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Sample records for keratoconjunctivitis infectious

  1. Diversity of Moraxella spp. strains recovered from infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis cases in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Vanessa; Zunino, Pablo

    2013-11-15

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is the most common ocular disease that affects cattle throughout the world and it has a very significant economic impact. IBK is caused by members of the genus Moraxella and therapeutic and preventive measures have shown limited success. Vaccines, most of them chemically inactivated bacterins, generally induce a limited protection. In this study, the genetic diversity of Uruguayan clinical Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi isolates was assessed by RAPD-PCR, ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR fingerprinting. Also, antibiotic resistance of the Moraxella spp. isolates was assessed utilizing the disk diffusion method. When interspecific molecular diversity was assessed, different bands patterns were observed even within a single outbreak of IBK, showing the coexistence of different genotypes of Moraxella spp. The high genetic diversity within M. bovis and M. bovoculi isolates did not permit to correlate isolates DNA fingerprints with geographical origins, dates or even with both different Moraxella species. Antibiotics resistance patterns showed significant differences between M. bovis and M. bovoculi. This is the first study of diversity that includes M. bovis and M. bovoculi associated to IBK cases. Genetic diversity did not allow to correlate DNA fingerprints of the isolates with geographical origins, isolation dates or even both different Moraxella species. Antibiotics resistance patterns showed differences between M. bovis and M. bovoculi. This remarkable variation within isolates could explain the partial protection induced by commercial vaccines. All these findings could be important for the design of prevention or treatment strategies against IBK.

  2. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic......Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  3. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

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    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  4. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdirahman A; O'Neill, Christopher J; Thomson, Peter C; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2012-07-27

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg counts were moderate and opposite between pre

  5. Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis following keratoconjunctivitis.

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    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2014-01-01

    Endophthalmitis due to endogenous or exogenous bacteria is a rare infection of the eye. We report a case of endophthalmitis following Listeria monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis in a 27-year-old healthy white male presenting with hand motion visual acuity, right eye mucopurulent conjunctivitis, elevated intraocular pressure, and pigmented hypopyon 6 months post-keratectomy. The conjunctivitis was unresponsive to a 5-day course of topical tobramycin eye drops, and the patient developed keratitis with pain that progressed to endophthalmitis after 21 days. Diagnostic B-scan revealed vitreous exudates. Intraocular fluid specimen showed Gram-positive organisms and the aqueous culture grew penicillin-/aminoglycoside-sensitive L. monocytogenes. The patient was given intravitreal and systemic vancomycin and ceftazidime. The eye was unresponsive to intravenous penicillin and gentamicin; the anterior chamber progressively flattened and developed phthisis bulbi. L. monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis may lead to bacterial endophthalmitis. Prompt culture and early antibiotic therapy are recommended.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis following keratoconjunctivitis

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    Shoughy SS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samir S Shoughy,1 Khalid F Tabbara1–31The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Endophthalmitis due to endogenous or exogenous bacteria is a rare infection of the eye. We report a case of endophthalmitis following Listeria monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis in a 27-year-old healthy white male presenting with hand motion visual acuity, right eye mucopurulent conjunctivitis, elevated intraocular pressure, and pigmented hypopyon 6 months post-keratectomy. The conjunctivitis was unresponsive to a 5-day course of topical tobramycin eye drops, and the patient developed keratitis with pain that progressed to endophthalmitis after 21 days. Diagnostic B-scan revealed vitreous exudates. Intraocular fluid specimen showed Gram-positive organisms and the aqueous culture grew penicillin-/aminoglycoside-sensitive L. monocytogenes. The patient was given intravitreal and systemic vancomycin and ceftazidime. The eye was unresponsive to intravenous penicillin and gentamicin; the anterior chamber progressively flattened and developed phthisis bulbi. L. monocytogenes keratoconjunctivitis may lead to bacterial endophthalmitis. Prompt culture and early antibiotic therapy are recommended.Keywords: conjunctivitis, L. monocytogenes, endophthalmitis

  7. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  8. Medicamentosa keratoconjunctivitis: A case report

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    Chiemela C. Okoro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of medicamentosa keratoconjunctivitis in a 42-year-old woman who complained of eye redness, blurred vision and pain after using inappropriate medications for treatment. Examination revealed severe conjunctival injection as well as punctate stains on the corneas. The patient was advised to stop her former medications and was prescribed an artificial tear supplement, an antibiotic-steroid combination and a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Possible conditions that could elicit similar clinical features are highlighted. The purpose of the case report is to raise issues relating to drug-induced allergic/sensitivity reactions based on recent clinical and experimental reports and also the roles of active ingredients and preservatives. Keywords: Superficial punctate epitheliopathy; Medicamentosa; Factitious disease; Dry eye syndrome; Benzalkonium chloride

  9. uv keratoconjunctivitis vs. established dose effect relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulvady, N.U.

    1976-01-01

    A patient who received a uv dose to his eyes 11 times greater than the photokeratitic threshold of Pitts and 4 1 / 2 times the photokeratitic threshold as found by Leach. The patient had severe keratoconjunctivitis for 3 days and did not develop any keratitis

  10. Listeria monocytogenes associated kerato-conjunctivitis in four horses in Norway.

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    Revold, Tobias; Abayneh, Takele; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Kleppe, Signe L; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto; Hellings, Robert A; Sørum, Henning

    2015-11-09

    Listeria monocytogenes has been reported to cause various infectious diseases in both humans and animals. More rarely, ocular infections have been reported. To our knowledge, only two cases of Listeria keratitis have been described in horses. We report kerato-conjunctivitis in four Norwegian horses associated with L. monocytogenes. Clinically, all cases were presented with recurrent unilateral kerato-conjunctivitis. L. monocytogenes bacteria were isolated from swab samples from all cases, and cytology carried out in 3 cases was indicative of L. monocytogenes infection. The present report describes the first known cases in which L. monocytogenes has been isolated from keratitic lesions in horses in Norway. A potential risk factor may be feeding of silage or haylage, but other sources of infection cannot be ruled out. The phenotypic features including antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of the isolates are described. Laboratory detection of L. monocytogenes demands extra caution since only low numbers of bacteria were detected in the eye-swabs, probably due to the low volume of sample material and the intracellular niche of the bacterium. A general poor response to treatment in all these cases indicates that clinicians should pay extra attention to intensity and duration of treatment if L. monocytogenes is identified in connection with equine kerato-conjunctivitis.

  11. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

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    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia.

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    Tabbara, Khalid F; Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2010-10-24

    Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8

  13. Immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs: current perspectives on management

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    Dodi PL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pier Luigi Dodi Department of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS is a frequent canine ophthalmic disease, resulting from the deficiency of one or more elements in the precorneal tear film. There are different known causes of KCS in dogs, including congenital, metabolic, infectious, drug induced, neurogenic, radiation, iatrogenic, idiopathic, and immune mediated, though the last one is the most prevalent form in dogs. Initially, clinical signs of KCS include blepharospasm caused by ocular pain, mucoid to mucopurulent ocular discharge, and conjunctival hyperemia; secondary bacterial infection may also occur, with chronicity, corneal epithelial hyperplasia, pigmentation, neovascularization, and corneal ulceration. The diagnosis of KCS is based on the presence of consistent clinical signs and measurement of decreased aqueous tear production using the Schirmer tear test. Therapy is based on administering the following topical drugs: ocular lubricant, mucolytics, antibiotics, corticosteroids, pilocarpine, and immunomodulators. These last drugs (eg, cyclosporine, pimecrolimus, and tacrolimus have immunosuppressive activity and stimulate tear production. Furthermore, the nerve growth factor is a new subject matter of the research. Although these therapies are advantageous, stimulation of natural tear production seems to provide the highest recovery in clinical signs and prevention of vision loss. The goal of the following article is to describe the recent developments about KCS in dogs emphasizing the use of new therapies. Keywords: dogs, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treatment, NGF

  14. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

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    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  15. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  16. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

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    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  17. Primary Sjögren's syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis sicca: Diagnostic methods, frequency and social disease aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte

    ophthalmology, Sjögren's syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, conjunctiva, dry eye, Schirmer-1 test, Rose Bengal score, break-up time, tear film, Copenhagen criteria......ophthalmology, Sjögren's syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, conjunctiva, dry eye, Schirmer-1 test, Rose Bengal score, break-up time, tear film, Copenhagen criteria...

  18. Acquisition of vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis after bone marrow transplantation.

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    Tabbara, Khalid F; Nassar, Amr; Ahmed, Syed Osman; Al Mohareb, Fahad; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2008-09-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) result from genetic and environmental factors. We present patients who had no history of atopic disorders before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and who seem to have acquired VKC or AKC from their donors, who had atopic disorders. Observational case series. The patients in this study were part of a cohort of patients who had undergone allogeneic hemapoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from January 1997 through December 2007. Of 621 HSCT recipients, four recipients who were free of allergic disorders acquired VKC or AKC from their afflicted donors after HSCT. Each patient underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, determination of the total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and conjunctival scrapings. Four (0.64%) of 621 patients who had undergone HSCT acquired VKC or AKC after BMT. The donors had VKC or atopic dermatitis. In addition, in two of these four patients, asthma developed. One patient had elevated total serum IgE. Conjunctival scrapings of all four patients revealed the presence of eosinophils. One patient had concurrent graft-versus-host disease. VKC and AKC are systemic allergic disorders characterized by local ocular manifestations. This report suggests the possibility of the acquisition of VKC or AKC after BMT by adoptive transfer.

  19. Supratarsal injection of triamcinolone for severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis in children

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    Alexandre Xavier da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the use of supratarsal injection of triamcinolone acetonide in severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC in children. Methods: Patients included in this open clinical trial were those with severe VKC-associated with keratitis, gelatinous limbal infiltrates, and/or giant papillae, with a history of recurrence and resistance to conventional topical antiallergic agents. Patients were treated with a supratarsal injection of 20 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Results: Analysis included 27 injections in 23 eyes of 17 patients with severe allergic keratoconjunctivitis. Mean age was 12.3 (range: 7-19 years. Mean follow-up time was 39.3 months (SD=19.21. In the 17 patients, the disease was successfully controlled for an average of 3.6 months (range: 1-16, during which allergy symptoms and signs were significantly improved, with complete resolution of lid edema and conjunctival chemosis, significant decline of pannus and keratitis, and reduction of giant papillae size. Conclusion: Treatment of severe, acute VKC in children with supratarsal injection of 20 mg triamcinolone acetonide showed satisfactory results and was well tolerated by patients; it may therefore constitute a safe option for severe and challenging cases. While full disease remission was not achieved, a significant improvement was found in ocular allergy symptoms and signs, with a reduction in the frequency of acute recurrences.

  20. Corneal complications and visual impairment in vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, A.S.; Aaqil, B.; Siddiqui, A.; Nazneen, Z.; Farooq, U.

    2017-01-01

    Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis (VKC) is an infrequent but serious form of allergic conjunctivitis common in warm and humid areas where air is rich in allergens. It affects both eyes asymmetrically. Although VKC is a self-limiting disease but visions affecting corneal complications influence the quality of life in school children. The aim of this study was to list the corneal complications due to this condition and to find out the extent of visual impairment among VKC patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Hospital on 290 eyes of diagnosed cases of VKC. The diagnosis of VKC was made on the basis of history and examination. Visual acuity was recorded using Snellen's notation and visual impairment was classified according to World Health Organization classification for visual disabilities. Results: The mean age of presentation was 10.83+-6.13 years. There were 207 (71.4%) males and 83 (28.6%) females. Corneal scarring was observed in 59 (20.3%) eyes. Keratoconus was found to be in 17 (5.9%) eyes. Shield ulcer was detected in 09 (3.1%) eyes while 07 (2.4%) eyes had corneal neovascularization. Majority of the patients with visual loss had corneal scarring and the complication that led to severe visual loss in most of the eyes was Keratoconus. Conclusion: Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis in the presence of corneal complications is a sight threatening disease and can lead to severe visual impairment. (author)

  1. Efficacy and safety of low-dose topical tacrolimus in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

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    Shoughy SS

    2016-04-01

    , cataract, or infectious keratitis. Conclusion: Low-dose topical tacrolimus 0.01% solution is effective and safe in the management of patients with refractory VKC. Keywords: topical, solution, tacrolimus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis

  2. Outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in medical residents.

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    Melendez, Carlos Pantoja; Florentino, Margarita Matias; Martinez, Irma Lopez; Lopez, Herlinda Mejia

    2009-01-01

    The present work documents an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among ophthalmology residents, its influence in the presentation of the community cases, the use of molecular techniques for its diagnosis, and the implementation of successful control measures for its containment. Isolation of the etiologic agent was achieved using cultured African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (VERO). Through molecular tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, the genotype of the isolated virus was identified. The sequences obtained were aligned with data reported in the NCBI GenBank. A scheme of outbreak control measures was designed to enforce correct sanitary measures in the clinic. The statistical program, Epi info 2002, and openepi were used to determine the attack rate. The Excel Microsoft program was used to elaborate the endemic channel. Nine of the ten samples studied were isolated from the culture and identified by Adenovirus-specifc PCR. Sequencing allowed identification of Ad8 as the agent responsible for the outbreak. The attack rate was 24.39 cases per 100. The epidemic curve allowed identification of a disseminated source in the Institute of Ophthalmology "Conde de Valenciana." It was not possible to calculate the incubation periods among the cases. The endemic channel showed the presence of an epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among the patients that had been cared for at the out-patient services of the institute. One outbreak of a disseminated source caused by Ad8 was detected in the institute among its medical residents, probably associated with relaxation of the habitual sanitary measures during an epidemic of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis among the patients cared for at the institute. The proposed scheme to control the outbreak allowed for its containment and controlled the epidemic of associated cases.

  3. Efficacy and safety of low-dose topical tacrolimus in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

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    Shoughy, Samir S; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical low-dose tacrolimus (0.01%) solution in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). A total of 62 consecutive patients with VKC refractory to conventional treatment were included retrospectively. Tacrolimus 0.01% ophthalmic solution was administered to patients twice daily after discontinuation of all previous topical medications. The duration of treatment ranged from 1 month to 29 months. The clinical symptoms of itching, redness, foreign body sensation, and discharge and the clinical signs of conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, limbal infiltration, Trantas dots, and superficial punctate keratopathy were graded as 0 (normal), 1+ (mild), 2+ (moderate), or 3+ (severe). Assessment was carried out before initiation of therapy and on the last visit after treatment. There were 62 patients with VKC comprising 49 male and 13 female patients. The median age was 12 years (range: 5-47 years). The mean visual acuity improved from 20/30 to 20/25 following treatment. There was statistically significant improvement in symptoms of itching (P<0.001), redness (P<0.001), foreign body sensation (P<0.001), and discharge (P<0.001). Statistically significant improvement was also observed in clinical signs of conjunctival hyperemia (P<0.001), limbal infiltration (P<0.001), Trantas dots (P<0.001), superficial punctate keratopathy (P<0.001), and conjunctival papillary hypertrophy (P<0.001). The solution form of tacrolimus was well tolerated. None of the patients developed elevation of intraocular pressure, cataract, or infectious keratitis. Low-dose topical tacrolimus 0.01% solution is effective and safe in the management of patients with refractory VKC.

  4. Detection of equine herpesvirus in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and comparison of three sampling techniques.

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    Hollingsworth, Steven R; Pusterla, Nicola; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Brault, Stephanie A; Maggs, David J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the role of equine herpesvirus (EHV) in idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis in horses and to determine whether sample collection method affects detection of EHV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six horses without signs of ophthalmic disease. Conjunctival swabs, corneal scrapings, and conjunctival biopsies were collected from 18 horses: 12 clinical cases with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six euthanized controls. In horses with both eyes involved, the samples were taken from the eye judged to be more severely affected. Samples were tested with qPCR for EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA. Quantity of EHV DNA and viral replicative activity were compared between the two populations and among the different sampling techniques; relative sensitivities of the sampling techniques were determined. Prevalence of EHV DNA as assessed by qPCR did not differ significantly between control horses and those with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Sampling by conjunctival swab was more likely to yield viral DNA as assessed by qPCR than was conjunctival biopsy. EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA were not detected in either normal or IKC-affected horses; EHV-2 DNA was detected in two of 12 affected horses but not in normal horses. EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in ophthalmically normal horses and horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Because EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in control horses and in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis, qPCR was not useful for the etiological diagnosis of equine keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival swabs were significantly better at obtaining viral DNA samples than conjunctival biopsy in horses in which EHV-5 DNA was found. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Effect of Topical Cyclosporine in grading of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Krupali Raol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: To evaluate efficacy of topical aqueous solution of 0.05% cyclosporine in first time diagnosed vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC including palpebral, bulbar and mixed form. Methods: 25 patients of VKC received CsA 0.05% aqueous ophthalmic solution in a dosage of one drop every 12 hours in both eyes for 6 months. Follow up visits (day 1, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 6 months. Five symptoms were evaluated and six clinical signs were charted. Total objective score of 13 or more over atleast 3 variables was included (CART – scoring system. Results: Comparison of 1st Day with 2 weeks score showed no significant effect in the score value (t=0.90, df = 24, p<0.1. 1st Day with 3rd month score showed maximum effect in the score value (t = 35.76, df = 24, p<0.0001. 3rd month with 6th month score showed sustained effect of cyclosporine showing no major change in the score line (t test, t = 1.80, df = 24, p <0.05. Conclusion: Topical application of a 0.05% CsA aqueous solution has been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with VKC. CsA could be an important alternative to steroid treatment.

  6. An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis at an outpatient ophthalmology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Doyle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC is an acute eye infection caused by adenovirus. We investigated an outbreak of EKC at an outpatient ophthalmology practice in the context of a suspected community wide increase in EKC activity. A site visit was made to the facility reporting the outbreak. A line list was created of patients clinically diagnosed with EKC at the practice during the previous 5 months. A questionnaire was faxed to all other licensed ophthalmologists in the county regarding recent EKC activity in their facility. Descriptive data analyses were conducted. The outbreak facility reported 37 patients clinically diagnosed with EKC during the previous 5 months. In addition, the single ophthalmologist at the practice also had symptoms compatible with EKC during the outbreak period. Specimens were collected on 4 patients and all were positive for adenovirus serotype 8. Forty percent of ophthalmologists surveyed in the county saw at least one EKC patient in the previous 3 months, and 20% reported a perceived increase in EKC activity in recent months over normal seasonal patterns. The outbreak at the facility likely began as part of a widespread community increase in EKC that may have been amplified at the facility through nosocomial transmission. Medical providers experiencing increases in EKC activity above seasonally expected norms should contact their public health department for assistance with etiologic diagnoses and outbreak control.

  7. A simplified quantitative method for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca from the Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitcher, John P; Shiboski, Caroline H; Shiboski, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    To describe, apply, and test a new ocular grading system for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) using lissamine green and fluorescein.......To describe, apply, and test a new ocular grading system for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) using lissamine green and fluorescein....

  8. Topical tacrolimus for the treatment of severe allergic keratoconjunctivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Liendo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Administration of eye drops containing antihistamines or sodium cromoglycate and its derivatives for the treatment of allergic keratoconjunctivitis is often insufficient and usually requires the addition of corticosteroids. However, the risk of complications, such as glaucoma and cataract, limits the use of corticosteroids to short courses, resulting in inadequate long-term treatment response. Immunosuppressive drugs have been considered as a valid alternative to steroids for atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of topical tacrolimus (TCL in improving the clinical signs of severe allergic keratoconjuctivitis in children. Methods: Patients with severe allergic keratoconjunctivitis associated with corneal epitheliopathy, gelatinous limbal infiltrates, and/or papillary reaction, along with a history of recurrences and resistance to conventional topical anti-allergy agents, were included in this open clinical trial. Patients were treated with 0.03% TCL ointment for ocular use. A severity score ranging from 0 to 9, with 9 being the highest and 0 being the lowest, was assigned based on signs observed on biomicroscopy prior to and following TCL treatment. Results: Analyses included 66 eyes of 33 patients. After a mean follow-up period of 13 months (range, 12-29 months, TCL treatment significantly decreased the mean symptom score severity for the right (from 5.56 ± 1.18 to 2.76 ± 1.5; p<0.001 and left (from 5.94 ± 1.16 to 2.86 ± 1.64; p<0.001. Conclusion: Topical TCL was effective and significantly improved the clinical signs of allergic keratoconjuctivitis in children. Thus, it is a potential new option for severe and challenging cases of ocular allergy.

  9. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  10. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  11. [Infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-07

    In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.

  12. Infectious Diseases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-29

    of sufficient severity, infectious hepatitis may produce hypoglycemia or hepatic failure. Severe hypoglycemia is also a common danger in neonatal ...emergency situations geoier~3ly involve the correction of severe fluid and electrolyte or acid-base ;atbnormalities. Severe hypoglycemia or anoxia... causes widespread metabolic responses in the host and in addition, leads to nutritional deficiencies. Localized infections may also result in metabolic

  13. Extensive superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis in Graves’ disease: case report and mini-review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelala E

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala, Hala El Rami, Ali Dirani, Henry Fakhoury, Ali Fadlallah Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK is characterized as an inflammation of the superior bulbar conjunctiva with predominant involvement of the superior limbus and adjacent epithelial keratitis.Methods: A 51-year-old woman, with a history of medically controlled Graves’ disease was seen with an extensive SLK involving 5 mm of the superior cornea.Results: Total remission was observed with topical steroids (DXM. Recurrence was observed 1 week after steroid discontinuation, and steroidal treatment was reintroduced with tapering over 1 month. Total remission was then observed for 1 year. Conclusion: Extensive keratitis and vascular pannus in SLK is rarely reported. This form could be treated with topical steroids. Tapering treatment remains essential for long-term success. Keywords: superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory drugs, dexamethasone, triamcinolone, Graves’ disease

  14. Canine oral mucosa evaluation as a potential autograft tissue for the treatment of unresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Rose L; Smith, Jodi D; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Labial mucosa transplantation for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has been reported recently. Postoperative alleviation of clinical signs was noted and assumed to be the result of labial salivary glands providing lubrication to the ocular tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of minor salivary glands (MSG) in the canine oral mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies were collected from six dogs that died (n = 1) or were euthanized (n = 5) for reasons unrelated to this study. The breeds included were two Doberman Pinschers, one Labrador Retriever, one Portuguese Water Dog, one German Shepherd Dog, and one mixed canine. Three were spayed females, and three were castrated males with the median age of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). Samples were obtained by an 8-mm punch biopsy at the following locations of the canine oral cavity: upper rostral labial mucosa at midline, lower rostral labial mucosa at midline, upper labial mucosa near the commissure, lower labial mucosa near the commissure, and buccal mucosa approximately 1 cm caudal to the commissure. Samples were routinely processed with hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy. At the selected locations, no MSG or other secreting cells were detected. Minor salivary glands are not associated with alleviation of canine KCS symptoms following labial mucosa transplantation. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism leading to the transient improvement of KCS symptoms in canine patients following labial mucosa transplantation. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  16. TH17 cells mediate inflammation in a novel model of spontaneous experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis with neural damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kitamura, Kazuya; Han, Soo Jung; Kelsall, Brian

    2017-09-27

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects one third of the population worldwide. In prior studies, experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis (EALK) induced by desiccating stress in mice has been used as a model of DED. This model is complicated by a requirement for exogenous epithelial cell injury and administration of anticholinergic agents with broad immunologic effects. We sought to develop a novel mouse model of EALK and to demonstrate the responsible pathogenic mechanisms. CD4 + CD45RB high naive T cells with and without CD4 + CD45RB low regulatory T cells were adoptively transferred to C57BL/10 recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- mice. The eyes, draining lymph nodes, lacrimal glands, and surrounding tissues of mice with and without spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis were evaluated for histopathologic changes, cellular infiltration, and cytokine production in tissues and isolated cells. Furthermore, the integrity of the corneal nerves was evaluated using whole-tissue immunofluorescence imaging. Gene-deficient naive T cells or RAG2-deficient hosts were evaluated to assess the roles of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-23 in disease pathogenesis. Finally, cytokine levels were determined in the tears of patients with DED. EALK developed spontaneously in C57BL/10 Rag2 -/- mice after adoptive transfer of CD4 + CD45RB high naive T cells and was characterized by infiltration of CD4 + T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. In addition to lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis, mice had damage to the corneal nerve, which connects components of the lacrimal functional unit. Pathogenic T-cell differentiation was dependent on IL-23p40 and controlled by cotransferred CD4 + CD45RB low regulatory T cells. T H 17 rather than T H 1 CD4 + cells were primarily responsible for EALK, even though levels of both IL-17 and IFN-γ were increased in inflammatory tissues, likely because of their ability to drive expression of CXC chemokines within the cornea and the subsequent influx of myeloid cells

  17. Microarray-based IgE detection in tears of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea; Borghesan, Franco; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A specific allergen sensitization can be demonstrated in approximately half of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients by conventional allergic tests. The measurement of specific IgE in tears using a multiplex allergen microarray may offer advantages to identify local sensitization to a specific allergen. In spring-summer 2011, serum and tears samples were collected from 10 active VKC patients (three females, seven males) and 10 age-matched normal subjects. Skin prick test, symptoms score and full ophthalmological examination were performed. Specific serum and tear IgE were assayed using ImmunoCAP ISAC, a microarray containing 103 components derived from 47 allergens. Normal subjects resulted negative for the presence of specific IgE both in serum and in tears. Of the 10 VKC patients, six resulted positive to specific IgE in serum and/or tears. In three of these six patients, specific IgE was found positive only in tears. Cross-reactivity between specific markers was found in three patients. Grass, tree, mites, animal but also food allergen-specific IgE were found in tears. Conjunctival provocation test performed out of season confirmed the specific local conjunctival reactivity. Multiple specific IgE measurements with single protein allergens using a microarray technique in tear samples are a useful, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool. ImmunoCAP ISAC detects allergen sensitization at component level and adds important information by defining both cross- and co-sensitization to a large variety of allergen molecules. The presence of specific IgE only in tears of VKC patients reinforces the concept of possible local sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Local cyclosporin A therapy of nummuli after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, T; Sundmacher, R

    1997-03-01

    Steroid therapy for persistent or recurrent nummular adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) has little benefit because of the frequent recurrences, and mostly "offers" only serious steroid side effects. Since January 1995, we have treated different patients with nummuli after AK with topical Ciclosporin A (CSA) in an attempt to achieve at least the same symptomatic effect as with steroids, however, without side effects. Here, we report about our experiences in a very severe case with longterm treatment. The patient was sent to our clinic 4 months after AK with confluent nummuli and Descemet folds, more severe in the right than in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.05 in the right and 0.5 in the left eye. Topical CSA 2% 4 times daily was first administered only in the right eye. When after 6 weeks a reduction of nummuli was noted in the right eye, the left eye, which had not improved, was started on the same regime. Therapy was tapered and finally stopped after 12 months in the right and 10 months in the left eye, when only minor changes were left in the corneae. A prompt recurrence of nummuli in both eyes within 4 weeks forced us to resume CSA therapy. At present, both corneae are clear with full vision, and this result is stable with 1 drop of CSA daily. No side effects of CSA therapy have been noted. The disappearance of nummuli with topical CSA and even more the reappearance of nummuli after cessation of CSA therapy show that topical CSA is about as effective as topical steroids in the symptomatic treatment of non-scarred nummuli after KE without the serious steroid side effects. Topical CSA treatment of nummuli after KE is, therefore, a very recommendable alternative for the potentially dangerous steroid therapy. Generally valid data on risk of recurrences, dosage and general effectiveness could only be learned from prospective studies with large numbers of AK patients, which, however, are not available outside epidemics.

  19. Altered cytokine balance in the tear fluid and conjunctiva of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, S C; Jones, D; Ji, Z; Afonso, A; Monroy, D

    1999-09-01

    To compare epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in tear fluid and levels of inflammatory cytokines in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca with those of normal controls. Schirmer 1 tear testing, corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival impression cytology for quantitation of goblet cell density were performed in ten patients with Sjögren's syndrome-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ten asymptomatic normal controls. ELISA was used to detect the concentration of EGF in tear fluid and interleukin 6 in lysates of conjunctival cytology specimens obtained from all subjects. The levels of RNA transcripts encoding inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1alpha_(IL-1alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha_(TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)] as well as a housekeeping gene (G3PDH) were evaluated in conjunctival cytology specimens taken from all subjects by semiquantitative competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Decreased tear fluid EGF concentration was noted in Sjögren's syndrome patients (mean 0.68 +/- 0.59 ng/ml) compared to controls (mean 1.66 +/- 0.45 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Significantly increased levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 RNA transcripts were found in the conjunctival epithelium of Sjögren's syndrome patients compared to controls (P G3PDH was similar in both groups. The concentration of IL-6 protein was significantly higher in Sjögren's syndrome conjunctiva samples (P = 0.012). Tear EGF concentration correlated with Schirmer 1 scores (rho 0.767, P < 0.001), corneal fluorescein staining scores (rho -0.562, P = 0.01), conjunctival goblet cell density (rho 0.661, P = 0.001) and the levels of IL-1alpha_and IL-8 RNA in the conjunctival epithelium (rho -0.677 and -0.747, respectively, P = 0.001). Both IL-1alpha_and IL-8 RNA in the conjunctival epithelium increased as Schirmer 1

  20. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person comes ...

  1. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3-4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.

  2. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious mononucleosis, also called “mono,” is a contagious disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, but other viruses can also cause this disease. It is common among teenagers and young adults, ...

  4. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  5. Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical diet as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment in dogs affected by Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefanis, Simona; Giretto, Daniela; Muscolo, Maria Cristina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Giovazzino, Angela; Centenaro, Sara; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-09-22

    Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS. Current therapies for this ocular disease rely on immunosuppressive treatments. Clinical response to treatment frequently varies from poor to good, depending on the clinical-pathological status of eyes at diagnosis and on individual response to therapy. In the light of the variability of clinical response to therapies, we evaluated the use of an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant nutraceutical diet with potential immune-modulating activity as a therapeutical adjuvant in cKCS pharmacological treatment. Such combination was administered to a cohort of dogs affected by cKCS in which the only immunosuppressive treatment resulted poorly responsive or ineffective in controlling the ocular symptoms. Fifty dogs of different breeds affected by immune-mediated cKCS were equally distributed and randomly assigned to receive either a standard diet (control, n = 25) or the nutraceutical diet (treatment group, n = 25) both combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy over a 60 days period. An overall significant improvement of all clinical parameters (tear production, conjunctival inflammation, corneal keratinization, corneal pigment density and mucus discharge) and the lack of food-related adverse reactions were observed in the treatment group (p metabolic changes could affect the immune response orchestration in a model of immune-mediated ocular disease, as represented by cKCS.

  6. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients under long-term topical corticosteroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahinoglu-Keskek, Nedime; Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Yuksel, Harun; Caca, Ihsan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients who were under long-term topical corticosteroid therapy. Thirty-six eyes of 36 VKC patients with clear cornea and normal videokeratography and 40 eyes of 40 age- and gender-matched normal children were included in the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were noted and detailed ophthalmological examination was performed. Visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL) and RNFL thickness measurements were compared between the groups. To correct ocular magnification effect on RNFL, we used Littmann's formula. All VKC patients had history of topical corticosteroid use and the mean duration of the topical corticosteroid use was 23.8 ± 9.09 months. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP). VKC group had significantly worse VA, greater SE and AL and thinner mean global, superior and inferior RNFL thickness. There were significant negative correlations between the duration of topical corticosteroid use and the mean global, superior and temporal RNFL thickness in VKC group. After correction of magnification effect, VKC group still had thinner mean global, superior and inferior RNFL thickness, and significant difference between the groups in inferior RNFL thickness did not disappear. Significant RNFL thickness difference between the groups suggests a possible effect of long-term corticosteroid use in VKC patients. Because visual field (VF) analysis in pediatric patients is difficult to perform and IOP may be illusive, RNFL thickness measurements in addition to routine examinations in VKC patients may help clinicians in their practice.

  7. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  8. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  9. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  10. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  11. Uso da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril: resultados iniciais Treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis with homeopathic medicine: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maciel de Sena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os primeiros resultados do uso da Homeopatia entre os pacientes com conjuntivite primaveril, avaliados no Serviço de Córnea e Doenças Externas do Hospital São Geraldo. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 13 pacientes apresentando ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, examinados no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 9,5 anos, sendo nove do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino. Todos os pacientes já haviam feito uso de corticóide tópico antes da sua inclusão no estudo. Antes de iniciar o tratamento homeopático, todos os pacientes foram examinados por um dos autores, sendo acompanhados pelo mesmo médico, mensalmente até os seis meses e depois trimestralmente até completar um ano do tratamento homeopático. O tratamento homeopático foi realizado por meio de uma dose única, via oral, baseando-se na totalidade sintomática do paciente. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de melhora dos sinais e sintomas, entre os pacientes, foi de: lacrimejamento e dor ocular 100%; secreção ocular 92%; sensação de corpo estranho 86%; prurido e fotofobia 84%; relatavam diminuição ou ausência do desconforto que a ceratoconjuntivite primaveril provocava nas suas atividades diárias 84%; nódulos de Trantas 62,5%; hiperemia conjuntival 61%; erosões epiteliais 58% e hipertrofia da papila tarsal 8%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere efeito benéfico da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, com melhora dos sinais e sintomas da doença. Sugere-se a realização de estudo duplo-cego, com maior número de casos, para a confirmação desses resultados.PURPOSE: To present a preliminary report of homeopathic medicine in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, at the Cornea service, of the São Geraldo Hospital. METHODS: Thirteen patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, examined from January 1998 to December 1999, were included in the present study

  12. Ceratoconjuntivite cicatricial bilateral associada a líquen plano: relato de caso Lichen planus leading to bilateral cicatrizing keratoconjunctivitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Melo Gadelha Pereira Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de ceratoconjuntivite cicatricial bilateral em uma paciente portadora de líquen plano e apresentamos revisão da literatura mundial sobre esse assunto. Cicatrização conjuntival, com formação de simbléfaro, olho seco, infiltração corneana, neovascularização e afinamento foram os sinais observados. Diagnóstico foi baseado nos achados clínicos e biópsia, após exclusão das causas típicas de ceratoconjuntivite cicatricial.To describe a case of bilateral cicatrizing keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with lichen planus and review the literature. Conjunctiva cicatrization with symblepharon formation, dry eye, corneal infiltration and neovascularization and thinning were the most observed prominent signs. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings and biopsy, after exclusion of typical causes of cicatricial keratoconjuntivitis.

  13. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  14. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  15. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  16. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  17. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  18. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  19. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... and Docket Office's normal business hours, 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., EST. Instructions: All submissions... infectious agents, radiation and chemicals. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that for 2008, the... infectious diseases to patients and HCWs. This fundamental approach is set forth in the guidelines of the...

  20. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  1. Molecular typing and whole genome next generation sequencing of human adenovirus 8 strains recovered from four 2012 outbreaks of keratoconjunctivitis in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson Bs, Daryl M; Kajon, Adriana E; Shudt, Matthew; Quinn, Monica; Newman, Alexandra; Whitehouse, Joan; Greenko, Jane; Adams, Eleanor; St George, Kirsten

    2018-05-11

    Ocular infections caused by human adenovirus (HAdV) are highly contagious. The most severe are usually caused by members of species HAdV-D (types HAdV8, 19, 37, 53, 54, and 56) and can manifest as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), often resulting in prolonged impairment of vision. During the early months of 2012, EKC outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 3 hospitals in New York State (New York and Suffolk Counties). A total of 32 neonates were affected. For 14 of them, HAdV8 was laboratory-confirmed as the causative agent. Nine healthcare workers were also affected with 3 laboratory-confirmed, HAdV-positive EKC. A fourth EKC outbreak was documented among patients attending a private ophthalmology practice in Ulster County involving a total of 35 cases. Epidemiological linkage between the neonatal intensive care unit outbreaks was demonstrated by molecular typing of virus isolates with restriction enzyme analysis and next generation whole genome sequencing. The strain isolated from the ophthalmology clinic was easily distinguishable from the others by restriction enzyme analysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  3. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists ...

  4. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  5. Infectious diseases in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M

    1994-03-16

    Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.

  6. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  7. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  8. Histologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the gland of the third eyelid after topical ophthalmic administration of 2% cyclosporine for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Celal; Celik, Ilhami; Alkan, Fahrettin; Ogurtan, Zeki; Ceylan, Cengiz; Sur, Emrah; Ozkan, Yasemin

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of a 2% solution of cyclosporine (CsA) for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to correlate results with histopathologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the gland of the third eyelid. 24 dogs with bilateral KCS. Lacrimal secretion was measured, using Schirmer tear test (STT) strips. Leukocyte and T-lymphocyte subsets were determined in blood samples. Histopathologic changes as well as CD4+, CD8+, and alpha-naphthyl-acetate esterase-positive (ANAE+) lymphocytes were evaluated. Clinical signs resolved at the end of 1 month in conjunction with significantly increased STT values, compared with baseline values. Fifteen and 30 days after discontinuation of CsA treatment, a decrease was observed in STT values in both eyes; however, only values for the right eye were significantly different. There was a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes and ANAE+ lymphocytes 15 and 30 days after discontinuation of CsA treatment, compared with baseline values. Differences were not observed in number of CD4+ lymphocytes among treatment groups. However, there was a significant decrease in number of CD8+ lymphocytes with reversal of the CD4+:CD8+ in both eyes after CsA treatment for 30 days, compared with the control group. Increased secretory activity and decreased lymphocyte infiltration were characteristic histopathologic findings. Topical administration of a 2% solution of CsA was effective for the treatment of dogs with KCS. Strict follow-up monitoring is required after the cessation of treatment because of the possibility of recurrence of KCS.

  9. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  10. Melioidosis: An emerging infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.

  11. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  12. Immunochemical studies of infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.A.; Lo, T.M.; Levey, B.A.; Graves, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    The coated-tube method of solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been adapted to the detection of heterophile antibodies and antigens of infectious mononucleosis. Disposable plastic hemagglutination trays were coated with purified glycoprotein from horse erythrocytes and the subsequent uptake of antibody from test sera was detected by radio-iodinated horse erythrocyte glycoprotein. In a preliminary survey of sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis and sera from controls, the assay proved highly sensitive and specific. The test system was also useful in a competitive binding assay for immunochemical studies of glycoproteins from other heterophile antigen-positive species

  13. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.

  14. African Journal of Infectious Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Infectious Diseases accepts original research papers on the ... Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018) ... oxygen treatment of HIV-1 infected on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCS) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  16. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ID Specialist? Facts about ID Pocketcard Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural ... from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow ... of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes ...

  17. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  18. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  19. Immediate Effect of 3% Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution on Tear MUC5AC Concentration and Corneal Wetting Ability in Normal and Experimental Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Eon; Song, Jong-Suk; Kang, Boram; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo-Myung

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the immediate effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear MUC5AC concentration, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive goblet cells, and tear film stability in normal and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) rat models. Rats were divided into normal and KCS groups. 3% of diquafosol solution was instilled into the right eye and normal saline into the left eye in both groups. To determine the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration, tears were collected after 3% diquafosol instillation every 5 min up to 20 min. The tear film stability and the numbers of PAS-positive goblet cells were compared in both models. After diquafosol instillation, tear MUC5AC concentration increased steadily for 15 min, at which point the MUC5AC concentration reached its peak. In both normal and KCS groups, the MUC5AC concentration at 15 min was higher after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution (17.77 ± 2.09 ng/ml in the normal group, 9.65 ± 3.51 ng/ml in the KCS group) than that after saline instillation (13.74 ± 2.87 ng/ml in the normal group, 8.19 ± 3.99 ng/ml in the KCS group) (p = 0.018 for both). The corneal wetting ability was significantly longer after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution compared with that after instillation of normal saline in the normal group (p = 0.018). The percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells after the instillation of 3% diquafosol solution was significantly lower than that after instillation of normal saline in both models (p = 0.018 for both). Diquafosol ophthalmic solution was effective in stimulating mucin secretion in both normal and KCS rat models, and the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration was 15 min after diquafosol instillation. The increased tear MUC5AC concentration was accompanied by improved tear film stability and a decreased percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells.

  20. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. H. McBride

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  3. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2002-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  4. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  5. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  6. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    with secondary anterior segment alterations. Data collected from the charts were: age, gender, kind of allergy, time of disease, time that complication appeared after treatment in our Service, side effects and ocular complications. RESULTS: Complications of anterior segment that caused reduction in visual acuity were: shield ulcers, 5 cases; cataract, 3 cases; corneal opacity, 6 cases; ocular perforation, 2 cases and keratoconus 13 cases. There were 7 surgeries: 2 tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, 4 optic keratoplasty, 4 optic penetrating keratoplasty and one superficial keratectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis should be treated in order to prevent ocular complications like keratitis, keratoconus, opacities and cataract.

  7. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  8. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  9. [Infectious diseases - a specialty of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B

    2018-04-01

    Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.

  10. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  11. Prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases in cattle population in Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Q M Monzur Kader; Roy, Sawrab; Alam, Shahrul; Ahmed, Juned

    2018-01-01

    Infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle cause great economic losses of farmers as well as country every year by reducing growth, production and mortality of cattle population. The objective of this research work was to find out the prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases of cattle at Moulvibazar, Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 2285 clinical cases were diagnosed at District Veterinary Hospital in Moulvibazar, Bangladesh during January to June, 2016. Disease diagnosis was ...

  12. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes...... with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial...

  13. The return of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  14. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  15. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  16. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as a...

  17. Applications of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    That outcome, if accurate, would help the clinician in disease management, or the epidemiologist in identifying trends of diseases or the administrator in policy and decision making. Traditionally, infectious disease diagnosis involves identifying the causative agents of infectious diseases through the direct examination, ...

  18. Tickborne infectious diseases: diagnosis and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunha, Burke A

    2000-01-01

    ... to particular flora and fauna. The purpose of Tickborne Infectious Diseases: Diagnosis and Management is to condense in a single book different approaches and paradigms of tickborne infectious diseases. Three chapters are devoted to background information, including the natural history of ticks, the diagnostic procedures of tickborne diseases, and the new tick-transm...

  19. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  20. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  1. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  2. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  3. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  4. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection.

  5. Current diagnosis and management of infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouloumanou, Evridiki K; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a common, usually self-limited disease. However, infectious mononucleosis may present with severe manifestations. Complications may also occur. Consequently, diagnostic and treatment issues regarding infectious mononucleosis are of major importance. In this review, we focus on the evaluation of articles providing diagnosis and treatment data for infectious mononucleosis, published during the past 2 years. Twelve studies, deriving from extended search in PubMed, were included. Nine studies provided diagnosis data. The evaluated diagnostic methods were real-time PCR (RT-PCR), IgM/IgG antibodies measured with different assays [measurement of Epstein-Barr virus viral load (EBV-VL) in peripheral blood, neutrophil/lymphocyte/monocyte counts, C-reactive protein values, and monospot test]. The sensitivities reported for RT-PCR were high. The available treatment data were scarce (three studies). Two of them suggested that antivirals (mainly acyclovir and valacyclovir) may have a role in the treatment of infectious mononucleosis with complications, whereas the remaining study presented novel potential therapeutic patents including 5-substituted uracyle, azacytosine derivatives, and peptides inhibiting EBV-mediated membrane fusion. RT-PCR and measurement of EBV-VL may provide useful tools for the early diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis in cases with inconclusive serological results. Antiviral agents may provide a useful treatment option in patients with severe infectious mononucleosis.

  6. Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

  7. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.

  8. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  9. Infectious mononucleosis and hepatic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Pang, Chongjie; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Qing; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal hepatic function is common in infectious mononucleosis (IM). However, it remains unknown why increased transferase levels are more common than bilirubin abnormalities in IM. The current study aimed to investigate these associations in the Chinese population. A total of 95 patients with IM (47 males and 48 females) were enrolled in the current study, as well as 95 healthy controls. Patients were sorted by sex. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-off values for IM diagnosis and prediction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for IM were analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was determined that alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were significantly higher in patients with IM compared with controls; however, total bilirubin (TB) levels were significantly lower in patients with IM. ROCs demonstrated that, if ALT, AST and GGT concentrations were higher than, or if TB was lower than, cut-off values, they were predictive of IM. Binary logistic regression identified that the risk of IM in patients exhibiting high levels of transferases was significantly increased, particularly in males. Crude ORs in ALT quartile 4 were 21.667 and 10.111 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 38.054 and 9.882, respectively. A significant IM risk of IM was evident in patients with low bilirubin levels and females appeared to be particularly susceptible. For example, crude ORs in quartile 1 were 8.229 and 8.257 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 8.883 and 10.048, respectively. Therefore, the current study identified a positive association between transferase levels and IM and a negative association between TB and IM. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that high transferases are suggestive of IM, particularly in males, whereas low TB is suggestive for IM, particularly in females. PMID:29456696

  10. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  11. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... sibship structure into account. RESULTS: A total of 12,872 cases of infectious mononucleosis were observed during 35.3 million person-years of follow-up. Statistical modelling showed that increasing sibship size was associated with a reduced risk of infectious mononucleosis and that younger siblings...

  12. Infectious optic neuropathies: a clinical update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Mahmoud, Anis; Zeghidi, Hatem; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular findings. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction in selected cases. Treatment of infectious optic neuropathies involves the use of specific anti-infectious drugs and corticosteroids to suppress the associated inflammatory reaction. The visual prognosis is generally good, but persistent severe vision loss with optic atrophy can occur. This review presents optic neuropathies caused by specific viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. PMID:28539795

  13. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  14. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  15. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka

    2017-01-01

    Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...

  16. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...

  17. Infectious Urethritis in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Edwin M.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and recurrent infectious urethritis in men and women is commonly seen by physicians. Since specific therapy varies widely with the type of urethritis present, the proper diagnosis must be clearly established if curative drug therapy is to be selected. It is valuable, therefore, to review the diagnosis and therapy of the various forms of infectious urethritis that are recognized today in both men and women. PMID:1199099

  18. Infectious complications in chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kielberger, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE Infections represent a serious problem in chronic kidney disease (cohort and they are) associated with signifficant morbidity and mortality. The thesis originated in the nephrology division of the Department of Internal Medicine I., Charles University Teaching Hospital and Medical Faculty in Pilsen, an institution with a long standing research activity in the field. In the theoretical part of this work, a general summary of infectious complica...

  19. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  20. Post-infectious sequelae of travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Bradley A; Riddle, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has generally been considered a self-limited disorder which resolves more quickly with expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy given bacteria are the most frequently identified cause. However, epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence identifying a number of chronic health conditions related to these infections has recently emerged which challenges this current paradigm. These include serious and potentially disabling enteric and extra-intestinal long-term complications. Among these are rheumatologic, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature pertaining to three of these post-infectious disorders: reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the relationship of these conditions to diarrhea associated with travel as well as to diarrhea associated with gastroenteritis which may not be specifically travel related but relevant by shared microbial pathogens. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine. Data for this article were identified by searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, and references from relevant articles using search terms "travelers' diarrhea" "reactive arthritis" "Guillain-Barré syndrome" "Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Abstracts were included when related to previously published work. A review of the published literature reveals that potential consequences of travelers' diarrhea may extend beyond the acute illness and these post-infectious complications may be more common than currently recognized. In addition since TD is such a common occurrence it would be helpful to be able to identify those who might be at greater risk of post-infectious sequelae in order to target more aggressive prophylactic or therapeutic approaches to such individuals. It is

  1. Impact of the infectious period on epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Robert R.; Sharkey, Kieran J.

    2018-05-01

    The duration of the infectious period is a crucial determinant of the ability of an infectious disease to spread. We consider an epidemic model that is network based and non-Markovian, containing classic Kermack-McKendrick, pairwise, message passing, and spatial models as special cases. For this model, we prove a monotonic relationship between the variability of the infectious period (with fixed mean) and the probability that the infection will reach any given subset of the population by any given time. For certain families of distributions, this result implies that epidemic severity is decreasing with respect to the variance of the infectious period. The striking importance of this relationship is demonstrated numerically. We then prove, with a fixed basic reproductive ratio (R0), a monotonic relationship between the variability of the posterior transmission probability (which is a function of the infectious period) and the probability that the infection will reach any given subset of the population by any given time. Thus again, even when R0 is fixed, variability of the infectious period tends to dampen the epidemic. Numerical results illustrate this but indicate the relationship is weaker. We then show how our results apply to message passing, pairwise, and Kermack-McKendrick epidemic models, even when they are not exactly consistent with the stochastic dynamics. For Poissonian contact processes, and arbitrarily distributed infectious periods, we demonstrate how systems of delay differential equations and ordinary differential equations can provide upper and lower bounds, respectively, for the probability that any given individual has been infected by any given time.

  2. Splenic Infarction: An Under-recognized Complication of Infectious Mononucleosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; George, Ann; Arnaout, Sami; Wang, Jennifer P; Abraham, George M

    2018-03-01

    Splenic infarction is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. We describe 3 cases of splenic infarction attributed to infectious mononucleosis that we encountered within a 2-month period. We underscore the awareness of this potential complication of infectious mononucleosis and discuss the differential diagnosis of splenic infarction, including infectious etiologies. While symptomatic management is usually sufficient for infectious mononucleosis-associated splenic infarction, close monitoring for other complications, including splenic rupture, is mandated.

  3. Return to play after infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Smith, Julie Anne

    2014-05-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a disease primarily of adolescence and early adulthood. The risk of splenic injury and chronic fatigue make return-to-play decisions a challenge for the clinician caring for athletes with infectious mononucleosis. Data were obtained from the PubMed and MEDLINE databases through December 2012 by searching for epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, management, and the role of the spleen in infectious mononucleosis. Clinical review. Level 4. Infectious mononucleosis is commonly encountered in young athletes. Its disease pattern is variable and can affect multiple organ systems. Supportive care is the cornerstone, with little role for medications such as corticosteroids. Physical examination is unreliable for the spleen, and ultrasound imaging has limitations in its ability to guide return-to-play decisions. Exercise does not appear to place the young athlete at risk for chronic fatigue, but determining who is at risk for persistent symptoms is a challenge. Return-to-play decisions for the athlete with infectious mononucleosis need to be individualized because of the variable disease course and lack of evidence-based guidelines.

  4. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  5. Systems thinking in combating infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2017-09-11

    The transmission of infectious diseases is a dynamic process determined by multiple factors originating from disease pathogens and/or parasites, vector species, and human populations. These factors interact with each other and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanisms of the disease transmission temporally, spatially, and socially. In this article, we provide a comprehensive perspective, named as systems thinking, for investigating disease dynamics and associated impact factors, by means of emphasizing the entirety of a system's components and the complexity of their interrelated behaviors. We further develop the general steps for performing systems approach to tackling infectious diseases in the real-world settings, so as to expand our abilities to understand, predict, and mitigate infectious diseases.

  6. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    During one year, 1979-80, all the contacts between the 836 inhabitants of Upernavik town and the local medical officers were recorded. In the 737 native Greenlanders 1006 contacts (41%) were caused by infectious diseases, representing 705 episodes of disease. The number of contacts per episode...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...... of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...

  7. Agranulocytosis occurrence following recent acute infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoll, Anthony F; Powers, Stanlyn C; Betten, David P

    2017-05-01

    Infectious mononucleosis secondary to Epstein-Barr virus typically follows a relatively benign and self-limited course. A small subset of individuals may develop further progression of disease including hematologic, neurologic, and cardiac abnormalities. A mild transient neutropenia occurring during the first weeks of acute infection is a common finding however in rare cases a more profound neutropenia and agranulocytosis may occur up to 6weeks following the onset of initial symptoms. We describe the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented 26days following an acute infectious mononucleosis diagnosis with agranulocytosis and fever. No source of infection was identified and the patient had rapid improvement in her symptoms and resolution of her neutropenia. The presence of fever recurrence and other non-specific symptoms in individuals 2-6weeks following acute infectious mononucleosis symptom onset may warrant further assessment for this uncommon event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... of blood donors followed up retrospectively for self-reported infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger siblings, and to a lesser degree older siblings, seem to be important in the transmission of EBV within families. Apparently the dogma of low birth order in a sibship as being at the highest risk...

  9. Are cutaneous hypersensitivity tests to inhalant allergens a severity marker for vernal keratoconjunctivitis? Os testes de hipersensibilidade cutânea contra alérgenos inalantes são marcadores de gravidade da ceratoconjuntivite vernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the cutaneous sensitivity to a variety of allergens in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC and to demonstrate the relation between skin response and clinical aspects of the disease. METHODS: Twenty patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis were randomly chosen from the External Disease and Cornea Sector. They were clinically evaluated, and a score ranging from 0 to 20 was applied based on signs and symptoms on ophthalmic examination. All subjects underwent a skin prick test against standardized allergens, such as house dust mites D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Blomia tropicalis, as well as allergens from cat, dog, fungi and feather. RESULTS: Seventy-five per cent of patients were positive for at least one of the allergens tested. House dust mites were responsible for the majority of the cases (75%. There was a poor correlation between the clinical score and sensitivity to allergens (r= - 0.119 for fungi; r= - 0.174 for dog; r= - 0.243 for house dust mites; r= - 0.090 for feather. A significant correlation was found only for cat allergen extract (r = - 0.510; p=0.024. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated poor correlation between cutaneous hypersensitivity tests and clinical findings in patients with vernal keratoconjuntivitis. We concluded that skin response to inhalant allergens is not a useful test to identify clinical severity and chronicity of inflammatory process in this disease.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da sensibilização cutânea a diferentes aeroalérgenos em pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite vernal e a correlação entre esta e os aspectos clínicos da doença. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes do setor de doenças externas e córnea foram aleatoriamente convidados para participar deste estudo. Os pacientes foram avaliados e a eles foi atribuído um escore clínico variando de 0 a 20 de acordo com sinais e sintomas presentes no exame oftalmológico. Todos os pacientes foram

  10. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Chapman, Stephen J; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H; Walley, Andrew J; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K H; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J Anthony; Williams, Thomas N; Berkley, James A; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L S; Fine, Paul E M; Goh, Denise L M; Hill, Adrian V S

    2010-06-03

    The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam. We had previously tested 20 other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (at positions -639, -292, -163, +1320, and +3415 [all relative to CISH]) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multiple-SNP score, we found an association between CISH genetic variants and susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (P=3.8x10(-11) for all comparisons), with -292 accounting for most of the association signal (P=4.58x10(-7)). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells obtained from adult subjects carrying the -292 variant, as compared with wild-type cells, showed a muted response to the stimulation of interleukin-2 production--that is, 25 to 40% less CISH expression. Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling have a role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of one of these infectious diseases was increased by at least 18% among persons carrying the variant CISH alleles. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  11. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391

  12. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M.; Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs

  13. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  14. [Infectious burdens of reproduction of female dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, K; Stellmacher, H

    1996-02-01

    The results of gynecological investigations in 142 bitches were evaluated and the complexity of infectious affections is discussed. High proportions of infectious cases were found in cases of limitation of fertility (67.5%), in vaginal discharge in the estrus (60.8%), in cases of mastitis/pseudopregnancy (61.5%) and in mortality of newborn puppies. St. aureus and E. coli were often isolated. There is a high etiological correlation in epidemiology of diseases of the reproductive tract in the single bitch and especially in kennel bitches.

  15. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandian, M.H.; Mortazavi, H.; Behvad, A.; Haghigat, H.; Lessani, M.; Youssefian, B.

    1979-01-01

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases [fr

  16. Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D

    2000-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis of the major characteristics of emerging diseases, in an interdisciplinary context. Political ecology is one framework for analysis that is promising in developing a modified ecology of disease.

  17. Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2017-11-01

    A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population...

  19. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  20. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan

    2006-01-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  1. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, P L; Ansons, A M; Patterson, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Acute dacryocystitis is uncommon in this age group, and an underlying systemic illness should be suspected particularly when it is bilateral. Images PMID:2275940

  2. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  3. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  4. THE PATHOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD) occurred in a flock of 11-week old crossbreeds of Harco cocks and indigenous Nigerian hens (referred to as exotic and locals respectively in the text). Clinical signs observed include depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers and diarrhoea. Haemorrhages were present in the bursa ...

  5. Population dynamics and infectious diseases in Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sleigh, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    ... such as SARS. David J BRADLEY is Ross Professor of Tropical Hygiene Emeritus at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University. He has worked on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne and infectious diseases, water in relation to health, and concepts in international h...

  6. Infectious agents are associated with psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lydia Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several infectious agents in the environment that can cause persistent infections in the host. They usually cause their symptoms shortly after first infection and later persist as silent viruses and bacteria within the body. However, these chronic infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and Tourette’s syndrome (TS. We investigated the distribution of different neurotrophic infectious agents in TS, schizophrenia and controls. A total of 93 individuals were included (schizophrenic patients, Tourette patients and controls. We evaluated antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes-simplex virus (HSV, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis/pneumoniae. By comparing schizophrenia and TS, we found a higher prevalence of HSV (P=0.017 and CMV (P=0.017 antibodies in schizophrenic patients. Considering the relationship between schizophrenia, TS and healthy controls, we showed that there are associations for Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.007, HSV (P=0.027 and CMV (P=0.029. When all measured viruses, bacteria and protozoa were combined, schizophrenic patients had a higher rate of antibodies to infectious agents than TS patients (P=0.049. Tourette and schizophrenic patients show a different vulnerability to infectious agents. Schizophrenic patients were found to have a higher susceptibility to viral infections than individuals with TS. This finding might point to a modification in special immune parameters in these diseases.

  7. Epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... profiles of infectious bacterial diarrhoea in Juba, ... a Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) resident, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, ... Teaching Hospital (JTH), Al Sabah children's hospital, .... Only 12 (4.2%) participants reached higher education.

  8. [Emerging infectious diseases: complex, unpredictable processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In the light of a double approach, at first empirical, later theoretical and comparative, illustrated by the example of the Buruli ulcer and its mycobacterial agent Mycobacterium ulcerans on which I focused my research activity these last ten years by studying determinants and factors of emerging infectious or parasitic diseases, the complexity of events explaining emerging diseases will be presented. The cascade of events occurring at various levels of spatiotemporal scales and organization of life, which lead to the numerous observed emergences, nowadays requires better taking into account the interactions between host(s), pathogen(s) and the environment by including the behavior of both individuals and the population. In numerous research studies on emerging infectious diseases, microbial hazard is described rather than infectious disease risk, the latter resulting from the confrontation between an association of threatening phenomena, or hazards, and a susceptible population. Beyond, the theme of emerging infectious diseases and its links with global environmental and societal changes leads to reconsider some well-established knowledge in infectiology and parasitology. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  9. [Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, A A; Popkov, V M; Zemskov, S P; Glybochko, P V; Bliumberg, B I

    2007-01-01

    Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications.

  10. An overview of post infectious coughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrad Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coughs lasting more than 3 weeks after airway infections are likely regarded as post-infectious coughs. A normal chest radiography unfavors possibility of pulmonary infection. These coughs are selflimited. This study reviews conducted studies in order to identify and define prevalence, pathogenesis, and cure of post-infectious constant coughs. The necessary data and guidelines are gained from English articles in PubMed website. Post-infectious and cough are searched. Post-infectious cough pathogenesis are not known; nevertheless, inflammation, epithelial damages of upper and lower airways, increased mucus secretion, and an increased reactivity of airways can cause these coughs. Despite self-limitedness of these coughs; dextromethorphan, antihistamines, ipratropium bromide, and decongestant are usually prescribed for cure of these coughs. Conversely, antibiotics play no significant role in this regard. These coughs constitutes smaller percentage of chronic coughs and are primarily classified in subacute coughs. Further studies should cover sub-acute and chronic properties of these coughs as well as their prevalence in different age groups and their determinants.

  11. Infectious disease protection for healthcare security officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Michael S; Arias, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare Security should be considered an active component in an infectious disease event, the authors maintain, and security officers must be included in an Employee Health screening and N95 fit testing initiative to safely welcome the incoming infected patients. In this article, they spell out the different levels of precautions officers should become familiar with in order to protect themselves.

  12. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  13. Infectious and non-infectious neurologic complications in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; Palomo, Jesús; Fernández-Yáñez, Juan; Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2010-05-01

    Neurologic complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) recipients. New immunomodulating agents have improved survival rates, although some have been associated with a high rate of neurologic complications (infectious and non-infectious). We conducted this study to analyze the frequency of these complications, before and after the use of daclizumab induction therapy. We reviewed all neurologic complications in our HT cohort, comparing infectious with non-infectious complications over 2 periods of time in which different induction therapies were used (316 patients with OKT3 or antithymocyte globulin from 1988 to 2002, and 68 patients with daclizumab from 2003 to 2006). Neurologic complications were found in 75/384 patients (19.5%) with a total of 78 episodes. Non-infectious complications accounted for 68% of the 78 episodes of neurologic complications. A total of 51 patients and 53 episodes were detailed as follows: 25 episodes of stroke (25 of 78 total episodes, 32%; 19 ischemic, 6 hemorrhagic); 7 neuropathies; 6 seizures; 4 episodes of transient ischemic attack (TIA); 3 anoxic encephalopathy; 2 each brachial plexus palsy and metabolic encephalopathy; and 1 each myoclonia, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, subdural hematoma, and Cotard syndrome. Mean time to presentation of stroke, TIA, and encephalopathy was 1 day (range, 1-19 d) posttransplant. Mortality rate among non-infectious complications was 12/53 (22.6%). Infectious complications accounted for 32% of the 78 total episodes. We found 25 episodes in 24 patients: 17 herpes zoster (median, 268 d after HT), 3 CNS aspergillosis (median, 90 d after HT), 1 CNS toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis (51 d after HT), 1 pneumococcal meningitis (402 d after HT), and 2 Listeria meningitis (median, 108 d after HT). The 3 patients with CNS aspergillosis died. The mortality rate among patients with infectious neurologic complications was 12% (42.8% if the CNS was involved). When we

  14. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  15. Bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, J.; Bone, I.

    1979-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with a bilateral sixth nerve palsy caused by infectious mononucleosis is described. The neurological presentation of infectious mononucleosis is discussed. PMID:225738

  16. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.

  17. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 1. Date: June 1, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 2. Date: June...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  19. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  20. Infectious diseases in Greenlanders of Upernavik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1985-01-01

    of disease was similar in all age groups. Of these contacts 26% were caused by acute upper respiratory tract infections, 8% by other acute respiratory infections, 10% by chronic respiratory infections, 24% by non-traumatic skin infections, 7% by post-traumatic skin infections, 8% by sexually transmitted...... diseases, and 17% by other infections. Skin infections were most common in males, whereas all other infections were most common in females. The patterns of age specific contact rates were similar in males and females, except regarding "other infections". A peak of respiratory infections in July and of skin...... infections during winter was noted. The contact rate for all infectious diseases together was slightly higher than in Danish general practice, and infectious diseases also accounted for a larger proportion of all registered contacts. Contacts due to chronic respiratory infections, skin infections...

  1. Anti-Infectious Agents against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinically useful antibiotics, β-lactams and vancomycin, are known to inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has a unique cell wall structure consisting of peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acid. In recent years, new anti-infectious agents (spirohexaline, tripropeptin C, DMPI, CDFI, cyslabdan, 1835F03, and BPH-652 targeting MRSA cell wall biosynthesis have been discovered using unique screening methods. These agents were found to inhibit important enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis such as undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP synthase, FemA, flippase, or UPP phosphatase. In this review, the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the future of these anti-infectious agents are described.

  2. Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.

  3. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Jung, Youn Ju; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Joung Mi; Park, Young Ha

    1998-01-01

    To describe the findings of magnetic resonance imaging in infectious myositis and to determine their value for differentiation between ruberculous and bacterial myositis. Magnetic resonance images of ten proven cases of infectious myositis (five tuberculous and five bacterial) were retrospectively reviewed in the light of clinical and laboratory findings. On the basis of magnetic resonance images, signal intensity of the mass, the presence or absence of an abscess, signal intensity of the peripheral wall, patterns of contrast enhancement, and associated findings were evaluated. Compared with those of bacterial myositis, the symptoms of tuberculous myositis lasted longer but there were no difinite local inflammatory signs. In three of five cases of bacterial myositis there were specific medical records;trauma in two cases and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. All tuberculous myositis cases involved a single muscle, but bacterial myositis affected multipe muscles in three cases(60%). All but one case showed a mass in the involved muscles. In one bacterial case, there was diffuse swelling in the involved muscle. On T1-weighted images, eight infectious cases showed low signal intensity;two, of the bactrerial type, showed subtle increased signal intensity. all cases demonstrated high signal intensity on t2-weighted images. The signal intensity of peripheral wall was slightly increased on T1-weighted images, but low on T2-weighted. In four cases there was associated cellulitis, and in one case each, adjacent joint effusion and deep vein thrombosis were seen. After gadolinium infusion, peripheral rim enhancement was noted in nine cases and heterogeneous enhancement in one. After magnetic resonance imaging of infectious myositis, the characteristic finding was an abscessed lesion, with the peripheral wall showing high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2 weighted. Although we found it difficult to differentiate bacterial from tuberculous

  6. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    Central America at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea...inferred that in Belize, 2 tropical infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan ,1 dengue and malaria are...Centro Americano) representatives in Belize City. Two ERC technologists and two CML technicians attended an INCAP (Instituto de Nutricion de Centro

  7. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery.

  8. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for...

  9. A lipidomic concept in infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases resemble a great threat to the human health according to World Health Organization where about 17% of all deaths (≈9.2 million deaths in 2013 recorded are related to infectious diseases. The pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are the principle causes of infectious diseases. Ebola, AIDS, dengue, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis are among 216 infectious diseases found where the immunity represents the first line defense in infection. Lipidomic includes examination of different biological lipids in the biological cell. The lipidomic research covers all aspects of individual lipid molecule including its structure, function, connection with other cell constituents such as protein, lipid, and metabolite in both health and disease conditions. Details of cell biology obtained from different pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites provide a great data on molecular structure of host-pathogen relation and consequently on infection process. The lipids here play a very important role in many processes involved in host-pathogen relations. The role of lipid in host-pathogen link includes many processes in (1 structural host constituents, (2 host recognition, (3 intracellular transferring, and (4 energy and resource homeostasis during pathogen duplication. There are many lipid phosphatases, kinases, and lipases molecules that greatly involved in these processes and controlling pathogen expression and infection progress. The cell lipid metabolism depends on an adequate energy stores that push the infection to be accelerated and disease symptoms to be appeared. Consequently, future lipidomics studies are the basic for detecting the lipid role in host-pathogen relations which help in therapy advances and biomarkers development.

  10. Efficacy of Carbopol 974P (Siccafluid in the treatment of severe to moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS not responding to standard treatment with artificial tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Furlan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine efficacy and safety of Carbopol 974P in the treatment of severe to moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS not responding to standard treatment with artificial tears. Methods. 60 patients (57 F, 3 M, mean age 52.5±12.0, mean disease duration 12.2±7.1 yrs affected with primary SS diagnosed according to the European Community Study Group criteria were studied. Foregoing medications for SS and artificial tears for KCS have not been changed within 3 and 2 months respectively prior to the study onset. In all cases Carbopol 974P was added because symptoms of KCS were not adequately controlled with traditional lubricants. Schirmer I test, B.U.T. (break up time, rose Bengal-stain, clinical ophthalmological examination (i.e. fluorescein staining, keratis, corneal infiltrates and ulcers and a questionnaire for dry eye symptoms (range 0-30 were performed at entry (T0 and after 2 (T1 and 12 (T2 weeks. Assessment of global efficacy was obtained by VAS 0-100 at T2 either by patients and by the ophthalmologist. Results. Lachrymal tests significantly improved after 2 and, even more, after 12 weeks. Clinical ophthalmologic picture also ameliorated: a remarkable reduction of fluorescein positive lesions was demonstrated from 71.6% of the cases at T0 to 38.3% at T2. Total score of symptoms (T0: 16.1±7.3 dropped to 11.9±6.6 (T1 (p=0.000 and then to 6.7±5.3 (T2 (p=0.000. Global efficacy expressed by patients and physician was 74.8±15.9 and 76.6±13.0, respectively. No adverse events (blurred vision, allergy were reported throughout the study. Conclusions. Our study seems to demonstrate that addition of Carbopol 974P to the traditional therapeutic armamentarium for moderate to severe KCS is useful and well accepted in patients with primary SS in which management of ocular symptoms is unsatisfactory.

  11. Infectious myocarditis (Clinic, diagnostics, principles of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Finogeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective myocarditis can be considered as a case of myocardial damage caused by different infectious agents. Traditionally discusses the questions of diagnostics and treatment infectious myocarditis. The paper has repeatedly stressed the difficulty of clinical diagnosis, and the laboriousness and economic costs of laboratory tests and additional researches. Endomyocardial biopsy findings remain the gold standard for unequivocally establishing the diagnosis. However, it is technically extremely invasive test and can be performed only in specialized cardiology centers. The paper analyzes in detail not only own materials, but also results of researches published in numerous domestic and foreign sources of literature. Publication of «Infectious myocarditis» is necessary due to the fact that patients with a diagnosis of «Myocarditis » account for 11% of all cardiovascular disease in the world. Article is timely and necessary for many professionals, senior students of medical universities.

  12. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  13. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  14. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  16. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  18. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    Full Text Available Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and

  19. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    Red cell mass and blood volume of 16 thoroughbred horse, 11 healthy and 5 with naturally acquired equine infectious anemia, were determined by means of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes. The mean values obtained in healthy thoroughbred horses were as follows: red cell mass 40,64 and blood volume 102,32 ml/kg body weight. The mean red cell mass and blood volume in anemic horses were respectively 21,13 and 107,71 ml/Kg body weight. The difference in red cell mass value between the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  1. Unusual infectious mononucleosis complicated by vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimanta Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis (IM is a clinical syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. It manifests as fever, pharyngitis, malaise, adenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis. Cardiovascular complications are thought to be rare in IM. There are very few case reports of EBV-associated vasculitides, like Kawasaki disease and systemic polyarteritis nodosa, however, involvement of the large caliber arteries like the aorta and its branches have been reported only scarcely. Myocarditis also is rare as an early manifestation of EBV infection. We present here a rare case of IM, presented initially with acute myocarditis and later with large-vessels arteritis.

  2. Selected emerging infectious diseases of squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James

    2013-05-01

    It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...

  4. Emerging Ranaviral Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae not only affect wild amphibian populations but also agriculture and international animal trade. Although, the prevalence of RV infections and die offs has markedly increased over the last decade, it is still unclear whether these viruses are direct causal agents of extinction or rather are the resulting (secondary consequences of weakened health of amphibian populations leading to increased susceptibility to viral pathogens. In either case, it is important to understand the critical role of host immune defense in controlling RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission; this is the focus of this review.

  5. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  6. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  7. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  8. Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sappenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis; there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.

  9. Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lung Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their clear relationship to immunology, few existing studies have examined potential role of microparticles (MP in infectious disease. Infection with pathogens usually leads to the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as significant stress in both infected and uninfected cells. It is thus reasonable to infer from studies to date that infection-associated inflammation also leads to MP production. MP are produced by most of the major cell types in the immune system, and appear to be involved at both the innate and adaptive levels, potentially serving different functions at each level. Thus, MP do not appear to have a universal function; instead their functions are source- or stimulus-dependent, although likely to be primarily either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Importantly, in infectious diseases MP may have the ability to deliver antigen to APC via the biological cargo acquired from their cells of origin. Another potential benefit of MP would be to transfer and/or disseminate phenotype and function to target cells. However, MP may also potentially be manipulated, particularly by intracellular pathogens for survival advantage.

  10. Splenic Infarction in Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Samuele; Abate, Maria Valentina; Chinello, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of a febrile patient with acute abdominal pain represents a frequent yet possibly challenging situation in the emergency department (ED). Splenic infarction is an uncommon complication of infectious mononucleosis, and may have a wide range of clinical presentations, from dramatic to more subtle. Its pathogenesis is still incompletely understood, yet it may be associated with the occurrence of transient prothrombotic factors. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with fever, sore throat, left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and splenomegaly, with no history of recent trauma. Laboratory tests revealed a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and positive lupus anticoagulant. Abdominal ultrasonography showed several hypoechoic areas in the spleen consistent with multiple infarctions. Magnetic resonance imaging eventually confirmed the diagnosis. He was admitted for observation and supportive treatment, and was discharged in good condition after 7 days. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous splenic infarction should be considered in the differential list of patients presenting with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and features of infectious mononucleosis; the diagnosis, however, may not be straightforward, as clinical presentation may also be subtle, and abdominal ultrasonography, which is often used as a first-line imaging modality in pediatric EDs, has low sensitivity in this scenario and may easily miss it. Furthermore, although treatment is mainly supportive, close observation for possible complications is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma.

  12. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals.

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  14. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in International Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Smectite for acute infectious diarrhoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Cuello-García, Carlos A; Florez, Ivan D; Pérez-Pico, Víctor M

    2018-04-25

    As mortality secondary to acute infectious diarrhoea has decreased worldwide, the focus shifts to adjuvant therapies to lessen the burden of disease. Smectite, a medicinal clay, could offer a complementary intervention to reduce the duration of diarrhoea. To assess the effects of smectite for treating acute infectious diarrhoea in children. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase (Ovid), LILACS, reference lists from studies and previous reviews, and conference abstracts, up to 27 June 2017. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing smectite to a control group in children aged one month to 18 years old with acute infectious diarrhoea. Two review authors independently screened abstracts and the full texts for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Our primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and clinical resolution at day 3. We summarized continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) and dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we pooled data in meta-analyses and assessed heterogeneity. We explored publication bias using a funnel plot. Eighteen trials with 2616 children met our inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in both ambulatory and in-hospital settings, and in both high-income and low- or middle-income countries. Most studies included children with rotavirus infections, and half included breastfed children.Smectite may reduce the duration of diarrhoea by approximately a day (MD -24.38 hours, 95% CI -30.91 to -17.85; 14 studies; 2209 children; low-certainty evidence); may increase clinical resolution at day 3 (risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.39; 5 trials; 312 children; low-certainty evidence); and may reduce stool output (MD -11.37, 95% CI -21.94 to -0.79; 3 studies; 634 children; low-certainty evidence).We are uncertain whether smectite reduces

  16. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious...... mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of infectious mononucleosis patients in Denmark and Sweden were...... statistical tests including the trend tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1381 cancers were observed during 689 619 person-years of follow-up among 38 562 infectious mononucleosis patients (SIR = 1. 03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.09). Apart from Hodgkin's disease (SIR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1...

  17. Chimeric infectious DNA clones, chimeric porcine circoviruses and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to infectious DNA clones, infectious chimeric DNA clones of porcine circovirus (PCV), vaccines and means of protecting pigs against viral infection or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV2. The new chimeric infectious DNA clone and its derived, avirulent chimeric virus are constructed from the nonpathogenic PCV1 in which the immunogenic ORF gene of the pathogenic PCV2 replaces a gene of the nonpathogenic PCV1, preferably in the same pos...

  18. [Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in China, 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.

  19. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules in an Immunocompetent Adolescent with Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Praveena Nediyara; Puliyel, Mammen; Myers, Melissa; Abughali, Nazha

    2018-02-15

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a self-limiting illness, but can be rarely associated with complications. A 17-year-old boy with Epstein-Barr virus related infectious mononucleosis and cold antibody-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia with incidentally noted multiple pulmonary nodules. Nodules regressed over the next few weeks without specific therapy. Pediatricians need to be aware of this rare clinical presentation of infectious mononucleosis so that further invasive testing can be avoided.

  20. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  1. Effect of Experience of Internal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future Infectious Disease Fellowship Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Experience of !ntcrnal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future lntCctious Di~casc Fcllo\\vship Application Sb. GRANT N_UMBER...undefined. Since 2008 at our institution. internal medicine (!!vi) residents have been required to do a four-\\\\’eek inpatient !D rotation as an intern... Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Fut ure Infectious Disease Fellowship Application ~ Poeter# 1440 .,...._,: OVfil"S~ ti

  2. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  3. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  4. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  5. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  6. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  7. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  8. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra......-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance...

  10. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  11. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise and the Athlete With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J

    2017-03-01

    To determine appropriate management of the active individual with infectious mononucleosis (IM), including issues of diagnosis, the determination of splenomegaly, and other measures of disease status, the relationship of the disease to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and the risks of exercise at various points in the disease process. An Ovid/MEDLINE search (January 1996-June 2015) was widely supplemented by "similar articles" found in Ovid/MEDLINE and PubMed, reference lists, and personal files. Clinical diagnoses of IM are unreliable. Traditional laboratory indicators (lymphocytosis, abnormal lymphocytes, and a heterophile-positive slide test) can be supplemented by more sensitive and more specific but also more costly Epstein-Barr antigen determinations. Clinical estimates of splenomegaly are fallible. Laboratory determinations, commonly by 2D ultrasonography, must take account of methodology, the formulae used in calculations and the individual's body size. The SD of normal values matches the typical increase of size in IM, but repeat measurements can help to monitor regression of the disease. The main risks to the athlete are spontaneous splenic rupture (seen in 0.1%-0.5% of patients and signaled by acute abdominal pain) and progression to chronic fatigue, best avoided by 3 to 4 weeks of restricted activity followed by graded reconditioning. A full recovery of athletic performance is usual with 2 to 3 months of conservative management. Infectious mononucleosis is a common issue for young athletes. But given accurate diagnosis and the avoidance of splenic rupture and progression to CFS through a few weeks of restricted activity, long-term risks to the health of athletes are few.

  13. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Daegu Hyosung Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suh and Joo MR Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance.

  14. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won; Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin

    2004-01-01

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance

  15. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  16. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  17. Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, G; Thiel, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed "discriminatory" mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  20. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the

  1. Infectious endocardial intracardiac defibrillator lead, infectious pericarditis, and delayed constrictive pericarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator (ICD since 1980s is becoming more popular these days. The rate of both, endocarditis and constrictive pericarditis are low but it still needs attention. We are reporting a rare case of ICD endocarditis as a result of toe infection in a diabetic patient. This was followed by infectious pericarditis after device removal by open heart surgery and then delayed constrictive pericarditis.

  2. Infectious uveitis. New developments in etiology and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L.

    2009-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammation of the inner-eye and is initiated by various infectious and noninfectious causes. In a large portion of patients the etiology is unknown and might be associated with until now undiagnosed infections.The identification of infectious uveitis is of crucial importance since

  3. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  6. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  7. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  8. Molecular cloning of S1 glycoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein expression is an important method of obtaining large amounts of viral proteins to investigate their biological properties. The S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus, due to its effective immune-dominant role is an appropriate candidate for production of recombinant vaccine against infectious bronchitis ...

  9. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fernstrom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease, the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors, as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes, while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases.

  10. A complete categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garira, Winston

    2017-12-01

    Modelling of infectious disease systems has entered a new era in which disease modellers are increasingly turning to multiscale modelling to extend traditional modelling frameworks into new application areas and to achieve higher levels of detail and accuracy in characterizing infectious disease systems. In this paper we present a categorization framework for categorizing multiscale models of infectious disease systems. The categorization framework consists of five integration frameworks and five criteria. We use the categorization framework to give a complete categorization of host-level immuno-epidemiological models (HL-IEMs). This categorization framework is also shown to be applicable in categorizing other types of multiscale models of infectious diseases beyond HL-IEMs through modifying the initial categorization framework presented in this study. Categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems in this way is useful in bringing some order to the discussion on the structure of these multiscale models.

  11. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  12. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  13. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  14. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  15. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  16. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  17. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  18. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Marjomäki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  19. Reproduction numbers of infectious disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Driessche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This primer article focuses on the basic reproduction number, ℛ0, for infectious diseases, and other reproduction numbers related to ℛ0 that are useful in guiding control strategies. Beginning with a simple population model, the concept is developed for a threshold value of ℛ0 determining whether or not the disease dies out. The next generation matrix method of calculating ℛ0 in a compartmental model is described and illustrated. To address control strategies, type and target reproduction numbers are defined, as well as sensitivity and elasticity indices. These theoretical ideas are then applied to models that are formulated for West Nile virus in birds (a vector-borne disease, cholera in humans (a disease with two transmission pathways, anthrax in animals (a disease that can be spread by dead carcasses and spores, and Zika in humans (spread by mosquitoes and sexual contacts. Some parameter values from literature data are used to illustrate the results. Finally, references for other ways to calculate ℛ0 are given. These are useful for more complicated models that, for example, take account of variations in environmental fluctuation or stochasticity. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Disease control, West Nile virus, Cholera, Anthrax, Zika virus

  20. Podoconiosis: non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gail; Tekola, Fasil; Newport, Melanie J

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews peer-reviewed publications and book chapters on the history, epidemiology, genetics, ecology, pathogenesis, pathology and management of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis). Podoconiosis is a non-infectious geochemical elephantiasis caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkalic clay soils. It is found in at least 10 countries in tropical Africa, Central America and northwest India, where such soils coexist with high altitude, high seasonal rainfall and low income. Podoconiosis develops in men and women working barefoot on irritant soils, with signs becoming apparent in most patients by the third decade of life. Colloid-sized silicate particles appear to enter through the skin, are taken up into macrophages in the lower limb lymphatics and cause endolymphangitis and obliteration of the lymphatic lumen. Genetic studies provide evidence for high heritability of susceptibility to podoconiosis. The economic burden is significant in affected areas dependent on subsistence farming. Podoconiosis is unique in being an entirely preventable non-communicable disease. Primary prevention entails promoting use of footwear in areas of irritant soil; early stages are reversible given good foot hygiene, but late stages result in considerable economic and social difficulties, and require extended periods of elevation and occasionally nodulectomy.

  1. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Infectious pleural effusion status and treatment progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Ze-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Pleural cavity infection continuously seriously threatens human health with continuous medical progress. From the perspective of pathophysiology, it can be divided into three stages: exudative stage, fibrin exudation and pus formation stage, and organization stage. Due to the pathogenic bacteria difference of pleural cavity infection and pulmonary infection, it is very important for disease treatment to analyze the bacteria and biochemical characteristics of the infectious pleural effusion. Most prognoses of patients have been relatively good, while for some patients, the complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema could be evolved. Antibiotic treatment and sufficient drainage are the foundation for this treatment. No evidence can support the routine use of a fibrin agent. However, it has been reported that the plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease can be recommended to be applied in the pleural cavity. In case of failure on conservative medical treatment, operative treatment can be applied such as thoracoscopy and pleural decortication. According to the clinical characteristics of these patients, it is a key to research prognosis, as well as early evaluation and stratification, in the future. PMID:29268539

  3. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  4. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 35225

  5. [FEATURES OF CLINICAL COURSE OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS IN CHILDREN DEPENDENT ON ETIOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Iu P; Zarets'ka, A V; Slobodnichenko, L M; Iurchenko, I V

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the clinical features of infectious mononucleosis in children (based on the analysis of the data for children of different ages treated in Odessa clinical hospital of infectious diseases in connection with infectious mononucleosis) based on etiological factors.

  6. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  7. Children's Infectious Disease in Moscow: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on statistical data, a comparative analysis of infectious morbidity and mortality in Moscow in 2015 and 2014 revealed a whole, the decline in these indicators. Made significant progress in reducing infectious morbidity in Moscow due to the vaccination of children, including — increased regional calendar of preventive vaccinations. However, analysis of the work of medical institutions indicates the feasibility of the development and introduction of technologies of management of patients with post-infectious syndromes, as well as improving the health care system for children with infectious diseases based on a multidisciplinary approach in close cooperation infectious disease and pediatricians of different specialties. To solve these problems is proposed a plan to improve the effectiveness of children's infectious diseases services relating to the reorganization of hospital beds and outpatient care, ensure the continuity of the different health facilities, implementation of modern methods of etiological diagnosis of infections, the organization of continuous vocational training of paediatricians in Moscow on a specialty «Infectious diseases».

  8. Structural genomics of infectious disease drug targets: the SSGCID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacy, Robin; Begley, Darren W.; Phan, Isabelle; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Varani, Gabriele; Buchko, Garry W.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the focus, goals and overall mission of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is given. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium of researchers at Seattle BioMed, Emerald BioStructures, the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that was established to apply structural genomics approaches to drug targets from infectious disease organisms. The SSGCID is currently funded over a five-year period by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to determine the three-dimensional structures of 400 proteins from a variety of Category A, B and C pathogens. Target selection engages the infectious disease research and drug-therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. The protein-expression systems, purified proteins, ligand screens and three-dimensional structures produced by SSGCID constitute a valuable resource for drug-discovery research, all of which is made freely available to the greater scientific community. This issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F, entirely devoted to the work of the SSGCID, covers the details of the high-throughput pipeline and presents a series of structures from a broad array of pathogenic organisms. Here, a background is provided on the structural genomics of infectious disease, the essential components of the SSGCID pipeline are discussed and a survey of progress to date is presented

  9. Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Binns, Helen J; Taylor, Renee

    2009-07-01

    The goal was to characterize prospectively the course and outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents during a 2-year period after infectious mononucleosis. A total of 301 adolescents (12-18 years of age) with infectious mononucleosis were identified and screened for nonrecovery 6 months after infectious mononucleosis by using a telephone screening interview. Nonrecovered adolescents underwent a medical evaluation, with follow-up screening 12 and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis. After blind review, final diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome at 6, 12, and 24 months were made by using established pediatric criteria. Six, 12, and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis, 13%, 7%, and 4% of adolescents, respectively, met the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Most individuals recovered with time; only 2 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months seemed to have recovered or had an explanation for chronic fatigue at 12 months but then were reclassified as having chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months. All 13 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome 24 months after infectious mononucleosis were female and, on average, they reported greater fatigue severity at 12 months. Reported use of steroid therapy during the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis did not increase the risk of developing chronic fatigue syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis may be a risk factor for chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Female gender and greater fatigue severity, but not reported steroid use during the acute illness, were associated with the development of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Additional research is needed to determine other predictors of persistent fatigue after infectious mononucleosis.

  10. [Isolated palsy of the hypoglossal nerve complicating infectious mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra-Dallière, C; Mernes, R; Juntas-Morales, R

    2011-01-01

    Neurological complications of infectious mononucleosis are rare. Various disorders have been described: meningitis, encephalitis, peripheral neuropathy. Isolated cranial nerve palsy has rarely been reported. A 16-year-old man was admitted for isolated and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, four weeks after infectious mononucleosis. Cerebral MRI, cerebrospinal fluid study and electromyography were normal. IgM anti-VCA were positive. Two months later, without treatment, the tongue had almost fully recovered. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of isolated palsy of the hypoglossal nerve complicating infectious mononucleosis have been previously reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method for producing recombinant Sindbis viruses.

  12. [Anti-infectious treatments in urology: general remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, F; Karsenty, G; Guy, L; Bastide, C; Bernard, L

    2013-11-01

    To define the general use of anti-infectious treatments in urology. A review of national guidelines and articles published on the subject in the Medline database, selected by keywords, depending on the scientific relevance was performed. While the epidemiology clearly shows the non-reduction of the anti-infectious treatments use in France, the resistance increases to highlight foo-resistant germs. Urology is not an exception to this observation, and different means are set to improve the prescription made by urologists. The epidemiological observation confirms the urgent need to improve the prescription of anti-infectious treatments particularly in urology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11, 2012...

  14. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation. Date: February..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  15. 78 FR 40756 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  16. 78 FR 21960 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants and..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  17. 78 FR 34664 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Opportunities for Collaborative Research at the NIH Clinical..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  18. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  19. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials. Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  20. 77 FR 46099 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 46100

  1. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Autoimmunity Centers of Excellence, Basic and Clinical Components... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  2. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation (U01) Cooperative Agreement..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  3. 77 FR 70791 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants and Implementation..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 20, 2012...

  4. 76 FR 32980 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Implementation Grants. Date: June... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  5. 78 FR 46357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U01....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  6. 77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  7. 77 FR 68136 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Antibacterial..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  8. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Inner City Asthma Consortium: Statistical and Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 15, 2010...

  9. 76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; DAIDS Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  10. 75 FR 77650 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trails. Date..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  11. 78 FR 22274 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  12. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Correlates of illness severity in infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, John; Robinson, Joan; Khodai-Booran, Nasser; Yeung, Simon; Mazzulli, Tony; Stephens, Derek; Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and laboratory correlates of illness severity among infants, children and youth with infectious mononucleosis (IM). METHODS: Study subjects with confirmed IM were prospectively enrolled. Illness severity was assessed at baseline and at six weeks using a scoring tool. Peripheral blood viral loads served as a measure of viral burden. RESULTS: Among 32 children and young adults with IM, the median age was 16 years (range two to 24 years). The predominant clinical findings were lymphadenopathy (23 of 32 [72%]), pharyngitis (16 of 32 [50%]), fever (nine of 32 [28%]) and splenomegaly (six of 32 [19%]). With respect to symptoms or signs that persisted to at least six weeks after illness onset, the predominant complaint was lymphadenopathy in 35% of subjects available for reassessment. Deranged liver function tests were present at presentation in up to 44% of subjects. Patients with the highest viral loads at presentation had significantly higher illness severity scores associated with fatigue (P=0.02). Other than the scores associated with fatigue, viral load values were not significantly correlated with the illness severity scores at baseline and at six weeks. CONCLUSION: In IM, viral loads are not necessarily correlated with illness severity, with the exception of fatigue. EBV-related hepatitis is common in IM, confirming the status of this virus as a relatively common cause of transient hepatitis in children and youth. This entity is not necessarily a marker of disease severity. PMID:25371691

  14. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  15. Infectious mononucleosis - not always a benign condition: a case report of infectious mononucleosis-associated acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Andrew; Akilan, Kosalan; Carr, David

    2018-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is typically a self-limited viral infection of adolescence and early adulthood that resolves in a period of weeks, causing no major sequelae. We describe a case of a healthy 18-year-old female diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis who also presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, moderate transaminitis, and cholestatic biochemistry. An ultrasound revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis, generally a condition seen in the context of critical illness. Further investigating emergency department patients with infectious mononucleosis is often not indicated, but may be important for those who present atypically.

  16. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J.; Londy, F.; Chrisp, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  17. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, Vanessa; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Castelli, Francesco; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Weld, Leisa; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; de Vries, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Loutan, Louis; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Weber, Rainer; Cramer, Jakob; Pérignon, Alice; Odolini, Silvia; Carosi, Giampiero; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we

  18. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, V.; Gautret, P.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Burchard, G.D.; Caumes, E.; Jensenius, M.; Castelli, F.; Gkrania-Klotsas, E.; Weld, L.; Lopez-Velez, R.; de Vries, P.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Loutan, L.; Parola, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in

  19. Probiotics in infectious diarrhoea: are they indicated? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review focusing on Saccharomyces boulardii. ... economic benefits of probiotic treatment in adjunction to ORS in acute infectious gastroenteritis in children. ... In acute gastroenteritis, there is evidence of efficacy of some strains of lactobacilli ...

  20. Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis in young adults: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won

    2009-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.

  1. original article assessment of quality of care delivered for infectious

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    ABSTRACT. BACK GROUND: Providing quality of care for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients is crucial in ... Although a cure for tuberculosis was developed more than 50 .... 1(5.0%) Junior clinical nurse and 1(5.0%) health assistants.

  2. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans’ demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas. Because of the various types of geographic properties in Iran, substantial climatic variability, as well as unstable political situations and poor public health conditions in some of neighboring countries, EIDs and RIDs are serious public health problems; among them, zoonotic and drug resistant diseases are the most significant. Hence, this review provides an overview of the significant bacterial, viral and fungal EIDs and RIDs in Iran regarding their epidemiological aspects. PMID:29225752

  3. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  4. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates.

  5. Genetics of infectious diseases: hidden etiologies and common pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Marianna; Di Pietrantonio, Tania; Schurr, Erwin

    2011-09-01

    Since the completion of the human genome sequence, the study of common genetic polymorphisms in complex human diseases has become a main activity of human genetics. Employing genome-wide association studies, hundreds of modest genetic risk factors have been identified. In infectious diseases the identification of common risk factors has been varied and as in other common diseases it seems likely that important genetic risk factors remain to be discovered. Nevertheless, the identification of disease-specific genetic risk factors revealed an unexpected overlap in susceptibility genes of diverse inflammatory and infectious diseases. Analysis of the multi-disease susceptibility genes has allowed the definition of shared key pathways of inflammatory dysregulation and suggested unexpected infectious etiologies for other "non-infectious" common diseases.

  6. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1...... topoisomerase from one or more microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s), and incubating said substrate with said sample, or extracts or preparations from the sample, so that the substrate is processed by said topoisomerase if said microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s) is present in the sample. Finally......, processed substrates are identified and potentially quantified by one or more of a range of standard molecular biology methods and read-out systems. The identification and potential quantification of microorganisms and infectious agents, including but not limited to Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium...

  7. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jones Flores Cassenote

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.

  8. Dentigenous infectious foci ? a risk factor of infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Kr?l, Irena; S?jka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired hear...

  9. The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya N; Daveson, Kathryn L

    2010-10-01

    The 2010 Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting took place in May in the Northern Territory (Australia) and focussed on infections in the region. The meeting highlights included the changing spectrum of malaria and dengue in endemic regions, the latest on influenza epidemiology, multidrug-resistant organisms and infectious diseases in the Australian indigenous population. This was complemented by subspeciality interest group research encompassing mycobacterial disease, infection control, mycology and virology.

  10. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E.; Sharif, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Context: Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. Objective: PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. Design: An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual report...

  11. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infe...

  12. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...

  13. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Müller, Jan; Junghanss, Thomas; Weber, Tim Frederik

    2018-02-01

     Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases.  The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories. Radiological pertinent knowledge was compiled based on literature search.  A small selection of frequently imported infectious diseases covers a considerable fraction of health care problems associated with migration. For cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis imaging is the most relevant diagnostic procedure defining also disease stages. Tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis are important differentials for malignant diseases.  Imaging plays a meaningful role in diagnosis, treatment stratification, and follow-up of imported infectious diseases. Radiological skills concerning these diseases are important for providing health care for patients in context of migration.   · Imaging plays a meaningful role in multidisciplinary care for imported infectious diseases.. · A small selection covers a considerable fraction of infectious diseases expected in context of migration.. · Stojkovic M, Müller J, Junghanss T et al. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 121 - 133. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  16. [Evaluation of chemokines in tears of patients with infectious keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shinsuke; Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the chemokine profile in tears of patients with infectious keratitis. Subjects were 32 eyes of 16 patients with infectious keratitis and 5 eyes of 5 healthy volunteers as a control. The patients with infectious keratitis were classified into two groups of eyes: 10 with bacterial keratitis and 6 with Acanthamoeba keratitis. Tear fluid was obtained from both eyes of the patients with infectious keratitis and from the right eyes of the control subjects using filter paper. Chemokine concentration (unit: Odu/mm2) and its profile in tears was analyzed using an antibody-array. In terms of chemokine profile in the bacterial keratitis group, the expression volume of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the diseased eyes was significantly higher than in the healthy eyes (p tears of the Acanthamoeba keratitis group. Regarding the chemokine ratio, the IL-8/MEC ratio in the diseased eyes of the Pseudomonas keratitis group and the MCP-1/IL-8 in the diseased eyes of the Acanthamoeba keratitis group showed a significantly high level (p tears of infectious keratitis patients is useful as a clinical tear laboratory test to interpret the pathologic condition of infectious keratitis

  17. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  18. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jietao Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  19. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  20. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    and dendritic cell polarization, and subsequent priming, activation, and proliferation of pathogen-specific T- and B-cells may also be important elements associated with infectious disease outcomes. This review summarizes the emerging details of the IFN-λ immunobiology in the context of the host immune response and viral and bacterial infections.

  1. Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Muireann; O'Brien, Kirsty; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-12-08

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome, usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EPV), characterised by lymphadenopathy, fever and sore throat. Most cases of symptomatic IM occur in older teenagers or young adults. Usually IM is a benign self-limiting illness and requires only symptomatic treatment. However, occasionally the disease course can be complicated or prolonged and lead to decreased productivity in terms of school or work. Antiviral medications have been used to treat IM, but the use of antivirals for IM is controversial. They may be effective by preventing viral replication which helps to keep the virus inactive. However, there are no guidelines for antivirals in IM. To assess the effects of antiviral therapy for infectious mononucleosis (IM). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, March 2016), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 15 April 2016), Embase (1974 to 15 April 2016), CINAHL (1981 to 15 April 2016), LILACS (1982 to 15 April 2016) and Web of Science (1955 to 15 April 2016). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antivirals versus placebo or no treatment in IM. We included trials of immunocompetent participants of any age or sex with clinical and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of IM, who had symptoms for up to 14 days. Our primary outcomes were time to clinical recovery and adverse events and side effects of medication. Secondary outcomes included duration of abnormal clinical examination, complications, viral shedding, health-related quality of life, days missing from school or work and economic outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies' risk of bias and extracted data using a

  2. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  3. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.-C.; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator

  4. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  5. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  6. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Xiaoliang Tong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  7. [Ultrasonographic Findings of Cervical Lymphadenopathy with Infectious Mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Shui; Ren, Liu-Qiong; Yang, Li-Juan; Lü, Ke; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of cervical lymphadenopathy in patients with infectious mononucleosis. High-resolution and color Doppler US were performed in 30 patients aged 2 to 30 years with a total of 59 palpable enlarged cervical lymph nodes due to infectious mononucleosis. The US characteristics of the nodes including shape,echotexture,hilum,border,matting,cystic necrosis,calcification and vascular pattern were assessed. Three patients received cervical lymph nodes biopsies. The common US findings of cervical lymphadenopathy due to infectious mononucleosis were round shape (69.5%),bilateral distribution (96.7%),matting (83.3%) [even bilateral matting (66.6%)],indistinct margin (79.7%),absence of hilum (66.1%),heterogeneous echotecture (61.0%),and central hilar vascular pattern(89.8%). In 2 patients with absence of the echoic hilum,lymph nodes biopsies showed histological features including marked effacement of the normal architecture in the medullary region accompanied by a mixed proliferation of lymphocytes and histiocytes. In all infectious mononucleosis nodes with a hilum,85.0% had heterogeneously hypo/iso-echoic hila and indistinct demarcation to the cortex. One of them underwent lymph node biopsy and histological findings showed obvious dilation of the sinus oidal lumen and proliferation of histiocytes. Although several ultrasonographic characteristics frequently present in the nodes of infectious mononucleosis are not specific,the combination of ultrasound findings may be valuable in differential diagnosis.

  8. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-07

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  9. Infectious episodes in runners before and after a roadrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, D C; Johanssen, L M; Lee, J W

    1989-09-01

    Various researchers have implied that regular and moderate exercise training may improve the ability of the immune system to protect the host from infection. In contrast, acute, maximal, and exhaustive exercise may have negative effects of the immune system. This study compared the incidence of infectious episodes in 273 runners during a two month training period prior to a 5 K, 10 K, or half-marathon race. In addition, the effect of the race experience on infectious episodes was studied. Twenty-five percent of the runners training more than 15 miles per week reported at least one infectious episode as compared with 34.3% of runners training less than 15 miles per week (p = 0.09). Only 6.8% of the runners preparing for the half-marathon race reported becoming sick with the flu versus 17.9% of the 5 K and 10 K runners (p = 0.067). During the week following the roadrace, runners did not report an increase in infectious episodes as compared to the week prior to the race. These trends suggest that runners with a more serious commitment to regular exercise may experience less infectious episodes than recreational runners because of both direct and indirect affects on immunosurveillance. In addition, the stressful race experience does not appear to increase risk of acquiring an acute respiratory infection.

  10. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  11. Prevention of infectious diseases in patients with Good syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Ashrit; Gomez, Carlos A; Montoya, José G

    2018-08-01

    Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking. Good syndrome usually occurs in adult patients between the ages of 40 and 70 years. Immunologically, it is characterized by low or absent peripheral blood B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, and variable defects in cell-mediated immunity including low CD4 T counts, inverted CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio, and reduced T-lymphocyte mitogen proliferative responses. Patients with Good syndrome are susceptible to a variety of infectious diseases, of which the most common are recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and CMV tissue-invasive disease. Preventive guidelines including targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination strategies can mitigate infectious complications in patients with Good syndrome. Immunological deficits and infectious complications in Good syndrome have been described for over 60 years. Further research is needed to elucidate its exact pathogenesis and define the mechanistic relationship between thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, tailored prophylactic strategies can be recommended for patients with Good syndrome.

  12. The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    The projected global increase in the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases with climate change suggests a pending societal crisis. The subject is increasingly attracting the attention of health professionals and climate-change scientists, particularly with respect to malaria and other vector-transmitted human diseases. The result has been the emergence of a crisis discipline, reminiscent of the early phases of conservation biology. Latitudinal, altitudinal, seasonal, and interannual associations between climate and disease along with historical and experimental evidence suggest that climate, along with many other factors, can affect infectious diseases in a nonlinear fashion. However, although the globe is significantly warmer than it was a century ago, there is little evidence that climate change has already favored infectious diseases. While initial projections suggested dramatic future increases in the geographic range of infectious diseases, recent models predict range shifts in disease distributions, with little net increase in area. Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate.

  13. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  14. Infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis - Updated review on associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Ali, Sharaf

    2017-05-01

    There has been substantial evidence accumulating on the role of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and the subsequent risk of obtaining Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Up to date studies not previously explored were reviewed by the author to further clarify the association. Medline and Web of Science were searched with no time constraints for articles exploring an association between Multiple Sclerosis and Infectious Mononucleosis. 24 articles were found, totalling 1063 cases and 13,227 cohort/controls. 23/24 (96%) articles reported a significant association of Infectious Mononucleosis on the risk of subsequent multiple sclerosis. Overall, new literature on IM and risk of MS categorically supports the association. Future work should focus on other risk factors such as age and gender on IM and subsequent risk of MS. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fever of unknown origin (FUO): CMV infectious mononucleosis or lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Chawla, Karishma

    2018-04-20

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of > 101 °F that persist for > 3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. The FUO category determines the focus of the diagnostic workup. In the case presented of an FUO in a young woman, there were clinical findings of both CMV infectious mononucleosis or a lymphoma, e.g., highly elevated ESR, elevated ferritin levels, and elevated ACE level, β-2 microglobulins. The indium scan showed intense splenic uptake. Lymph node biopsy, PET scan, and flow cytometry were negative for lymphoma. CMV infectious mononucleosis was the diagnosis, and she made a slow recovery.

  16. Unusual climatic conditions and infectious diseases: observations made by Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kosmidis, John; Daikos, George K

    2010-12-01

    About 2500 years ago, Hippocrates made noteworthy observations about the influence of climate on public health. He believed that people living in cities with different climate may suffer from different diseases. Hippocrates also observed that abrupt climatic changes or unusual weather conditions affect public health, especially the incidence and severity of various infectious diseases, including gastrointestinal infections, tuberculosis, and central nervous system infections. We believe that Hippocrates' scientific observations are great early historic examples that stress to modern infectious diseases researchers and clinicians the need to study intensively the effect of the occurring global climate changes to infectious diseases in order to help in the prevention of possible epidemics of infections. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Avian infectious bronchitis virus in Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataby, Khadija; Fellahi, Siham; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because it has extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. IBV is a Gammacoronavirus, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA virus. Avian infectious bronchitis is well studied in European countries with identification of a large number of IBV variants, whereas in African countries epidemiological and scientific data are poor and not updated. However, previous studies reported that an IBV variant continues to appear regularly in Africa, as currently described in Morocco. No cross-protection between IBV strains was reported, some being unique to a particular country, others having a more general distribution. This review aims to provide a general overview on IB disease distribution in African countries and an update on the available studies of IBV variants in each country.

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

  20. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  1. Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis; Spondylitis und ihre Differenzialdiagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlemann, Rainer [Helios St. Johannes Klinik, Duisburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hoogeveen, Anja [AKH Viersen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

  2. Utilisation of radiolabeled antibiotic for the diagnosis of infectious foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammassi, Sabrine; Gharbi, Sabrine

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear imaging is a non-invasive exploration technique, used for rapid diagnostic of infectious disease .Thus, for osteoarticular infection scintigraphic techniques were proposed to ameliorate the diagnostic sensibility and the use of radiolabeled antibiotics as imaging agents of infectious loci become more and more recognized. In this work, a new sulfanil amid derivative, the N sulfanilamide-ferrocene-carboxamide was chemically synthesized then labeled with technetium-99m, with a radiochemical yield, 87 pour cent. In in-vitro studies were done with E.coli. first , the up-take of labeled molecule was estimated as 40 pour cent. Then, the bacteriostatic al effect of the molecule was de terminated by considering the Optical Density at 600 nm. The obtained results, encourage us to do more, with biodistribution on normal and infected mice; with Staphylococcus aureus. Then to carry out scintigraphic imaging with gamma camera to check out the potentiality of the molecule as an infectious imaging agent. (Author)

  3. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  4. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  5. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  6. A technological update of molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Tsueng

    2008-01-01

    Identification of a causative pathogen is essential for the choice of treatment for most infectious diseases. Many FDA approved molecular assays; usually more sensitive and specific compared to traditional tests, have been developed in the last decade. A new trend of high throughput and multiplexing assays are emerging thanks to technological developments for the human genome sequencing project. The applications of microarray and ultra high throughput sequencing technologies for diagnostic microbiology are reviewed. The race for the $1000 genome technology by 2014 will have a profound impact in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:18782035

  7. [Infectious complications in patients undergoing a heart transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Muñoz, P

    1995-01-01

    Infectious complications are, with rejection, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Adequate management of these patients requires an adequate knowledge of risk factors, of most common infectious syndromes and of relevant microorganism, as long as of their resistance pattern. Among the first group, we may mention lower respiratory tract infections, mediastinitis and meningitis, and among the microorganisms, Citomegalovirus, Aspergillus and Toxoplasma gondii. The impressive development of diagnostical techniques and of prophylactic and therapeutical possibilities suggest the convenience of a multidisciplinar approach to these complications.

  8. [A case of infectious mononucleosis with splenic infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Daisuke; Nakatani, Toshiya; Fujinaga, Yukihisa; Seki, Kenichiro; Saikawa, Soichiro; Sawada, Yasuhiko; Sato, Yoshiki; Nagamatsu, Shinsaku; Matsuo, Hideki; Kikuchi, Eiryo

    2013-08-01

    A 22-year-old man complaining of persisting high fever and right hypochondralgia was admitted to our hospital for infectious mononucleosis with splenic infarction detected by computed tomography. The splenic infarction deteriorated with a marked elevation of inflammatory parameters. This necessitated the commencement of methylprednisolone pulse therapy, resulting in prompt amelioration of inflammation and a reduction in cytokine levels. Including our case, only 9 cases of mononucleosis with splenic infarction have been reported to date; however, splenic infarction should be considered because it is a significant complication of infectious mononucleosis.

  9. Imaging of infectious spinal disorders in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamesslj@email.com; Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this review article is to outline the imaging of infectious disorders of the spine in adults and children. The clinical presentation, potential routes of infection and the pathogens commonly identified are discussed. The value of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of spinal infection is presented including radiographic, CT, MR imaging and Nuclear Medicine including PET. The use of image guided techniques for diagnosis and subsequent treatment is briefly covered. The major differential diagnoses of infectious disorders of the spine are identified and contrasted with the typical findings in infection. The use of follow up imaging is evaluated.

  10. An introduction to mathematical modeling of infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Michael Y

    2018-01-01

    This text provides essential modeling skills and methodology for the study of infectious diseases through a one-semester modeling course or directed individual studies.  The book includes mathematical descriptions of epidemiological concepts, and uses classic epidemic models to introduce different mathematical methods in model analysis.  Matlab codes are also included for numerical implementations. It is primarily written for upper undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematical sciences who have an interest in mathematical modeling of infectious diseases.  Although written in a rigorous mathematical manner, the style is not unfriendly to non-mathematicians.

  11. PET-Based Personalized Management of Infectious and Inflammatory Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Alavi, Abass; Basu, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to diagnose and manage infectious and inflammatory diseases; symptoms are relatively nonspecific, the disease patterns are often systemic. Imaging is pivotal and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used due to its high sensitivity whole-body app......It is challenging to diagnose and manage infectious and inflammatory diseases; symptoms are relatively nonspecific, the disease patterns are often systemic. Imaging is pivotal and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used due to its high sensitivity whole...

  12. [Evasion of anti-infectious immunity by Brucella - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wurong; Yang, Yongjie

    2016-05-04

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella species, is a worldwide zoonosis. As facultative intracellular pathogens, Brucella possess non-classical virulence factor, but its virulence is very powerful and can elicit chronic infections of both animals and humans. Evasion of host anti-infectious immunity is a prerequisite for chronic infections, this ability appears increasingly crucial for Brucella virulence. As successful pathogens, Brucella can escape or suppress innate immunity and modulate adaptive immunity to establish long lasting infections in host cells. In this review, we address the molecular mechanisms of Brucella to evade anti-infectious immunity. This will shed new insights on Brucella virulence and will, potentially, open new prophylactic avenues.

  13. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  14. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  15. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs, using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  16. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  17. State of infectious diseases in the Netherlands, 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier B; Nijsten DRE; Duijster JW; Hahne SJM; SIS; I&V

    2017-01-01

    The most notable infectious disease outbreak in 2016 was the large Zika virus outbreak in Latin America. During this outbreak it was discovered that the Zika virus can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, and that infection during pregnancy can lead to severe congenital disorders. In the Caribbean

  18. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  19. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, lymphocidal disease that has been a threat to poultry production in Nigeria and a major disease problem of poultry producing areas of the world. A serological detection of antibodies to the virus was conducted on 300 sera samples derived from local chickens slaughtered at Sheik ...

  20. A Robust Mathematical Model On Infectious Diseases | Omorogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a robust epidemiological compartment model on infectious diseases. The model obviates the limitations of the classical epidemiological model by accommodating different levels of vulnerability and susceptibility to infections within different social class and spatial structures. Unlike the classical model ...

  1. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  2. Construction characterization and application of Flavivirus infectious clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    The topics in this thesis revolve around a group of plus-strand RNA viruses that belong to the Flavivirus genus, a general introduction of which is presented in Chapter 1. The experimental chapters in this thesis mainly focus on the construction and characterization of flavivirus infectious clones

  3. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  4. the significance of infectious diseases in african game populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the effects of African game diseases as it is only possible here, in view of lack of .... The latter is highly infectious and fatal for domestic poultry and was described .... tations of animals takes place with the'ingestion of muscle meat, containing ...

  5. Infectious Diseases Continued to be the World's Core Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Plague epidemic is going on in Madagascar. Many countries are in constant worries that such deadly infectious diseases might be carried from one part of the world to them (3). Although member countries signed an international agreement to report outbreaks promptly to the. World Health Organization and take steps to.

  6. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of

  7. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems : China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards

  8. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloned genomes of infectious hepatitis C viruses and uses thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention discloses nucleic acid sequences which encode infectious hepatitis C viruses and the use of these sequences, and polypeptides encoded by all or part of these sequences, in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for HCV and in the development of screening assays...

  10. Comparing methods to quantify experimental transmission of infectious agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bree, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission of an infectious agent can be quantified from experimental data using the transient-state (TS) algorithm. The TS algorithm is based on the stochastic SIR model and provides a time-dependent probability distribution over the number of infected individuals during an epidemic, with no need

  11. Ecohealth Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Initiative (EcoEID)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to understand the relationship between emerging infectious diseases of potentially pandemic proportions, and the agricultural, land utilization and ecosystem management practices that give rise to .... Disability weight of Clonorchis sinensis infection : captured from community study and model simulation ...

  12. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  14. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  15. Simulations for designing and interpreting intervention trials in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Auranen, Kari; Baird, Sarah; Basta, Nicole E; Bellan, Steven E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cooper, Ben S; DeGruttola, Victor; Hughes, James P; Lessler, Justin; Lofgren, Eric T; Longini, Ira M; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Özler, Berk; Seage, George R; Smith, Thomas A; Vespignani, Alessandro; Vynnycky, Emilia; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-12-29

    Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process. In an increasingly complex world, simulations can explicitly represent transmission dynamics, which are critical for proper trial design and interpretation. Certain ethical aspects of a trial can also be quantified using simulations. Further, after a trial has been conducted, simulations can be used to explore the possible explanations for the observed effects. Much is to be gained through a multidisciplinary approach that builds collaborations among experts in infectious disease dynamics, epidemiology, statistical science, economics, simulation methods, and the conduct of clinical trials.

  16. Disease burden of infectious diseases in Europe: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier EA van; Havelaar AH; LZO

    2007-01-01

    Consequences of different infectious diseases cannot be adequately compared with each other on the basis of the number of patients or mortality data only. It is better to combine all health effects and express the total impact as disease burden, which also takes duration and severity of diseases

  17. Infectious diseases and chronic care in Africa | Tumwine | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious diseases and chronic care in Africa. JK Tumwine. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i2.2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Radionuclide diagnosis of splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezina, W.C.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cohen, P.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication of infectious mononucleosis. Although radionuclide spleen imaging is a well accepted method for diagnosis of traumatic rupture, interpretation can be difficult in the setting of mononucleosis, as tears may be ill-defined and diagnosis hampered by inhomogeneous splenic uptake. Four proven cases of spontaneous rupture are presented, three of which illustrate these diagnostic problems

  19. Infectious Mononucleosis: Ensuring a Safe Return to Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKnight, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…

  20. Selective association of multiple sclerosis with infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Buuren, S. van; Kalsbeek, H.; Noort, J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and infectious mononucleosis (IM) but data on the exact strength of this association or its selectivity have been conflicting. In this study we have evaluated the association between MS and a variety of common childhood

  1. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  2. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  3. Infectious Agents as Stimuli of Trained Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rusek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents. Many infectious stimuli, including bacterial or fungal cells and their components (LPS, β-glucan, chitin as well as viruses or even parasites are considered potent inducers of innate immune memory. Epigenetic cell reprogramming occurring at the heart of the phenomenon may provide a useful basis for designing novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent and protect against multiple diseases. In this article, we present the current state of art on trained innate immunity occurring as a result of infectious agent induction. Additionally, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming and the implications for immune response stimulation/manipulation.

  4. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients.

  5. Dentigenous infectious foci - a risk factor of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Krol, Irena; Sójka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-02-01

    Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired heart disease, along with the presence at least 2 odontogenic infectious foci (ie, 2 or more teeth with gangrenous pulp and periodontitis). The group had earlier been qualified for the procedure of heart valve replacement. Swabs of removed heart valve tissue with inflammatory lesions and blood were then examined microbiologically. Swabs of root canals and their periapical areas, of periodontal pockets, and of heart valves were also collected. Microbial flora, cultured from intradental foci, blood and heart valves, fully corresponded in 14 patients. This was accompanied in almost all cases by more advanced periodontitis (2nd degree, Scandinavian classification), irrespective of the bacterial co-occurrence mentioned. In the remaining patients, such consistency was not found. Among various dentigenous, infectious foci, the intradental foci appear to constitute a risk factor for infective endocarditis.

  6. Comparative immunogenicity of local and imported infectious bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative immunogenicity and efficacy study of local and imported infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines administered to chicks (cockerels) at varying regimes (10 and 18, 10 and 28, 14 and 35 days of age) was carried out. The test birds were challenged seven days after the booster dose of the IBD vaccine by ...

  7. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may......., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses....

  8. Infectious bursal disease outbreak in 19-week old commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necropsy revealed a markedly enlarged, oedematous and haemorrhagic bursa. Histopathologic findings including lympho-cytolysis and oedema were characteristic of an acute bursitis and a positive agar-gel precipitation test were used to confirm the diagnosis of Infectious bursal disease. Keywords: Agar gel precipitation, ...

  9. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  10. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial ...

  11. Effect of infectious diseases on outcome after heart transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Kremers, Walter K.; del Pozo, Jose L.; Daly, Richard C.; Edwards, Brooks S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Patel, Robin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how often cardiac allograft recipients develop infectious diseases and how the infections affect these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 313 patients who underwent heart transplant at Mayo Clinic's site in Rochester, MN, from January 1, 1988, through

  12. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Forecasting infectious disease emergence subject to seasonal forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M

    2017-09-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.

  14. Profile of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Workforce in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sylvia H; Vijayan, Vini; Hahn, Andrea; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Kirkwood, Suzanne; Phillips, Terri Christene; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-12-22

    Almost 20 years have elapsed since the last workforce survey of pediatric infectious disease (PID) subspecialists was conducted in 1997-1998. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Infectious Diseases in collaboration with the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society sought to assess the status of the current PID workforce. A Web-based survey conducted in 2015 collected data on demographics, practice patterns, and job satisfaction among the PID workforce, and identified factors related to job placement among recent fellowship graduates. Of 946 respondents (48% response rate), 50% were female. The average age was 51 years (range, 29-88 years); 63% were employed by an academic center/hospital, and 85% provided direct patient care; and 18% were not current PID practitioners. Of the 138 (21%) respondents who had completed a PID fellowship within the previous 5 years, 83% applied for maintain the pipeline and improve satisfaction among its physicians. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radiographic sarcopenia predicts postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kosei; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Yagi, Takahito; Umeda, Yuzo; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-05-26

    Recently, skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has been reported to influence postoperative outcomes after certain procedures. This study investigated the impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients (n = 219) who underwent PD at our institution between January 2007 and May 2013. Sarcopenia was evaluated using preoperative computed tomography. We evaluated postoperative outcomes and the influence of sarcopenia on short-term outcomes, especially infectious complications. Subsequently, multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of prognostic factors (including sarcopenia) on postoperative infections. The mortality, major complication, and infectious complication rates for all patients were 1.4%, 16.4%, and 47.0%, respectively. Fifty-five patients met the criteria for sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality (P = 0.004) and infectious complications (P sarcopenia (odds ratio = 3.43; P Sarcopenia is an independent preoperative predictor of infectious complications after PD. Clinical assessment combined with sarcopenia may be helpful for understanding the risk of postoperative outcomes and determining perioperative management strategies.

  16. Diagnosis and epidemiology of chicken infectious anemia in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) has recently emerged as an important disease problem in some of Africa's major poultry-producing countries. Economic losses due to this disease arises from poor growth, increased mortality, carcass condemnations and the cost of antibiotics used to control secondary bacterial infections.

  17. [The control of infectious diseases in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, J.E. van; Timen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal health services (MHSs) carry out the control and prevention of communicable diseases, under the authority of the municipal councils. Mayors have the authority to enforce measures aimed at individuals, such as isolation and quarantine. The mandatory notification of infectious diseases by

  18. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger...

  19. Dentigenous infectious foci – a risk factor of infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Spychala, Beata; Sokalski, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek; Trojnarska, Olga; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Sójka, Anna; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Dentigenous, infectious foci are frequently associated with the development of various diseases. The role of such foci in the evolution of endocarditis still remains unclear. This article presents the concluding results of an interdisciplinary study verifying the influence of dentigenous, infectious foci on the development of infective endocarditis. Material/Methods The study subjects were 60 adult patients with history of infective endocarditis and coexistent acquired heart disease, along with the presence at least 2 odontogenic infectious foci (ie, 2 or more teeth with gangrenous pulp and periodontitis). The group had earlier been qualified for the procedure of heart valve replacement. Swabs of removed heart valve tissue with inflammatory lesions and blood were then examined microbiologically. Swabs of root canals and their periapical areas, of periodontal pockets, and of heart valves were also collected. Results Microbial flora, cultured from intradental foci, blood and heart valves, fully corresponded in 14 patients. This was accompanied in almost all cases by more advanced periodontitis (2nd degree, Scandinavian classification), irrespective of the bacterial co-occurrence mentioned. In the remaining patients, such consistency was not found. Conclusions Among various dentigenous, infectious foci, the intradental foci appear to constitute a risk factor for infective endocarditis. PMID:22293883

  20. Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C

    2012-01-01

    On top of the unfinished agenda of infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, development, industrialization, urbanization, investment, and aging are drivers of an epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Malnutrition and infection in early life increase the risk of chronic NCDs...... for limited funds, is an important policy consideration requiring new thinking and approaches....

  1. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in

  2. Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of antibodies to avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease viruses in wild birds in three states of Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  3. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    15-34 years was 3.49 (95% CI = 2.46-4.81; n = 37), which was statistically significantly higher than the SIR for any other age group (P: for difference =.001). CONCLUSION: The increased risk of Hodgkin's disease after the occurrence of infectious mononucleosis appears to be a specific phenomenon....

  4. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the

  5. The infectious hypoxia: occurrence and causes during Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  7. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  8. SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of acute infectious diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. C.; Schultsz, C.; Vandenbroucke-Graulsz, C. M. J.; Speelman, P.; Prins, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB: Stichting Werkgroep Antibioticabeleid) develops evidence-based guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adults. In this article we discuss the guideline on antibiotic treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea (AID). AID can be subdivided

  9. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate

  10. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to...

  11. Web-based infectious disease reporting using XML forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Yang, Peng; Rao, Keqin

    2008-09-01

    Exploring solutions for infectious disease information sharing among hospital and public health information systems is imperative to the improvement of disease surveillance and emergent response. This paper aimed at developing a method to directly transmit real-time data of notifiable infectious diseases from hospital information systems to public health information systems on the Internet by using a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. The mechanism and work flow by which notifiable infectious disease data are created, reported and used at health agencies in China was evaluated. The capacity of all participating providers to use electronic data interchange to submit transactions of data required for the notifiable infectious disease reporting was assessed. The minimum data set at national level that is required for reporting for national notifiable infectious disease surveillance was determined. The standards and techniques available worldwide for electronic health data interchange, such as XML, HL7 messaging, CDA and ATSM CCR, etc. were reviewed and compared, and an XML implementation format needed for this purpose was defined for hospitals that are able to access the Internet to provide a complete infectious disease reporting. There are 18,703 county or city hospitals in China. All of them have access to basic information infrastructures including computers, e-mail and the Internet. Nearly 10,000 hospitals possess hospital information systems used for electronically recording, retrieving and manipulating patients' information. These systems collect 23 data items required in the minimum data set for national notifiable infectious disease reporting. In order to transmit these data items to the disease surveillance system and local health information systems instantly and without duplication of data input, an XML schema and a set of standard data elements were developed to define the content, structure and semantics of the data set. These standards

  12. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, M.; Une, H.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article

  14. Genetic analysis of infectious diseases: Estimating gene effects for susceptibility and infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anche, M.T.; Bijma, P.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic selection of livestock against infectious diseases can complement existing interventions to control infectious diseases. Most genetic approaches that aim at reducing disease prevalence assume that individual disease status (infected/not-infected) is solely a function of its

  15. 77 FR 59937 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning Grants (R34) and Implementation... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  16. 78 FR 23771 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Clinical Trails Units for NIAID Network'' (Meeting 1). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 16, 2013. David...

  17. 77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  18. 78 FR 25753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a HIV Vaccines Clinical Network. Date: May... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  19. 78 FR 16516 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation. Date: April 8, 2013. Time: 12... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  20. 76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation and Planning (U01, R34). Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  1. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...] Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety and... public workshops entitled ``Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion... Office of Science and Public Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of...

  2. 78 FR 5467 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``OMICS'' Technologies for Predictive Modeling of Infectious... applications. Place: Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Contact Person...

  3. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  4. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  5. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  6. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  7. Biobanking and translation of human genetics and genomics for infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Branković; Jelena Malogajski; Servaas A. Morré

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks are invaluable resources in genomic research of both the infectious diseases and their hosts. This article examines the role of biobanks in basic research of infectious disease genomics, as well as the relevance and applicability of biobanks in the translation of impending knowledge and the clinical uptake of knowledge of infectious diseases. Our research identifies potential fields of interaction between infectious disease genomics and biobanks, in line with global trends in the int...

  8. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Contract Review. Date: December 5, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 4, 2011...

  9. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...

  10. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology...

  11. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...

  12. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  13. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... to increase the public health impact of CDC's infectious disease prevention and control efforts...

  14. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Resource-Related Research Projects. Date: January 26, 2012. Time... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  15. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  16. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Infectious Diseases Council. Date: May 24, 2010. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda: Report from the...

  17. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 27, 2014. Open...

  18. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Beyond HAART: Innovative Therapies to Control HIV-1. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  19. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... and the three infectious disease national centers, a report from the OID/BSC Food Safety Modernization...

  20. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013...

  1. 78 FR 69683 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB... the infectious disease national centers; and focused discussions on 1) the public health use of...

  2. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a...

  3. 78 FR 12767 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Peer Review Meeting. Date: March 14, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  4. 78 FR 27409 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  5. 77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and... reports from the BSC OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...

  6. 78 FR 34110 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 31, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  7. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a...

  8. 78 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 19, 2013...

  9. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  10. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 7, 2011. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda: Report from the...

  11. 76 FR 61719 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``Investigator Initiated Program Project Application.'' Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  12. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the... reports from the BSC, OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...

  13. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the..., the meeting will include a focused discussion on ``Transitioning Infectious Disease Prevention...

  14. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  15. Gordon Wilson Lecture: Infectious Disease Causes of Cancer: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The role of infectious agents in cancer is generally underappreciated. However, approximately 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents and as such they rank second only to tobacco as a potentially preventable cause in humans. Specific viruses, parasites, and bacteria have been linked to specific human cancers. The infectious etiology for these specific cancers provides opportunities for prevention and treatment.

  16. 78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Network. Date....gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date...

  17. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Integrated... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Network..., 301-496-2550, [email protected] . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and...

  18. 78 FR 26376 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units for NIAID Networks. Date: May 31, 2013... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Unit for NIAID Networks. Date: July 2, 2013. Time.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  19. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia... of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia, contact Dr. William G. Smith, Area...

  20. 75 FR 30046 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics Autoimmunity. Date: June 22, 2010. Time... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Review of proposals received in response to NIH-NHLBI-HB-11-02...

  1. 76 FR 9030 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics of Lupus. Date: March 11, 2011. Time: 11... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date...

  2. 75 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; HLA Region Genetics in Immune- Mediated Diseases. Date: April 7-8... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  3. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  4. General principles for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Delpech, Salvador; Salom-Alonso, David

    2009-09-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders constitute a sight-threatening group of diseases that might be managed according to their severity. Their treatment guidelines experience constant changes with new agents that improve the results obtained with former drugs. Nowadays we can make use of a five step protocol in which topical, periocular and systemic corticosteroids remain as the main therapy for non infectious uveitis. In addition, immunosuppresive drugs can be added in order to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects and to develop the role of corticosteroid-saving agents. These can be organized in four other steps: Cyclosporine and Methotrexate in a second one; Azathioprine, Mycophenolate Mofetil and Tacrolimus in a third step; biological anti-TNF drugs in fourth position; and a theoretical last one with Cyclophosphamide and Chlorambucil. In the present review we go through the main characteristics and complications of all these treatments and make a rational of this five-step treatment protocol for non infectious posterior uveitis.

  5. Pharmacological treatments and infectious diseases in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, Valeria; Romano, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD. Areas covered: A broad review of the major infectious diseases that have been reported in children and adolescents with IBD was performed, and information regarding surveillance, diagnosis and management were updated. The possible correlations with IBD pharmacological tools are discussed. Expert commentary: Opportunistic infections are possible in pediatric IBD, and immunosuppressive and immunomodulator therapy seems to play a causative role. Heightened awareness and vigilant surveillance leading to prompt diagnosis and treatment are important for optimal management.

  6. Cutaneous infectious diseases: Kids are not just little people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Jinna, Sphoorthi; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Sloan, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The changes in immune response that occur with age play a significant role in disease presentation and patient management. Evolution of the innate and adaptive immune systems throughout life, influenced partly by hormonal changes associated with puberty, plays a role in the differences between pediatric and adult response to disease. We review a series of manifestations of dermatologic infectious diseases spanning bacterial, viral, and fungal origins that can be seen in both pediatric and adult age groups and highlight similarities and differences in presentation and disease course. Therapeutic options are also discussed for these infectious diseases, with particular attention to variations in management between these population subgroups, given differences in pharmacokinetics and side effect profiles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Оptimization of Treatment EBV Infectious Mononucleosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kotlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of observation of 103 children aged from 10 months to 15 years with EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM, determined in 32% by acute primary Epstein-Barr virus infection (AEBVI and in 68% of cases by reactivation of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the course, depending on the form of infection, were investigated. As a clinical outcome of infectious mononucleosis in patients with primary infection latent infection after a year is formed 5.8 times more often than in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. The high efficiency of recombinant interferon monotherapy in patients with primary acute infection was recorded and the expediency of combined etiotropic therapy in the treatment of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection was found out.

  8. Persistent infectious and tropical diseases in immigrant correctional populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Getaz

    Full Text Available A number of infectious diseases amongst travelers and the immigrant populations are a major public health concern. Some have a long incubation period or remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic for many years before leading to significant clinical manifestations and/or complications. HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis or latent syphilis are among the most significant persistent diseases in migrants. Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis, for instance, are persistent helminthic infections that may cause significant morbidity, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C. Chagas disease, which was initially confined to Latin America, must also now be considered in immigrants from endemic countries. Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria are other examples of parasitic diseases that must be taken into account by physicians treating incarcerated migrants. The focus of this review article is on the risk of neglected tropical diseases in particularly vulnerable correctional populations and on the risk of infectious diseases that commonly affect migrants but which are often underestimated.

  9. COPD stage and risk of hospitalization for infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    .24 to 1.56], and 2.21 [95% CI, 1.84 to 2.64], respectively; p=0.001). In subgroup analysis, the increased risk was associated with lower and upper respiratory tract infections, pyothorax, and tuberculosis, but not with influenza, sepsis, skin infections, urinary tract infections, diarrheal disease......BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are a frequent complication of COPD, but little is known about the incidence, association, and risk of infectious diseases related to impaired lung function. METHODS: Participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study had lung function measured at baseline......, or other infectious diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of obstructive lung disease is a significant predictor of IDH caused by respiratory tract infections, but not of hospitalizations due to infections outside the respiratory system....

  10. [Infectious Mononucleosis and Cholestatic Hepatitis: A Rare Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Catarina; Garcia, Ana Margarida; Rúbio, Catarina; Cunha, Florbela

    2017-12-29

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the major clinical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this syndrome, elevation of liver transaminase levels is common but cholestasis is rare, with few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a 14-year-old female adolescent, admitted to the Emergency Room with fever, odynophagia and cervical adenomegaly. She was treated with amoxicillin and two days later he presented with jaundice. The analytical evaluation was compatible with cholestatic hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly without dilatation of the bile ducts. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection was confirmed by the presence of serological markers. This case aims to raise awareness of a rare manifestation of a common infectious agent and, consequently, to the inclusion of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in the differential diagnosis of pediatric cholestatic hepatitis.

  11. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-20

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be 'orphan' but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  12. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  13. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Deborah A; Thomas, Kimberly R; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Foster, Loretta; Baroi, Gitangali; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana H; Schley, Alan W; Anderson, Willie J

    2017-08-11

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphical form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2015. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2015 reported as of June 30, 2016. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territories, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at https://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/MMWR_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  14. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten

    2015-10-23

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  15. Sputum Microscopy With Fluorescein Diacetate Predicts Tuberculosis Infectiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M; Tovar, Marco A; Bravard, Marjory A; Valencia, Teresa; Montoya, Rosario; Quino, Willi; D'Arcy, Nikki; Ramos, Eric S; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-09-01

    Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was quantified in pretreatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture, and acid-fast microscopy. These 35 patients' 209 household contacts were followed with prevalence surveys for tuberculosis disease for 6 years. FDA microscopy was positive for a median of 119 (interquartile range [IQR], 47-386) bacteria/µL sputum, which was 5.1% (IQR, 2.4%-11%) the concentration of acid-fast microscopy-positive bacteria (2069 [IQR, 1358-3734] bacteria/μL). Tuberculosis was diagnosed during follow-up in 6.4% (13/209) of contacts. For patients with lower than median concentration of FDA microscopy-positive M. tuberculosis, 10% of their contacts developed tuberculosis. This was significantly more than 2.7% of the contacts of patients with higher than median FDA microscopy results (crude hazard ratio [HR], 3.8; P = .03). This association maintained statistical significance after adjusting for disease severity, chemoprophylaxis, drug resistance, and social determinants (adjusted HR, 3.9; P = .02). Mycobacterium tuberculosis that was FDA microscopy negative was paradoxically associated with greater infectiousness. FDA microscopy-negative bacteria in these pretreatment samples may be a nonstaining, slowly metabolizing phenotype better adapted to airborne transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Naoki; Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended anal...

  17. Infectious causes of microcephaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, D; Bamford, A; Ferreira, MU; Broad, J; Rosch, RE; Groce, N; Breuer, J; Cardoso, MA; Copp, AJ; Alexandre, P; Rodrigues, LC; Abubakar, I

    2017-01-01

    Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015-16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. In this Review, we summarise important aspects of major congenital infections that can cause micr...

  18. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact inf...

  19. [Acute oliguric renal failure and haemolytic anaemia following infectious mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkovic, Natasa; Jørgensen, Kit Riegels; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-11-09

    A 19-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and faint. He was pale and icteric, awake with sufficient respiration and circulation. He had infectious mononucleosis complicated with acute oliguric renal failure and severe haemolytic anaemia with a positive Coombs test. He had a cold agglutinin syndrome. The treatment comprised intermittent haemodialysis, plasmapheresis and heating. He recovered completely after two months.

  20. [Infectious mononucleosis: etiology, immunological variants, methods of correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeets, A V; Savina, O G; Beniova, S N; Chernikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Clinical options of infectious mononucleosis course depending on infecting agent etiology are presented for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), mono and mixed forms of the disease. Examined cytokine profiles demonstrate analogous changes of serum cytokines in the acute stage of the disease irrespective of etiological factors. Data show that it is important and useful clinically and immunologically to include immunomodulators--in particular, cycloferon--info a complex therapy of different types of mononucleosis.

  1. A Case Of Infectious Mononucleosis With Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani S K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculo neuropathy (AIDP, following infectious mononucleosis. A 12 year old girl presented with acute flaccid quadriplegia with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and enlarged tonsils six weeks after a febrile illness. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed albuminocytological dissociation and electrophysiology showed evidence of axonal-demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Heterophile antibody test was positive and lymph node biopsy showed non -specific reactive hyperplasia. She was managed conservatively with good outcome.

  2. UCLA High Speed, High Volume Laboratory Network for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    of Human Influenza A( H1N2 ) Reassortant Viruses during the 2001–2002 Influenza Season. Journal Infectious Diseases 2002;186:1490–1493...X, Smith CB, Mungall BA, Lindstrom SE, Hall HE, Subbarao K, et al. Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reas- sortant viruses...numerous samples containing highly pathologic avian influenza and other select agents (dual-use). With FY07 (available), FY08 (available) and FY 09

  3. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  4. Transmission of infectious diseases en route to habitat hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat "hotspots"--places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups--can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure.

  5. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as socia...

  6. Managing the Navy’s Infectious Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-04

    pasteur pipetes, broken glass, scalpel blades) which have come into contact with infectious agents during use in patient care or in medical , research...concerned patients with a responsible method of disposal of their syringes. 4.8 Proposed Federal Legislation On June 22, 1992, American Medical News reported...disposal point for non- medically related wastes which required special handling. These wastes included such items as confiscated marijuana , sensitive

  7. Big Data Analytics, Infectious Diseases and Associated Ethical Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, C.; Raffle, J.; Aisyah, D. N.; Sartain, F.; Kozlakidis, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The exponential accumulation, processing and accrual of big data in healthcare are only possible through an equally rapidly evolving field of big data analytics. The latter offers the capacity to rationalize, understand and use big data to serve many different purposes, from improved services modelling to prediction of treatment outcomes, to greater patient and disease stratification. In the area of infectious diseases, the application of big data analytics has introduced a number of changes ...

  8. Effectiveness and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Ozen, Metehan; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-04-01

    Acute diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality worldwide and probiotics have been proposed as a complementary therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Regarding the treatment of acute diarrhea, a few probiotics including Saccharomyces boulardii seem to be promising therapeutic agents. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the use of S. boulardii in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea with relevant studies that searched with the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Library, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2011. This review describes the effects of S. boulardii on the duration of diarrhea, the risk of diarrhea during the treatment (especially at the third day) and duration of hospitalization in patients with acute infectious diarrhea. This review also focused on the potential effects of S. boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea due to different etiological causes. S. boulardii significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea approximately 24 h and that of hospitalization approximately 20 h. S. boulardii shortened the initial phase of watery stools; mean number of stools started to decrease at day 2; moreover, a significant reduction was reported at days 3 and 4. This systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of S. boulardii in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea show that there is strong evidence that this probiotic has a clinically significant benefit, whatever the cause, including in developing countries. Therefore, with S. boulardii, the shortened duration of diarrhea and the reduction in hospital stay result in social and economic benefits.

  9. POSTOPERATIVE INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ch. Usupbaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The large proportion of postoperative infectious complications in urological hospitals makes extremely urgent the problem of its control. The high level of these complications in the postoperative period in patients with urolithiasis is caused by various endo- and exogenous factors.Purpose. To determine the frequency, structure, and features of postoperative infectious complications in patients with urolithiasis in urological hospitals.Materials and methods. As an object of research we used a medical card 232 of the operated patients with urolithiasis, which were copied out in individual registration card. Of 232 patients with urolithiasis 48.3% were men, their average age was 44.5 ± 9.4 years. Female patients were slightly larger (51.7%, respectively, the average age was 44.9 ± 8.1 years.Results. The most common postoperative infectious complications in urolithiasis was infection in the area of surgical intervention (36,2%, acute urethritis (20,7%, acute pyelonephritis (14.7 per cent, paranephritis (9,5%, acute orhoepididimit (7,8%, acute cystitis (6%, pionephrosis (3,4%, urosepsis (1.7 percent. In the etiological structure of infectious agents associated with medical care with the highest frequency, microorganisms of genera Escherichia coli (43%, Proteus (9.5%, Staphilococcus spp were isolated. (8.3% and Staphilococcus aureus (8.3%, and in 11.9% of cases, the Association of microorganisms. Analysis of the etiological structure of genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to β-lactam antibiotics showed that 63.2% of the amount to the genus strain of E. coli, 21% Proteus and 15.8% Klebsiella.Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for research on the prevalence of resistant strains of microorganisms, the introduction of more specifi c, sensitive methods and monitoring. This will increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce the risk of the spread of resistant strains and increase nosocomial infections.

  10. [Notifiable infectious diseases: knowledge and notification among hospital physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Cirilo, Laura; Martín-Ríos, M Dolores; de Las Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Andrés-Prado, M José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    2013-12-01

    Notifiable infectious diseases represent a public health hazard, which is why they are under surveillance and must be reported. We tried to assess hospital physicians' knowledge of hospital physicians on notifiable infectious diseases and their self-reported attitudes to notification. An observational study was conducted using a questionnaire with 11 multiple choice questions, two yes/no questions and one short-answer question. It was distributed to all senior doctors and residents in 19 medical and surgical departments. A total of 248 questionnaires were sent out, with a response rate of 79.84%. More than three-quarters (76.3%) of the respondents were senior doctors. As regards specific knowledge about whether a particular disease is a notifiable disease, 29.5% identified correctly 100% of the named diseases, 3.2% could not identify any of them. All urgent named notifiable infectious diseases were correctly identified by 25.3% of physicians. Statistically significant differences were found in the knowledge of notifiable diseases knowledge in medical and surgical departments, as well as for senior doctors (P=.047) and residents (P=.035). A high percentage of medical services (40%) and surgical (70%) department reported never failing to notify. When asked about the causes of under-reporting, 72% did not know whether notification was mandatory or not, and 88% did not know what diseases must be notified. Although many respondents are aware that diseases notification is part of their daily activity, many of them admit under-reporting. There is insufficient knowledge about what diseases are considered notifiable infectious diseases and how to notify them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A

    2010-09-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (i) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (ii) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, for example, gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (iii) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes and (iv) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasize that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional 'landscapes' such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field.

  12. MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Marcia H; Boldt, Angelica B W; Catarino, Sandra J; Mendes, Hellen C; Boschmann, Stefanie E; Goeldner, Isabela; Messias-Reason, Iara

    2015-09-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

  14. Cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder complicating infectious mononucleosis in an immunosuppressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Cindy England; Callen, Jeffrey P; Bahrami, Soon

    2011-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the syndrome produced by primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus during adolescence or early adulthood. In immunosuppressed individuals, depressed T-cell function allows the Epstein-Barr virus-driven B-cell proliferation to continue unabated, potentially leading to a lymphoproliferative disorder. A 15-year-old girl with a history of ulcerative colitis treated with 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine presented with the acute onset of a rapidly enlarging, ulcerative nodule on her left lower eyelid 4 weeks following recovery from infectious mononucleosis. The biopsy revealed an Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorder. Systemic disease was absent. Following discontinuation of 6-mercaptopurine, the patient was treated with two courses of intravenous cyclophosphamide. The lesion resolved completely and she remains disease free at 14 months following diagnosis. We report a solitary cutaneous lesion of an immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative disorder (IR-LPD) occurring as a complication of infectious mononucleosis, and review the pathogenesis and reported cases of Epstein-Barr virus-related immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative disorder arising in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease. It is important for dermatologists and dermatopathologists to be aware of the occurrence of IR-LPD in patients being treated for inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease. Given the role of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus in the development of IR-LPD, consideration may be given to assessing Epstein-Barr virus status prior to initiating immunosuppressive therapy in young patients. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evidence of genetic susceptibility to infectious mononucleosis: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, A E; Hamilton, A S; Cockburn, M G; Ambinder, R; Zadnick, J; Brown, E E; Mack, T M; Cozen, W

    2012-11-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is unknown whether genetic factors contribute to risk. To assess heritability, we compared disease concordance in monozygotic to dizygotic twin pairs from the population-based California Twin Program and assessed the risk to initially unaffected co-twins. One member of 611 and both members of 58 twin pairs reported a history of infectious mononucleosis. Pairwise concordance in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was respectively 12·1% [standard error (s.e.)=1·9%] and 6·1% (s.e.=1·2%). The relative risk (hazard ratio) of monozygotic compared to dizygotic unaffected co-twins of cases was 1·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-3·4, P=0·03], over the follow-up period. When the analysis was restricted to same-sex twin pairs, that estimate was 2·5 (95% CI 1·2-5·3, P=0·02). The results are compatible with a heritable contribution to the risk of infectious mononucleosis.

  16. [Infectious mononucleosis--a "childhood disease" of great medical concern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2013-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a benign self-limiting disease, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the Herpes virus family. EBV virions have a double-stranded, linear DNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid. EBV is transmitted primarily through saliva, but transmission via blood and droplets also occurs. Infectious mononucleosis is the most frequent clinical manifestation of EBV infection and occurs during primary infection with the virus. With some exceptions, only children older than 10 years, adolescents and young adults are suffering from the disease. Primary EBV infection in children up to 10 years is usually asymptomatic or shows unspecific courses. After an incubation period of up to seven weeks, a sore throat, mild fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck area are the first signs of symptomatic infection. Further course of the disease often leads to hepatitis and swelling of the spleen. The symptoms usually subside after a few weeks, but protracted courses and clinical active infection also occur. The Epstein-Barr virus is distributed worldwide. At least 90% of all adults are seropositive to EBV. The treatment of infectious mononucleosis is mainly symptomatic, a generally effective specific therapy does not exist. A vaccine is currently not available.

  17. Using biological networks to improve our understanding of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Mulder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. Although many drugs are available for treating the most common infectious diseases, in many cases the mechanism of action of these drugs or even their targets in the pathogen remain unknown. In addition, the key factors or processes in pathogens that facilitate infection and disease progression are often not well understood. Since proteins do not work in isolation, understanding biological systems requires a better understanding of the interconnectivity between proteins in different pathways and processes, which includes both physical and other functional interactions. Such biological networks can be generated within organisms or between organisms sharing a common environment using experimental data and computational predictions. Though different data sources provide different levels of accuracy, confidence in interactions can be measured using interaction scores. Connections between interacting proteins in biological networks can be represented as graphs and edges, and thus studied using existing algorithms and tools from graph theory. There are many different applications of biological networks, and here we discuss three such applications, specifically applied to the infectious disease tuberculosis, with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host, Homo sapiens. The applications include the use of the networks for function prediction, comparison of networks for evolutionary studies, and the generation and use of host–pathogen interaction networks.

  18. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  19. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  20. Clinical and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious keratitis is a sight-threatening condition for children. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical profile, risk factors and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children. Methods Retrospective review of clinical records of patients under 16 years of age with history of microbial keratitis seen at a tertiary referral center. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, visual and surgical outcomes as well as the microbiological profile are analyzed. Results Forty-one eyes of 41 patients. Mean age was 8.7 years. Time between the onset of symptoms and ophthalmological examination was 12.7 days. Predisposing factors were found in 78%; ocular trauma was the most common (25%). Visual acuity equal or worse than 20/200 at admission correlated positively with a poorer visual outcome, p=0.002. Positivity of cultures was 34%. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 78.5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis (28.6%) was the most common microorganism. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious corneal ulcers in children. Trauma and contact lenses were the main predisposing factors. Gram-positive organisms were isolated in the vast majority of cases and visual outcomes are usually poor. PMID:24131681

  1. Microbial Endocrinology in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly disparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology, and is based on the shared presence of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in host as well as in the microorganism. The ability of microorganisms to not only respond to, but also produce, many of the same neurochemicals that are produced by the host, such as during periods of stress, has led to the introduction of this evolutionary-based mechanism which has a role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The consideration of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms has demonstrated, for example, that the prevalent use of catecholamine-based synthetic drugs in the clinical setting contributes to the formation of biofilms in indwelling medical devices. Production of neurochemicals by microorganisms most often employs the same biosynthetic pathways as those utilized by the host, indicating that acquisition of host neurochemical-based signaling system in the host may have been acquired due to lateral gene transfer from microorganisms. That both host and microorganism produce and respond to the very same neurochemicals means that there is bidirectionality contained with the theoretical underpinnings of microbial endocrinology. This can be seen in the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis and its relevance to infectious disease. Such shared pathways argue for a role of microorganism-neurochemical interactions in infectious disease.

  2. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Rhabdoviruses as vaccine platforms for infectious disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Franz; Rajwani, Jahanara; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2018-05-21

    The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms. Currently, the rVSV vector is in preclinical development for vaccination against numerous high-priority infectious diseases, with clinical evaluation underway for HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease. Indeed, the success of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine during the 2014-15 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa highlights the therapeutic potential of rVSV as a vaccine vector for acute, life-threatening viral illnesses. The rVSV and rMaraba platforms are also being tested as 'oncolytic' cancer vaccines in a series of phase 1-2 clinical trials, after being proven effective at eliciting immune-mediated tumour regression in preclinical mouse models. In this review, we discuss the biological and genetic features that make RVs attractive vaccine platforms and the development and ongoing testing of rVSV and rMaraba strains as vaccine vectors for infectious disease and cancer.

  4. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Paley, Richard; Alegria-Moran, Raul; Oidtmann, Birgit

    2016-06-10

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid species, including the main salmonid species produced in aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We reviewed the scientific literature on IHNV on a range of topics, including geographic distribution; host range; conditions required for infection and clinical disease; minimum infectious dose; subclinical infection; shedding of virus by infected fish; transmission via eggs; diagnostic tests; pathogen load and survival of IHNV in host tissues. This information is required for a range of purposes including import risk assessments; parameterisation of disease models; for surveillance planning; and evaluation of the chances of eradication of the pathogen to name just a few. The review focuses on issues that are of relevance for the European context, but many of the data summarised have relevance to IHN globally. Examples for application of the information is presented and data gaps highlighted.

  7. Infectious complications following duodenal and/or pancreatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburski, J G; Dente, C J; Wilson, R F; Shanti, C; Steffes, C P; Carlin, A

    2001-03-01

    Patients with pancreatic and/or duodenal trauma often have a high incidence of infectious complications. In this study we attempted to find the most important risk factors for these infections. A retrospective review of the records of 167 patients seen over 7 years (1989 through 1996) at an urban Level I trauma center for injury to the duodenum and/or pancreas was performed. Fifty-nine patients (35%) had isolated injury to the duodenum (13 blunt, 46 penetrating), 81 (49%) had isolated pancreatic trauma (18 blunt, 63 penetrating), and 27 (16%) had combined injuries (two blunt, 25 penetrating). The overall mortality rate was 21 per cent and the infectious morbidity rate was 40 per cent. The majority of patients had primary repair and/or drainage as treatment of their injuries. Patients with pancreatic injuries (alone or combined with a duodenal injury) had a much higher infection rate than duodenal injuries. The patients with duodenal injuries had significantly lower penetrating abdominal trauma indices, number of intra-abdominal organ injuries, and incidence of hypothermia. On multivariate analysis independent factors associated with infections included hypothermia and the presence of a pancreatic injury. Although injuries to the pancreas and duodenum often coexist it is the pancreatic injury that contributes most to the infectious morbidity.

  8. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  9. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...... genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... indicate that it should be relatively easy to improve resistance to the diseases simultaneously. We believe that there is now strong evidence that selectively breeding Atlantic salmon for resistance can be highly successful...

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  13. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful environment which includes physical isolation and

  14. Enhancement on infectious diseases nursing plan information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the

  15. The program for eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV are diseases that affect cattle population of all breeds, categories and age. Both diseases, especially infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, poses severe health threat and causes major economic losses and is considered one of the “most costly” disease in cattle industry. The causal agent of the disease is a virus and any detection of IBR/IPV specific antibodies in non-vaccinated cattle, either in blood or milk, indicates that animal is infected and represents the source of infection. Countries with developed and intensive cattle breeding have been developed and implemented their national eradication programs to control IBR/IPV in accordance with international regulations. In this article, we outlined the needs and program for the eradication of IBR/IPV in the Republic of Serbia. The eradication program for IBR/IPV is an extensive process that requires systematic strategy involving different phases and activities. The eradication process from the moment of implementation until obtaining IBR/IPV-free status can last over several years and requires joint work and considerable financial resources that will be compansated with the elimination of IBR/IPV from the herd. This article gives an overview of all stages and activities regarding eradication of the disease and certification and maintaining of IBR/IPV-free herd status.

  16. The value of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnostic work-up of extra cardiac infectious manifestations in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, C; Asmar, A; Gill, S

    2013-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a serious condition with a high morbidity and mortality. The optimal management of IE depends not only on correct antibiotic therapy and surgery when needed, but involves identification of the portal of entry and detection of extracardiac infectious manifestations...

  17. [Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Min; Jiang, Yi; Hu, Yu-Lian; Yang, Hui; Dong, Tian-Jin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deficiency. Seventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classified into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge. Fecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no significant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no significant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a significantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (Plactose intolerance tends to occur. Determination of fecal pH value has no significance in the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in neonates with diarrhea.

  18. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar

    Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for

  19. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  20. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The