industri, salah satunya industri emas. Pengelolaan limbah hasil industri pengolahan emas yang tidak sesuai dengan prosedur yang baik dan benar akan menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Merkuri yang telah mengontaminasi lingkungan dalam jangka waktu panjang akan membawa dampak buruk bagi kesehatan manusia yang sering berinteraksi dengan bahan merkuri ini. Dalam penelitian ini, dilakukan perancangan video berbasis animasi 2 dimensi, sebagai salah satu rekomendasi solusi edukasi, untuk pencegahan dampak kesehatan, akibat pencemaran lingkungan oleh merkuri di Lombok Tengah. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan fakta bahwa responden yang terdiri dari staf Konservasi dan Sumber Daya Alam serta staf Pengawasan dan Pengendalian Lingkungan Kantor Lingkungan Hidup Kabupaten Lombok Tengah menilai video edukasi berbasis animasi 2 dimensi yang dihasilkan sangat baik dari segi desain maupun penyampaian informasinya. Video ini juga bermanfaat untuk mengedukasi masyarakat penambang emas di Lombok Tengah agar lebih mewaspadai merkuri dan bahayanya, juga menghargai kesehatan diri dan keselamatan kerja. Kata Kunci: Animasi 2 Dimensi, Bahaya Merkuri, Merkuri, Metil Merkuri, Video Edukasi Abstract Mercury is one of the heavy metals found in nature and spread in rocks, soil, water and air as inorganic and organic compounds. Mercury can be utilized in various industrial fields, one of which is the gold industry. Waste management of gold processing industry that is not in accordance with good and correct procedures will cause environmental pollution. Mercury that has been contaminating the environment over the long term will have adverse effects on human health that often interact with these mercury ingredients. A 2-dimensional animation based video has been

  2. Analysis Evacuation Route for KM Zahro Express on Fire Condition using Agent Based Modeling and Fire Dynamics Simulatior

    Trika Pitana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety is the thing that needs to be preferred by users of transport, passengers should also understand about safety procedures and evacuation procedures in the means of transport. There have been many accidents that happen in the world of transport, particularly in the shipping world, from 2010 to 2016 is no more than 50 accidents of ships in accordance with the cause recorded by KNKT (Komisi Nasional Keselamatan Transportasi. On this research was discussed the evacuation time on the ship KM Zahro express that occurred earlier in the year 2017 in the Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta. Almost all passenger dead caused by fire from power source in engine room. This thesis will explaine about evacuation time and dangers from fire that interfere the process of evacuation. The methods used are Agent Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS and Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS for modeling fire simulation. Agent-Based Modeling software (pathfinder and Fire Dynamics Simulator software (pyrosim are used to calculate time evacuation in normal condition and fire condition of KM Zahro Express. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulator (ABMS is a modeling method that aims to model complex problems based on real cases. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulator (ABMS is designed to model a place that has a seat, path, exit door, humans, and others. Pyrosim is a graphical user interface for the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS. FDS models can predict smoke, temperature, carbon monoxide, and other substances during fires.  In this case the existing models can be used to plan and prepare an emergency if unwanted things happen. As well as using basic rules which refer to the Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS and International Maritime Organization (IMO. Result of Evacuation simulation calculation on emergency conditions (two rear exit doors will be closed that match at actually condition is 29,783 minutes (respon is not taken in this simulation, calculation results obtained from simulation of

  3. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengukur Kecepatan Kendaraan Menggunakan Sensor Magnetik

    Aris Ramdhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data kecepatan kendaran di jalan raya sangat berpengaruh bagi keamanan dan keselamatan pengguna jalan raya. Kemajuan tekhnologi sensor sangat membantu dalam mengukur kecepatan kendaraan dengan otomatis. Metode yang umum dipakai ialah metode dengan menggunakan dua buah rangkaian sensor yang sudah diatur pada jarak tertentu. Sensor digunakan sebagai pendeteksi keberadaan kendaraan. Data kecepatan kendaraan didapatkan dengan mencari selang waktu yang dibutuhkan kendaraan melaju dari sensor pertama menuju sensor kedua. Saat kendaraan melaju melewati sensor maka sinyal keluaran sensor menjadi acuan perhitungan waktu start dan stop. Berbagai jenis sensor yang sudah digunakan ialah sensor LDR, sensor ultrasonic, sensor laser, sensor loop induktif dan sensor kamera. Setiap sensor yang sudah dipergunakan memiliki berbagai jenis kekurangan dalam mendeteksi kendaraan pada jalan raya. Oleh karena itu penulis memunculkan ide baru dengan menggunakan sensor magnetik yang memiliki faktor gangguan eksternal yang rendah. Sensor magnetik yang digunakan ialah sensor Giant MagnetoResistance (GMR. Perancangan sistem pengukur kecepatan kendaraan yang penulis lakukan berupa sebuah prototype. Hasil pengujian sistem pengukur kecepatan kendaraan menggunakan sensor magnetik GMR menunjukan respon yang bagus saat pengujian dilakukan pada jarak 30cm dan 70cm antara dua buah sensor GMR. Data speed of vehicles on the highway are very influential to the security and safety of users of the highway. Advances in sensor technology is very helpful in measuring the speed of vehicles with automatic. A common method used is the method by using two sensor circuit which is set at a certain distance. The sensor is used as a detector for the exixtance of the vehicle. Vehicle speed data obtained by finding the time required vehicles drove from the first sensor to the second sensor. When the vehicle drove past the sensor, the sensor output signal to be a reference calculation start and stop

  4. The First Two Years of Operating Experience of the Kahl Nuclear Power Station; Experience acquise pendant les deux premieres annees de fonctionnement de la centrale nucleaire de Kahl; Opyt pervykh dvukh let ehkspluatatsii atomnoj ehlektrostantsii v Kale; Experiencia adquirida en los primeros cuatro anos de funcionamiento de la central nucleoelectrica de Kahl

    Bruchner, H. J. [Aeg-Kernenergieanlagen, Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany); Weckesser, A. [Versuchs-Atomkraftwerk Kahl Gmbh, Kahl (Germany)

    1963-10-15

    , une boucle experimentale destinee a l'etude de la surchauffe nucleaire. (author) [Spanish] La central de Kahl constituye la primera central nucleoelectrica europea de propiedad privada, y funciona en carga desde junio de 1961. Esta equipada con un reactor de agua hi que trabaja en ciclo indirecto por circulacion natural. Su capacidad electrica neta asciende a 15 MW y hasta febrero de 1963 habia producido 140 millones de kWh. La memoria revisara la experiencia adquirida durante su funcionamiento, ante todo con el extenso programa de ensayos sobre el comportamiento transitorio y la exploracion gamma. Presentara datos acerca del resultado que han dado en funcionamiento ciertas partes de la central, tales como el dispositivo de accionamiento de las barras de control, el sistema de purificacion de los gases de escape y la turbina. Una vez terminado el programa de ensayos, la planta se exploto en carga basica durante algun tiempo a fin de reunir datos sobre el rendimiento del combustible en la ptactica. Una vez completada esta fase, se instalara en el reactor de Kahl un circuito experimental de sobrecalentamiento nuclear. (author) [Russian] Atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya v Kale, pervaya v Evrope chastnaya atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya, ehkspluatiruetsya pod nagruzkoj s iyunya 1961 goda. Na ehlektrostantsii ustanovlen reaktor s kipyashchej vodoj, kosvennym tsiklom i estestvennoj tsirkulyatsiej. Chistaya ehlektricheskaya moshchnost' reaktora sostavlyaet 15 mgvt. Do fevralya 1963 goda kolichestvo poluchennoj ehnergii sostavilo 140 mln. kvt.ch. Rassmotren opyt ehkspluatatsii, v chastnosti rasshirennaya programma ispytanij: naprimer,povedenie reaktora pri perekhodnom protsesse i kontrol' gamma-izlucheniya. Budut predstavleny rezul'taty izucheniya ehkspluatatsionnoj kharakteristiki nekotorykh komponentov ustanovki, naprimer sistemy privoda reguliruptsikh sterzhnej, sistemy udaleniya gaza i turbiny. Posle osushchestvleniya ehtoj programmy ispytanij ustanovka v techenie nekotorogo vremeni

  5. MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR

    Suwardi Suwardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR*. The first short fuel pin containing natural UO2 pellet in Zry4 cladding has been prepared at the CNFT (Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology then a ramp test will be performed. The present work is part of designing first irradiation experiments in the PRTF (Power Ramp Test Facility of RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor. The thermal mechanic of the pin during irradiation has simulated. The geometry variation of pellet and cladding is modeled by taking into account different phenomena such as thermal expansion, densification, swelling by fission product, thermal creep and radiation growth. The cladding variation is modeled by thermal expansion, thermal and irradiation creeps. The material properties are modeled by MATPRO and standard numerical parameter of TRANSURANUS code. Results of irradiation simulation with 9 kW/m LHR indicates that pellet-clad contacts onset from 0.090 mm initial gaps after 806 d, when pellet radius expansion attain 0.015 mm while inner cladding creep-down 0.075 mm. A newer computation data show that the maximum measured LHR of n-UO2 pin in the PRTF 12.4 kW/m. The next simulation will be done with a higher LHR, up to ~ 25 kW/m. MODEL SIMULASI VARIASI GEOMETRI DAN STRESS-STRAIN DARI PROTOTIP BAHAN BAKAR PIN BATAN SELAMA UJI IRADIASI DI REAKTOR RSG-GAS. Pusat Teknologi Bahan Bakar Nuklir (PTBBN telah menyiapkan tangkai (pin bahan bakar pendek perdana yang berisi pelet UO2 alam dalam kelongsong paduan zircaloy untuk dilakukan uji iradiasi daya naik. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari perancangan percobaan iradiasi pertama di PRTF (Power Ramp Test Fasility yang terpasang di reaktor serbaguna RSG-GAS berdaya 30 MW. Telah dilakukan pemodelan dan simulasi kinerja termal mekanikal pin selama iradiasi. Variasi geometri pelet dan kelongsong selama pengujian dimodelkan dengan memperhatikan fenomena ekspansi termal

  6. Full scale application of the autotrophic denitrification in trickling filters for treatment of rejection water with high ammonia concentrations from sludge dewatering. Final report; Untersuchungen zur autotrophen Stickstoffentfernung aus ammoniumreichem Filtratwasser der Schlammentwaesserung mit grosstechnischer Realisierung in Tropfkoerpern. Abschlussbericht

    Neumueller, B.; Metzger, J.W.; Pinnekamp, J.

    2003-07-01

    strictly. In a semi-technical anammox-reactor which was operated for several years showed, that the process is very robust. Performance loss is only temporary, if the operating conditions aren't fulfilled. (orig.) [German] Bei kommunalen Klaeranlagen mit anaerober Schlammbehandlung faellt bei der Entwaesserung des stabilisierten Schlammes stark ammoniumhaltiges Prozesswasser an. Die Mitbehandlung dieses Teilstroms aus der Schlammbehandlung in der Hauptstrombiologie der Klaeranlage kann zu einer Erhoehung der Stickstoffbelastung von bis zu 20% fuehren. Eine separate Behandlung von Prozesswaessern kann die Stickstoff-Ablaufwerte verbessern und schafft Reserven in der Hauptstrombiologie. Die autotrophe Denitrifikation nach vorangegangener Teilnitritation in Tropfkoerpern ist ein neuartiges Verfahren zur Behandlung hoch ammoniumhaltiger Abwaesser. Hierzu werden in einem ersten Tropfkoerper etwa 60% des Ammoniums zu Nitrit umgewandelt, wobei die Nitratation gehemmt wird. In einem zweiten geschlossenen Tropfkoerper wird das Ammonium unter anoxischen Bedingungen, mit Nitrit als Elektronenakzeptor, zu molekularem Stickstoff oxidiert. Dieses Verfahren wurde erstmals im grosstechnischen Betrieb auf der Klaeranlage Sindelfingen realisiert. Die Untersuchungen zeigten, dass bereits wenige mg/l Ammoniak im ersten Reaktor ausreichten, um die Nitratation zu hemmen. Da die Nitratation nach einem Anstieg und dem darauffolgenden Abfallen der Ammoniakkonzentration zunahm, fand offensichtlich eine Adaption der Biomasse an die hoeheren Ammoniakgehalte statt. Deshalb sollte die Ammoniakkonzentration moeglichst konstant gehalten und groessere Schwankungen ueber eine laengere Zeit vermieden werden. Nur mit der thermischen Abtoetung der Mikroorganismen und dem erneuten Einfahren des Prozesses konnte nach einer Adaption wieder eine vollstaendige Nitratationshemmung bei geringen Ammoniakkonzentrationen gewaehrleistet werden. Durch die aeusserst geringe Wachstumsrate der Anammoxbakterien nimmt

  7. Data about operation and utilization of the RA in 1976 - Report, Annex I; Prilog I - Podaci o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora RA u 1976. godini - Izvestaj -

    Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    During 1976 there were significant discrepancies in RA reactor operation in comparison with the operating plan made at the end of 1975. Some discrepancies were planned but not all could be foreseen due to the following reasons: no possibility to estimate the precise schedule of aluminium tubes for fuel channels delivery from the; USSR; no means to estimate precise time for repairs that were never performed or were not done during previous 6 years; inability to estimate the time needed for experiments within the program of transfer to highly enriched fuel (which was successfully finished) since some of these experiments were never done before. Some repairs were not planned since unpredicted failures occurred. Six fuel exchanges were planned, but they were somewhat delayed. Detailed data about the planned and achieved reactor operation are shown in this annex as well as interruptions. There were 12 shorter interruptions and safety shutdowns which was in total for 64 hours. Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW. There have been no significant accidents, but two cases could be characterised as accidental according to their occurrence not according to the effects. The first was break of the tube next to the heavy water pump, and the second was contamination of the reactor hall and corridor during preparation of the fuel exchange machine (spill of heavy water). This annex covers the data concerned with utilization of experimental facilities and reactor utilization. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u toku 1976. godine radio sa znatnijim odstupanjima od plana rada za 1976. godinu, donetom krajem 1975. godine. Medjutim, ni ova procena mogucih odstupanja nije mogla biti korektna iz sledecih, razloga: nemogucnost da se predvidi tacan rok isporuke cevi od specijalne aluminijumske legure iz SSSR za izradu tehnoloskih kanala, nemogucnost da se predvidi tacno vreme potrebno za remonte kakvi ili nisu radjeni ranije ili su radjeni pre vise od 6 godina pod povoljnijim uslovima

  8. Report on results of the Experts from the Boris Kidric Institute to the Institute for theoretical and experimental physics in Moscow - Operational Report; Radni izvestaj - Izvestaj o rezultatima posete strucnjaka iz IBK Institutu za teorijsku i eksperimentalnu fiziku u Moskvi

    Martinc, R; Petrovic, M; Cupac, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    .) upoznavanje eksploatacionih karakteristika reaktora TVRS sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, kao i iskustva u vezi sa koriscenjem tog goriva u reaktoru TVRS u Moskvi; b.) upoznavanje sa elementima sigurnosnih analiza u vezi sa uvodjenjem i kriscenjem tog goriva u reaktoru TVRS kao i c.) razmena gledista o programu prevodjenja reaktora RA na novo 80% obogaceno gorivo. U izvestaju su prikazani rezultati ove posete. Osnovni zakljucci do kojih se doslo jesu: a.) poseta je bila korisna i pored toga sto na neka pitanja nije dobijen odgovor; b.) posle obrade dobijenih informacija, posle sticanja prvih iskustava o koriscenju novog goriva u reaktoru RA kao i posle donosenja definitivnog suda o ravnoteznom rezimu reaktora RA sa novim gorivom, bilo bi veoma korisno da se izvrsi jos jedna poseta Institutu u Moskvi; c.) novo disperziono gorivo je mnogo pouzdanije u eksploataciji od starog 2% obogacenog metalnog goriva (kakvo je sada u reaktoru RA); d.) nije bilo primedbi sa aspekta sigurnosti na nas program prevodjenja (prelazni rezim) reaktora RA na novo gorivo; e.) zatrazice se dopunske informacije o maksimalnom dopustivom stepenu izgaranja 80% obogacenog disperzionog goriva i po potrebi izvrsice se blagovremena revizija predvidjenog optimalnog ravnoteznog rezima izgaranja za reaktor RA (baziranog na maksimalnom izgaranju goriva koje omogucuju parametri reaktora RA); f.) metodologija termickog proracuna gorivnih kanala, koja se primenjuje na reaktor RA ocenjena je kao ekvivalentna postupku koji se primenjuje za proracun kanala reaktora TVRS u Moskvi (author)

  9. Pengaruh Pretreatment Secara Alkalisasi-Resistive Heating terhadap Kandungan Lignoselulosa Jerami Padi

    Dewi Maya Maharani

    2017-09-01

    pretreatment yang berfungsi untuk mendegradasi ikatan lignin, meningkatkan luas permukaan biomassa dan dekristalisasi selulosa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh alkalisasi resistive heating pada proses pretreatment jerami padi sebelum dikonversi lebih lanjut menjadi bioetanol dan mengetahui pengaruh suhu pemanasan serta konsentrasi NaOH selama pretreatment terhadap perubahan kandungan lignin, selulosa dan hemiselulosa. Sebelum dilakukan penelitian dilakukan perancangan reaktor resistive heating. Jerami padi ukuran 100 mesh dilarutkan pada larutan NaOH dengan variasi konsentrasi 0,03 M, 0,05 M, dan 0,07 M, selanjutnya dipanaskan pada reaktor resistive heating dengan variasi suhu pemanasan 75 oC, 85 oC, dan 99 oC. Selulosa merupakan senyawa yang akan dikonversi lebih lanjut menjadi glukosa. Sehingga pada penelitian ini dipilih kondisi optimum berdasarkan peningkatan selulosa tertinggi hingga 8,88% serta penurunan lignin dan hemiselulosa sebesar 1,39% dan 4,33% pada perlakuan suhu pemanasan 75 oC dan konsentrasi NaOH 0,07 M. Alkalisasi resistive heating dapat diterapkan pada pretreatment jerami padi karena dapat mengurangi kandungan lignin dan hemiselulosa serta meningkatkan kandungan selulosa.

  10. Malaysian Nuclear Agency: Annual report 2008

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2008. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2008 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers from

  11. Malaysian Nuclear Agency: Annual report 2009

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2009. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2009 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers from

  12. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1995, Part -2, Annex 2, Decontamination and actions, collection of liquid effluents and solid radioactive waste; Deo 2 - Prilog 2 - Dekontaminacija i intervencije, skupljanje tecnih efluenata i cvrstih radioaktivnih otpadnih materijala

    Mandic, M; Vukovic, Z; Lazic, S; Plecas, I; Voko, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1995-12-01

    Certain amount of solid waste results from RA reactor operation, the mean quantity of which depends on the duration of reactor operation and related activities. During repair, when reactor is not operated as well under accidental conditions, the quantity of waste is higher, dependent on the type of repair and comprehensiveness of decontamination of the working surface, contaminated tools and components. The waste is sorted and packed on the spot where they appeared according to the existing regulations and principles of radiation protection with aim to minimize unnecessary exposure of the radiation protection personnel who deals with control, transport, radioactive waste treatment and decontamination. During exceptional operations (decontamination, repair, bigger volume of contaminated material, etc.) professional staff of the Radiation protection department gives recommendations and helps in planning the actions related to repair, sorting and packaging of radioactive waste in special containers, identification of the contaminants, etc. [Serbo-Croat] Tokom rada reaktora RA dolazi do stvaranja odredjenih cvrstih otpadnih materijala cija prosecna kolicina zavisi od vremena rada reaktora i aktivnosti koje se tamo obavljaju. Tokom remonta, kada reaktor ne radi kao i pri akcidentalnim situacijama nastaju vece kolicine otpadnih materijala koje zavise od obima i vrste remontnih operacija i obima dekontaminacije kontaminirane radne povrsine i kontaminiranog alata, predmeta, opreme, itd. Nastali otpadni materijali se razvrstavaju i pakuju na mestu nastanka prema odgovarajucim propisima u skladu sa principima zastite od zracenja i aspekta bezbednosti u cilju minimiziranja nepotrebnog ozracivanja ljudstva za preuzimanje, kontrolu, transport, naknadnu obradu RAO i dekontaminaciju. Pri nerutinskim operacijama (dekontaminacija, remont, kontaminiarni otpadni materijal velike zapremine i sl.), strucna sluzba Institita ZASTITA pruza strucne konsultacije i pomaze pri planiranju

  13. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B; Prilog B - Izvestaj o radu tehnoloske sluzbe

    Martinc, R; Kozomara-Maic, S; Cupac, S; Raickovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1982-12-15

    During 1982 the Ra reactor was operated at 2 MW power with the initial core configuration with 80% enriched fuel. The reactor power would be limited until the ventilation system is be repaired and the emergency cooling system built. The limited operation regime during 1982 had twofold application: as regular regime for the users according to their demands and for experiments related to the testing operation at 2 MW power level. The following reactor physics activities were affected by this operational regime: methods for regular operation control (determining power density and burnup distribution, reactivity variation, et,); measurement of utilization parameters (spatial distribution of the neutron flux); analysis of origin and consequences of irregularities during operation (control of heavy water and gas composition by gamma spectrometry, control of fission products, control of the heavy water purification system); safety analyses including future new systems (emergency cooling and ventilation) [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je tokom 1982 godine radio sa pocetnom konfiguracijom jezgra sa 80% obogacenim gorivom na snazi od 2 Mw. Snaga je ogranicena dok se ne izvrsi rekonstrukcija sistema ventilacije i ugradnja sistema za udesno hladjenje. Rezim rada na ogranicenoj snazi koriscen je u 1982. godini dvojako: kao normalni radni rezim za potrebe korisnika i za eksperimenta u okviru probnog rada na snazi 2 MW. Ovim rezimom rada uslovljene su delatnosti u okviru reaktorske fizike na sledece oblasti: metodologija kontrole redovnog radnog rezim (odredjivanje raspodele snage i izgaranja goriva, promene reaktivnosti, itd.), merenje eksploatacionih parametara reaktora (prostorna raspodela neutronskog fluks, i sl,), analiza uzroka i posledica pojava neregularnosti u radu fizickim metodama (kontrola sadrzaja teske vode i gasa gama spektometrijom, kontrola fisionih produkata, kontrola sistema za preciscavanje teske vode), sigurnosne analize ukljucujuci buducu izgradnju novih sistema

  14. Irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors

    Song, C., E-mail: Carol.Song@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Zirconium alloys are widely used as structural materials in nuclear applications because of their attractive properties such as a low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, excellent corrosion resistance in water, and good mechanical properties at reactor operating temperatures. Zr-2.5Nb is one of the most commonly used zirconium alloys and has been used for pressure tube materials in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) and RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, 'High Power Channel-type Reactor') reactors for over 40 years. In a recent report from the Electric Power Research Institute, Zr-2.5Nb was identified as one of the candidate materials for use in normal structural applications in light-water reactors owing to its increased resistance to irradiation-induced degradation as compared with currently used materials. Historically, the largest program of in-reactor tests on zirconium alloys was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Over many years of in-reactor testing and CANDU operating experience with Zr- 2.5Nb, extensive research has been conducted on the irradiation effects on its microstructures, mechanical properties, deformation behaviours, fracture toughness, delayed hydride cracking, and corrosion. Most of the results on Zr-2.5Nb obtained from CANDU experience could be used to predict the material performance under light water reactors. This paper reviews the irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors (including heavy-water and light-water reactors) and summarizes the current state of knowledge. (author)

  15. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Diekert, G [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1997-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  16. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor, Annual report 1978; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1978. godini

    Milosevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-12-15

    It has been planned for 1978 that the RA reactor would be operated for 158 dana at nominal power of 6.5 MW meaning production of 24 648 MWh. The plan was fulfilled since 24 652 MWh was produces. Reactor operation for 158 days is relevant to reactor operation for 200 days in the period before 1975. The reason is increased neutron flux achieved due to improved fuel management and the characteristics of the new 80% enriched fuel. At the end of 1978 the reactor core contained 45% of 80% enriched fuel elements. Increase of neutron flux has shortened the typical time needed for irradiation of the most important samples for isotope production. This significant success in reactor operation is at the same time an obligation for increasing its utilization. Some new trends proposed for increasing reactor utilization capacities were presented at the Conference on utilization of research nuclear reactors in Yugoslavia held in May 1978. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA imao je u planu za 1978. godinu 158 dana rada na nominalnoj snazi od 6.5 MW, sto odgovara radu od 24 648 MWh. Ostvareno je 24 652 MWh sto znaci da je plan ostvaren. Rad reaktora od 158 dana odgovara radu reaktora od 200 dana u periodu pre 1975. godine. Razlog je povecanje neutronskog fluksa zahvaljujuci usavrsenom rukovanju gorivom i karakteristikama novog 80% obogacenog goriva. Krajem 1978. godine 45% jezgra reaktora bilo je popunjeno novim 80% obogacenim gorivom. Povecani neutronski fluks omogucio je skracenje vremena ozracivanja vaznih uzoraka za proizvodnju radioaktivnih izotopa. Ovaj znacajan uspeh je istovremeno obaveza znatno veceg iskoriscenja reaktora RA. Rezultati napora da se postigne vece iskoriscenje reaktora RA prezentirani su na Konferenciji o koriscenju nuklearnih reaktora u Jugoslaviji koja je odrzana u maju 1978.

  17. Scaling effects on H2-deflagration in containment-geometries - BASSIM. Further development and verification. Final report

    Rastogi, A.K.; Wennerberg, D.; Fischer, K.

    1998-01-01

    A multidimensional mechanistic calculation procedure for simulating H 2 -deflagration in multiroom geometries was developed at Battelle in a previous project. This calculation method was verified against a number of experiments performed in BMC (Battelle Model Containment) and HDR (Heissdampf Reaktor) facilities. It turned out that the above mentioned procedure overpredicted the H 2 -burnrates in experiments in smaller facilities and therefore was unable to predict the important 'scaling influences'. It is the purpose of the present work to develop the above mentioned calculation procedure BASSIM-H 2 (mod 2.3) further in order to predict the scaling influences correctly. In the present work the combustion model was developed further such that the important phenomena e.g. ignition phase, quasi-laminar initial phase, and the turbulent phase of a H 2 premixed flame would be modelled realistically. The model developed has been verified against 16 very different experiments from 9 different facilities. The computed cases varied in volumes from 0.022 m 3 up to 2100 m 3 . These cases have also been computed with the older model verified in [15]. Based on the comparison between the computed results obtained with the new model and the computed results obtained with the old model as well as with the experimental data, the model put forward in this work is evaluated. The present model computes the scaling effects on H 2 -deflagration satisfactorily with the same set of empirical constants. The flame propagation in horizontal as well as vertical (both upwards and downwards) directions can be computed satisfactorily. The influence of flow obstructions and heat loss at walls is considered as well. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1989, Part -2, Decontamination, collection of treatment of fluid and solid radioactive waste, Annex 3; Deo 2 - Zastita od zracenja kod reaktora RA u 1989. godini, Dekontaminacija i intervencija, sakupljanje i obrada tecnih i cvrstih radioaktivnih otpadnih materija za potrebe reaktora RA - Prilog 3

    Mandic, M; Vukovic, Z; Plecas, I; Knezevic, Lj; Lazic, S; Bacic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-12-15

    Certain amount of solid waste results from RA reactor operation, the mean quantity of which depends on the duration of reactor operation and related activities. During repair, when reactor is not operated as well under accidental conditions, the quantity of waste is higher, dependent on the type of repair and comprehensiveness of decontamination of the working surface, contaminated tools and components. The waste is sorted and packed on the spot where they appeared according to the existing regulations and principles of radiation protection with aim to minimize unnecessary exposure of the radiation protection personnel who deals with control, transport, radioactive waste treatment and decontamination. During exceptional operations (decontamination, repair, bigger volume of contaminated material, etc.) professional staff of the Radiation protection department gives recommendations and helps in planning the actions related to repair, sorting and packaging of radioactive waste in special containers, identification of the contaminants, etc. [Serbo-Croat] Tokom rada reaktora RA dolazi do stvaranja odredjenih cvrstih otpadnih materijala cija prosecna kolicina zavisi od vremena rada reaktora i aktivnosti koje se tamo obavljaju. Tokom remonta, kada reaktor ne radi kao i pri akcidentalnim situacijama nastaju vece kolicine otpadnih materijala koje zavise od obima i vrste remontnih operacija i obima dekontaminacije kontaminirane radne povrsine i kontaminiranog alata, predmeta, opreme, itd. Nastali otpadni materijali se razvrstavaju i pakuju na mestu nastanka prema odgovarajucim propisima u skladu sa principima zastite od zracenja i aspekta bezbednosti u cilju minimiziranja nepotrebnog ozracivanja ljudstva za preuzimanje, kontrolu, transport, naknadnu obradu RAO i dekontaminaciju. Pri nerutinskim operacijama (dekontaminacija, remont, kontaminiarni otpadni materijal velike zapremine i sl.), strucna sluzba Institita ZASTITA pruza strucne konsultacije i pomaze pri planiranju

  19. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Kelapa Dengan Katalis NaOH Menggunakan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Secara Kontinyu

    Daru Satria Prayanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Proses pembuatan biodiesel dapat dilakukan dengan metode pemanasan konvensional maupun dengan metode pemanasan microwave. Dengan radiasi microwave, maka waktu yang dibutuhkan saat proses transesterifikasi lebih singkat dibandingkan dengan konvensional. Disisi lain, minyak kelapa memiliki potensi yang besar untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan biodiesel karena ketersediaannya yang melimpah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak kelapa secara kontinyu melalui proses transesterifikasi metanol dengan menggunakan radiasi microwave dengan katalis NaOH dan mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi tiap katalis, daya, dan laju umpan yang digunakan terhadap yield, densitas, dan viskositas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Dalam penelitian ini di gunakan 3 variabel, yaitu laju umpan 0,73; 1,25; 1,72 ml/s, konsentrasi katalis 0,25; 0,5; 1 (% berat variabel daya microwave 100, 264, 400, 600, dan 800 Watt. Rasio umpan ditentukan pada 1:9. Pada tahap persiapan melarutkan metanol dan katalis sesuai dengan variabel hingga tercampur homogen. Selanjutnya tahap transesterifikasi dengan mencampurkan larutan metanol (metanol dan katalis dengan minyak kelapa dengan mol ratio yang telah ditentukan dan mengatur daya microwave untuk memulai proses transesterifikasi, proses berlangsung secara kontinyu menggunakan mix flow reaktor. Selanjutnya pemisahan hasil transesterifikasi dari gliserol, dilanjutkan dengan tahap pencucian dengan aquadest untuk memisahkan impurities dan katalis yang masih tersisa dalam biodiesel kemudian memanaskan pada oven untuk menguapkan kandungan air dalam biodiesel. Selajutnya menganalisisa hasil biodiesel terhadap yield, densitas, dan viskositasnya. Hasil terbaik dari variabel yang digunakan di atas adalah pada katalis NaOH dengan konsentrasi 1

  20. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor - Report on operation in 1979; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1979. godini

    Milosevic, M

    1979-12-15

    During 1979 the RA reactor was in operation only three months, i.e. only 24% of the planned activity was achieved. The reactor operation was interrupted in March due to problems that could not be solved by the existing equipment. Alkalinity of the heavy water resulting from the existing ammonia ions could not be removed by the existing distillation system. In addition deposition of aluminium oxyhydrate on the fuel elements was increased. This was noticed during routine control when the reactor was shutdown for refueling. The decision of the Director general of the Institute and sanitary Inspector followed, prohibiting further reactor operation. A separate chapter of this report is devoted to the analysis of the difficulties and possible solution of the problem in cooperation with the experts from different laboratories of the Institute. Aged and damaged instruments at the reactor were not exchange due to lack of budget. During the operation there were no accidents. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1979. godine plan rada ostvaren je sa 24%, odnosno reaktor je radio samo prva tri meseca. U martu je doslo do prekida rada reaktora zbog pojave koja se nije mogla otkloniti postojecom opremom. Alkalnost teske vode, posledica prisustva amonijum jona, ne moze se odstraniti sistemom destilacije. Pored toga usled dotrajalosti opreme povecano je talozenje aluminijum oksihidroksida na gorivnim elementima. Ova pojava uocena je tokom rutinske kontrole prilikom izmene goriva a usledila je obustava rada resenjem Direktora i sanitarnog inspektora. Posebno poglavlje ovog izvestaja posveceno je analizi teskoca u radu i reaktora i resavanju nastalih problema sa gorivom u saradnji sa saradnicima drugih laboratorija Instituta. Dotrajali uredjaji i oprema nisu zamenjeni usled nedostatka sredstava. U toku rada nije bilo akcidenata.

  1. SINTESA GULA DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK DENGAN PROSES HIDROLISIS MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS ASAM

    Deddy Irawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SUGAR FROM ORGANIC WASTES VIA ACID CATALYSTHYDROLYSIS. Hydrolysis process is an important step from every process to produce biofuel withorganic wastes as raw material. Hydrolysis process with chemical uses hydrochloride acid as catalystin which will transform holocellulose to glucose. Raw material of 100 grams is put into hydrolysisreactor with batch system equipped with pressure control and ratio hydrochloride of 1 : 6 w/v. Thevariables studied were temperature of 110-140oC, HCl concentration of 0.5-1%, time of hydrolysis of15-60 minutes. The sugar concentration was taken and then be analyzed by Nelson-Somogy method.The hydrolysis, which was carried out with the temperature of 120oC, time of 30 minutes, HClconcentration of 0.75%, and the pressure of 6 bar, produced sugar reduction of 27.3 mg/mL and yieldof 15.07%. Proses hidrolisis merupakan satu tahap penting dari rangkaian tahapan proses produksi bahan bakarnabati menggunakan bahan baku sampah organik. Proses hidrolisis secara kimiawi menggunakanHCl sebagai katalis akan mengubah holoselulosa yang terdapat pada sampah organik menjadi gula.Gula yang dihasilkan inilah yang dapat difermentasi menjadi bahan bakar nabati. Bahanbaku sebanyak 100 g dimasukkan dalam reaktor hidrolisis sistem batch yang dilengkapi denganpengukur tekanan dan ditambahkan larutan HCl pada perbandingan 1:6 b/v. Hidrolisis dilakukandengan memvariasikan suhu operasi 100-140oC, waktu proses 15-60 menit, serta konsentrasi HCl 0,5-1%. Hidrolisat yang dihasilkan dianalisis kadar gula menggunakan metode Nelson-somogy. Hasilhidrolisis yang dilakukan pada suhu 120oC selama 30 menit serta konsentrasi HCl 0,75% dan tekananterukur 6 bar menghasilkan gula 27,30 mg/mL dan yield gula sebesar 15,07%.

  2. Malaysian Nuclear Agency; Annual report 2013

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2013. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2013 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers

  3. Degradasi Zat Warna Pada Limbah Cair Industri Tekstil Dengan Metode Fotokatalitik Menggunakan Nanokomposit Tio2 – Zeolit

    Siti Naimah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian degradasi zat warna pada limbah cair industri tekstil menggunakan metode fotokatalitik dengan penambahan nanokomposit TiO2 - zeolit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas kemampuan nanokomposit dalam mendegradasi zat warna serta parameter-parameter yang ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 Tahun 2001 tentang pengelolaan kualitas air dan pengendalian pencemaran air. Zeolit alam diaktivasi terlebih dahulu sebelum dikompositkan dengan TiO2. Perbandingan TiO2 : zeolit yang digunakan pada pembuatan nanokomposit adalah 100:0, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, dan 0:100. Percobaan pendahuluan dilakukan dengan menggunakan limbah cair tekstil buatan yang dibuat dari pewarna Synolon yellow S- G6LS (untuk warna kuning dan B/Blue R 150% special (untuk warna biru, sedangkan limbah cair industri tekstil diambil dari salah satu industri di Bogor. Waktu degradasi zat warna dilakukan dalam reaktor fotokatalitik selama 180 menit. Pada perbandingan TiO2 : zeolit 40:60 didapatkan degradasi zat warna tekstil buatan berwarna kuning maksimal adalah 99,9 % dan zat warna tekstil buatan berwarna biru maksimal 99,8%. Analisis warna menggunakan spektrofotometer dan HPLC. Nanokomposit TiO2 : zeolit 40 : 60 merupakan perbandingan optimal sehingga digunakan pada uji coba limbah cair industri tekstil. Degradasi maksimal warna kuning dengan pengolahan fotokatalitik yang ditambahkan nanokomposit pada limbah cair industri tekstil sebesar 98,4%, sedangkan untuk parameter uji zat organik, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD, dan lemak/minyak diperoleh nilai di bawah baku mutu yang dipersyaratkan. 

  4. {sup 137}CS-determination in game meat from some hunting areas in lower Austria; {sup 137}Cs-Bestimmungen im Wildfleisch aus einigen niederoesterreichischen Jagdrevieren

    Ayromlou, S. [Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie der Univ. Wien (Austria); Tataruch, F. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Wildtierkunde und Oekologie der Veterinaermedizinischen Univ., Wien (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    In 1986, the contamination of some regions in Austria by {sup 137}Cs, due to the Chernobyl accident was relatively high. Among other {sup 137}Cs is taken up by people by the consumption of game. In an area of Lower Austria which is relatively heavily contaminated by Chernobyl fallout since 1986 the {sup 137}Cs-contamination of meat of game-animals was measured every year. Clear differences arose in the load of the single game species whose causes just like the temporal changes are discussed. The highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was with 5243 Bq/kg measured on a wild boar. With this activity concentration an annual effective dose of only 0,06 mSv can be estimated for an annual average consumption of one kilogram meat of wild boar. (orig.) [German] Druch den Reaktor-Unfall in Tschernobyl wurde Oesterreich gebietsweise relativ stark mit {sup 137}Cs kontaminiert. Unter anderem gelangt {sup 137}Cs durch den Verzehr von Wildfleisch in den Koerper der Menschen. Daher wurden in einem niederoesterreichischen Gebiet, das 1986 durch Fallout verhaeltnismaessig stark kontaminiert worden war seither jaehrlich erlegte Wildtiere auf den {sup 137}Cs-Gehalt ihres Fleisches hin untersucht. Dabei ergaben sich deutliche Unterschiede in der Belastung der einzelnen Wildarten, deren Ursachen ebenso wie die zeitlichen Veraenderungen diskutiert werden. Die hoechste {sup 137}Cs-Aktivitaetskonzentration wurde mit 5243 Bq/kg bei einem Wildschwein gemessen. Mit einen durchschnittlichen Verzehr von 1 kg Wildschweinfleisch pro Jahr kann daraus eine maximale Effektivdosis von nur 0,06 mSv/Jahr abgeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  5. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Diekert, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1996-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  6. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 1, Start-up of the RA reactor and measurement of new RA reactor core parameters; Fizicka merenja na reaktoru RA u vezi projekta VISA-2 - I deo, Pustanje u rad reaktora RA i merenje fizickih parametara novog jezgra reaktora RA

    Markovic, H [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-07-15

    The objective of the measurements was determining the neutron flux in the RA reactor core. Since the number of fuel channels is increased from 56 to 68 within the VISA-2 project, it was necessary to attain criticality of the RA reactor and measure the neutron flux properties. The 'program of RA reactor start-up' has been prepared separately and it is included in this report. Measurements were divided in two phases. First phase was measuring of the neutron flux after the criticality was achieved but at zero power. During phase two measurements were repeated at several power levels, at equilibrium xenon poisoning. This report includes experimental data of flux distributions and absolute values of the thermal and fast neutron flux in the RA reactor experimental channels and values of cadmium ratio for determining the neutron epithermal flux. Data related to calibration of regulatory rods for cold un poisoned core are included. [Serbo-Croat] Svrha merenja je odredjivanje neutronskog fluksa u reaktoru RA. S obzirom na uvecani broj tehnoloskih kanala of 56 na 68 u vezi projekta VISA-2, bilo je potrebno ponovo dovesti reaktora RA do kriticnosti i izvrsiti merenja karakteristika fluksa neutrona. Posebno je pripremljen 'program pustanja u pogon reaktora RA', koji je sadrzan u ovom dokumentu. Program merenja bio je podeljen na dve faze. Prva faza je merenje fluksa pre podizanju reaktora na nominalnu snagu. Slicna merenja vrsena su i na vecim snagama u drugoj fazi, pod uslovima ravnoteznog zatrovanja reaktora ksenonom, jer se tada pokazuju izvesne promene u odgovarajucim karakteristikama fluksa neutrona. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi merene vrednosti raspodele fluksa i apsolutne vrednosti termalnih i brzih neutrona kao i kadmijumskih odnosa koji su korisceni za odredjivanje fluksa epitermalnih neutrona. Opisana je kalibracija regulacionih sipki za hladan nezatrovan reaktor.

  7. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    Husam Fayiz, Al Masri

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms. (paper)

  8. Operation and maintenance of RA Reactor, Annual report 1977; Pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA - Izvestaj o radu u 1977. godini

    Milosevic, M et al. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1977-12-15

    During 1977, the RA Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW for 183 days. Total production was 28582 MWh which is 10% higher than planned. Second phase of introducing the 80% enriched fuel was fulfilled according to the plan. This means that the reactor core will be filled with highly enriched fuel in 1978. Refueling was done three time during the past year. After completing the first phase of the fuel exchange which was related mostly to reactor safety, the second phase will be devoted to the more efficient increase of neutron flux . This second phase is of utmost importance because higher neutron flux will provide better and more efficient reactor application from economic point of view. This will justify the application of the new more expensive highly enriched fuel. The budget for reactor operation and maintenance is hardly enough to cover the maintenance of the components and instrumentation. During 1977 there were no accidents related nor incidents related to the instrumentation or related to radiation protection. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u toku 1977. godine ostvario rad od 28583 MWh odnosno 183 dana rada na nominalnoj snazi, sto u odnosu na plan rada iznosi 10% vise od planiranog. Druga faza uvodjenja 80% obogacenog goriva izvrsena je prema planu sto znaci da ce se punjenje jezgra reaktora 80% gorivom zavrsiti u toku 1978. godine. Izvrsene su tri izmene goriva. Posle isteka prvog dela prelaznog rezima koji je usmeren na maksimalnu sigurnost reaktora preci ce se na drugi deo usmeren na vece i brze povecanje neutronskog fluksa. Druga faza je od izuzetnog znacaja jer ce omoguciti bolje i znatno ekonomicnije koriscenje reaktora i opravdati upotrebu novog i skupljeg goriva. Sredstva za pogon i odrzavanje reaktora RA su jedva dovoljna za odrzavanje neophodnog nivoa opreme. Akcidenata u toku 1977. godine nije bilo ni sa opremom ni u pogledu zastite od zracenja.

  9. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 9, Radiation protection; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 9, Zastita od zracenja

    NONE

    1986-11-01

    Instrumentation for Radiation protection existing at the RA reactor is dating mostly from the period 1957-1959 when the reactor has been built. With some minor exception it was produced in USSR. Radiation protection system was constructed based on specific design project, somewhat modified original USSR project which has been indispensable because of some modification of the building design. During the past 27 years no renewal of the instrumentation was done, only maintenance was performed. Instrumentation consists of old electronic devices which caused difficulties and even prevented regular maintenance because of lack of spare parts. Instrumentation for radiation protection at the RA reactor is classified as follows: centralized dosimetry system; stationary dosimetry instrumentation, movable and personal dosimetry systems. Apart from the scheme of dosimetry instrumentation this volume includes description of radiation protection procedures; protection devices; radiation doses and dose limit data; program for environmental radioactivity control; medical control procedures. [Serbo-Croat] Instrumentacija za zastitu od zracenja koja danas postoji na reaktoru RA najvecim delom potice iz perioda 1957-1959 kada je reaktor gradjen. Sa malim izuzetcima instrumentacija je proizvedena u SSSR. Sistem za zastitu izveden je na osnovu posebnog projekta koji predstavlja modifikaciju originalnog projekta koja je bila neophodna usled modifikovanog gradjevinskog projekta. U proteklom periodu od 27 godina instrumentacija nije obnavljana vec je vrseno samo odrzavanje. Instrumentacija je izradjena u danas prevazidjenoh tehnoligiji (elektronske cevi) sto je otezavalo i skoro onemogucavalo normalno odrzavanje. Instrumentacija za zastitu od zracenja na reaktoru RA moze se podeliti na tri dela: centralizovani dozimetrijski sistem; stacionarna dozimetrijska instrumentacija; prenosna i licna dozimetrijska instrumentacija. Pored seme sistema dozimetrijske kontrole ova knjiga sadrzi opis

  10. Malaysian Nuclear Agency: Annual report 2010

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2010. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2010 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers from

  11. RA reactor kinetic parameters - Progress report; Kineticki parametri reaktora RA - Izvestaj o napredovanju -

    Petrovic, M; Obradovic, D; Jevtovic, V; Velickovic, Lj [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    The objective of nuclear reactor kinetics study is to analyze the stability of reactor operation in practice. The obtained parameters should define the needed properties of automatic control system relevant for the stability of the designed reactor system. Refining the analytical models is done by using the analysis and interpretation of experimental data. Results of measured the reactor response obtained by using the reactor oscillator ROB-1 are explained by using the space independent model of the zero power reactor, by power reactor model with one feedback circuit, and by a complex model. It was assumed that the perturbations of the system are small and that linearized kinetic equations could be used. Linearized kinetic equation of the reactor system are transformed into the frequency region in order to analyze the measured values directly. The objective of this paper is to measure the RA reactor kinetics parameters, and analyze the stability of reactor operation at power levels high than nominal. Istrazivanja u oblasti kinetike nuklearnih reaktora imaju za cilj da dovedu analizu stabilnosti rada reaktora na nivo 'radne tehnologije'. Dobijeni pararametri treba da specificiraju potrebne karakteristike sistema automatske kontrole za odgovarajucu stabilnost projektovanog reaktorskog sistema. Doterivanjem analitickih modela do takvog nivoa da se zapazeni fenomeni mogu anailitcki predvideti ide preko analize i interpretacije eksperimentalnih podataka. Eksperimentalni rezultati merenja odziva reaktora, izvedeni reaktorskim oscilatorom ROB-1, interpretirani su na osnovu prostorno nezavisnog modela za reaktor nulte snage, modelom reaktora snage sa jednim kolom povratne sprege, kao i kompleksnim modelom. U ovom radu se poslo od toga da su perturbacije parametara sistema male, pa se mogu upotrebiti linearizovane kineticke jednacine. Linearizovane kineticke jednacine reaktorskog sistema transformirane su u frekventno podrucje s ciljem direktne analize mernih rezultata

  12. Investigation of mass transfer phenomena in biofilm systems; Untersuchung von Stoffuebergangsphaenomenen in Biofilmsystemen

    Waesche, S.; Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Horn, H. [Fachhochschule Magdeburg (Germany). Hydro- und Abfallchemie

    1999-07-01

    bestimmt. Die Biofilmdichte (Biotrockenmasse/Biofilmvolumen) wurde gravimetrisch bestimmt. Die maximalen Massestromdichten der Biofilme wurden in Batchversuchen bei Substratueberschuss ermittelt. Mit Hilfe von Sauerstoffmikroelektroden wurden Sauerstoffprofile im Biofilm direkt im Reaktor gemessen. Die Messungen der Sauerstoffprofile wurden bei einer Biofilmdicke von 400-2000 {mu}m durchgefuehrt, bei der der Biofilm noch keine Erosionserscheinungen zeigte. (orig.)

  13. Malaysian Nuclear Agency; Annual report 2014

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2014. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2014 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers

  14. Preliminary design of RDE feedwater pump impeller

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, pumps are being widely used in the thermal power generation including nuclear power plants. Reaktor Daya Experimental (RDE) is a proposed nuclear reactor concept for the type of nuclear power plant in Indonesia. This RDE has thermal power 10 MW th , and uses a feedwater pump within its steam cycle. The performance of feedwater pump depends on size and geometry of impeller model, such as the number of blades and the blade angle. The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary design on an impeller of feedwater pump for RDE and to simulate its performance characteristics. The Fortran code is used as an aid in data calculation in order to rapidly compute the blade shape of feedwater pump impeller, particularly for a RDE case. The calculations analyses is solved by utilizing empirical correlations, which are related to size and geometry of a pump impeller model, while performance characteristics analysis is done based on velocity triangle diagram. The effect of leakage, pass through the impeller due to the required clearances between the feedwater pump impeller and the volute channel, is also considered. Comparison between the feedwater pump of HTR-10 and of RDE shows similarity in the trend line of curve shape. These characteristics curves will be very useful for the values prediction of performance of a RDE feedwater pump. Preliminary design of feedwater pump provides the size and geometry of impeller blade model with 5-blades, inlet angle 14.5 degrees, exit angle 25 degrees, inside diameter 81.3 mm, exit diameter 275.2 mm, thickness 4.7 mm, and height 14.1 mm. In addition, the optimal values of performance characteristics were obtained when flow capacity was 4.8 kg/s, fluid head was 29.1 m, shaft mechanical power was 2.64 kW, and efficiency was 52 % at rotational speed 1750 rpm. (author)

  15. PIROLISIS LIGNIN DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN SURFAKTAN DALAM PROSES ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY (EOR (Pyrolysis of Lignin From Waste of Palm Oil Industries for The Development of Surfactants for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR

    Suryo Purwono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pirolisis dari lignin yang berasal dari limbah industri kelapa sawit dapat menghasilkan alkohol dan derivatif lainnyd yang dapat digunakan sehagai surfaktan. Prosedur penelitian proses pirolisis ini odalah sebagai berikut: I serabut atau tandan sisa pengolahon kelapa sawit yang sudah dikeringkan dimasukkan kedalam reaktor dengan berat tertentu dan dipanaskan sampai suhu yang diinginkan, 2 produk pirolisis yang keluar dari reoktor kemudian didinginkan sampoi mencapai suhu kamor, 3 hasil cair ditampung didalam gelas ukur dan hasil gasnya ditampung di suatu botol tertentu. Suhu paling baik yang dicapai adalah 4A0 "C untuk lignin yong berasal dari serabut dan 350'C untuk lignin yang berasal dari tandan kelapa sawit. Surfaktan yang dihasilkan sekitar j4 sampai 38% dari produk pirolisis. Pada penelitian ini kecepatan reaksi dianggap order satu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa surfakton yang dihasilkan dapat membentuk emulsi dengan minyak menta.h. Hal ini menunjukkon bahwa surfaktan yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk proses EOR.   ABSTRACT Pyrolysis of lignin from waste of palm oil industries produces alcohol and its derivatives which can be sulfonated to become surfactant. The experimental procedures for the pyrolysis process were as follows: 1 dried palm oil husks at a certain weight were put into the pyrolysis reactor and heated up to a certain temperafure; 2 the product leaving the reactor was cooled down to room temperature; and 3 the liquid product was collected in a flask while the gas product was put into a big bottle. The best temperature obtained for producing liquid product was 400 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit fibers and 350 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit stems. The surfactant developed was in the range between 34 and 38% from the pyrolysis product. In this experiment, the reaction rate was assumed to be in first order. The result showed that the surfactant obtained from the experiment could form emulsion

  16. Malaysian Nuclear Agency; Annual report 2011

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was mooted from idea of the then Malaysia's Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Ismail Dato Abdul Rahman, that Malaysia should play a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The Centre for Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was the entity to mark the of Malaysia's nuclear programme, focussing on manpower development for a nuclear power programme to provide an option for energy source, following the worldwide oil crisis of the early 1970s. The Cabinet officially approved the establishment of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment on 19 September 1972. The era of nuclear research in Malaysia began with the historic event signified by the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI reaching its first criticality on 28 June 1982. When PUSPATI was placed under the auspices of the Prime Ministers Department, it assumed the name Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN). The Nuclear Energy Unit was later placed under the Minister of Science, Technology and the Environment. In line with the national development, the institute was name Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) on 10 August 1994. To reflect its vision, mission, objectives and activities in the challenging world, a new identity was established, and was officially named as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) on 28 September 2006. Nuclear Malaysia, is strategically located nearby the government administration, centre Putrajaya, and Cyberjaya. These annual report highlights all the activities that have been through by the agency in 2011. All the achievements and triumph were highlights in this annual report. It also contained all the agency planning during 2011 to fulfill the objectives, mission and vision to become main players in nuclear research in Malaysia. Finally, there also highlights some publications contribute by all the researchers from

  17. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Bernstein, W; Brunne, T; Hiller, A [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  18. PENGARUH NILAI BAKAR TERHADAP INTEGRITAS KELONGSONG ELEMEN BAKAR TRIGA 2000

    K.A. Sudjatmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentuk elemen bakar reaktor TRIGA Bandung adalah silinder padat yang merupakan campuran homogen paduan uranium dan zirkonium hidrida. Pada saat reaktor beroperasi, suhu elemen bakar akan bertambah, akibatnya akan menaikan tekanan gas-gas yang ada di dalam kelongsong elemen bakar. Tekanan gas yang timbul dalam kelongsong elemen bakar merupakan penjumlahan tiga komponen tekanan yaitu tekanan akibat udara yang terperangkap antara kelongsong dengan bahan bakar, tekanan oleh gas hasil fisi yang terbentuk dari elemen bakar dan tekanan yang berasal dari pemisahan hidrogen dari paduan zirkonium hidrida. Gas hasil fisi yang terbentuk oleh bahan bakar sebanding dengan besarnya fraksi bakar oleh setiap elemen bakar dalam teras reaktor. Semakin besar fraksi bakar elemen bakar, semakin besar gas gas hasil fisi yang dihasilkannya, akibatnya semakin besar tekanan di dalam kelongsong yang disebabkan oleh gas gas hasil fisi tersebut. Perhitungan jumlah gas-gas hasil fisi dalam kelongsong yang merupakan fungsi dari nilai bakar dilakukan dengan menggunakan program ORIGEN-2. Program ORIGEN-2 adalah kode komputer yang banyak digunakan untuk menghitung hasil fisi, peluruhan dan pengolahan bahan radioaktif. Tampang lintang, presentase timbulnya hasil fisi, data peluruhan, dan data lainnya yang diperlukan disediakan dalam pustaka data selama eksekusi program. Dari hasil perhitungan dapat disimpulkan bahwa tekanan gas yang diakibatkan oleh gas hasil fisi adalah 4,13 10-3 psi dan tekanan gas yang diakibatkan udara yang terjebak di dalam kelongsong adalah 56,6 psi, yang mengakibatkan tegangan pada kelongsong sebesar 2080 psi dan nilai ini jauh lebih kecil dari setengah tegangan luluh bahan kelongsong sebesar 12.000 psi pada temperatur 750 oC atau sekitar 40.000 psi pada temperatur 138 oC. Akhirnya dapat disimpulkan bahwa dilihat dari sisi nilai bakar, maka elemen bakar layak digunakan sampai mencapai nilai bakar maksimum. Kata kunci : TRIGA, nilai bakar, elemen bakar

  19. Thermal Shock Tests on UO{sub 2} Small Spheres; Essais de choc thermique sur des elements spheriques de UO{sub 2}; Ispytaniya nebol'shikh sharikov iz UO{sub 2} teplovykh udarom; Ensayo de pequenas esferas de UO{sub 2} por choque.termico

    Perona, G.; Brutto, E.; Galbusera, U.; Palladino, G.; Sesini, R. [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Milan (Italy)

    1963-11-15

    exponen los resultados obtenidos. La aplicacion de este metodo presenta, al parecer, considerable interes, sobre todo en lo que concierne a las investigaciones encaminadas a mejorar las caracteristicas de las esferas de UO{sub 2} por medio de aditivos. En e fecto, permite verificar el efecto global con una sola medicion. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zuya malye pariki iz UO{sub 2} v kachestve yadernogo topliva v reaktore, gde oni nakhodyatsya v soprikosnovenii s teplonositelem, neobkhodimo znat' maksimal'nuyu pri rabochem rezhime reaktora velichinu termicheskikh napryazhenij, kotorye mogut vyderzhivat' bez povrezhdeniya ehti shariki. Esli izvestny fizicheskie svojstva materiala, to mozhno rasschitat' ehti napryazheniya pri rabochem rezhime. Odnako vvidu mnogochislennosti podlezhashchikh uchetu faktorov i neizbezhnoj doli neopredelennosti kazhdogo iz nikh predstavlyaetsya predpochtitel'nym provesti neposredstvennye ispytaniya ehtikh sharikov, podvergnuv ikh tem zhe napryazheniyam, kakie oni ispytyvayut v reaktore. V nastoyashchej rabote byl izuchen metod teplovogo udara v primenenii k malym sharikam i ukazyvayutsya usloviya, pri kotorykh ehtot metod pozvolyaet proizvesti napryazheniya, neposredstvenno sravnimye s temi, kotorye sushchestvuyut v reaktore. V sluchae malykh sharikov zatrudnenie zaklyuchaetsya v osushchestvlenii okhlazhdeniya, pozvolyayushchego dostigat' ochen' bol'shikh znachenij koehffitsienta poverkhnostnoj teploperedachi. Opisyvayutsya ehksperimental'nye metody i soobshchayutsya poluchennye rezul'taty. Primenenie ehtogo' metoda, po-vidimomu., predstavlyaet bol'shoj interes, v osobennosti v oblasti tekhnologicheskikh izyskanij s tsel'yu uluchsheniya svojstv malykh sharikov iz UO{sub 2} putem vklyucheniya dobavochnykh komponentov. Fakticheski,ehtot metod daet vozmozhnost' pri pomoshchi odnogo tol'ko izmereniya kontrolirovat' izuchaemoe vozdejstvie. (author)

  20. Kajian Sebaran Radioaktif Gamma dalam Lingkungan Airtanah di Sisi Selatan Gunungapi Merapi, Desa Wukirsari, Kecamatan Cangkringan, Kabupaten Sleman

    Andreas R. P. Lakafi

    2016-10-01

    WHO yaitu 0,1 mSv/tahun untuk besarnya dosis efektif pada air minum. Dengan demikian dosis efektif pada daerah penelitian masih aman dan tidak menimbulkan dampak stokastik maupun non stokastik (deterministik. Alternatif strategi pengelolaan lingkungan dilakukan melalui strategi yang bersifat preventif yang meliputi persyaratan manajemen, teknik, proteksi radiasi dan keselamatan yang diatur dalam Peraturan Pemerintah No. 33 tahun 2007 tentang keselamatan radiasi pengion dan keamanan sumber radioaktif, dan UU No. 32 Tahun 2009 tentang perlindungan dan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the village of Wukirsari Cangkringan sub-district of Sleman Regency.Nature radioactive is a radioactive which come from radiation on earth. The largest contributor of natural radionuclides against the magnitude of gamma exposure to human is Uranium daughter U-238 (Uranium-238. That radionuclides is very dangerous to human if it pollutes into groundwaters which will be used by human. This research aims to assess the distribution of gamma radioactive because of Merapi Volcano eruption on 2010 in free groundwaters at study area and to formulate environmental management strategies to handle the problem of groundwaters contamination potency by radioactive. This research was used survey method. Systematic method based on grid to determine sample point and groundwaters flow pattern. To obtain the data of groundwaters quality use purposive method which consider that sample point must be on one track at groundwaters flow that showed in flownet. The data obtained is activity data of radioactive and effective dose. The second objective is achieved by qualitative descriptive method which use the data of effective dose distribute as a alternative reference to formulate environmental management strategies. This result showed that gamma radioactive activity from U-238 on groundwaters at study area is still safe because it is still below the quality standards that

  1. PENGARUH VARIABEL-VARIABEL MOTIVASI TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA KARYAWAN PADA INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI KABUPATEN SIDOARJO

    Sundring Pantja Djati

    1999-01-01

    from the data collecting through questionnaire. I hope the result of this research can be value for businessmen at home industries as an input in motivating their workers and in the company policy-making. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variabel-variabel motivasi yang terdiri atas kebutuhan fisiologis, kebutuhan keselamatan dan keamanan kerja, kebutuhan sosial, kebutuhan penghargaan serta kebutuhan aktualisasi terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja karyawan pada industri rumah tangga di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Disamping itu juga ingin diketahui cariabel mana yang mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat atau dominan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja karyawan. Adapun data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang diperoleh melalui survei terhadap 40 (empat puluh responden industri rumah tangga yang berlokasi di 4 (empat kecamatan yaitu : Kecamatan Tanggulangin, Candi, Buduran dan Waru di wilayah Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Teknik pengumpulan data yang diambil dengan menggunakan Teknik Non Proporsional Stratified Random Sampling. Untuk menguji kesahihan dan keandalan intrumen penelitian digunakan analisis validitas dan reabilitas. Teknik validitas yang digunakan adalah construct validity sedangkan teknik reabilitas adalah split-half method (belah dua. Model analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah regresi linier berganda. Model ini dipilih karena dalam penelitian ini ingin mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel tidak bebas. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa variabel-variabel motivasi yang terdiri dari kebutuhan fisiologis, kebutuhan keselamatan dan keamanan kerja, kebutuhan sosial, kebutuhan penghargaan serta kebutuhan aktualisasi secara serempak menunjukkan pengaruh yang bermakna terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja karyawan pada industri rumah tangga di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Dari hasil pengujian secara parsial maupun simultan diketahui kebutuhan fisiologis mempunya pengaruh yang paling kuat

  2. Slow Neutron Spectrometers at the Swedish Reactors; Spectrometres a Neutrons Lents des Reacteurs Suedois; 0421 041f 0415 041a 0422 0420 041e 041c 0415 0422 0420 042b 041c 0415 0414 041b 0415 041d 041d 042b 0425 041d 0415 0419 0422 0420 041e 041d 041e 0412 041d 0410 0428 0412 0415 0414 0421 041a 0418 0425 0420 0415 0410 041a 0422 041e 0420 0410 0425 ; Espectrometros para Neutrones Lentos en los Reactores de Suecia

    Dahlborg, U.; Skoeld, K. [AB Atomenergi, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, K. -E. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1965-06-15

    efecto combinado de un filtro de Be y un selector con una curva de transmision estrecha. En este espectrometro, lo mismo que en el de Estocolmo, el selector se coloca delante de la muestra para poder registrar simultaneamente datos a diferentes angulos de observacion. En el reactor R2 se encuentra tambien instalado un espectrometro triaxial de cristal. Los autores describen diversas caracteristicas de los instrumentos, tales como las intensidades y los poderes de resolucion alcanzados, e indican en que medida se adaptan a ciertas determinaciones. Demuestran con datos numericos que un aumento relativamente pequeno del poder de resolucion ocasiona una elevada perdida de intensidad. Cuando se comparan los reactores RI y R2 como fuentes neutronicas para experimentos en el orificio de haz, es interesante observar que, si bien el flujo neutronico del reactor R2 es 100 veces mayor, el rendimiento en neutrones es unas 10 veces menor. El fenomeno se debe a la estrechez de los orificios de haz y a los filtros que son necesarios para reducir los flujos gamma y de neutrones rapidos. Como ilustracion, la memoria discute brevemente datos de dispersion en H{sub 2}O obtenidos con los diversos instrumentos. La comparacion demuestra que, para experimentos con el orificio de haz, el reactor de agua pesada presenta ventajas innegables. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja na dvuh shvedskih issledovatel'skih reaktorah K1 v Stokgol'me i R2 v Studsvike, imejutsja vozmozhnosti dlja ispol'zovanija chetyreh razlichnyh spektrometrov nejtronov v opytah po neuprugomu rassejaniju nejtronov. V Stokgol'me na tjazhelovodnom reaktore R1 moshhnost'ju 600-kvt odnovremenno ispol'zujutsja dva spektrometra po vremeni proleta s medlenno dejstvujushhim preryvatelem. Na odnom reaktore my postojanno ispol'zuem berillievyj fil'tr v kachestve monohromatora, v to vremja kak na drugom reaktore mozhno ispol'zovat' libo berillievyj fil'tr, libo kristallicheskij monohromator. Obnaruzheno, chto pri izmerenijah

  3. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  4. KESIAPAN RUMAH SAKIT RUJUKAN HIV-AIDS DI PROVINSI JAWA BARAT DALAM IMPLEMENTASI LAYANAN PENCEGAHAN PENULARAN HIV DARI IBU KE ANAK (PPIA

    Heny Lestary

    2016-06-01

    -AIDS pada ibu rumah tangga sudah semakin mengkhawatirkan dan ibarat fenomena gunung es. Provinsi Jawa Barat sebagai salah satu dari lima provinsi tertinggi di Indonesia dengan jumlah kasus HIV-AIDS dan merupakan provinsi dengan angka kematian ibu dan bayi tertinggi. Program Pencegahan Penularan HIV dari Ibu ke Anak (PPIA merupakan program yang sudah dilakukan di Indonesia sejak tahun 2004. Kemenkes sudah menunjuk beberapa rumah sakit untuk dapat menjadi pusat rujukan PPIA di wilayahnya, namun belum diketahui bagaimana implementasinya selama ini. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui bagaimana kesiapan layanan PPIA di RS Rujukan HIV-AIDS di Provinsi Jawa Barat, yakni : RS HS, RSUD KBd, RSUD KBk, dan RS MM. Kesiapan layanan PPIA dilihat dari bagaimana kesiapan tenaga medis dan tenaga pendukung dalam memberikan layanan PPIA, kesiapan sarana dan prasarana, serta kendala layanan. Penelitian dilakukan pada tahun 2014 dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesiapan ke-empat RS berbeda-beda dalam implementasi layanan PPIA, namun sebagian besar karena ketidaksiapan dalam hal sarana prasarana (reagen, obat-obatan, alat kesehatan, ruangan, pemeriksaan laboratorium, kurangnya pelatihan, masih adanya stigma dari tenaga kesehatan, serta belum adanya jaminan keamanan dan keselamatan bagi tenaga kesehatan pemberi layanan PPIA. Kesimpulannya adalah RS HS merupakan yang paling siap dalam implementasi layanan PPIA, RSUD KBd masih harus melengkapi obat-obatan dan pemeriksaan laboratorium terkait HIV-AIDS, RSUD KBk masih memerlukan sosialisasi dan pelatihan agar tidak ada stigma dari tenaga kesehatan, RS MM masih memerlukan sosialisasi, pelatihan, kelengkapan alat pelindung diri, komitmen pimpinan dan sebagainya agar dapat segera memberikan layanan persalinan bagi ibu positif HIV. Kata kunci: HIV-AIDS, PPIA, RS, Jawa Barat 

  5. Pengaruh dan Pertimbangan Faktor Lingkungan untuk Peningkatan Kualitas pada Lini Produksi

    H Harisupriyanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pemborosan (waste yang berasal dari proses produksi muncul sebagai indikasi adanya problem dandampak terhadap lingkungan, kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja.Indikasi wastetersebutadalahakibatdaridefect waste di mesin finishing dan waiting waste di mesin mounting. Defect waste yang tinggimengakibatkan Environment, Health and Safety (EHS waste yang tinggi pula. Untuk itu perusahaanharus melakukancontinous process improvement yang terus menerus.Tujuan yang ingin dicapaiadalah identifikasi waste di proses produksi, mencari akar penyebab permasalahan dan memberikanalternatif solusi yang dapat dilakukan perusahaan untuk mengurangi dampak timbulnyawasteIdentifikasi waste dilakukan berdasarkan pada, E-DOWNTIME yakni sembilan jenis waste.Jenis waste ini meliputi Environmental, Safety, and Health (EHS, Defect, OverProduction, Waiting,Not utilizing employee, Transportation, Inventory, Motion, dan Excessive processing waste. Untukmemetakan proses yang mengindikasikan adanya waste (pemborosan, diperlukan value streammapping.Pemetaan tersebut bertujuan untuk mencari critical waste.Berdasarkan pada critical wastemaka dicari akar permasalahan yang dapat dirunut dengan penggunaan RCA (root cause analisys.Untuk mencari prioritas resiko yang paling tinggi terhadap wastediperlukan FMEA (failure mode andeffect analisys. Dengan adanya prioritas tersebut maka alternatif solusi dapat dihasilkan.Alternatifperbaikan yang diusulkan adalah pembentukan timTotal Productive Maintenance, perbaikan kualitasproduk, serta eksperimen terhadap pengurangan pemakaian komponen. Dengan pendekatan valuemanagementmakapembentukan dan pelatihan untuk timTotal Productive Maintenance adalahalternatif terbaiknya. Hasil akhir dari alternatif ini adalah meningkatnya nilai sigmaproduk dari 2,91menjadi 3,08 Kenaikan sigmatersebut memberikan indikator perbaikan pada lini produksi dandampak lingkungan.Kata Kunci: EHS, waste, RCA, FMEA, sigma. Waste that comes from the process of production appears as

  6. ANALISIS KEJADIAN STEAM GENERATOR TUBE RUPTURE (SGTR BERDASARKAN SKENARIO MIHAMA UNIT 2

    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada tanggal 9 Februari 1991, terjadi kecelakaan putusnya pipa pemanas pembangkit uap (Steam Generator Tube Rupture/SGTR pada PLTN Mihama Unit 2. Dari kejadian tersebut, diperoleh catatan sekuensi kecelakaan berupa aktuasi sistem proteksi dan fitur keselamatan terekayasa dalam memitigasi kebocoran dari sistem primer ke sistem sekunder. Urutan sekuensi tersebut kemudian diterapkan pada PWR standar Jepang untuk disimulasikan menggunakan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.2. Tujuannya untuk mengevaluasi konsekuensi yang terjadi bila kecelakaan tersebut terjadi pada PWR standar Jepang. Parameter yang dibandingkan adalah laju alir kebocoran, perubahan tekanan primer dan sekunder dan perubahan level di dalam pressurizer. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan perbedaan lama waktu kejadian SGTR hingga berhentinya kebocoran yang berlangsung lebih pendek pada PWR standar Jepang. Selain itu jumlah pendingin primer yang bocor dan jumlah uap yang terlepas dari MSRV tercatat lebih besar daripada PWR Mihama unit 2. Karakter aliran kebocoran, fluktuasi tekanan primer, dan level pressurizer sedikit berbeda pada tahap-tahap awal kejadian, namun relatif sama pada tahap akhir ketika aliran kebocoran dapat dihentikan. Hasil simulasi juga menunjukkan perlunya tindakan operator secara manual yang ditunjukkan dari isolasi sistem air umpan bantu (AFW pada pembangkit uap yang bocor, aktuasi katup pelepas uap (MSRV pada pembangkit uap yang utuh dan aktuasi auxiliary spray dan power operated relief valve (PORV pada pressurizer untuk mengantisipasi kejadian sebagai bagian dari prosedur operasi darurat. Kata kunci: SGTR, PWR Mihama Unit 2, PWR standar Jepang   On February 9,1991, a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR took place at the Mihama Unit No. 2. From that event, the accident sequence representing the actuation of protection system and engineered safety feature to mitigate the leak from primary system to secondary system is recorded. That sequence is then applied on the

  7. Kontroversi Pelarangan Ahmadiyah di Indonesia: Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM

    Imral Rizki Rahim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pada Juni 2008 Pemerintah Indonesia mengeluarkan Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB Nomor 3/2008, Nomor Kep-03/A/JA/6/2008, dan Nomor 199 tahun 2008 tanggal 9 Juni 2008 oleh Menteri Agama, Menteri Dalam Negeri, dan Jaksa Agung yang berisi tentang Peringatan dan Perintah kepada Penganut, Anggota, dan/atau Pengurus Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia dan masyarakat yang melarang para anggota Jemaat Ahmadiyah untuk menyebarkan penafsiran mereka yang tidak sesuai dengan pokok-pokok agama Islam. Pelarangan ini menimbulkan kritik dari masyarakat luas bahwa Indonesia telah melanggar Pasal 18 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR terkait hak pemeluk kepercayaan Ahmadiyah untuk menjalankan agamanya. Penelitian ini ditulis dengan mengumpulkan data sekunder yaitu sumber hukum internasional terkait pengaturan hak asasi manusia serta penerapannya dalam berbagai kasus, bahan-bahan kepustakaan, dan media internet yang berhubungan dengan penerapan pengaturan kebebasan beragama dalam hukum internasional terutama dalam menerapkan pembatasan terhadap kebebasan tersebut. Data-data tersebut kemudian digunakan untuk penggambaran suatu objek permasalahan yang berupa sinkronisasi fakta yang terjadi dengan pengaturan dan teori yang berlaku. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa dalam mengeluarkan surat keputusan bersama tiga menteri menyangkut Pelarangan Ahmadiyah, Indonesia telah melaksanakan haknya sesuai dengan Pasal 18 ayat 31 CCPR dalam membatasi suatu manifestasi keagamaan. Pembatasan ini telah dibentuk berdasarkan hukum untuk melindungi ketertiban dan keselamatan masyarakat, serta bukan merupakan peraturan yang bersifat diskriminatif karena SKB tersebut tidak hanya ditujukan kepada pemeluk Ahmadiyah tetapi juga untuk masyarakat umum. Terpenuhinya ketentuan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia telah membatasi kebebasan beragama sesuai dengan penerapan dalam hukum internasional. Abstract On June 2008, the Government of Indonesia enacted the Joint

  8. EVALUASI EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN SISTEM MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN ISO 14001 DI PABRIK BAN XYZ-JAWA BARAT (Evaluation on The Effectiveness of Implementation ISO 14001 Environmental Management System in XYZ Tyre Factory-West Java

    Muhammad Ryan Natasaputra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pabrik ban XYZ yang berlokasi di Jawa Barat merupakan salah satu industri ban yang telah memiliki komitmen untuk meningkatkan kinerja lingkungan dengan menerapkan Sistem Manajemen Lingkungan (SML ISO 14001. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001 berdasarkan kinerja manajemen, kinerja lingkungan, dan kesesuaian dengan sertifikasi Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18001. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan dua metode, yaitu pengumpulan data primer melalui pemantauan lapang dan data sekunder melalui dokumen-dokumen yang berhubungan dengan SML serta data hasil pengukuran Aspek Lingkungan Penting (ALP. Data tersebut dievaluasi dan dibandingkan dengan SNI 19-14001-2005, program lingkungan perusahaan, serta peraturan perundangan yang berlaku agar diketahui efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan lingkungan telah sesuai dengan tiga komitmen utama dalam SNI 19-14001-2005. Prosedur identifikasi dan klasifikasi ALP telah dilaksanakan dengan metode penilaian terhadap empat kriteria yang dibuat oleh pihak manajemen pabrik ban. Data hasil pengukuran ALP yang dievaluasi meliputi kebisingan, debu, limbah cair industri, dan penggunaan air. Efektivitas penerapan SML ISO 14001 di pabrik ban melalui hasil penilaian kinerja manajemen sebesar 80% dan kinerja lingkungan dari data hasil pengukuran ALP sebesar 81,3%, secara umum membuktikan bahwa penerapan SML ISO 14001 dengan nilai pencapaian sebesar 80,7% telah efektif dalam memenuhi tujuan dari komitmen pencegahan pencemaran, penerapan program lingkungan, dan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku. Ketidaksesuaian disebabkan oleh masalah komunikasi, kesadaran karyawan, dan kelayakan teknis. Dalam hal keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja terdapat integrasi dengan OHSAS 18001 melalui penggunaan Alat Pelindung Diri (APD dan prosedur tanggap darurat.   ABSTRACT XYZ tyre factory in West Java is one of the tyre

  9. The number of sectors and other risk factors related to fatigue among shorthaul commercial pilots in Indonesia

    Inne Yuliawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Kelelahan penerbang sipil, termasuk pada penerbangan jarak dekat, dapat mempengaruhi fungsikognitif penerbang sehingga membahayakan keselamatan penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasifaktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kelelahan penerbang sipil pada penerbangan jarak dekat di Indonesia.Metode: Desain penelitian potong lintang dengan purposive sampling dilakukan di antara penerbang jarak dekatdengan rating Boeing 737 series yang melaksanakan pengujian kesehatan di Balai Kesehatan Penerbanganperiode 5-26 Mei, 2014. Kelelahan diukur dengan Self-Reporting Questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS.Data dikumpulkan dengan pengisian kuesioner oleh subyek yang meliputi demografi, pekerjaan, kehilanganwaktu tidur (Epworth Sleepiness Scale - ESS, faktor personal, dukungan manajemen, dan FSS. Analisis regresilinear dipakai untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor dominan berkaitan kelelahan.Hasil: Di antara 785 penerbang yang melaksanakan pengujian kesehatan, 382 bersedia berpartisipasi, dan239 penerbang yang memenuhi kriteria. Rata-rata skala kelelahan adalah 4,66 (standar deviasi 1,202.Faktor-faktor dominan yang mempertinggi skala kelelahan adalah jumlah sektor 24 jam terakhir, jam terbangpenugasan di luar jadwal, dan kehilangan waktu tidur. Setiap penambahan 1 sektor dalam 24 jam terakhirmeningkatkan 0,371 skala kelelahan [koefisien regresi (β = 0,371; P = 0,000]. Selanjutnya setiap penambahan1 jam terbang penugasan di luar jadwal mempertinggi 0,033 skala kelelahan (β = 0,033; P = 0,000. Sedangkan setiap penambahan 1 nilai ESS mempertinggi 0,043 skala kelelahan (β = 0,043; P = 0,008.Kesimpulan: Penambahan jumlah sektor 24 jam terakhir, kehilangan waktu tidur, dan penambahanjam terbang penugasan di luar jadwal mempertinggi risiko kelelahan di antara penerbang sipil padapenerbangan jarak dekat di Indonesia. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:69-75Kata kunci: kelelahan, jumlah sektor, penerbang sipil, Indonesia

  10. Flight Hours in 7 Consecutive Days and Physical Exercise among the Civil Pilot in Indonesia

    Harry Wicaksana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang Tidak tersedianya waktu merupakan salah satu hambatan melakukan latihan fisik yang sering dilaporkan di negara berkembang. Berdasarkan Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil bagian 121, jam terbang maksimal pilot sipil komersial dalam 7 hari terakhir adalah 30 jam. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai hubungan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik pada pilot sipil di Indonesia. Metode Penelitian potong lintang terhadap 600 orang pilot sipil yang melakukan pengujian kesehatan personil penerbangan di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada bulan April 2016 dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi/ekslusi.  Data yang dikumpulkan yaitu karakteristik demografi, pekerjaan, kebiasaan olahraga, tinggi dan berat badan. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan wawancara dan pemeriksaan fisik. Pilot dikategorikan memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai rekomendasi ACSM apabila melakukan latihan fisik dengan intensitas sedang selama 150 menit per minggu atau latihan fisik dengan intensitas berat selama 75 menit per minggu. Hasil Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir merupakan faktor dominan terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir < 3,5 jam, maka pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir 3,5-14 jam berisiko 24% lebih rendah memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai [RRa= 0,76; p=0,032]. Simpulan Faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik adalah jam terbang 7 hari terakhir. Kata kunci: Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir, kebiasaan latihan fisik, pilot sipil Indonesia  Background The most frequently reported barrier of doing physical exercise in developed countries is lack of time. Based on the Civil Aviation Safety Regulation part 121, the maximum working hour for commercial pilot in 7 consecutive days is 30 hours. The study objective is to identify the relation between flight hours in 7 consecutive days and the physical exercise habit among the civil pilots in

  11. A Survey of the Fuel Cycles Operated in the United Kingdom; Etude d'ensemble sur les cycles de combustible au Royaume-Uni; Obzor toplivnykh tsiklov, ispol'zuemykh v soedinennom korolevstve; Estudi