WorldWideScience

Sample records for kenyan school boys

  1. The attitudes of Kenyan in-school adolescents toward sexual autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaji, Sunday E; Warenius, Linnea U; Ong'any, Antony A; Faxelid, Elisabeth A

    2010-03-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to examine the attitudes of Kenyan in-school adolescents towards premarital sex, unwanted pregnancies/abortions and contraception. Data collection was undertaken using a structured questionnaire. Kenyan in-school adolescents have conservative attitudes toward premarital sex, disagreeing that adolescent boy and girls should be left alone to satisfy their sexual needs. The girls had the view that boys have uncontrollable sexual appetites. With regards to unwanted pregnancies, the majority of the respondents disagreed with allowing abortions for pregnant school girls while they agreed that a pregnant school girl should be allowed to return to school. However, the majority of the girls held the view that a school boy who had impregnated a school girl should be expelled from school. The attitudes of the respondents to contraception were also largely conservative. The conservative attitudes of the respondents conflicts with the findings of high levels of unsafe sex and reproductive ill-health among Kenyan adolescents. There is need to help Kenyan in-school adolescents to develop more realistic attitudes toward sexuality in order to improve their reproductive health.

  2. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  3. How Schools Discriminate against Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Diane

    1979-01-01

    Biological differences between the sexes in motor, sensory, and some intellectual abilities are reviewed. The skills that lead to early success in school draw on female talents; as a result, boys are often labeled hyperactive. Journal availability: Human Nature, Inc., Subscriptions Department, P.O. Box 10702, Des Moines, Iowa 50340; single copy…

  4. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  5. Can Vocational Programmes Change Use and Exchange Value Attributions of School Leavers: A Kenyan Case Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Sambili, Helen

    1995-01-01

    A survey of Kenyan school leavers (200 responses) and 34 interviews show that the exchange value of school-leaving exams is predominant and the use value of vocational programs has little impact. Apparently, 80% of school effort has actual exchange value for only 20% of school leavers, whereas 20% of effort directed at self-employment has…

  6. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maggard,. 1976). Kotler ... positioning strategy for a secondary boys' boarding school should seek to match its .... (in this case, the attributes parents consider important in boarding school selection), ..... Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (3rd ed).

  7. Conducting Action Research in Kenyan Primary Schools: A Narrative of Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otienoh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…

  8. From Attitudes to Practice: Utilising Inclusive Teaching Strategies in Kenyan Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.; Damiani, Michelle L.; Oswago, Benson O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence of Kenyan primary school teachers using inclusive teaching strategies in a rural setting with many known barriers to the development of a sustainable inclusive education system. This qualitative study examines teachers' uses of inclusive teaching strategies in primary schools following a series of…

  9. Integrating ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Case Study of a Professional Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Krug, Don; Bill, Mike; Smulders, Maaike; Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the…

  10. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  11. Integrated Literacies in a Rural Kenyan Girls' Secondary School Journalism Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Maureen; Early, Margaret; Chemjor, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to foreground contextual issues in studies of situated writing practices. During a year-long case study in a rural Kenyan secondary school, we applied a number of ethnographic techniques to document how 32 girls (aged 14-18 years) used local cultural and digital resources (i.e., donated digital cameras, voice…

  12. Education Quality and the Kenyan 8-4-4 Curriculum: Secondary School Learners' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lizzi O.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of Kenyan secondary education in rural Western Kenya, focusing on learners' experiences. One of the key challenges to educational quality is shown to be the size and breadth of the secondary education curriculum. Learners are in school 12 hours a day with those approaching their final exams working three to…

  13. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  14. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  15. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-06-27

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students.

  16. Why Should Secondary Schools Take Working with Boys Seriously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David; Salisbury, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Addresses boys' disruptive behavior in the classroom, teachers' resignation to it, and why schools need to work with boys as a matter of importance to enhancing gender work in schools. The limitations of using sex role theory in approaching gender work with boys are highlighted, and teaching methods for harnessing boys' spontaneous interests in…

  17. A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jobe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS, which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.

  18. Is Work-Family Balance a Possibility? The Case of Kenyan Female Teachers in Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muasya, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Young mothers in Kenyan public schools experience a high level of work-family conflict. Currently, there are no formal family-friendly policies, despite declining levels of extended family support and rising cost of hiring domestic workers. A total of 375 female teachers from three towns and Nairobi city filled open-ended surveys to examine the…

  19. Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Boys-only secondary schools; gender theory; Grade 8 learners; Grade 12 ... The role players in the hazing process are the perpetrator or hazers, ... particularly universities, has been well-documented in the United States of America.

  20. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.

  1. The Teaching of English Idioms in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Difficulties and Effective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Gatambuki Gathigia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of idiomatic expressions is one of the primary challenges to learners of English as a Second Language (ESL in multilingual contexts such as Kenya; yet, the learners are expected to use these expressions in their writing. The study on which this paper is based sought to assess the teaching of English idiomatic expressions in Kenyan secondary schools with a view to establishing the challenges teachers face in teaching the expressions and, thereafter, proposing effective strategies that can be applied for effective teaching of English idioms to ESL speakers.  Ten teachers of English from both rural and urban secondary schools in Kenya were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the difficulties they face, and the effective strategies they employ for successful teaching of English idioms. The data collected were qualitatively analyzed. First, the study notes that it is possible to infer semantic relations between the literal sense of individual parts of an idiom and its meaning when interpreting compositional idioms. Second, there is incongruity between form and meaning when dealing with non compositional idioms since their semantic interpretation cannot be retrieved by means of their constituent parts. The study concludes that an understanding of the etymology of idioms can improve the comprehension and retention of idioms. The study recommends that idioms should be taught effectively in schools because the acquisition of idioms by learners will be an important indicator of their mastery of the English language. Keywords: Idiomatic expressions, semantic relations, compositional idioms, non compositional idioms

  2. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  3. Gender Gap: Are Boys Being Shortchanged in K-12 Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard; Bailey, Susan McGee

    2010-01-01

    Debates about gender and schooling have taken a surprising turn in the past decade. After years of concern that girls were being shortchanged in male-dominated schools, especially in math and science, there has grown a rising chorus of voices worrying about whether boys are the ones in peril. With young women making up close to 60 percent of…

  4. The emergence of an ethic of care in rural Kenyan schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Evans, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    schools, interviews were conducted with 18 teachers and 57 orphaned and vulnerable pupils, alongside Photovoice. Drawing on thematic analysis and an ‘ethic of care’ theoretical perspective, we unpack the informal caring practices of teachers within resource-constrained settings. The research provides...... glimpses of schools as spaces of care, participation and support for orphaned and vulnerable pupils. Recognising and providing institutional support for the development of an ethic of care in schools may help to tackle the considerable educational barriers facing girls and boys who are orphaned...

  5. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  6. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with ...

  7. Boys II Men: A Culturally-Responsive School Counseling Group for Urban High School Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla; Yeh, Christine; Russell, LyRyan

    2016-01-01

    Using a participatory and collaborative approach, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally responsive school counseling group, "Boys II Men," for 11 low-income diverse male students of color at an urban public school. The content of the group focused on five areas: social connections and support, exploring gender roles,…

  8. SIZE CHART FOR SOCKS FOR SCHOOL BOYS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Lanarolle W.D.G*, Jeewandara V.K., Amadoru R.S., Wijayarathna E.K.B. and Randike H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the body of human depends on many factors. Hence the sizes and size charts for garments need to be developed for a specific nation/human group. This paper presents a size chart developed for socks for school boys in Sri Lanka. The foot and leg measurements of 2650 school boys in six different provinces of the country is used in the analysis in order to get a reasonable sample size as the foot and leg measurements may have many influences. Correlation between different f...

  9. Video incident analysis of concussions in boys' high school lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Andrew E; Caswell, Shane V; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2013-04-01

    Boys' lacrosse has one of the highest rates of concussion among boys' high school sports. A thorough understanding of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse is necessary to target injury prevention efforts. To characterize common game-play scenarios and mechanisms of injury associated with concussions in boys' high school lacrosse using game video. Descriptive epidemiological study. In 25 public high schools of a single school system, 518 boys' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of concussion incidents was examined to identify game characteristics and injury mechanisms using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. A total of 34 concussions were captured on video. All concussions resulted from player-to-player bodily contact. Players were most often injured when contact was unanticipated or players were defenseless (n = 19; 56%), attempting to pick up a loose ball (n = 16; 47%), and/or ball handling (n = 14; 41%). Most frequently, the striking player's head (n = 27; 79%) was involved in the collision, and the struck player's head was the initial point of impact in 20 incidents (59%). In 68% (n = 23) of cases, a subsequent impact with the playing surface occurred immediately after the initial impact. A penalty was called in 26% (n = 9) of collisions. Player-to-player contact was the mechanism for all concussions. Most commonly, injured players were unaware of the pending contact, and the striking player used his head to initiate contact. Further investigation of preventive measures such as education of coaches and officials and enforcement of rules designed to prevent intentional head-to-head contact is warranted to reduce the incidence of concussions in boys' lacrosse.

  10. Computers in Schools: White Boys Only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Roberta F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computers in today's world and the construction of computer use attitudes, such as gender gaps. Suggests how schools might close the gaps. Includes a brief explanation about how facility with computers is important for women in their efforts to gain equitable treatment in all aspects of their lives. (PA)

  11. Boys' boarding school management: understanding the choice criteria of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the country and beyond. Customers base their choices ofproducts and services on their perceptions of various offerings available, evaluated according to selection criteria they deem to be important. Marketing theory uses the term "positioning" to describe the process ofconstructing the place that a product occupies in the customer's mind relative to competing products. For schools in this sector to position themselves appropriately, they first need to determine the criteria parents use to evaluate one school against another. This study set out to determine these criteria. A sample of 169 parents and old boys, chosen using the database of a particular boys' boarding school in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, were sent questionnaires. Quantitative analysis was conducted to determine the most important criteria. The top two criteria were found to be a safe environment and competent staff.

  12. The Color of Misbehaving: Two Case Studies of Deviant Boys in a Magnet School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine A.

    Case studies of a black boy and a white boy from a kindergarten class in a desegregated school examined the effects of teacher attitudes on students' conformity to classroom behavior norms. Both boys had been referred to the school psychologist by their teacher because of their disruptive classroom behavior. Information collected on the two boys…

  13. CLASP Middle School/High School Boys of Color Policy Scan and Information Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Crowell, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide an analysis of policy issues affecting middle school and high school-aged boys and young men of color in the areas of education, health, and pathways to employment. This policy scan and subsequent recommendations will provide valuable background knowledge to inform the future direction of policy efforts…

  14. Tobacco use among urban school boys of Paschim Midnapore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashok Kumar; Sarkar, Jhuma

    2010-09-01

    To assess the prevalence, perception and pattern of tobacco use among 13-15-year-old urban school boys along with associated factors of tobacco use. A cross sectional, observational, study was carried out among 454 urban school boys aged 13-15 years studying in VIII, IX, X using self administered modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution tables, proportion, line diagram, chi square test as required. Out of 454 students, 201(44.3%) were ever users of tobacco whereas 135(29.7%) were current users. Majority of the current users utilized both form of tobacco. Initiation of tobacco before 10 years were more in smokeless (11.4%) form than smoking (4.5%), but smokers showed steep rise (49.3%) at 14-15 years. Proportion of current users significantly (p pocket money. Compared to non-users current users had more exposure to tobacco in the family and friends. Both current users and nonusers showed positive attitude towards tobacco use. Though knowledge of harmful effects of tobacco was well perceived but significantly more (p < 0.005) non-users had shown interest to prohibit smoking in public places. More non-users (75%) than ever users (26.4%) had shown favourable opinion regarding future tobacco use. Due increased exposure to the world through several ways and increased modern amenities to influence teenagers, there is high prevalence, average perception and variable patterns of tobacco at Midnapore town where tobacco is trapping teenagers which needs proper intervention.

  15. Relational Teaching with Black Boys: Strategies for Learning at a Single-Sex Middle School for Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joseph Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  17. Simon Langton Grammar School for boys visits the MoEDAL Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Simon Langton Grammar School for boys visits the MoEDAL Experiment. The School has just joined the MoEDAL collaboration. The group includes the 1000th student to participate in visits to CERN led by Dr Becky Parker

  18. Challenging the Pervasiveness of Hypermasculinity and Heteronormativity in an All-Boys' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Chris; Mooney, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    There is a rich, albeit chequered, history around single-sex schooling providing an educational option for nurturing the particular educational interests and needs of boys. While all-boys' schools continue to position themselves at the forefront of contemporary masculine endeavour, they are simultaneously forced to fend off accusations that they…

  19. "Girls cannot think as boys do": socialising children through the Zimbabwean school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R

    1998-07-01

    What little attention donor-sponsored research on gender and education in Zimbabwe has paid to how schools educate children to assume gender roles has focused on the effect of girls, but it is equally important for development purposes to deconstruct masculinity and the ability of Western stereotypes to foster patriarchy. In Zimbabwe, the school curriculum continues to be gender-differentiated and, when offered a choice, girls and boys choose subjects that fall within the traditional male/female split, which is promoted by teachers, parents, and peers. In addition, males dominate positions of authority in the secondary school system, and teachers of both sexes consider it their duty to steer pupils towards "gender appropriate" behavior. School textbooks further this stereotyping. Interviews in 1995 with 15 secondary school boys at each of six schools sought to uncover attitudes about gender and education. Most boys (77.5%) reported that it is equally important to educate girls and boys, but only 50.6% believed that girls are as intelligent as boys (while differentiating between the type of intelligence possessed by girls with that enjoyed by boys). The boys also gender-typed school subjects on the basis of perceived differentials in abilities and because they are prerequisites for gender-differentiated occupations. Almost 90% of the boys reported that a wife should obey her husband. Thus, patriarchal values are internalized in schools in a way that will impede development.

  20. Leadership Behaviour in High-Performing Government Boys Secondary Schools in Quetta: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Waheed; Bano, Amir; Waheed, Zarina; Wahab, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of schools is highly dependent on the leadership of school heads, and, flexible leaders accelerate school performance. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine leadership behavior in selected boys' secondary schools that are performing well. Based on multiple-case study design, four high-performing schools from Quetta…

  1. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  3. The Brilliance of Black Boys: Cultivating School Success in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.

    2018-01-01

    This much-needed book will help schools and, by extension, society to better understand and identify the promise, potential, and possibilities of Black boys. Drawing from their wealth of experience in early childhood education, the authors present an asset- and strengths-based view of educating Black boys. This positive approach enables…

  4. Boys as Writers: Perspectives on the Learning and Teaching of Writing in Three Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Gillian; Jones, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Boys' attitude to writing is widely perceived as an issue in English primary and secondary schools. Prior research has identified a link between negative attitudes to writing and lower achievement and raised the issue of the stereotyping of boys as underachievers in literacy. The study reported here suggests that if we are to understand the…

  5. "Other" Boys: Negotiating Non-Hegemonic Masculinities in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renold, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on the experiences of boys who choose not to cultivate their masculinities through hegemonic discourses and practices, this paper seeks to empirically explore and theorize the extent to which it is possible to live out the category 'boy' in non-hegemonic ways in the primary school setting. Drawing upon a year-long ethnography of…

  6. The Schooling Experience of Adolescent Boys with AD/HD: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kathryn; Mercer, K. Louise; Carrington, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experience of schooling of six adolescent boys diagnosed with AD/HD from the perspectives of the boys, their mothers and their teachers. The study utilised social constructionism as the theoretical orientation and the Dynamic Developmental Theory (DDT) of AD/HD as the explanatory framework. Utilising a multiple,…

  7. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  8. Parental Influence, School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…

  9. Do Peers Contribute to the Likelihood of Secondary School Graduation among Disadvantaged Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Vitaro, Frank; Pedersen, Sara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    This 17-year longitudinal study tested whether low peer-perceived acceptance and association with aggressive-disruptive friends during preadolescence predicted students' failure to graduate from secondary school. Participants were 997 Caucasian, French-speaking boys from low-socioeconomic status, urban neighborhoods. The boys were recruited in…

  10. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students.

  11. Aflatoxin exposure may contribute to chronic hepatomegaly in Kenyan school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yun Yun; Wilson, Shona; Mwatha, Joseph K

    2012-01-01

    Presentation with a firm type of chronic hepatomegaly of multifactorial etiology is common among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa.......Presentation with a firm type of chronic hepatomegaly of multifactorial etiology is common among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa....

  12. A comparison between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    Background This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual

  13. "Life Skills": A Single-Sex Classroom Intervention for Black Boys Transitioning from Middle School to High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flennaugh, Terry

    2017-01-01

    The transition from middle school to high school can be difficult for many students due to increases in school size, the structure of an academic schedule, and the complexity of social interactions in high school. However, Black boys face unique challenges during this transition period due to racism and structural inequalities. In response to…

  14. ICTs as Placed Resources in a Rural Kenyan Secondary School Journalism Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Maureen; Chemjor, Walter; Early, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we draw on three interrelated concepts, i.e. placed resources, multiliteracies and the carnivalesque, to understand how information and communication technology (ICT) resources are taken up within the context of a print-based journalism club. Our research participants attend an under-resourced girls' residential secondary school in…

  15. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement in Kenyan Day Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…

  16. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  17. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Coren, Sidney A.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multiva...

  18. Clandestine Readers: Boys and Girls Going "Undercover" in School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the diverse nature of students' interpretations of their reading experiences, this study moves beyond broad generalizations about boys and girls to consider complexities inherent in the social processes that influence students' engagement in reading. While the study aimed to develop understandings about the ways notions of masculinity…

  19. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates......AIMS: To quantify the correlation between male and female smoking prevalence in elementary school classes by group-level analysis. METHODS: This study was the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 1998. Ninety school classes at grade nine (1......,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...

  20. Do Boys Benefit from Male Teachers in Elementary School? Evidence from Administrative Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Puhani, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    With girls having overtaken boys in many education indicators, the 'feminization' of elementary school teaching is causing debates about disadvantages for male students. Using administrative panel data on the universe of students, teachers and schools for a German state, I exploit within school and within teacher variation to determine teacher characteristics' effects on students' tracking outcomes. Germany tracks students at age 10 into more or less academic school types. I find hardly any e...

  1. Boys' Boarding School Management: Understanding the Choice Criteria of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The South African secondary boarding school sector has become more competitive as schools attempt to attract and retain pupils. Management of such schools must not only address the educational and boarding needs of pupils, but also apply appropriate management and marketing principles to compete effectively with boarding schools throughout the…

  2. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  3. Back to the Future on Gender and Anti-School Boys: A Response to Jeffrey Smith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John

    2008-01-01

    This article examines recent claims by Jeffrey Smith that: (1) "hegemonic masculinity" is an expression of working class counter-school culture; (2) some teachers are "cultural accomplices" in constructing "hegemonic masculinities" of anti-school working class boys, thereby contributing to their underachievement; and (3) these "cultural…

  4. After-school setting, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in 5th grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, S E; Dowda, M; Colabianchi, N; Saunders, R; Pate, R R

    2012-09-01

    After-school hours are considered critical for children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB); however, whether the after-school setting influences children's activity patterns is unknown. This study examined the influence of after-school setting (i.e., parent report of the child's usual after-school setting) on 5th grade children's PA and SB, and differences by race/ethnicity. Boys whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA than boys who usually went home after school. A significant interaction between race/ethnicity and after-school setting showed that minority girls whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA and engaged in less SB compared with those who usually went home, whereas the activity patterns of white girls did not differ by after-school setting. Children's usual after-school setting affects their activity patterns; after-school programs may potentially increase PA in boys and minority girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...... level of the village boys during secondary school....

  6. Aggression, academic behaviors, and popularity perceptions among boys of color during the transition to middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. Study Of Diet And Nutritional Status Of School Going Rural Adolescent Boys In Allahabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Bali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of malnutrition among school going rural adolescent boys?Objective: To assess the diet and nutritional status of school going rural adolescent boys.Study design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Rural Intermediate Colleges.Participants: 660 study subjects (adolescents boys. 10-19 years, of classes 6th to 12th from 8 rural intermediate colleges in two blocks of Allahabad.Study period: One year (From April 2002 to May 2003.Statistical Analysis: Chi square lestResults: Overall mean height. BM1 and Haemoglobin level of adolescents were 1 56.97+9.84cm. 18.59+2.20 kg/m2 and 12.12+1.31 gm/dl respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in terms of Stunting (24.1 % Thinness (10.5% and Overweight (1.4% was observ ed. Maximum calorie deficit was seen in thirteen-year-old boys, it was 42.5% below the RDA and minimum deficit (25.7% was observed among nineteen-year-old boys. Overall mean caloric deficit among 10 to 19 years’ adolescents was 839.57 Kcal/day. Prevalence of anaemia was observed in 371(56.3% adolescent boys. Prevalence of Vit. A deficiency. Vitamin B - complex and Vitamin C deficiency were found to be 3.5%. 25.3% and 6.8% respectively.Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going adolescent boys in rural areas of Allahabad is not satisfactory and there is a strong need for a programme especially for adolescent boys to fulfill their nutritional needs.

  8. School connectedness and daily smoking among boys and girls: the influence of parental smoking norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2005-01-01

    connectedness and smoking, although a modifying tendency was observed among girls. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking behaviour of Danish adolescents may be influenced by complicated interactions of varying sets of experienced smoking norms, and any research project or preventive programme focusing on the influence......BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether an association between school connectedness and smoking exists among Danish school children, and if so, to examine whether parental smoking attitude and parental smoking behaviour influenced this association. METHODS: Data were collected by the Danish...... and smoking among both boys and girls. Parents' attitude to their children's smoking significantly modified this association among boys. Among girls the modifying effect was less marked. Neither among boys nor girls did parental smoking behaviour significantly modify the association between school...

  9. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.

  10. Assessment of Sexual Maturation among Boys in Special Schools of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Mosallanejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of detailed standards of sexual maturity in individuals with Intellectual, sensory and motor disability in Iran and the importance of timing of onset of puberty in these individuals, a study is necessary. By knowing the onset of puberty, physiologic and behavioral changes can be traced in these people, as well as the potential impact of the puberty on the underlying disease can be considered. The aim of the study was to investigate of sexual maturation among boys of special schools of Tehran. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents male students in special school in Tehran at 2013. A random, multistage sample 0f 895 boy students of special schools was taken from 25 special schools in five districts of Tehran city. In this study, symptoms and stages of puberty were identified. Pubertal stages were assessed by visual inspection and palpation based on the rating scales of Tanner. In addition, demographic data such as age, height, weight were collected. Then the data were analyzed and mean age of onset of puberty was determined. Results: The mean age of onset of puberty in boys (Genitalia stage 2 was 13.12 ± 1.84 years and sexual maturation was completed at 16.57 ± 1.34 years. The average height at the onset of puberty (Genitalia stage 2 was 151.1 ± 9.91 cm and the average weight was 48.47 ± 10.14kg. The mean BMI for puberty onset was 20.89 ± 5.43. Conclusion: In our study, the mean age of puberty onset in boys with disabilities was 13.12 ± 1.84 years. Compared to the data from healthy boys, our findings indicate that the mean age of pubertal onset in boys with disabilities in special school is higher than that of their healthy counterparts.

  11. Do Schools Affect Girls' and Boys' Reading Performance Differently? A Multilevel Study on the Gendered Effects of School Resources and School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Few studies on male-female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls' and boys' educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools' socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly educated teachers, and school practices, being…

  12. Negotiating Masculine Hegemony: Female Physical Educators in an All-Boys' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Amanda; Hickey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    School physical education (PE) and sport are commonly regarded as sites where dominant or hegemonic masculinities cultivate, often at the expense of individuals who embody different gendered identities. In all-boys' PE settings, curriculum content frequently orientates around competitive and traditionally masculine team sports wherein teaching…

  13. Boys, girls, and the school cultural environment: Teachers' judgment and students' values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelenei, Cristina; Darnon, Céline; Martinot, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Due to gender socialization, girls are more likely to endorse self-transcendence values (e.g., helping people) compared to boys, whereas boys are more likely to endorse self-enhancement values (e.g., wanting to be in charge) compared to girls. In two studies, we investigated teachers' judgment regarding the display of these values in school and students' endorsement of the self-transcendence and self-enhancement values in two contexts: home and school. In Study 1 (N = 240), teachers evaluated a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-transcendence values more positively compared to a student perceived as strongly endorsing the self-enhancement values, regardless of the student's gender. In Study 2 (N = 151), boys endorsed the self-enhancement values more than the self-transcendence values at home, whereas the opposite occurred in the school context. Girls did not vary across contexts, endorsing the self-transcendence values more than the self-enhancement values in both contexts. Possible consequences on boys' school-related outcomes are discussed.

  14. Aspirations, Progress and Perceptions of Boys from a Single Sex School Following the Changeover to Coeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Shirley M.

    2004-01-01

    Career and further education aspirations, educational progress and perceptions of the learning environment were measured annually over three years in primary and secondary boys from a single sex non-government school, following the changeover to coeducation. Hierarchical Linear Modelling analyses revealed the significant role played by the career…

  15. The Talented Tenth: Gay Black Boys and the Racial Politics of Southern Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    This interview-based, narrative study examines the effects of schooling in a Deep South urban community on the identity construction of gay African American boys and young men. Specifically, it exposes the ways in which the dominant culture of White racism creates and imposes a hegemonic masculinity on Black youth culture that forces these young…

  16. "I Have Shakespeare in My Blood": Reading Intervention with Middle School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the impact of teaching Shakespeare to below-grade-level readers in an English Language Arts classroom on Chicago's South Side. The students studied are five middle school boys who were observed over a two-year course of study under the same teacher who, after finding success with this method, found herself asking, how is…

  17. Are Boys That Bad? Gender Gaps in Measured Skills, Grades and Aspirations in Czech Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines gender gaps in academic performance (grades in mathematics and reading) between boys and girls of ninth-grade elementary schools in the Czech Republic. Our analysis is based on 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, encompassing the academic performance and family background of ninth-grade pupils.…

  18. Six Small Boys and Marshall Dillon: Contribution of Hero Identification to Improved In School Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Anita

    1970-01-01

    Summarized are several theoretical positions on identification, together with one application in a case study. An autographed picture of their hero was presented to each of six uncerachieving and disruptive boys in an effort to provide an interested" adult role model for them. The school staff reinforced this identification with projects in which…

  19. Boys, Books and Homophobia: Exploring the Practices and Policies of Masculinities in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed by a proliferation of quick-fix literacy strategies to "help the boys" increase achievement levels in the midst of a policy shift that acknowledges gay, lesbian, bi and transgender, questioning (GLBTQ) youth, the author examines how masculinities are connected to literacy practices and negotiated through a safe school policy.…

  20. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  1. Being "Nuff" and "Scudding Class": Exploring Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of Popularity, Gender and Achievement in Antiguan Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper will report on the findings from classroom observations and focus group discussions conducted on the topic of popularity and fitting in at school with girls and boys from four government secondary schools in Antigua. The findings show that whilst boys did experience difficulties negotiating academic success and acceptable masculinities,…

  2. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  3. Health perceptions and behaviors of school-age boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M V; Uphold, C R

    1992-01-01

    This study described and compared the health perceptions and behaviors of 83 school-age boys and girls. An age-appropriate interview schedule was designed to collect data related to demographic characteristics, health perceptions, safety, life-style practices, nutrition, dental health, and care of minor injuries. Findings indicated that most boys and girls viewed themselves as healthy and managed their own care fairly well in the areas of seat belt use, exercise, and dental health. Nutrition was identified as an area of concern, with 10% of the children skipping breakfast, and over half eating snacks with empty calories. Generally, children were found to be knowledgeable in the management of simple injuries and how to respond in the event of an emergency. Boys and girls were similar in all areas of health perceptions and behaviors except for dental health, with boys reporting more regular visits to the dentist than did girls. Further research is needed to learn more about the process by which school-age children acquire positive health behaviors to assist nurses to design and implement intervention programs that appropriately address the needs of this age group.

  4. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Sidney A.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other co-educational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational…

  5. The relationship between learning atmosphere and social creativity in primary school boy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Morad Khah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social creativity is defined as the creative methods in individuals’ interaction. The present study deals with the survey of the relationship between teacher-student interaction and social creativity in the primary school boy students. The study participants are 114 primary school boy students from the four educational districts in Shiraz who have been selected by taking advantage of multistage clustering sampling method with a basic sample class unit; and they were asked to complete the teacher-student interaction and creativity questionnaire. To determine the reliability and validity the Cronbach’s alpha and items correlation were used respectively along with their dimensions and imensions correlation with the total score. The results and evidences were indicative of the favorable validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The results obtained from the Pierson correlation coefficient showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between the dimension of responsibility and freedom with creativity. Also, the results of the regression analysis indicated that from among the dimensions of teacherstudent interaction only dimension of responsibility and freedom are negative and significant predictor of the social creativity in primary school boy students.

  6. Methods of Strength Development in Boys of Primary School Age Using Active Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Марченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze the effect of games on the dynamics of strength development in boys of the second-fourth grades. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, method of control testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper addresses the feasibility of further scientific substantiation for the effect of the number of games, the number of repetitions, the intervals of rest and their interrelation on the change in the strength indicators for boys of primary school age. The study has revealed that strength development requires that the pupils of the second and the third grades perform four games, while the pupils of the fourth grade — five games. The number of repetitions for the pupils of the second grade is one and two, for the pupils of the third grade — two, and for the boys of the fourth grade — three, with 40-second intervals for rest. The most effective development manifests in the second and the fourth grades during 20 classes, and in the third grade —during 30 classes. After that, it is advisable to use other means. The game duration varies from two to five minutes. Conclusions. The results obtained during the experiment give reason to recommend that primary school teachers, coaches and parents use active games in physical education, sports training and individual motor activity of boys of primary school age. These games should aim at developing strength abilities, both purposefully and in complex with regard to the duration and pace (intensity of their performance.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Boys with and without Learning Disabilities in an Inclusive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntshangase, Sibusiso; Mdikana, Andile; Cronk, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Participants in this study were twenty-nine adolescent boys (n = 29) between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years, who were attending an inclusive private school in the affluent suburb of Johannesburg. Fourteen participants had never been diagnosed with learning difficulties and had attended mainstream schools throughout their school careers.…

  8. Disaffected Boys and the Achievement Gap: "The Wallpaper Effect" and What Is Hidden by a Focus on School Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amanda; Doherty, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a teacher inquiry project in a primary school that serves disadvantaged communities on the outskirts of a de-industrialised city in the north of England. Of particular concern is a small group of white British boys in receipt of free school meals, who are identified by the school as disaffected and as a consequence…

  9. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research.

  10. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increasing tibial bone strength in boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity

  11. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  12. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    . The effects were associated with the maternal exposure levels, so that high-exposed boys had smaller genitals than medium-exposed boys, who had smaller genitals than those who were unexposed. Boys of mothers in the high exposure group (n = 23) had 24.7% smaller testes (95% CI: -62.2; -10.1) and 9.4% shorter...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  13. Single-gender mathematics and science classes and the effects on urban middle school boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudler, Dawn M.

    This study compared the differences in the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics and science achievement scores of boys and girls in Grade 7 at two urban middle schools. The data allowed the researcher to determine to what degree boys and girls in Grade 7 differ in their mathematics and science achievements within a single-gender environment versus a coeducational learning environment. The study compared any differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a single-gender environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. The study also compared differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a coeducational environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. Two middle schools were used within the study. One middle school was identified as a single-gender school (Middle School A); the other was identified as a coeducational school (Middle School B). This quantitative study applied the use of a descriptive research design. In addition, CRCT scores for the subjects of mathematics and science were taken during the spring of 2008 from both middle schools. Data were measured using descriptive statistics and independent t test calculations. The frequency statistics proceeded to compare each sample performance levels. The data were described in means, standard deviations, standard error means, frequency, and percentages. This method provided an excellent description of a sample scored on the spring 2008 CRCT mathematics and science assessments.

  14. Correct gender socializing in school avoids the fabrication of divisions among girls and boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Topçiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of gender based role socializing is supported by the postulate: men and women learn gender based attitudes and behaviours of the environment which surrounds them. Gender based socializing serves to teach individuals the difference between sexes, as well as, the hierarchy between them. Education is an extremely important instrument whereby social change can be achieved. School should take the indispensable responsibility to clearly demonstrate that both genders possess equal values in the present society. It is time for the education in schools to seriously take in consideration issues concerning gender based education with a view to prevent the violation of women’s and girls’ rights and integrity in both, private and public environments. It is time for the education in schools to lend a helping hand in addressing pupils toward nontraditional stereotypes, yet in development. This education should similarly focus on the natural difference between both genders and the equity between them. School remains one of the social institutions that should set up intentional gender education. Especially the secondary education cycle which coincides with the “culminating age” of the youth development should identify the latter one as a necessity. To avoid the creation of a masculine subjectivity, radically different from the feminine one, school education ought to be led by a correct, affirmative, representative, integrative curriculum that includes experiences, necessities and interests of girls and boys.

  15. "If you don't abstain, you will die of AIDS": AIDS education in Kenyan public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Carolyne; Nzioka, Charles; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Pertet, Anne M; Voeten, Helene A C M

    2009-04-01

    We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS education is embedded in biology, which is not compulsory), and disapproval of openness about sex and condoms by the Ministry of Education and parents. Alternative strategies to teach about AIDS had their own constraints. Teachers lacked training and support and felt uncomfortable with the topic. They were not used to interactive teaching methods and sometimes breached confidentiality. Teachers' negative attitudes constrained students from seeking information. Training interventions should be provided to teachers to increase their self-confidence, foster more positive attitudes, and stimulate interactive teaching methods. The Ministry of Education needs to have a clear policy toward the promotion of condoms.

  16. Sexual Harassment, Bullying, and School Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. USAGE OF SELECTED RESOURCES FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN MAINSTREAM PRIMARY SCHOOLS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FROM A KENYAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Buhere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effectiveness of the use of selected teaching/learning resources in the implementation of Inclusive Education (I.E for Special Needs Education (SNE learners in mainstream primary schools. Focusing on the organisational effectiveness of the school management in meeting the needs of Special needs Learners, research questions explored the following: the availability of the selected teaching/learning resources, effectiveness of the use of available teaching /learning for Inclusive Education, challenges in the use of available teaching/learning resources and possible improvements with regard to the implementation of Inclusive Education for Special Needs Learners in mainstream primary schools. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Out of 150 schools that had integrated Special Needs Learners in Bungoma Count, Kenya, 20% were stratified, proportionately and randomly sampled. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the participants; head teachers, regular, and special teachers. The sample comprised of 30 head teachers, 120 regular teachers and 8 special teachers (total 158. Data were collected using questionnaires for 30 head teachers, 120 regular teachers, interview schedules for 8 special teachers and observation schedule. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study findings reveal that the integration of inclusive education has not been accompanied by support structures; educators lack the knowledge in handling the available resources, the available learning resources are inadequate and inappropriate. The study recommends that Ministry of education and school managers can implement inclusion smoothly and effectively through a variety of vehicles including in-service opportunities, professional support groups, mentoring activities, monitoring the degree of collaboration between general and special educators and improving the school setting to accommodate learner diversity. In addition, the government should

  18. Effect of Programmed Instruction on Students' Attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table among Kenyan Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, M. J.; Martin, W.; Ronald, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Programmed Instruction on students' attitude towards Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table (SAPT) among mixed (co-educational) secondary schools of Butere district, Kakamega county, Kenya. The quasi-experimental research design was adopted, using the nonrandomized Solomon four-group as a model. The sample…

  19. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  1. Boys starting school disadvantaged: implications from teachers' ratings of behaviour and achievement in the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G; McKay, M

    2001-06-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that low socio-economic status (SES) acts as an important stressor and vulnerability factor for children's school learning. However, specific mechanism(s) of this process are still not well understood. This study was a follow-up of the classroom learning behaviour and perceived achievement of low and middle income children after two years at school, who had previously been rated soon after starting school. It examined whether teachers' ratings displayed predictive stability over that period, and whether significant differences evident at age 5 in SES and gender were still operative at age 7. Two samples, of low income (N = 85) and middle income (N = 63) children, were rated following school entry (mean age 5 years 3 months) and rated again after two years at school. The children were rated at both points by their regular classroom teachers using the Learning Behaviours Scale (Stott et al., 1998) with subscales of Distractible, Apprehensive and Uncooperative, together with ratings of academic achievement and their personal perception of each child. SES was found to be a very limited predictor for the learning behaviour subscale ratings and for teachers' personal perceptions at both ages 5 and 7. SES did significantly predict expected Academic Achievement at age 5, but this effect disappeared completely by age 7. Conversely, within the two defined groups, Low Income boys were found to display significantly poorer learning behaviours at age 5, especially in terms of distractible behaviour, compared with Middle Income boys and with girls generally. This pattern was maintained over the next two years of their schooling. The effect of SES was thus demonstrated more powerfully in between-group differences than by means of regression. The findings emphasised the persistence of teachers' initial negative impressions about distractible 'hard to manage' boys from low SES families. The outcomes of this study suggest that low SES boys commenced

  2. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Early-Adolescent Immigrant Boys and Girls in Germany: Conditions in School, Family, and Ethnic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Noack, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Navigating between cultures in addition to developmental changes and challenges in early adolescence can be difficult. We investigated school, family, and ethnic group as conditions for acculturation and school adjustment among early-adolescent boys and girls. Analyses were based on 860 mostly second- and third-generation immigrant students from…

  3. 'Sometimes it's fun to play with them first': girls and boys talking about sexual harassment in Caribbean schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Mary; Warrington, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in four government secondary schools in the Caribbean state of Antigua and Barbuda on students' experiences at school in relation to sexuality. Both girls and boys experienced a range of anxieties and confusions in relation to sexuality, whilst also seeing (hetero)sexual attraction as an exciting part of schooling. Sexual harassment of girls emerged as a widespread and serious (as well as 'normalised') occurrence in all the schools studied. However, the data also showed that girls were far from passive. Instead, girls demonstrated complex and contradictory responses to boys' behaviour due to their own investments in being desirable within discourses of hetero-femininity, as well as the pleasure they gained from their relationships. Both genders would clearly benefit from opportunities to discuss their needs, beliefs and desires regarding sexuality and relationships.

  4. Do Girls and Boys Perceive Themselves as Equally Engaged in School? The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Kikas, Eve; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Nelson, Brett; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Shin, Hyeonsook; Stanculescu, Elena; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in student engagement and academic performance in school. Participants included 3420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th graders) from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results indicated that, compared to boys, girls…

  5. "Boys Press All the Buttons and Hope It Will Help": Upper Secondary School Teachers' Gendered Conceptions about Students' Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    Previous results show that Swedish upper secondary school teachers attribute gender to cases describing different types of mathematical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to investigate how these teachers gender stereotype aspects of students' mathematical reasoning by studying the symbols that were attributed to boys and girls,…

  6. Normative Cruelties and Gender Deviants: The Performative Effects of Bully Discourses for Girls and Boys in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s the educational community has witnessed a proliferation of "bullying" discourses, primarily within the field of educational developmental social psychology. Drawing on ethnographic and qualitative interview data of primary and secondary school girls and boys, this article argues that the discourse "bullying"…

  7. Investigating the Value of Restorative Practice: An Action Research Study of One Boy in a Mixed Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Vicky; Fearon, Colm; Dee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In response to an increasingly high level of exclusion rates for boys within secondary school in the UK, this study seeks to explore the value of restorative practice and justice for changing student behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: As a piece of action research, the authors aimed to look at how methods of restorative practice…

  8. Comparison of Teacher Talk Directed to Boys and Girls and Its Relationship to Their Behaviour in Secondary and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Alex; Swinson, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of earlier investigations, using differing methodologies, into the extent to which teachers in the secondary school interact with boys and girls and the results have suggested an imbalance in the teachers' verbal behaviour towards the genders that is quite similar to the imbalance found in teachers' behaviour in the…

  9. Can Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools Enhance the Learning Experiences of Girls and/or Boys? An Exploration of Pupils' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the value of introducing single-sex classes within co-educational schools. Draws upon perspectives of girls and boys involved in one such initiative. Concludes girls-only classes may have positive effects for girls, but curriculum-as-usual boys' classes do nothing to challenge problematic male cultures inherent in schools. (BT)

  10. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto eTakagishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  11. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  12. Perception regarding pubertal changes among rural adolescent boys of Haryana: A school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Chayal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child matures into an adult. The physical changes in the human body are from infant to child to adolescence to adult to old age.  All phases of life behave like a coin with both good and bad facets attached to each phase of life. Aims & Objectives:  1. To study perception and awareness regarding pubertal changes among school going adolescent boys. 2. To study the association between education and perceived pubertal problems among study subjects. Material & Methods: The study was conducted among male students of senior secondary schools of community development block Beri in one year. The study universe comprised of students in middle and late adolescence (aged 14-18 years studying in 9th to 12th classes of the senior secondary schools in the area. A total of 1000 male students were selected from these schools which were more than the required sample size of 891. Results: The study found that 42.66% students and a half (50% of students of class 9th & 10th and class 11th & 12th respectively considered that pubertal changes as a normal phenomenon. The majority of students admitted practicing masturbation and felt shy and guilty for practicing masturbation, also students felt fatigued after night emission. Conclusions: The study concludes that adolescent’s sexuality which often causes controversy and concern among adults is least discussed with them during adolescence. The reasons for this may be many, including moral grounds or because of concomitant health risks and threats to wellbeing.

  13. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Supporting Boys as Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  15. Boys Will Be Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broude, Gwen J.

    1999-01-01

    Many psychologists assert that boys are in dire straits in U.S. society, but in fact, there is no evidence of an emotional or behavioral epidemic for either sex. If there is any truth to the claim that boys are in trouble, it results from practices that foster aggression. It is a mistake to regard either gender as "fragile." (SLD)

  16. Differences in the intensity of physical activity during school days and weekends in Polish and Czech boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, Karel; Kudlacek, Michal; Groffik, Dorota; Chmelik, Frantisek; Jakubec, Lukas

    2016-06-02

    The physical, mental and social development that occurs in young people through physical activity (PA) is primarily through extracurricular activities. Family, peers and social environment, in addition to schools, interest groups and school sports, play a unique role during this developmental period. The objective of the study was to examine the differences in the intensity of PA during school days and weekends and the relationship between PA and physical inactivity (PI) during these days in Polish and Czech boys and girls. In total, there were 816 participants among whom 333 met the requirements of 8 hours of continuous recording of PA (ActiTrainer accelerometers) during at least one school and one weekend day. Boys and girls from both countries engaged in virtually the same amount of PA during school and weekend days, and participated in more PA at lower intensities on the weekends compared with school days. This study surveyed important issues related to global public health, specifically for the school environment and school settings. The important and crucial relations with family were emphasized, which should increase the awareness and understanding of public health problems of this particular research sample. The results indicated that less time was spent in PI, but also that the largest amount of time during the weekends was spent in front of a screen.

  17. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Improving visual memory, attention, and school function with atomoxetine in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Atomoxetine is efficacious in reducing symptoms of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its effect on visual memory and attention needs more investigation. This study aimed to assess the effect of atomoxetine on visual memory, attention, and school function in boys with ADHD in Taiwan. This was an open-label 12 week atomoxetine treatment trial among 30 drug-naíve boys with ADHD, aged 8-16 years. Before administration of atomoxetine, the participants were assessed using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III), the school function of the Chinese version of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA), the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) involving visual memory and attention: Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time, which were reassessed at weeks 4 and 12. Our results showed there was significant improvement in pattern recognition memory and spatial recognition memory as measured by the CANTAB tasks, sustained attention and response inhibition as measured by the CPT, and reaction time as measured by the CANTAB after treatment with atomoxetine for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. In addition, atomoxetine significantly enhanced school functioning in children with ADHD. Our findings suggested that atomoxetine was associated with significant improvement in visual memory, attention, and school functioning in boys with ADHD.

  19. Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with African American Boys at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max

    2005-01-01

    African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…

  20. Football as promotion of active citizenship and identity development - supporting boys in a school with high percentage migration background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, R

    . They show a more profound understanding of the structure of the local society. The team members, who have participated regularly show increased self-confidence and express realistic expectations of their football and school ability. Lastly the social and cultural coherence in the team has been expressed......This study aims to investigate the possible effects of football as a social tool to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. Through the team processes inherent in football, boys, aged 12 to 16 from a public school......, are encouraged and motivated to develop life-skills to support everyday life. Furthermore they learn to be part of a team, enhancing their social capability which expands their possibilities for adjusting to society. 3 weekly training sessions, matches and coach education for motivated boys are part of the study...

  1. Social and Emotional Learning through a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Based After-School Program for Disengaged Middle-School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barrie; Jacobs, Jenn M.; Wright, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a long-term afterschool leadership program situated in a Midwestern university town in the US. The activity-based program for boys considered to be disengaged with school and at risk for dropping out of education, was based on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. The program curriculum was strongly…

  2. Amount of newspaper coverage of high school athletics for boys and girls on sports page and newspaper circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul M; Whisenant, Warren A

    2002-02-01

    This study analyzed the amount of coverage for high school athletics in 43 newspapers with small circulation by devoting 40% of their interscholastic athletics coverage to girls in athletics, printed significantly more articles about girls' athletics than did the newspapers with medium (33%) or large (32%) circulation. Therefore, the smaller the newspaper circulation, the more equitable the coverage of athletics for girls and boys. This finding was consistent with some prior work but not all.

  3. 'The Money's Good, The Fame's Good, The Girls Are Good': The Role of Playground Football in the Construction of Young Boys' Masculinity in a Junior School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Explores the effects of football (soccer) in the social construction of hegemonic masculine practices among a group of Year 6 English junior school boys. Argues that football (soccer) acts as a model for the boys in which they utilize the game as a means of constructing, negotiating, and performing their masculinity. (CMK)

  4. "Six Packs and Big Muscles, and Stuff like That". Primary School-Aged South African Boys, Black and White, on Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the salience of sport in the lives of eight-year-old and nine-year-old South African primary school boys. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data, I argue that young boys' developing relationship with sport is inscribed within particular gendered, raced and classed discourses in South Africa. Throughout the paper I show…

  5. Standin' tall: (De) criminalization and acts of resistance among boys of color in an elementary after school STEM program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Vincent

    The United States current incarcerates more citizens than any other country in history, by disproportionately targeting men and boys of color through mechanisms such as the school to prison pipeline. In better understanding the processes that fuel the school to prison pipeline such as criminalizing practices and the ways boys of color resist them, we can begin to identify teaching practices and perspectives which work to disrupt those processes. Examining criminalization and acts of resistance in STEM education is particularly salient because of the high social and economic status STEM knowledge bears in dominant U.S. culture, and the ways access to STEM learning functions as gateways in our education system. Through a longitudinal study in a multi-site elementary after-school STEM program, I examined what criminalization and acts of resistance look like, the ways they interact, and how staff in the program work to disrupt those cycles. I found that criminalization and acts of resistance are normal and ordinary occurrences, frequently interacting in response to each other in escalating patterns. I also found that staff engaged in multiple categories of decriminalizing practices based on highly respectful interactions and viewing boys of color as brilliant students who engage in acts of resistance as a healthy response to oppressive measures.

  6. More than half of high school students report disordered eating: a cross sectional study among Norwegian boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Klungland Torstveit

    Full Text Available Disordered eating and eating disorders are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks. Even if adolescence has been identified as the most vulnerable time for developing disordered eating, few studies have used a broad spectrum of criteria to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating among high school students of both genders, in different programs of study, nor assessed correlates of disordered eating among this important target group. The purposes of this study were therefore to investigate the prevalence and correlates of disordered eating among both male and female high school students in sport-, general and vocational programs. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by 2,451 students (98.7%, aged 15-17 years. The total prevalence of disordered eating was 54.9%, with 64.3% among girls and 45.0% among boys (p<0.001. The highest prevalence of disordered eating was found among vocational students (60.7%, followed by students in general programs (49.8% and sport students (38.3% (p<0.001. Female gender, school program (vocational and general, overweight/obesity and weight regulation were positively associated with disordered eating. The high prevalence indicates the importance of tailored prevention efforts directed at high school students, particularly in vocational programs. Furthermore, a smaller girls-boys ratio than expected indicates that the efforts to identify and manage disordered eating among high school students should include both genders.

  7. The impact of teacher's gender in the process of educating primary school boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Jeraj, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to find out the significance of teacher’s gender and how it affects learning and education of both boys and girls. Theoretical part of the paper exposes some Slovenian and foreign research based findings about the differences between men and women regarding education and teaching methods. It also highlights differences in learning achievements between boys and girls, which are statistically equally important in Slovenia and abroad. An overview of difference...

  8. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  9. Quem são os meninos que fracassam na escola? Who are the boys failing at school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pinto de Carvalho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer as formas cotidianas de produção do fracasso escolar mais acentuado entre meninos nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental, o artigo baseia-se em estudo desenvolvido entre 2002 e 2003 com o conjunto das crianças e professoras de 1ª a 4ª séries de uma escola pública do Município de São Paulo. Busca compreender os processos que têm conduzido um maior número de meninos do que meninas, e, dentre eles, uma maioria de meninos negros e/ou provenientes de famílias de baixa renda, a obter conceitos negativos e a ser indicados para atividades de recuperação. Conclui pela necessidade de discutir a cultura escolar como fonte importante na construção das identidades de meninos e meninas, seja na reprodução de estereótipos e discriminações de gênero, raça e classe, seja na construção de relações mais igualitárias.This article aims at understanding the every day situations producing greater school failure among boys rather than among girls in the early grades of elementary school. It is based on a study conducted between 2002 and 2003 involving the ensemble of students and teachers at grades first to fourth at a public school in the municipality of São Paulo. This study seeks to understand the processes leading to the fact that a greater number of boys than girls - mostly black boys and/or boys from low income households - get poor grades and are directed to revision classes. The study concludes that there is a need for debate on school culture once it is an important ingredient in shaping boys and girls identities, whether by reproducing stereotypes, gender, race and class discrimination or by building more equalitarian relationships.

  10. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  11. Primary Boys and Hegemonic Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Explores the relationships between primary-aged boys, hegemonic masculinities, and sexualized/violent behaviors in the school setting. Shows that hegemonic masculinities vary from school to school and that boys draw upon, negotiate, and reject aspects of the hegemonic masculinity of the school in the process of constructing their masculine…

  12. A Case Study: Middle School Boys' Perceptions of Singing and Participation in Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to learn about the perceptions of singing and participation in choir of the author's eighth grade choir students. Specific areas of focus included insight on why the eighth grade boys sing and enjoy singing, perceptions of singing in a daily choir class, and perceptions of singing in an auditioned…

  13. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS ATTENDING A FOOTBALL SCHOOL AND THOS WHO DO NOT DO SPORT WITH SPECIFIC-MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.

  15. Determinants of Schooling for Boys and Girls in Nigeria under a Policy of Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This paper adds a measure of school costs to the model of determinants of schooling. Costs are estimated with controls for selection into school and the possibility of receiving free primary education (FPE). Controlling for costs, household wealth has a large, positive effect on primary school attendance with greater income elasticity for girls…

  16. Peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence, associated factors and pathways among 1752 sixth grade boys and girls in schools in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Mcfarlane, Judith; Somani, Rozina; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed; Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Yasmeen; Chirwa, Esnat D; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. 1752 children were recruited into a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted on 40 fairly homogeneous public schools (20 for girls and 20 for boys), in Hyderabad, Pakistan. This was ranging from 20-65 children per school. All children were interviewed with questionnaires at baseline. Few children had no experience of peer violence in the previous 4 weeks (21.7% of girls vs.7% of boys). Some were victims (28.6%, of girls vs. 17.9% of boys), some only perpetrated (3.3% of girls vs. 2.5%) but mostly they perpetrated and were victims (46.4%.of girls vs 72.6%. of boys). The girls' multivariable models showed that missing the last school day due to work, witnessing her father fight a man in the last month and having more patriarchal gender attitudes were associated with both experiencing violence and perpetration, while, hunger was associated with perpetration only. For boys, missing two or more days of school in the last month, poorer school performance and more patriarchal attitudes were associated with both victimization and perpetration. Witnessing father fight, was associated with peer violence perpetration for boys. These findings are additionally confirmed with structural models. Peer violence in Pakistan is rooted in poverty and socialization of children, especially at home. A critical question is whether a school-based intervention can empower children to reduce their violence engagement in the context of poverty and social norms supportive of violence. In the political context of Pakistan, reducing all violence is essential and understanding the potential of schools as a platform for intervention is key.

  17. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys.

  18. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  19. The October 2011 Kenyan invasion of Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2018-01-01

    -Kenyan origin who pursued their own interests. Security and economic concerns did play a role, while the paper dismisses that the invasion can be understood as a consequence of the Kenyan government pursuing an ‘international image management strategy’. Theoretically, the paper concludes that ‘Western’ theories...

  20. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  1. Lifestyle, body composition, and physical fitness changes in Hungarian school boys (1975-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photiou, A; Anning, J H; Mészáros, J; Vajda, I; Mészáros, Z; Sziva, A; Prókai, A; Ng, N

    2008-06-01

    General socioeconomic conditions as well as the physical environment have undergone remarkable changes in Hungary during the past 30 years. Unfortunately, these positive processes have resulted in a reduction of habitual physical activity along with unfavorable changes in dietary habits. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare some selected morphological and functional parameters of 7-14-year-old Hungarian schoolboys living in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginning of the new millennium. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in morphological and functional characteristics of the Hungarian schoolboy populations, because they were assessed 30 years apart. Means of height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), the sum of five skinfold tests, percentage of body fat, and two running performance times (400 m and 1,200 m) of the boys (N = 3,672) studied in 1975 were compared to those of the boys (N = 3,758) in 2005. Data were analyzed using two-tailed independent samples t tests (p changes in body mass and height. In addition, boys in 2005 had significantly more subcutaneous fat compared to 1975. The running times for the two distances were significantly poorer at the time of the second investigation. The remarkable and unfavorable changes in body composition and cardiorespiratory performance were attributed to the continuously decreasing intensity of habitual physical exercise and a lifestyle that had become more sedentary (watching TV playing computer games, etc.). Radical interventions are necessary to reduce these risks associated with the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Hungary, and the challenge to resolve the problem requires combined efforts at the educational, societal, corporate, and governmental levels.

  2. Quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometrics characteristics of boys and girls from fourth grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buišić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the quantitative differences in motor abilities and basic anthropometric characteristics by gender, we were testing 123 students of the primary school (fourth grade, 10,5 years old. Testing was applied technique of research. Two basic anthropometric measures and 14 motor tests were selected for measuring instruments. Using canonical discriminant analysis leads to results which indicate the presence of statistically significant quantitative differences in motor abilities of boys and girls but not in the anthropometric chararacteristics. Boys were in almost all motor variables statistically significantly better, except in variables for evaluation of flexibility which is more expressed by girls, but in the anthropometric characteristics there is no statistically significant differences relating to gender. Based on research results it is deduced that we need to differentiate primary students of the fourth grade by gender, because of the different levels of motor skills. Fourth grade students do not only need different approach to the work, they also need more frequent physical activity which is indispensable for development and growth.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  4. Role of Women in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: The Case of Urban Boys in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th round (1999-2000), to show that for urban male children there exists significant wage incentive for schooling, though school dropout rate and child labour incidence are not so small. The parents' level of education plays an important role in…

  5. Development and validation of the social information processing application: a Web-based measure of social information processing patterns in elementary school-age boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in 3rd through 5th grades. This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 244 boys ages 8 through 12 (M = 9.4) from public elementary schools in 3 states. The SIP-AP includes 8 videotaped vignettes, filmed from the first-person perspective, that depict common misunderstandings among boys. Each vignette shows a negative outcome for the victim and ambiguous intent on the part of the perpetrator. Boys responded to 16 Web-based questions representing the 5 social information processing mechanisms, after viewing each vignette. Parents and teachers completed measures assessing boys' antisocial behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a model positing the original 5 cognitive mechanisms fit the data well when the items representing prosocial cognitions were included on their own factor, creating a 6th factor. The internal consistencies for each of the 16 individual cognitions as well as for the 6 cognitive mechanism scales were excellent. Boys with elevated scores on 5 of the 6 cognitive mechanisms exhibited more antisocial behavior than boys whose scores were not elevated. These findings highlight the need for further research on the measurement of prosocial cognitions or cognitive strengths in boys in addition to assessing cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that the SIP-AP is a reliable and valid tool for use in future research of social information processing skills in boys.

  6. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available School curriculums in physical education are conceptualised that students are expected to overcome many motoric assignments and vast area of disciplines (athletics, gymnastics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, ethnic dances, etc. Drawbacks of this kind of curriculum are: students superficially adopt only basic elements of motions; there is no automatization and complete control of motoric motions. Teaching practice is mainly focused on development of technical elements in contrast to development of motoric and functional abilities of students. Physical education efficiency can be improved by realistic, expertly and economical planning and monitoring of the effects of the teaching, as well as by increase in weekly number of classes. Sports games are, among others, by nature of comprising motions, important factors and tools in teaching of physical education of students. It seems that all of this has been considered when school reform has been done in Montenegro. By this very kind of work the effects of the increment in weekly class number are meant to be checked out. Our sample consisted of 73 8th grade boys, 42 in experimental group involved in additional basketball programme, and 31 boys in control group without additional classes of physical education. Level of motoric abilities has been followed by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group had shown improved levels of abilities in each test at final measurement, except at the test of vertical aiming – darts. However, keep in mind that boys in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds test and hand and foot tapping test, by using ANOVA we compared measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are

  7. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  8. "Like a Soccer Camp for Boys": A Qualitative Exploration of Gendered Activity Patterns in Children's Self-Organized Play during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Ergler, Christina; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Boys are more physically active than girls and the greatest gender difference in children's physical activity is found in institutional settings such as school recess. However, research on gender relations, performances and practices that maintain gendered differences in physical activity during recess is still limited. Drawing on a qualitative…

  9. The Impact of Differing Maternal Expectations on the Academic Achievements of Primary School Children in Urban Bangalore, South: A Comparison between Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridarshan, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Education of girls in India lags behind that of boys and several communities in India fare worse than others. Because of their secondary status in the society, Indian girls tend to suffer from low self-esteem. Thus, it is necessary to study the reasons why girls are being discouraged from attending and completing school as well as what are the…

  10. "Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You Been?" An Account of Intensive Psychotherapy with a Seven-Year-Old Boy in a Special School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the developments in the intensive psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy with global development delay. It also describes the adaptations to technique and the changes in the setting that were required to support the work, which was undertaken in a special school. The importance of the regularity of sessions in helping…

  11. The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Richard Michael

    Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

  12. Comparison between the Understanding Levels of Boys and Girls on the Concepts of Environmental Degradation, Meteorology and Climate Change in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ernest S.; Komba, Sotco C.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether there was any significant difference in understanding levels between secondary school boys and girls on the concepts of environmental degradation, meteorology and climate change. Both structured survey and focus group discussions were used to collect information from 480 students, sampled randomly from 12…

  13. "Ye've Got to 'Ave Balls to Play This Game Sir!" Boys, Peers and Fears: The Negative Influence of School-Based "Cultural Accomplices" in Constructing Hegemonic Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The ongoing moral panic surrounding adolescent boys continues to cause concern, proving pivotal in popular discourses centring on the "problem of youth". Drawing on ethnographic data from a large co-educational secondary school, this paper illustrates how school outcomes are adversely affected by working class boys' investments in peer…

  14. Saving Black and Latino Boys: What Schools Can Do to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    More educators are embracing the idea that the educational and social challenges confronting black and Latino males can be solved, or at least ameliorated, through single-sex education; such schools specifically designed for young men of color, are now proliferating across the nation. Nonetheless, there is a pressing need for an applied research…

  15. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  16. Single-Sex School Boys' Perceptions of Coeducational Classroom Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Shirley M.

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in many countries have found little evidence of consistent advantages in either single-sex education or coeducation. Over the last three decades, coeducation has been introduced into many single-sex schools, but there is a dearth of evidence from the student perspective of the impact of such changes on the classroom learning environment.…

  17. Parental Aggression as a Predictor of Boys' Hostile Attribution across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…

  18. Innovations. Separated by Sex. A Troubled New Jersey Middle School Segregates Girls from Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    The principal of one urban New Jersey middle school chose to deal with a long history of student behavior and discipline problems by making every class single sex. The change helped curb classroom distractions, reduced discipline problems, and restored a sense of order. (SM)

  19. Giving Education a Bad Name: Bookish Boys in Contemporary American School Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, David

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary American school stories that appear to advocate learning and literacy as a democratic good, but actually undermine democratic possibilities by teaching young readers to think of academic inquiry as a means to selfish, petty ends. Since "learning" and "literacy" are catchwords for educators…

  20. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  1. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  2. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y P, Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-05-01

    Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (pconsumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.

  3. The Relationship between Correlates of Effective Schools and Social Emotional Learning within Single Gender Schools Serving Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Curt R.

    2013-01-01

    Urban school districts throughout the United States are creating single gender classrooms or schools to improve student achievements for their lowest performing subgroups (Noguera, 2009). It is hoped that separating the sexes will improve domains such as discipline, attendance and academic performance, while decreasing the dropout rate. If single…

  4. Correct gender socializing in school avoids the fabrication of divisions among girls and boys

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Topçiu

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm of gender based role socializing is supported by the postulate: men and women learn gender based attitudes and behaviours of the environment which surrounds them. Gender based socializing serves to teach individuals the difference between sexes, as well as, the hierarchy between them. Education is an extremely important instrument whereby social change can be achieved. School should take the indispensable responsibility to clearly demonstrate that both genders possess equal value...

  5. School transitions, peer influence, and educational expectation formation: Girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fast-food outlets and walkability in school neighbourhoods predict fatness in boys and height in girls: a Taiwanese population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying

    2011-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that the school food environment contributes to childhood obesity and health in various locations. We investigated the influence of fast-food stores and convenience food stores (FS and CS, respectively) on growth and body composition in a range of residential densities for North-east Asian food culture. Anthropometrics and birth weight of schoolchildren were obtained. Geocoded mapping of schools and food outlets was conducted. Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for father's ethnicity and education, as well as for household income, pocket money, birth weight, physical activity, television watching, food quality and region, were used to predict body composition from school food environments. Elementary schools and school neighbourhoods in 359 townships/districts of Taiwan. A total of 2283 schoolchildren aged 6-13 years from the Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan conducted in 2001-2002. Remote and socially disadvantaged locations had the highest prevalence of lower weight, BMI, waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness. Food store densities, FS and CS, were highest in urban Taiwan and lowest in remote Taiwan. In the fully adjusted models, FS densities predicted weight and BMI in boys; there was a similar association for waist circumference, except when adjusted for region. FS densities also predicted height for girls. Except for weight and BMI in boys, CS did not have effects evident with FS for either boys or girls. A high FS density, more than CS density, in Taiwan increased the risk of general (BMI) and abdominal (waist circumference) obesity in boys and stature in girls. These findings have long-term implications for chronic disease in adulthood.

  7. Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran, in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM. Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89 but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101. There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005. Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years, that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

  8. Functional impairment associated with symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool and early school boys and girls from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether the symptoms and diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, as defined in the DSM-IV, are equally impairing for girls and boys from the general population in the early school years. Method: A sample of 852 three to seven-year-old schoolchildren were screened out for a double-phase design. A total of 251 families were assessed with a diagnostic interview and with measures of functional impairment. Results: ODD symptoms and diagnosis were equally prevalent in boys and girls, but three to five-year-old girls had a higher prevalence of subthreshold ODD. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the impact on use of services, treatment received and family burden associated with ODD symptoms and diagnosis. Although diagnosis of ODD was not associated with higher functional impairment by sex, individual symptoms and subthreshold diagnosis were more impairing for boys than for girls. Conclusion: Oppositionality may be measuring different things for boys and girls, and this possibility must be taken into account with a view to the correct identification of this problem in each sex.

  9. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  10. Cross-gender social normative effects for violence in middle school: do girls carry a social multiplier effect for at-risk boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Lisa M; Pasch, Keryn E; Brown, H Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2014-09-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have "spillover effects" on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003-2005) from Project Northland Chicago were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4,233 at Grade 6, N = 3,771 at Grade 7, and N = 3,793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys' levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school environmental

  11. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in primary school boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to determine the distribution of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in middle childhood, as well as to evaluate the screening instrument, Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q). A total of 1,444 8- to 13-year-old children were screened in regular schools (3rd to 6th grade) in Switzerland using the self-report measure EDY-Q, consisting of 12 items based on the DSM-5 criteria for ARFID. 46 children (3.2%) reported features of ARFID in the self-rating. Group differences were found for body mass index, with underweight children reporting features of ARFID more often than normal and overweight children. The EDY-Q revealed good psychometric properties, including adequate discriminant and convergent validity. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances are commonly reported in middle childhood. Because of possible negative short- and long-term impact, early detection is essential. Further studies with structured interviews and parent reports are needed to confirm this study's findings.

  12. Cognitive, physical and physiological responses of school boy cricketers to a 30-over batting simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, David; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how cognitive and physical performance are affected during a prolonged, fatigue-inducing cricket-batting simulation. Fifteen amateur batters from three Eastern Cape schools in South Africa were recruited (mean ± SD: age 17 ± 0.92 years; stature 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 78.3 ± 13.2 kg). Participants completed a 6-stage, 30-over batting simulation (BATEX © ). During the protocol, there were five periods of cognitive assessment (CogState brief test battery, Melbourne, Australia). The primary outcome measures from each cognitive task were speed and accuracy/error rates. Physiological (heart rate) and physical (sprint times) responses were also recorded. Sprint times deteriorated (d = 0.84; P attention and vigilance (d = 0.56; P = 0.21) and attention and working memory (d = 0.61; P = 0.11), reducing task performance after 30 overs. Therefore, prolonged batting with repeated shuttle running fatigues amateur batters and adversely affects higher-order cognitive function. This will affect decision-making, response selection, response execution and other batting-related executive processes. We recommend that training should incorporate greater proportions of centre-wicket batting with repeated, high-intensity shuttle running. This will improve batting-related skills and information processing when fatigued, making practice more representative of competition.

  13. Process evaluation for a school-based physical activity intervention for 6th- and 7th-grade boys: reach, dose, and fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Wesolek, Stacey M; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the reach, dose, and fidelity of Guys Only Activity for Life (G.O.A.L.), a 7-week pilot intervention conducted from February to March 2011 to increase 6th and 7th grade boys' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). One middle school was randomly assigned to the G.O.A.L. intervention and another from the same urban school district in the Midwestern U.S. to a comparison condition. Thirty boys, ages 10-14 years, participated in each school. The intervention, guided by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), consisted of a 90-min after-school physical activity club 4 days/week and one motivational interviewing session with a registered (school) nurse. Data were gathered via attendance records, club observations, heart rate monitors, audio-taping of motivational interviewing sessions, and surveys. On average boys attended the club 2.11 days/week (SD=.86). A trained independent process evaluator reported that the physical activity club instructors provided the boys with the opportunity for a mean of 25.8 min/day of MVPA. Using a four-point Likert scale (1=disagree a lot; 4=agree a lot), the process evaluator perceived that the club was delivered with high fidelity and adherence to the underlying theories (M=3.48; SD=0.39). Sessions with the nurse lasted an average of 13 min, 29 s. All boys attended. Two trained independent coders indicated that the nurse demonstrated at least beginning proficiency for all tasks associated with motivational interviewing, with the exception of using sufficient open- as opposed to closed-ended questions and reflections compared to questions. Fidelity related to session delivery and adherence to the theories was high (M=3.83; SD=0.19). The process evaluation data indicated that strategies are needed to increase attendance and boys' MVPA during the club time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira; Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes; Leonardo Conceição Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exp...

  15. A Study of Boys' Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examined how reading attitudes of Year 6 boys in British primary schools were influenced by gender issues, peers, and peer group culture. Found that confidence and experience shown in private reading was at odds with boys' public attitudes in discussion with peers. Suggests that siblings and adults might provide more positive role models for…

  16. Cross-gender Social Normative Effects for Violence in Middle School: Do Girls Carry a Social Multiplier Effect for At-risk Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Brown, H. Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2014-01-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have “spillover effects” on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003–2005) from Project Northland Chicago (PNC) were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4233 at Grade 6, N = 3771 at Grade 7, and N = 3793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys’ levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school

  17. The Human Capital of Knowledge Brokers: An analysis of attributes, capacities and skills of academic teaching and research faculty at Kenyan schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen; Kennedy, Caitlin; Bennett, Sara

    2016-08-02

    Academic faculty involved in public health teaching and research serve as the link and catalyst for knowledge synthesis and exchange, enabling the flow of information resources, and nurturing relations between 'two distinct communities' - researchers and policymakers - who would not otherwise have the opportunity to interact. Their role and their characteristics are of particular interest, therefore, in the health research, policy and practice arena, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the individual attributes, capacities and skills of academic faculty identified as knowledge brokers (KBs) in schools of public health (SPH) in Kenya with a view to informing organisational policies around the recruitment, retention and development of faculty KBs. During April 2013, we interviewed 12 academics and faculty leadership (including those who had previously been identified as KBs) from six SPHs in Kenya, and 11 national health policymakers with whom they interact. Data were qualitatively analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to unveil key characteristics. Key characteristics of KBs fell into five categories: sociodemographics, professional competence, experiential knowledge, interactive skills and personal disposition. KBs' reputations benefitted from their professional qualifications and content expertise. Practical knowledge in policy-relevant situations, and the related professional networks, allowed KB's to navigate both the academic and policy arenas and also to leverage the necessary connections required for policy influence. Attributes, such as respect and a social conscience, were also important KB characteristics. Several changes in Kenya are likely to compel academics to engage increasingly with policymakers at an enhanced level of debate, deliberation and discussion in the future. By recognising existing KBs, supporting the emergence of potential KBs, and systematically hiring faculty with KB-specific characteristics, SPHs can

  18. "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines how home and school working together supported the writing of lower-achieving boys. It describes an activity in which parents and children selected artefacts at home to inspire writing in school. This model of home-school partnership permitted different levels of parental involvement and also allowed the child to take a key…

  19. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Kiboi

    phylogenetic relationships based on 10 DNA fragments at AltSB loci with SbMATE, ORF9 and MITE primers. .... estimate the overall genetic diversity in Kenyan sorghum lines: Cheprot et al. 3529 ..... EARN project and Generation Challenge (GCP), ... genetics and molecular biology of plant aluminum resistance and toxicity.

  20. Which Way for the Kenyan Manufacturing Firms?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... In this paper, firm level panel data for Kenyan manufacturing sector is used ... profits abroad. ... 2. the national income or growth accounting approach which uses .... TFP = productivity measured as value added i.e. total output minus value of.

  1. Kenyan Women's Literature from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenyan Women's Literature from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective: Six Stories by Storymoja Writers. ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... days been struggling against many social ailments that have been gnawing at post-colonial societies since and even before the days of decolonization.

  2. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  3. Correlates of disclosure of sexual violence among Kenyan youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Courtney L; Kress, Howard; Rochat, Roger W; Yount, Kathryn M

    2018-05-01

    Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger. No studies have examined correlates of SV disclosure in Kenya. The objective of this research was to assess the correlates of disclosing SV among Kenyan youth ages 13-24 who reported an SV experience before age 18. In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Violence Prevention, the UNICEF Kenya Country Office, and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) conducted a national survey of violence against children. These data were used to conduct weighted logistic regression analyses to determine which factors were correlated with reporting SV disclosure. Among the 27.8% of girls/women and 14.5% of boys/men who reported SV before age 18, 44.6% of girls/women and 28.2% of boys/men reported to have disclosed the experience. In weighted logistic regression analysis, the odds of disclosure were lower among survivors who were boys/men and among survivors who reported more SV events, and higher when any perpetrator was a family member. More context-specific research on SV disclosure among young people is needed globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transformations in Kenyan Science Teachers' Locus of Control: The Influence of Contextualized Science and Emancipated Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Nashon, S.; Namazzi, E.; Okemwa, P.; Ombogo, P.; Ooko, S.; Beru, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Kenyan science teachers' pedagogical transformations, which manifested as they enacted and experienced a reformed contextualized science curriculum in which students' learning experiences were critical catalysts of teacher change. Twelve high school teachers voluntarily participated in the study and were interviewed about…

  5. Traumatic experiences of Kenyan secondary school students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross-sectional study of 1 110 students (629 males and 481 females), ... of the subjects, followed by witnessing a violent crime and domestic violence; ... Further studies are needed to determine the implications of these findings for ...

  6. Using Behaviour Contracts to Decrease Antisocial Behaviour in Four Boys with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Emma; Kingsdorf, Sheri; Charnock, Jackie; Szabo, Mariann; Middleton, Edi; Phillips, Jo; Gautreaux, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a behaviour contract has been implemented to achieve positive and enduring results for four boys with a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Four case studies are described which address reductions in behaviours such as assaultive and destructive behaviour, out-of-seat behaviour, inappropriate contact with…

  7. Predictors of Learned Helplessness among Average and Mildly Gifted Girls and Boys Attending Initial High School Physics Instruction in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Finsterwald, Monika; Grassinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In mathematics, physics, and chemistry, women are still considered to be at a disadvantage. In the present study, the development of the symptoms of learned helplessness was of particular interest. A study involving average and mildly gifted 8th-grade boys and girls (top 60%) investigated whether girls, regardless of ability level, experience…

  8. Modeling Growth in Boys' Aggressive Behavior across Elementary School: Links to Later Criminal Involvement, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2003-01-01

    The present study used general growth mixture modeling to identify pathways of antisocial behavior development within an epidemiological sample of urban, primarily African American boys. Teacher-rated aggression, measured longitudinally from 1st to 7th grade, was used to define growth trajectories. Three high-risk trajectories (chronic high,…

  9. Pre-school children with suspected autism spectrum disorders: do girls and boys have the same profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    The male to female ratio is raised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have suggested that girls with ASD have more problems with communication than boys, but boys show more repetitive behaviours than girls. In this study, 20 girls, 1.8-3.9 years of age were matched for chronological and developmental age with 20 boys with suspected ASD. All the children were recruited after population screening and referral by Child Health Care Services to a specialised neuropsychiatry clinic, where they underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessments. Comparisons were made with regard to diagnosis, developmental profiles and global disability. No significant gender differences were found. There were strong correlations between results obtained in different developmental areas. The results suggest that either (1) previous studies finding clear gender differences may have overrated discrepancies between girls and boys in ASD, or that (2) there may be girls, who will not be identified in the early years with our current screening instruments. More research with a much larger population representative study samples is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Otitis Media and Its Sequelae in Kenyan Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Eric A F; Kiio, Francis; Carosone-Link, Phyllis J; Ndegwa, Serah N; Ayugi, John; Macharia, Isaac M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain representative Kenyan data on the point prevalence of acute otitis media (AOM) and its sequelae (otitis media with effusion [OME] and chronic suppurative otitis media [CSOM]), a major cause of preventable hearing loss in children in developing countries. In Africa, there are limited studies on the prevalence of AOM and its sequelae in children. Study subjects were children aged 2 to 15 years and were enrolled from randomly selected preprimary and primary schools. After parental or guardian consent, subjects had a questionnaire administered, otoscopy and tympanometry were done, and audiometry was performed on those with ear problems detected on these examinations. A total of 9825 (75%) children was from rural schools. The prevalence of CSOM was 15 of 1000, OME was 15 of 1000, and AOM was 7 of 1000 children. Rural Rift Valley schoolchildren had the highest prevalence of CSOM (24 of 1000) compared with other regions (12 of 1000; P < .0001). Ear discharge occurred before 3.5 years in 50% of 901 children with ear discharge. A history of ear discharge was associated with abnormal tympanograms (odds ratio [OR], 11.9-19.2) and mild-to-severe hearing loss (OR, 21.6-38.6), even in children without ear disease (OR, 10.7-24.4). The burden of AOM sequelae in Kenyan preschool and schoolchildren is significant, and it occurs mostly in the first 4 years of life. By preventing early recurrent AOM, pneumococcal vaccination might partly avert nonreversible sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does the Good Schools Toolkit Reduce Physical, Sexual and Emotional Violence, and Injuries, in Girls and Boys equally? A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Parkes, Jenny; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Naker, Dipak

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the Good School Toolkit reduced emotional violence, severe physical violence, sexual violence and injuries from school staff to students, as well as emotional, physical and sexual violence between peers, in Ugandan primary schools. We performed a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Forty-two schools in one district were allocated to intervention (n = 21) or wait-list control (n = 21) arms in 2012. We did cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys in 2012 and 2014, and the Good School Toolkit intervention was implemented for 18 months between surveys. Analyses were by intention to treat and are adjusted for clustering within schools and for baseline school-level proportions of outcomes. The Toolkit was associated with an overall reduction in any form of violence from staff and/or peers in the past week towards both male (aOR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.22-0.53) and female students (aOR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.36-0.84). Injuries as a result of violence from school staff were also lower in male (aOR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.20-0.65) and female students (aOR = 0.51, 95%CI 0.29-0.90). Although the Toolkit seems to be effective at reducing violence in both sexes, there is some suggestion that the Toolkit may have stronger effects in boys than girls. The Toolkit is a promising intervention to reduce a wide range of different forms of violence from school staff and between peers in schools, and should be urgently considered for scale-up. Further research is needed to investigate how the intervention could engage more successfully with girls.

  12. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamins and minerals in 13-15-years-old boys from a sport school in Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Wajszczyk, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in teenagers engaged in physical activity increases the risk of health disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate selected vitamins and minerals intake in 13-15-year-old boys from sport school. The study of dietary intake was conducted among 44 boys from the School of Sport Championship (SSC). Nutritional data was collected using 24-hour recall for 3 days of week. Daily intake of minerals: sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine and vitamins: A, E, D, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folate and niacin was estimated. The probability of insufficient intake of nutrients in relation to the standard levels: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) as well as excessive intake of them in relation to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were assessed. The highest percentage of insufficient intake concerned vitamin D (100%), potassium (69%), folate (53%), and calcium (50%), slightly lower of magnesium (27%), vitamins C (24%) and E (15%). The risk of inadequate intake of other minerals: sodium, copper, iron, zinc, phosphorus, iodine and vitamins: B6, B1, B2, A, B12, niacin, was relatively lower and amounted from 0.3% to 5.4%. The disturbingly high probability of exceeding the UL for sodium (99.5%) was observed. A significant disproportion between the mean intake and the percentage of inadequate diets indicates a large diversity in the intake of vitamins and minerals in the group of studied boys, what was the reason of unbalanced diet. The insufficient intake concerns especially vitamin D, potassium, folate, calcium and a lesser extent magnesium, vitamins C and E. Sodium intake was disturbingly high. In order to avoid nutritional mistakes in the future education on the rational nutrition among students, their parents, and teachers is necessary.

  13. Modifiable lifestyle behavior patterns, sedentary time and physical activity contexts: a cluster analysis among middle school boys and girls in the SALTA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Pizarro, Andreia N; Figueiredo, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria P

    2013-06-01

    To analyze how modifiable health-related variables are clustered and associated with children's participation in play, active travel and structured exercise and sport among boys and girls. Data were collected from 9 middle-schools in Porto (Portugal) area. A total of 636 children in the 6th grade (340 girls and 296 boys) with a mean age of 11.64 years old participated in the study. Cluster analyses were used to identify patterns of lifestyle and healthy/unhealthy behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between cluster allocation, sedentary time and participation in three different physical activity (PA) contexts: play, active travel, and structured exercise/sport. Four distinct clusters were identified based on four lifestyle risk factors. The most disadvantaged cluster was characterized by high body mass index, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiorespiratory fitness and a moderate level of moderate to vigorous PA. Everyday outdoor play (OR=1.85, 95%CI 0.318-0.915) and structured exercise/sport (OR=1.85, 95%CI 0.291-0.990) were associated with healthier lifestyle patterns. There were no significant associations between health patterns and sedentary time or travel mode. Outdoor play and sport/exercise participation seem more important than active travel from school in influencing children's healthy cluster profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Iris concavity, corneal biomechanics, and their correlations with ocular biometry in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old UK school boys: baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet; Low, Sancy; Garway-Heath, David F; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2014-04-17

    Pigment dispersion syndrome is associated with iris concavity. This study investigated the prevalence of iris concavity, defined as a measurement of ≤-0.1 mm, in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old boys, and explored the relationship between iris curvature and anterior segment biometry. Associations with corneal biomechanical parameters also were explored. A cohort of school boys (n = 96) was recruited from a local school. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was performed under accommodative and nonaccommodative conditions, and iris curvature quantified. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with the ocular response analyzer (ORA). Noncontact axial biometry was performed using laser interferometry. The prevalence of iris concavity was 24% on distance fixation, increasing to 65% on accommodation. Variables significantly associated with nonaccommodating iris curvature were lens vault (P = 0.02) and mean keratometry (P = 0.02). For both variables acting jointly, R(2) = 0.30. Variables associated significantly with accommodating iris curvature were anterior chamber depth (P = 0.009), lens vault (P = 0.049), and mean scleral spur angle (P Iris concavity was a common finding in this cohort and related to anterior segment biometric parameters. Further work is required to clarify whether anatomical differences exist between iris concavity seen in the adolescent eye and that found in adults with pigment dispersion syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. The impact of exercise therapy on the musculoskeletal abnormalities of blind boy students of 12- 18 years old at Tehran Mohebbi blind school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Allah Jadidi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the 13 musculoskeletal abnormalities (fronthead, lateral bending head, shoulder dropping, scoliosis, kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, flat back,pelvicobliguity, genu varum, x.leg, flat foot, pes cavus, and hallux valgus after a period of exercisetherapy on the blind boy students without secondary disability.Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental research, 60 boy students were included fromsecondary and high school (12-18 years old including 34 congenital blind and 26 semi blind. Theywere selected among 135 students at Tehran Mohebbi blind school. They were tested by measurementtools (symetrigraph, antropometer, and podioscope. After examining the results by the New York test,the students who were diagnosed with one or more musculoskeletal abnormalities took part in fourmonth’sexercises with 3 sessions at weak. The results were registered after the end of the exerciseprogram and administered secondary exam. The data before and after the exam were analyzed.Results: 80 percents of the blind students at pre-exam had musculoskeletal abnormalities which aredecreased to 45 percent after exercises. There were significant differences on the rate of recovery at 11abnormalities (Exact – Sign = 0 < 0/05 and there were not significant differences at pelvicobliguityand x.leg abnormalities (Exact – Sign = 1 < 0/05.Conclusion: the research findings emphasized on the validation and important of exercise therapyon musculoskeletal abnormalities.

  16. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  17. Kenyan women's literature from a post-colonial perspective: six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenyan Women's Literature from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective: Six Stories .... cultural, and legal rights; equal treatment in the law, education, and the workplace; ... and works has spanned by now four generations of Kenyan women writers, .... the entire short story production by women writers in the previous decades.

  18. Children's literature in Kenya: a mirror of Kenyan culture? | Gromov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on the assumption that the present state of writing for children in Kenya could in fact be reflecting the current condition of the entire Kenyan culture, particularly the culture of letters in the country. Using as a reference point the well-known book on Kenyan children's literature written in 1980s by. Asenath ...

  19. Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the current study was to determine the length of coronary sinus among black Kenyans. Coronary sinuses of seventy-four hearts (43 males and 31 females) of adult age range (20-70years) black Kenyans obtained during autopsy were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  1. Effectiveness of reducing the risk of eating-related problems using the German school-based intervention program, "Torera", for preadolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, U; Schaefer, J-M; Wick, K; Brix, C; Bormann, B; Sowa, M; Schwartze, D; Strauss, B

    2014-08-01

    Representative surveys indicate that eating disorders are an increasing problem, especially among (pre)adolescents. We assessed the effects of a German school-based primary prevention program ("Torera") for seventh graders. Torera especially relates to pathological eating behavior in the realm of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The program is built upon two previously evaluated modules for sixth graders with a gender-specific adaption. The coeducational intervention involves nine manual-guided lessons touching a wide range of eating-related problems. Twenty-two Thuringian secondary schools (n = 256 boys and 277 girls, aged 11-13 years at baseline) participated in a trial with 2 control groups (untreated and pretreated) with pre-post assessment. Primary outcomes were conspicuous eating behavior and body self-esteem, measured by standardized questionnaires (SCOFF, EAT-26D, and FBeK). Girls and students at risk showed significant improvement with small (d = 0.35) to medium (d = 0.66) effect sizes on eating behavior, significantly mediated by body self-esteem. Boys only improved with respect to eating attitudes, revealing a small effect size (d = 0.35). With relatively low implementation costs (about 2.50 per student), Torera provides an efficient model for reducing risky eating behavior and strengthening body self-esteem without negative side effects. To improve the effectiveness of the intervention, further research efforts focusing on at-risk groups (secondary prevention) and structural actions for prevention (e.g., offering healthy school catering) are needed.

  2. Understanding boys': thinking through boys, masculinity and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac An Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2012-02-01

    In the UK, the media are reporting increasing rates of childhood suicide, while highlighting that increasing numbers of pre-adolescent boys (in relation to girls) are diagnosed as mentally ill. In response, academic, professional and political commentators are explaining this as a consequence of gender. One way of doing this has been to apply adult defined understandings of men and masculinities to the attitudes and behaviours of pre-adolescent boys. As a consequence, explanations of these trends point to either 'too much' masculinity, such as an inability to express feelings and seek help, or 'not enough' masculinity that results in isolation and rejection from significant others, such as peer groups. Using a discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with 28 children aged 9-13 (12 male, 16 females) and 12 school staff at a school in North East England, this article questions the viability of using normative models of masculinity as an explanatory tool for explaining boys' behaviours and suggests that researchers in the field of gender and suicide consider how boys' genders may be constituted differently. We develop this argument in three ways. First, it is argued that studies that use masculinity tend to reduce the formation of gender to the articulation of power across and between men and other men and women. Second, we argue that approaches to understanding boys' behaviours are simplistically grafting masculinity as a conceptual frame onto boy's attitudes and behaviours. In response, we suggest that it is important to re-think how we gender younger boys. The final section focuses specifically on the ways that boys engage in friendships. The significance of this section is that we need to question how notions of communication, integration and isolation, key features of suicide behaviours, are framed through the local production of friendships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  4. Discussing Princess Boys and Pregnant Men: Teaching about Gender Diversity and Transgender Experiences within an Elementary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caitlin L.; Patraw, Jasmine M.; Bednar, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This study shares the experiences and outcomes of teaching about gender diversity in an elementary school classroom. It outlines how an urban public school teacher included discussions of transgender and gender-nonconforming people within the curriculum and documents the ways in which her students responded to those lessons. By making discussions…

  5. The Role of Popular Girls in Bullying and Intimidating Boys and Other Popular Girls in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytham, Siobhan

    2018-01-01

    Despite a large amount of research focusing on bullying and exclusion in secondary schools, there is far less research focusing on cross-gender bullying and 'popular' students who experience bullying. This research provides an analysis of interactions between male and female students (aged 13-14) in a school in England. The data provides multiple…

  6. Some boys' problems in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    of education policy. The purpose of this article is to examine this ‘boy problem’ in relation to the dual system of vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. By considering the gender divisions and the value of the VET programmes on the labour market, it explores what kind of problems boys have......The last two decades have seen an increasing political concern in the high dropout rates and low performance in education of boys compared to girls – at times in the form of a ‘moral panic’. This has also been the case in Denmark where ‘the boy problem’ in education now is placed high on the agenda...... to general education, but social and institutional processes of differentiation in the vocational schools place a significant group of students in a position where they have little chance of completing the programme. In the conclusion, some reflections are made on the effect of a recent reform of VET...

  7. Comparison of Emotional Maturity in Boys adolescents with Down Syndrome(Research in Normal and Exceptional Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahel Hemmati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is compromised emotional maturity in boys’ adolescents with Down syndrome (12-18 years that study in formal and exceptional schools. Materials & Methods: At first 15 boy’s students with DS that study in formal school matched with 15 students in Exceptional school (IQ, , age, family education and socioeconomic state were same . Then EMS (Emotional Maturity Scale was tested by researchers. Results: Adolescents with DS in formal schools are significantly different and have better scale in emotional maturity and their fields. (P<0.001 Conclusion: Emotional maturity in adolescents with DS in formal schools is positive and better than peers in Exceptional classs This result is helpful for improvement integrated education system. .

  8. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  9. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  10. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  11. Assessing the sustained impact of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent boys: the ATLAS cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Dally, Kerry A; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-08-20

    Obesity prevention interventions targeting 'at-risk' adolescents are urgently needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sustained impact of the 'Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time' (ATLAS) obesity prevention program. Cluster RCT in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities of New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) 'at risk' of obesity. The intervention was based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory and involved: professional development, fitness equipment for schools, teacher-delivered physical activity sessions, lunch-time activity sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies. Assessments for the primary (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference) and secondary outcomes were conducted at baseline, 8- (post-intervention) and 18-months (follow-up). Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle using linear mixed models. After 18-months, there were no intervention effects for BMI or waist circumference. Sustained effects were found for screen-time, resistance training skill competency, and motivational regulations for school sport. There were no clinically meaningful intervention effects for the adiposity outcomes. However, the intervention resulted in sustained effects for secondary outcomes. Interventions that more intensively target the home environment, as well as other socio-ecological determinants of obesity may be needed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents from low-income communities. Australian Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000978864.

  12. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS.

  13. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.

  14. "It's Not Like You Are Less of a Man Just Because You Don't Play Rugby"--Boys' Problematisation of Gender during Secondary School Physical Education Lessons in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdin, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Despite clear messages from current physical education (PE) curricula about the importance of adopting socially critical perspectives, dominant discourses of gender relating to physical activity, bodies and health are being reproduced within this school subject. By drawing on interview data from a larger ethnographic account of boys' PE, this…

  15. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, James W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…

  16. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York…

  17. "The Boys Won't Let Us Play:" Fifth-Grade Mestizas Challenge Physical Activity Discourse at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Hamzeh, Manal

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on feminist, critical, and poststructural theories, the purpose of this research was: (a) to understand fifth-grade mestizas self-identified barriers to physical activity, and (b) to work with them to develop strategies for challenging these barriers. Data were collected over the 2005-06 school year. Our interpretations are divided into…

  18. "He Was a Bit of a Delicate Thing": White Middle-Class Boys, Gender, School Choice and Parental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katya; Jamieson, Fiona; Hollingworth, Sumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of gender on white middle-class parents' anxiety about choosing inner-city comprehensives and their children's subsequent experiences within school, particularly in relation to social mixing. Drawing on interview data from an ESRC funded study of white middle-class parents whose children attend inner-city…

  19. Correlates of Conduct Problems and Depression Comorbidity in Elementary School Boys and Girls Receiving Special Educational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Martine; Déry, Michèle; Toupin, Jean; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia

    2015-01-01

    There is limited empirical research on the correlates of conduct problems (CP) and depression comorbidity during childhood. This study investigated 479 elementary school children (48.2% girls). It compared children with comorbidity to children with CP only, depression only, and control children on individual, academic, social, and family…

  20. Effects of Social Class and School Conditions on Educational Enrollment and Achievement of Boys and Girls in Rural Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of parental SES, school quality, and community factors on children's enrollment and achievement in rural areas in Viet Nam, using logistic regression and ordered logistic regression. Multivariate analysis reveals significant differences in educational enrollment and outcomes by level of household expenditures and…

  1. Teaching Image-Processing Concepts in Junior High School: Boys' and Girls' Achievements and Attitudes towards Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Asad, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background: This research focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of a course on image-processing principles aimed at middle-school students. Purpose: The overarching purpose of the study was that of integrating the learning of subjects in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and linking the learning of these…

  2. High School Boys' and Girls' Writing Conceptions and Writing Self-Efficacy Beliefs: What Is Their Role in Writing Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, Ruth; Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions about writing and writing self-efficacy beliefs held by high school students in relation to the students' gender as well as their associations with writing achievement. The results show that female students have more sophisticated writing conceptions than their male counterparts but no gender differences…

  3. morphology of the anterior clinoid process in a select kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... obtained from the Departments of Human Anatomy in three Kenyan Universities. Caroticoclinoid foramen ... oculomotor nerve and inferomedially to the internal carotid artery ... Skulls with erupted third molars. Submitted 10th ...

  4. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.

  5. More than Half of High School Students Report Disordered Eating: A Cross Sectional Study among Norwegian Boys and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Aagedal-Mortensen, Kjersti; Stea, Tonje Holte

    2015-01-01

    Disordered eating and eating disorders are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks. Even if adolescence has been identified as the most vulnerable time for developing disordered eating, few studies have used a broad spectrum of criteria to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating among high school students of both genders, in different programs of study, nor assessed correlates of disordered eating among this important target group. The purposes...

  6. High school boys' and girls' writing conceptions and writing self-efficacy beliefs : what is their role in writing performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón Molina, Ruth; Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the conceptions about writing and writing self-efficacy beliefs held by high school students in relation to the students’ gender as well as their associations with writing achievement. The results show that female students have more sophisticated writing conceptions than their male counterparts but no gender differences were found in writing self-efficacy beliefs. In addition, results reveal that writing self-efficacy beliefs and gender play an important role...

  7. Make your Boy surface

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasa, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory article on the Boy surface. Boy found that RP2 can be immersed into R3 and published it 1901. (The image of) the immersion is called the Boy surface after Boy's discovery. We have created a way to construct the Boy surface by using a pair of scissors, a piece of paper, and a strip of scotch tape. In this article we introduce the way.

  8. Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    2010-01-01

    Following the 2007 disputed Kenyan Presidential election unprecedented levels of violence erupted across the country adding to the history of troubled elections in Africa. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative evidence on the incidence, impacts and issues that triggered electoral violence. Using two surveys conducted before and after the election we find that one out of three Kenyans were affected by the violence regardless of their ethnicity and wealth. The chances of being a victim...

  9. Are physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep duration associated with body mass index-for-age and health-related quality of life among high school boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Chin, Yit Siew

    2016-02-27

    Previous studies reported lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores in overweight and obese adolescents compared to their normal weight counterparts; however, few studies investigated the association between obesity-related behaviors including physical activity and sedentary behaviors and HRQOL in adolescents. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep duration and body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) and HRQOL among high school Tehranian students. A total of 465 high school students (48.8 % girls) were recruited from three different socio-economic zones in Tehran. The BMI-for-age was determined and physical activity and HRQOL were assessed using validated questionnaires including Quantification de l'Activite Physique en Altitude Chez les Enfants (QAPACE) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) respectively. Over one third of students (38.5 %) were either overweight or obese. The means of all self- and parent-reported HRQOL scores were significantly lower in girls, compared to boys, except for the parent-reported social functioning subscale. Mean hours of daily sleeping were significantly higher in girls, compared to boys (8.16 ± 1.27 vs. 7.73 ± 1.22 respectively; p girls and boys spent more time on sedentary activities than engaging in sport activities. During school and vacation periods, boys had significantly higher daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared to girls (p boys but not girls (r = -0.14, p activities were significantly associated with their children HRQOL scores. In summary, time spent on physical and sedentary activities were not associated with BMI-for-age, although both of these were associated with the HRQOL of high school students. The potential role of sedentary activities and physical activity should be considered in future interventions aimed at improving HRQOL in adolescents.

  10. Media and the 2013 Kenyan election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013, Kenya held its first election after the post-election violence (PEV) in 2008, which media were blamed for contributing to by partisan reporting and hate speech. Prior to the 2013 election, several organizations worked to raise awareness of the negative consequences of hate speech...... and the need of responsible journalism. This article sheds light on how Kenyan journalists perceived their role and evaluated their own reporting of the 2013 election and whether they were influenced by the experience of the PEV. The article shows how the experience of the PEV became a reference point when...... discussing the election reporting and the role of journalists. Several journalists admitted that important issues were avoided due to fear of steering up emotions....

  11. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  12. Adapted motor activities to stimulate the memory in moderated mentaly retarded boys and girls from “Carlos Marx” Special School of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosbiel García-Castañeda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research arises from the necessity of including adapted motor activities to stimulate the memory in moderated mentally retarded boys and girls from “Carlos Marx” Special school of Pinar del Rio in Physical Education lessons, due to the difficulty they have. The activities are addressed to compensate their difficulties from cognitive, psychological, physical, as well as social integration point of view. For the development of the work, firstly, it was carried out a bibliographical revision about the mental retard and about Special Physical Education importance, as means to create compensatory conditions in the psychomotor sphere in children with Special Educational Necessities (SEN, helping them to foster values and attitudes that will be of great utility in the society. Secondly, it was carried out the analysis of the applied methods empiric result as: the observation, interviews, surveys and Mosega Test. In addition, theoretical methods as, historical-logical, analysis - synthesis, inductive-deductive and revision of documents were used. Inside the statistical-mathematical method, the descriptive statistic was applied with the percentage analysis, which allowed designing adapted motor activities for the stimulation of the memory in children with moderate mental retard.

  13. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Between Dark Black and Light Brown. Discourses and Ethnic Identities among Afrodescendant Boys and Girls in School Context in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a felt need to understand the way ethnic identities are constructed by Afrodescendant boys and girls aged 6-12 in school contextsin Bogotá as there is little research in such specific context and topic in Colombia. This research report proposes a discourse analysis andsocial psychology approach to tackle such problem. Thus this paper seeks to identify the discursive mechanisms that allow us to know howidentity processes emerge from the acceptance or denial of ethnicity; mechanisms that may lead or have an effect on discursive adaptation,resistance or negotiation. Findings suggest that children begin early their ethnic self-identification from the color of the skin, whereby theydifferentiate a wide color range, tending towards whitening. Children have different degrees of ethnic appraisal that go from pride to rejection.In inter-ethnic relations, they tend to deny or minimize the conflict, and there is a tendency to avoid speaking about it. Children identify thecause of the problem as a quantitative issue, as they are minority in Bogotá. In inter-ethnic dynamics, some children accept the stereotypesassigned to them, others reject them, and others scoff at them.

  15. Alcohol use among school-going adolescent boys and girls in an industrial town of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Beauty; Mohapatra, P K; Phukan, N; Mahanta, J

    2016-01-01

    Some people in Northeast India prepare rice-based alcoholic drinks in the household. People use these drinks in religious and social functions, and these are taken even in the presence of parents and elders. Easy access to illicit substances in industrial towns and lack of social inhibition for intake of homemade alcohol might increase the vulnerability of youth to these habits. To estimate the prevalence of alcoholic drink user among school-going adolescent students in an industrial town of Assam. A cross-sectional survey was designed to collect the data using a predesigned questionnaire. Personal interview was conducted to collect the data about pattern of alcohol use, type of alcoholic drinks they use, duration, and information about parents and peer. Data were analyzed using Epi-info 17 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17.0 (Chicago, USA, SPSS Inc.). About 36% out of 1285 students have tasted/used homemade alcoholic drinks (HADs) and 12.3% used commercially available alcoholic drinks (CADs). Significantly higher numbers (P alcohol influenced the habit of their children. Father's habit was found to be associated with male offspring's habit of taking CAD. About 16% of the students used one or more substances along with alcohol. High percentage of adolescents in the industrial town of Assam use alcoholic drinks with a male preponderance. They taste alcoholic drinks at a very young age. Parent's indulgence in taking tobacco, alcohol, or both was found to influence higher intake by their offspring.

  16. A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselstrøm, H A; Karlsson, M K; Hansen, S E; Grønfeldt, V; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.

  17. "Boy Crisis" or "Girl Risk"? The Gender Difference in Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior Among Middle-School Students in China and its Relationship to Gender Role Conflict and Violent Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Xin, Moye

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to test if there were gender differences in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors among Chinese middle-school students, and analyze the impact of gender role conflict and violent experiences on these behaviors among middle-school students of different genders. Based on the survey data from seven middle schools in Xi'an region of China, the gender difference in NSSI behaviors and its associated factors were analyzed in this study. There was no significant gender difference in NSSI behaviors among middle-school students; however, female middle-school students were more likely to experience gender role conflicts while male students were more likely to experience all kinds of violence earlier. Gender role conflicts and violent experiences can explain the prevalence of NSSI behaviors by gender, to some extent. The hypothesis on gender patterns of "boy crisis" or "girl risk" on NSSI prevalence was not verified; however, a "girl risk" for gender role conflicts and a "boy crisis" in violent experiences were found. The gender role conflicts were significantly associated with NSSI prevalence among middle-school students to some extent; however, this relationship was adjusted by variables of violent experiences. The different variables of violent experiences were the important predictors of NSSI prevalence among male and female middle-school students with specific contents varying across genders.

  18. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  19. Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos a relação entre fatores de aprendizagem social, acessados via questionários, e os comportamentos agressivos e lúdicos de meninos pré-escolares, através de observação direta durante o recreio. Os participantes foram 15 meninos com idades entre quatro e seis anos, da cidade de Goiânia, GO, Brasil. Uma análise multivariada de variância indicou efeitos significativos de modelos de agressividade em casa nas taxas de agressão durante o brincar. Crianças expostas a punições físicas abusivas, brigas entre adultos e programas violentos de TV apresentaram mais agressões reais. Meninos que relataram brincar com armas de brinquedo em casa não apresentaram mais agressões reais do que os que relataram o contrário, mas apresentaram maior proporção de agressões de faz-de-conta. Os resultados também indicaram que quanto mais modelos agressivos em casa, maior a incidência de comportamentos agressivos.We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  20. Desempenho escolar de meninos e meninas: há diferença? Boys and girls' performances at school: is there any difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Dal'Igna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desdobra-se de uma pesquisa desenvolvida desde a perspectiva dos estudos de gênero e dos estudos culturais, articulados com o pós-estruturalismo de Michel Foucault. Na articulação desses campos, analiso alguns dos modos pelos quais o gênero atravessa (é incorporado e mobilizado e constitui o discurso pedagógico que, articulado com outros discursos, define e regula o que se entende por desempenho escolar nos anos iniciais de escolarização. Para compor meu corpus de pesquisa, construí uma metodologia de investigação, que intitulei de Grupo de discussão, com professoras de séries iniciais das redes municipal e estadual de ensino da cidade de São Leopoldo/RS. A trama das ferramentas conceituais com os materiais possibilita-me tanto visibilizar quanto discutir, analisar e problematizar as relações de poder que constituem, classificam e posicionam meninos e meninas em lugares diferenciados e hierarquizados no que se refere ao desempenho escolar, atribuindo a este diferentes significados.This article has stemmed from a research developed from the perspective of gender and cultural studies, linked to Michel Foucault's post-structuralism. By connecting those fields, I have analyzed some of the ways gender has crossed (embodied and mobilized and constituted the pedagogical discourse which, associated with other discourses, has defined and regulated what has been understood as school performance in the first grades. In order to compose the research corpus, I have built an investigation methodology, which I have called Group of Discussion, with teachers of initial grades from both municipal and state schools in São Leopoldo/RS. The intertwining of conceptual tools and materials has enabled me to visualize, as well as discuss, analyze, and problematize the power relationships that have constituted, classified, and ranked boys and girls in differentiated, hierarchical places concerning school performance, thus assigning different

  1. Yield improvement of Kenyan sesame varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayiecho, P.O.; Nyabundi, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to improve the yield of Kenyan sesame cultivars the seeds of three cultivars, SPS SIK6, SIK 096 and SPS SIK 50/1 were subjected to 300Gy, 400Gy and 600Gy of gamma rays. A first batch of seeds were subjected to these treatments in March 1994 (Experiment I) while the second batch was treated in March 1995 (Experiment II). The M 1 , M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations of experiment I and M 1 generation of Experiment II were raised at the University of Nairobi Dryland Research Field Station, Kibwezi from 1994 to 1996. The M 6 and M 7 generations of Experiment I and M 2 of Experiment II were raised at Siaya Farmer's Training Centre in 1997. The effects of radiation in M 1 generation were expressed in reduced and delayed seedling emergence, reduced plant height, sectorial deformed plants, delayed flowering and extremely low yield. There was increased variation in M 2 for most evaluated traits. Plants in M 2 and subsequent generations were scored for a number of yield related morphological traits and days to flowering. Selection was done in the early generations for increased capsule number and earliness. As a result of selection, a total of 88 lines from M 4 generation were used to derive M 5 generation. Further selection in M 6 generation lead to 35 lines being retained for preliminary yield trials in M 7 generations. (author)

  2. Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners: what makes them so good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, Kenyan and Ethiopian runners have dominated the middle- and long-distance events in athletics and have exhibited comparable dominance in international cross-country and road-racing competition. Several factors have been proposed to explain the extraordinary success of the Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including (1) genetic predisposition, (2) development of a high maximal oxygen uptake as a result of extensive walking and running at an early age, (3) relatively high hemoglobin and hematocrit, (4) development of good metabolic "economy/efficiency" based on somatotype and lower limb characteristics, (5) favorable skeletal-muscle-fiber composition and oxidative enzyme profile, (6) traditional Kenyan/Ethiopian diet, (7) living and training at altitude, and (8) motivation to achieve economic success. Some of these factors have been examined objectively in the laboratory and field, whereas others have been evaluated from an observational perspective. The purpose of this article is to present the current data relative to factors that potentially contribute to the unprecedented success of Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including recent studies that examined potential links between Kenyan and Ethiopian genotype characteristics and elite running performance. In general, it appears that Kenyan and Ethiopian distance-running success is not based on a unique genetic or physiological characteristic. Rather, it appears to be the result of favorable somatotypical characteristics lending to exceptional biomechanical and metabolic economy/efficiency; chronic exposure to altitude in combination with moderate-volume, high-intensity training (live high + train high), and a strong psychological motivation to succeed athletically for the purpose of economic and social advancement.

  3. `No One Should Destroy the Forest': Using photo-based vignette interviews to understand Kenyan teachers' views of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens. It requires a society that understands the principles of the environment and can also exemplify them in daily life. In order to create a more environmentally literate world, there has been a push for environmental education integrated into schools. This qualitative study sought to examine Kenyan teachers' perspectives on the human-nature interaction by conducting vignette focus-group interviews. It is a subject not widely explored but vital for conservation not only in this area, but also other areas that seek to have an ecological informed populous. The vignettes were created using photographs and explanations of the photographs that the participants collected and emailed to the authors. For the focus-group vignette interviews, there were a total of 55 participants (30 females and 25 males). After InVivo analysis, we had 6 codes (resentment, pride, perils, blame, pragmatism, and self-interested) within 3 major themes. This study has implications for informing science education to combat these traditions of subjecting students to a science curriculum that demotes Kenyan cultural heritage and lifestyle. By incorporating local knowledge such as the ideas discussed in this paper into Kenyan science education, Kenyans can reach one of most challenging objectives of education, which is to produce children who are fundamentally aware of their environment.

  4. Moderating Effects of Sexual Orientation and Gender Characteristic on Condom Use Intentions Among Boys' Senior High School Students in Taiwan: An Exploration Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Mu; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2017-10-27

    This study examined condom use intentions among adolescent boys in relation to the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB): attitude toward the behavior (ATB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The potential moderating effects of sexual orientation and gender characteristic (masculine/feminine) were also explored. Anonymous survey data were collected from 929 students enrolled in a boys' senior high school in Taiwan (response rate: 89.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found higher condom use intentions linked to more positive ATB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.09) and supportive SN (AOR = 2.73), as well as high PBC under facilitating conditions (AOR = 2.04). Notably, nonheterosexual boys perceiving supportive SN (AOR = 0.23) or high support for condom use from teachers and health educators (AOR = 0.10 and 0.26, respectively) had lower condom use intentions than their heterosexual peers. By contrast, relatively feminine boys perceiving supportive SN (AOR = 2.06) or high support from close friends (AOR = 2.18) had higher condom use intentions than their masculine counterparts. In conclusion, ATB and SN were strongly linked to condom use intentions; PBC was significant only under facilitating conditions. Sexual orientation and gender characteristic had important moderating effects. These empirical findings could inform tailored health education programs to increase condom use intentions in the male student population.

  5. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  6. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Messerschmidt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.

  7. INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL PERCIBIDA EN LOS GRUMETES DE LA ESCUELA NAVAL DE SUBOFICIALES A.R.C. “BARRANQUILLA -- EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE PERCEIVED IN THE CABIN BOYS FROM THE NAVAL SCHOOL OF PETTY OFFICERS IN BARRANQUILLA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA CAMPO TERNERA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the emotional intelligence perceived in the cabin boys from the Naval School of Petty Officers in Barranquilla, Colombia. We worked with a sample of cabin boys to whom the TMMS-24 was applied in order to determine the levels of perception, understanding and emotional regulation, with the aim of identifying those with adequate and inadequate levels in a future time. According to the results, it will be begun a work about potentializing the emotional skills and in this way, to optimize the desired leadership in the future non-commissioned officers of the National Navy who should have it and be able to carry out the institutional mission.

  8. Using Picture Books to Provide Archetypes to Young Boys: Extending the Ideas of William Brozo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby

    2007-01-01

    In his book "To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy," William Brozo suggested that many adolescent boys have become mentally and academically detached from school. While Brozo acknowledges that a solution to these problems is multifaceted, he asserts that engaging boys in literature that makes use of…

  9. The Relationship between Friendship Quality and Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Daubman, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of friendship quality in adolescent boys' and girls' self-esteem. High school student surveys indicated that girls had significantly lower self-esteem than boys, and they rated their relationships as stronger, more interpersonally rewarding, and more stressful than boys. Boys rated their cross-gender best friendship as more…

  10. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gikonyo; Adele Berndt; Joseph Wadawi

    2015-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theor...

  11. Comparative genetics of alcoholism in the Kenyan populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are major enzymes in the metabolism of exogenous ethanol. These enzymes are polymorphic and are involved in alcohol drinking and risk of alcoholism in some world populations. Three hundred and seventy one samples of hair root lyzates from five Kenyan ...

  12. Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins ability to cross the blood brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demonstration that Kenyan purple tea ACNs can cross the BBB, reinforcing the brain's antioxidant capacity. Hence, there is need to study ACNs as suitable candidates for dietary supplements that could support antioxidant capacity in the brain and have potential to provide neuroprotection in neurodegenerative conditions.

  13. Woman for President? 'Alternative' future in the works of Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study comes to a conclusion that the aim of these authors was not to create another 'trivial utopia', but to draw a picture of a possible and accomplishable future which may serve as a motivation for the reading public. Keywords: African female leadership, African literature, Kenyan women writers, utopian visions of the ...

  14. Structural borrowing: The case of Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) is a visual gestural language used by members of the deaf community in Kenya. Kiswahili on the other hand is a Bantu language that is used as the national language of Kenya. The two are world's apart, one being a spoken language and the other a signed language and thus their “… basic ...

  15. The Kenyan meat sector Opportunities for Dutch agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Engelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies opportunities for the Dutch agribusiness sector (industry as well as research and education) in Kenyan meat value chains at all levels. It can serve as a background document for Dutch agro-food business companies as well as other stakeholders. At the moment there is increased

  16. Diet intake and endurance performance in Kenyan runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2004-01-01

    Training and competing at elite as well as sub-elite level requires an optimal functioning of the body. This review looks at the case of the Kenyan runners, who consume a relatively high-quality diet based on vegetable sources with maize and kidney beans as the staple foods. The diet is high in c...

  17. The Concept of Human Dignity in German and Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the concept of human dignity in German and Kenyan constitutional law. We base our analysis on decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in particular its take on life imprisonment and its 2006 decision concerning the shooting of hijacked airplanes, and on a close reading of the Constitution of Kenya.

  18. Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan population. ... death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without. Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography ...

  19. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usage of jungle juice on patients in Kenyan public hospitals. Objectives: To .... and the management of the selected institutions ... given to 10kg child indicated that none of the surgeons ... 38(5.8%); burn surgery 37(5.6%); dentistry 24(3.6%).

  20. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  1. The Assessment of Systemic Risk in the Kenyan Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to assess the systemic risk of the Kenyan banking system. We propose a theoretical framework to reveal the time evolution of the systemic risk using sequences of financial data and use the framework to assess the systemic risk of the Kenyan banking system that is regarded as the largest in the East and Central African region. Firstly, we estimate the bilateral exposures matrix using aggregate financial data on loans and deposits from annual reports and analyze the interconnectedness in the market using network centrality measures. Next, we extend the Eisenberg–Noe method to a multiperiod setting to the systemic risk of the Kenyan banking system, in which the multiperiod includes the dynamic evolutions of the Kenyan banking system of every bank and the structure of the interbank network system. We apply this framework to assess dynamically the systemic risk of the Kenyan banking system between 2009 and 2015. The main findings are the following. The theoretical network analysis using network centrality measures showed several banks displaying characteristics of systematically important banks (SIBs. The theoretical default analysis showed that a bank suffering a basic default will trigger a contagious default that caused several other banks in the sector to go bankrupt. Further stress test proved that the KCB bank theoretically caused a few contagious defaults due to an unusually high interconnectedness. This methodology can contribute by being part of monitoring system of the Central Bank of Kenya (regulatory body as well as the implementation of policies (such as bank-internal stress tests that assist in preventing default contagion.

  2. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  3. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  4. The -Younger-Minority Boy" as a Clue to the Source of Achievement Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer, Kenneth C. W.

    This study is a follow-up of the work by Morris Rosenberg who found that younger-minority boys tend to have high self-esteem, but a relatively low achievement orientation and low grades in school. Sampling a total 898 high school senior boys, this study found that younger minority boys do have lower grades and lower occupational and educational…

  5. Video games to engage boys and meet common core : A teacher’s guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engerman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Boys are disengaged from school and are rapidly becoming alienated. Video games show promise to engage boys in motivating and exciting ways. This paper explores the merits of game play, while discovering links between what boys learn in games and the standards that schools administer. Based on

  6. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  7. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Concerns Boys Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Boys have pubertal concerns ... just part of growing up. Involuntary Erections During puberty, boys get erections spontaneously, without touching their penis ...

  8. Prosocial And Antisocial Boys Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ronald A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    It may not help antisocial boys to segregate them, but wouldn't it harm prosocial boys to be integrated with antisocial boys? This study examines both propositions in the light of investigation at a summer camp. (Author)

  9. [A successful attempt with a consulting service for boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C; Christiansen, I; Von Segebaden, C; Wiksten-Almströmer, M

    1998-08-05

    As adolescence is a critical period of development, and as boys are less inclined than girls to approach the school facility for adolescent counselling, segregated consulting hours were introduced for boys to attract those with problems. The frequency of consultations by boys increased by 25 per cent, and 70 per cent of the boys reported a preference for the segregated consulting hours; 75 per cent appreciated the absence of girls from the waiting room; and of the 42 per cent with special preferences regarding the gender of the staff encountered, half reported preferring a man. Most of the boys presented with defined problems, though many revealed other problems, often relating to sexuality, in the course of consultation. The availability of segregated consulting hours for boys with adolescent problems is important, and often the only way to reach young boys who need help.

  10. “They do not know much, but then, you have to cover the syllabus”: The quality imperative – a dilemma for teachers’ in early grade multilingual classrooms in Kenyan primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nyaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The centrality of language in any education system cannot be overemphasised. Wolff (2006: 50 sums this up by stating that “language is not everything in education, but without language everything is nothing in education”. As such, language mediates knowledge acquisition even when the content of education is not language. The question then arises as to which language is best to use in education. There are no straight answers to this, as education in most countries of the world takes place in multilingual contexts. In Kenya, the language-in-education policy supports the use of the learner’s first language as the language of instruction in the first three years of school. The policy, however, remains largely unimplemented for various reasons, among them the multiplicity of first languages that may be represented in one classroom. This article reports on some outcomes of a recently completed doctoral study that investigated teachers’ attitudes, skills and strategies in their management of linguistic diversity in multilingual classrooms. Specifically, the article reports on what informs teachers’ language choices and prioritisations beyond the policy rhetoric. The study disclosed that the language of examinations and textbooks, the pressure to cover the syllabus, and individual teachers’ language repertoires primarily determine which languages are prioritised and how they are used. The findings suggest that quality education for all may remain elusive in multilingual contexts until the language question has been adequately addressed.

  11. [Anorexia nervosa in boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalem, I; Piccinin, B; Lerminiaux, D; Ansseau, M

    2000-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe and potentially fatal disorder that generally affects adolescent girls. However, a small number of boys also suffer from anorexia nervosa. Through an analysis of a series of studies and articles, a synthesis of male anorexia nervosa is offered, with emphasis on the differences of the illness between boys and girls. A clinical case is provided as an illustration of this article.

  12. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  13. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gikonyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theoretical framework that helps to understand the background of why organizations seek to expand using franchising method and consequently the CSFs of franchised restaurants entering the Kenyan market. The study used qualitative methodology with the use of in-depth interviews for collecting data. The results yielded CSFs from the franchisors’ perspective. As revealed by the study, the CSFs include brand power/concept, competitive environment, government policies, distance management, cultural appeal, excellent selection of franchisees, good site/location selection, good relationship with the franchisees, and proper contract management. These findings can be used by restaurant franchises that seek to establish successful businesses in the Kenyan market and other similar regional markets. The Africa franchise partners may also find some useful information from this article as they seek to set up the Franchise Association of Kenya. Other franchise businesses may also benefit from some aspects of the study.

  14. The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, Nimrod O; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2003-11-01

    Food intake and dietary patterns in Kenyan households have been studied since the 1920s. Reports on breastfeeding, nutrient intake, micronutrient deficiencies and the impacts of malaria and intestinal parasites on nutritional status are reviewed. Diets are mainly cereal-based, with tubers and a variety of vegetables and fruits when available. White maize, sorghum and millet are high in phytate and fiber, which inhibit the absorption of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Communities growing cash crops have little land for food crops. Although households may own cattle, goats and poultry, commonly these are not consumed. Adults in nomadic communities consume more meat than nonpastoralists. Lakeside and oceanside communities do not consume adequate amounts of fish. Poor households have a limited capacity to grow and purchase food, therefore they have more nutrient deficiencies. Early weaning to cereal porridge deprives the infant of protein and other nutrients from human milk. Other milk is consumed only in small amounts in sweetened tea. Older children eat adult diets, which are extremely bulky and hard to digest. Anemia is mainly due to iron deficiency, malaria and intestinal parasites. In general, Kenyan children have inadequate intakes of energy, fat and micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, iron, riboflavin and vitamins A and B-12. The multiple micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to early onset of stunting and poor child development, whereas lack of calcium together with vitamin D deficiency are responsible for the resurgence of rickets. There is an urgent need to increase the intake of animal source foods by Kenyan children.

  15. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  16. Sexual practices among western Kenyan youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Egal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Universally the importance of proper sex behaviors and development amongst youngsters is well recognized and documented. Nations and communities are committed to detecting early sexual misbehaviors, amongst others in growing children, in order to foster sound societies. Concomitantly, some of the so-called “remote areas”, which are far from the political centers, seem to have less attention from the national resources. In practice, most of the social problems are detected in these “remote areas”. In this context, a survey questionnaire was conducted among 217 randomly selected school-age children in 15 sub-locations in Kisamu, in western Kenya. The main goals were to create awareness among school-going children regarding safe sex and sexually transmitted diseases and to explore the existing sexual behaviors in the research area. Statistical analysis on the research question revealed that primary school children begin their first sexual activity at as early as six years while older secondary school pupils start at around the age of eight and half. Out-ofschool children indicated that they started their first sexual activities at the age of 10. Similarly, when asked about the frequency of sexual engagement in the year before, the frequency was higher among schoolchildren than those out of school. These findings raised a serious fundamental question on the effectiveness of the existing child protection policies in schools in the research areas. Therefore, all stakeholders should review school protection mechanisms where special care could be given to primary schools, where the impact is most serious.

  17. Being Boys, Being Girls: learning masculinities and femininities

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2007-01-01

    What is it like being a boy or a girl?\\ud How do boys and girls learn to be men and women?\\ud How do families, schools and children’s peer groups influence the ways in which children think of themselves as male and female?\\ud Being Boys, Being Girls explores how boys and girls learn what it is to be male and female. Drawing on a wide range of studies from around the world, the book examines how masculinities and femininities are developed and understood by children and young people in familie...

  18. Challenges of Implementing E-Learning in Kenya: A Case of Kenyan Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarus, John K.; Gichoya, David; Muumbo, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the challenges experienced by Kenyan public universities in implementation of e-learning and recommend possible solutions towards its successful implementation. In the last few years, most Kenyan public universities have adopted e-learning as a new approach to teaching and learning. However, the implementation challenges…

  19. A Review of the Participation of Disabled Persons in the Labour Force: The Kenyan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opini, Bathseba M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the challenges that disabled people experience in participating in the Kenyan labour market. It draws on existing literature and on a narrative of the experiences of one disabled academic in a Kenyan university to highlight some of the forms of discrimination that disabled people have to cope with in their…

  20. Boys Are Victims, Too: The Influence of Perpetrators' Age and Gender in Sexual Coercion Against Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline A; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Mathews, Catherine; Wegner, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Sexual coercion among adolescent boys in South Africa is an underresearched topic despite the frequency of such events. Although quantitative research has illuminated the prevalence of sexual coercion toward boys, it has provided little understanding of the context of sexual coercion for adolescent boys. Given the often severe consequences of sexual coercion, it is important to further understand these experiences to inform prevention efforts. The current study aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of the context of sexual coercion. Data come from the baseline assessment for a translational research evaluation of a school-based intervention. The current study focuses on a subset of early and middle adolescent boys who reported experiencing sexual coercion ( n = 223). Analyses examine boys' reports of their perpetrators' characteristics and details about the sexual coercion encounter. Logistic regression is used to examine how coercion tactics used by the perpetrator differs depending on the perpetrator's age and gender. Eighth-grade boys were most likely to report that their perpetrator was a similar-aged female and that perpetrator's age played a particularly important role in what tactics were used. Adult perpetrators were more likely to use physical force, threaten them, harass them electronically, and drink or use drugs at the time. Results provide important insight into boys' experiences of sexual coercion that have implications for both future research and intervention efforts. Although much research is needed on the topic, intervention programs should recognize that both male and female adolescents can be victim and perpetrator.

  1. A Cypriote boy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    90 x 110 mm. Woodburytype. A half-length portrait of a young boy. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). Thomson wrote: 'The boy represented in the second picture is the son of the priest of Avgoru [? Avgorou]. The higher dignitaries of the Greek Church are not permitted to marry; but the papa may be wedded, subject to the condition that the union was effected before his...

  2. Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Nyhuus, Lone; Buhl, Jytte

    2009-01-01

    region. 3. At the age of 10 years a new set of dentures were made. This time the upper denture was made as an overdenture supported and retained by 4 implants and a Dolder bar. The surgical procedure included bone grafting from the anterior ramus mandibulae. The boy's subjective judgement of his oral......Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy". Authors; Gjoerup,H1; Nyhuus,L2; Buhl,J3. 1) Center for Oral Health in Rare Conditions, Aarhus University Hospital 2) Prosthodontic Department, the Dental School, Aarhus University 3) Department...... by the patient and his family. Case presentation The boy was untreated until the age of 5 years. His oral functions were compromised in relation to speech and psychosocial aspects. In the following 6 years, he underwent prosthodontic treatment in three phases. 1. At the age of 5 years a set of complete dentures...

  3. Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, A M; Ayieko, M A; Konyole, S O

    2017-01-01

    of the study was to develop a recipe for cricket biscuits suitable for school feeding programmes and test acceptability of the biscuits in Kenyan schoolchildren, in comparison with a similar biscuit with milk. The study was randomised and parallel. Fifty-four children aged 5-10 years were served 100 g (range...... 98-102 g) biscuits containing either 10% cricket powder or 10% milk powder during school days for four weeks. At baseline anthropometry (weight, height, mid upper arm circumference) was measured and information on insect consumption and allergies collected. Daily, weight of biscuits eaten...

  4. Hierarchical Deficiencies: Constructed Differences between Adolescent Boys and Girls in a Public School Single-Sex Program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Although middle school is a critical time in adolescents' development, little is known about how that development is affected by public single-sex classes even though recent federal policy decisions have led more schools to provide these offerings. This case study used ethnographic methods to explore ways teachers, students, and courses in one…

  5. "What Am I Gonna Be Losing?" School Culture and the Family-Based College-Going Dilemmas of Black and Latino Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2018-01-01

    As educators and service providers in urban schools encourage student college going at higher rates than ever, policy and practice on school improvement discourses would benefit from incorporating students' perspectives underlying family-based, "college-going dilemmas" that frame their college preparation. This qualitative article…

  6. Girls, Boys and Subject Choice: A Report on Sex Differences in Participation Rates in Subjects in Western Australian Government Secondary Schools. Discussion Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Jim

    Many of the issues confronting schools and society relate to the changing roles of males and females. Concern has also been expressed over the preparedness of graduates to face an uncertain job market and rapid technological change. To study the relationship between school subject choice and career opportunities for Australian youth, school…

  7. Parental Support and High School Students' Motivation in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: Understanding Differences among Latino and Caucasian Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Price, Chara D.; Garcia, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Individuals are at an increased risk to drop out of the STEM pipeline if they are female or Latino, and during certain periods including high school. Families are a potential untapped resource of support for high school students. Based on the expectancy-value model, we examined if a variety of parental behaviors predicted students' ability…

  8. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  9. Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeng'o, Julius A; Masaki, Charles O; Sinkeet, Simeon R; Muthoka, Johnstone M; Murunga, Acleus K

    2010-01-01

    Variant anatomy of renal arteries is important in renal transplant, vascular reconstruction, and uroradiological procedures. The variations show ethnic and population differences. Data from Africans are scarce and altogether absent for Kenyans. To describe patterns of origin, trajectories and branching of renal arteries in a Kenyan population. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. Three hundred and fifty six kidneys from 178 cadavers and postmortem specimens were used in the study. Aorta, renal arteries and kidneys were exposed by dissection. Number, trajectories, level of branching, number of branches and point of entry into the kidney were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, and presented using macrographs, tables, and bar charts. Additional arteries occurred in 14.3% of the cases. In 82.4% of these, there was one additional artery. Fifty nine point five per cent of the double renal arteries were parallel and 7.1% crossed. Of the 305 single arteries, 76.4% showed hilar, 21.6% prehilar and 2% intraparenchymal branching. In the hilar branching, ladder type was present in 65% and fork type in 35%. Bifurcation and trifurcation were present in 59.6% and 33.1% respectively. Polar arteries were present in 16.9% cases. Over 14% of the Kenyan population may have additional renal arteries while more than 20% show early branching. Several trajectories and hilar branching patterns exist which renal transplant surgeons and radiologists should be aware of to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

  10. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Bushman, B.J.; Konijn, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored

  11. Revenge of the Beta Boys: Opting out as an Exercise in Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors influencing underachieving boys on a high-performing high school campus. Unlike the "laddishness" often seen in studies of underachievement among boys, the boys in this study were quiet, unobtrusive, and compliant within the classroom. Using qualitative interviews and observation conducted over a one-year…

  12. Rethinking Normative Literacy Practices, Behaviors, and Interactions: Learning from Young Immigrant Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Dernikos, Bessie; Yu, Hae Min

    2016-01-01

    In light of the historical failure of boys of color in US schools, this article sheds light onto the ways in which normative discourses of literacy and learning shape the experiences of immigrant boys and how they are perceived and defined as un/successful students. Findings indicate that although these boys--deemed to be "at-risk" or…

  13. Rationale and study protocol for the 'active teen leaders avoiding screen-time' (ATLAS) group randomized controlled trial: an obesity prevention intervention for adolescent boys from schools in low-income communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Dally, Kerry A; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Finn, Tara L; Babic, Mark J; Skinner, Geoff; Lubans, David R

    2014-01-01

    The negative consequences of unhealthy weight gain and the high likelihood of pediatric obesity tracking into adulthood highlight the importance of targeting youth who are 'at risk' of obesity. The aim of this paper is to report the rationale and study protocol for the 'Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time' (ATLAS) obesity prevention intervention for adolescent boys living in low-income communities. The ATLAS intervention will be evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia (2012 to 2014). ATLAS is an 8-month multi-component, school-based program informed by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory. The intervention consists of teacher professional development, enhanced school-sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, lunch-time physical activity mentoring sessions, pedometers for self-monitoring, provision of equipment to schools, parental newsletters, and a smartphone application and website. Assessments were conducted at baseline and will be completed again at 9- and 18-months from baseline. Primary outcomes are body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Secondary outcomes include BMI z-scores, body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis), physical activity (accelerometers), muscular fitness (grip strength and push-ups), screen-time, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, resistance training skill competency, daytime sleepiness, subjective well-being, physical self-perception, pathological video gaming, and aggression. Hypothesized mediators of behavior change will also be explored. ATLAS is an innovative school-based intervention designed to improve the health behaviors and related outcomes of adolescent males in low-income communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...... in terms of specific approaches to hiring, training and promotion; labour retention; work organization and worker deployment; payment systems and supervision, as well as to collective bargaining. In convention theory terms, the combination of approaches identified in Kenya embodies a mixture of ‘industrial...

  15. Field Guide to Marine Ecology of Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This guide introduces you to a model of Kenyan coast: from sandy shore across a lagoon of shallow water with sea grass and coral garden, out to the flinging reef where the waves break and the coral rises like a wall from the depths of the ocean. The beach and lagoon are in a marine park where shells, plants, fish and other marine life is protected. In the marine ecosystem here there are 6 habitats, which have their own plants and animals that adapted to the particular environment.

  16. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  17. Boys Might Catch Up, Family Influences Continue: Influences on Behavioral Self-Regulation in Children from an Affluent Region in Germany before School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral self-regulation is crucial for school success. Although behavioral self-regulation typically grows rapidly during the preschool period, children in this age group vary widely in their behavioral self-regulation capacities. The present study investigated 3 potential determinants of growth rates in behavioral…

  18. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  19. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  20. Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness among primary school children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M; Mutiso, Victoria; Maraj, Anika; Anderson, Kelly K; Musyimi, Christine; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 4585 primary school-aged children in standards one through seven in the Eastern Province of Kenya. We examined relationships between the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes and age, gender, district, religion, being in the standard appropriate for one's age, and parental employment status. Stigma scores decreased with increasing age (β = -0.83; 95 % CI = -0.99 to -0.67). Boys had higher stigma scores compared to girls (β = 1.55; 95 % CI = 0.86-2.24). Students from the rural district had higher average stigma scores as compared to those from the peri-urban district (β = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.44-1.84). Students who were not in the standard appropriate for their age had lower stigma scores than those who were in the standard typical for their age (β = -1.60; 95 % CI = -2.43 to -0.77). Stigmatizing attitudes toward the mentally ill exist among primary school children in Kenya; thus, anti-stigma interventions are needed, and our findings highlight particular subgroups that could be targeted.

  1. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  2. Assessment of Two School-Based Programs to Prevent Universal Eating Disorders: Media Literacy and Theatre-Based Methodology in Spanish Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Methods. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12–15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later, and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed 3×3 ANCOVA (group × phase adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Results. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Discussion. Both programs can benefit students’ self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development.

  3. Before the Looking Glass: An Informed Questions Paper on Kenyan Politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alsace, Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Political scientist Angelique Haugerud has lived or worked in Kenya for 25 years and posits that those seeking even a shallow understanding of Kenyan politics must first appreciate the role of "baraza...

  4. Narrative learning through life: Kenyan teachers' life-stories and narrative learning, and what this means for their relation to the teaching profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

    2015-01-01

    This article explores four Kenyan primary school teachers’ life-stories and narrative learning through living and telling stories about their lives from 2000 to 2011, and what this means for their relation to the teaching profession. Evidence suggests that narrative learning manifests as altered...... professionalism ‘in’ and ‘through’ the stories teachers tell about their lives and depends on ruptures in lived life, followed by periods of transition in life-stories. Teachers also learned narratively by recounting their life-stories. Thus, narrative learning is an important learning site and a resource...... for professional development in addition to pre-service teacher education....

  5. Effects of e-banking on growth of customer base in kenyan banks

    OpenAIRE

    Okibo, Bichanga Walter; Wario, Ali Yattani

    2014-01-01

    The study highlights the effects of E-banking services on growth of customer base in Kenyan banks for over the last five years. It addresses issues that affect effective utilization of E-banking facilities by customers. The study generally investigates how lack of technological know-how, illiteracy, unreliability, and transaction limits has hindered growth of on-line customer base in Kenyan banks. E-banking provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of time saving and cost of transactio...

  6. GHANAIAN AND KENYAN ENTREPRENEURS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THEIR MOTIVATIONS, SUCCESS CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    HUNG MANH CHU; CYNTHIA BENZING; CHARLES MCGEE

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-six entrepreneurs from Kenya and Ghana were surveyed to determine their motivation for business ownership, variables contributing to their business success, and the problems they encountered. Kenyan and Ghanaian entrepreneurs indicated that increasing their income and creating jobs for themselves were leading factors motivating them to become business owners. Hard work and good customer service were cited by both Kenyan and Ghanaian business owners as critical for thei...

  7. ANTHROPOMETRIC, GAIT AND STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF KENYAN DISTANCE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui W. Kong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to take a biomechanical approach to understand the success of Kenyan distance runners. Anthropometric, gait and lower extremity strength characteristics of six elite Kenyan distance runners were analyzed. Stride frequency, relative stride length and ground contact time were measured at five running speeds (3.5 - 5.4 m/s using a motion capture system. Isometric knee extension and flexion torques were measured at six angles and hamstrings and quadriceps (H:Q ratios at three angular velocities were determined using an isokinetic dynamometer. These runners were characterized by a low body mass index (20.1 ± 1.8 kg·m- 2, low percentage body fat (5.1 ± 1.6% and small calf circumference (34.5 ± 2.3 cm. At all running speeds, the ground contact time was shorter (p < 0.05 during right (170 - 212 ms compared to left (177 - 220 ms foot contacts. No bilateral difference was observed in other gait or strength variables. Their maximal isometric strength was lower than other runners (knee extension: 1.4 - 2.6 Nm·kg-1, knee flexion: 1.0 - 1.4 Nm·kg-1 but their H:Q ratios were higher than athletes in other sports (1.03 ± 0.51 at 60o/s, 1.44 ± 0.46 at 120o/s, 1.59 ± 0.66 at 180o/s. The slim limbs of Kenyan distance runners may positively contribute to performance by having a low moment of inertia and thus requiring less muscular effort in leg swing. The short ground contact time observed may be related to good running economy since there is less time for the braking force to decelerate forward motion of the body. These runners displayed minor gait asymmetry, though the difference may be too small to be practically significant. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the bilateral symmetry in strength and high H:Q ratios are related to genetics, training or the lack of injuries in these runners

  8. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  9. Boys' Perceptions of Singing: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Boys seem to progress through phases in which they like to sing in early elementary school, they think that singing is for girls and, thus, unacceptable in late elementary school, and then, gradually, singing again becomes acceptable later in life. Studies speak to the difficulty that choir directors have in recruiting boys. Research shows that…

  10. The Impact of CHAMPS on the Exclusionary Discipline Incidents of African-American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Saundra

    2018-01-01

    African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…

  11. Games for Boys: A Qualitative Study of Experiences with Commercial off the Shelf Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; MacAllan, Monique; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.

    2018-01-01

    Boys are less likely to receive praise and recognition for good schoolwork, to consider school important, and have fewer opportunities to do the things that they do best (Lopez and Calderon in How America's boys become psychological dropouts. The gallup blog, 2013). Traditional school cultures have come in conflict with the normal and natural ways…

  12. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  13. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  14. Democracy, Ethics and Social Justice: Implications for Secondary School Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwan, Julius O.; Kisaka, Sella T.

    2017-01-01

    Principals in Kenyan schools are required to adopt democratic school leadership practises as part of the government policy. Adopting an interpretive case study, this paper set out to explore the application of democracy, ethics and social justice in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was in two phases. Phase one: twelve school principals were…

  15. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  16. Boys and girls "doing science" and "doing gender"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Cleti

    The gender gap in achievement in science continues to plague science educators (AAAS, 2001). Strategies to close this gap have defined the problem in terms of girls' lack of interest or their inability to survive in science classrooms. Recent feminist scholarship has re-centered this problem of gender inequity not on girls, but on the nature of science and how it is taught in schools (Birke, 1986; Parker, 1997). Lesley Parker (1997) argues that it is schools that need to change and recommends a gender-inclusive science curriculum for schools. My dissertation argues for a new framework and research agenda for understanding the relationship between gender and science in schools. My study examines the gender dynamics of how unequal gender relations are negotiated, resisted and sustained in the context of a second grade science classroom. In examining the gender dynamics between the boys and the girls in a science classroom, I found that the boys positioned the girls as their assistants, as incompetent in science, as weak in contrast to the boys, and in need of the boys' help and protection. These discourses functioned to create and sustain unequal gender relations in the classroom. The girls responded in paradoxical ways to the boys' positioning of them. They resisted the boys by: (a) ignoring them; (b) using a domestic discourse to negotiate/gain more power; (c) appropriating teacher authority; or (d) using sexuality to embarrass and silence the boys. The girls also deferred to the boys as experts in science. In these ways, the girls themselves contributed to maintaining unequal gender relations in the classroom. I found that the classroom context is a site of struggle for both boys and girls as they seek to secure a place in the social hierarchy of the classroom. For the boys, masculinity is strong and powerful yet fragile and vulnerable. The girls struggle in holding multiple images of femininity. Examining gender dynamics through positioning and negotiation for

  17. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  18. Boys and Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Boys and Puberty KidsHealth / For Kids / Boys and Puberty What's in this article? Why Are Girls Taller ... as you grow up, especially as you reach puberty (say: PYOO-bur-tee), the name for the ...

  19. Boys in India challenge gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses CEDPA's Better Life Options Program in India. The program was initiated in 1987 to challenge gender inequities. The program offers over 400,000 girls a chance to develop skills and self-confidence for increasing their options in education, social mobility, work, health, and family and community roles. CEDPA's partner, Prerana, offers an integrated program that provides literacy training, vocational skills, after-school tutoring, health education, and family life education for about 600 girls/year. Vocational training includes nontraditional skills, such as video production and electronics. Prerana established a parallel program in 1994 for boys and young men that aims to change attitudes about girls and women and traditional gender roles. The program offers vocational skills, such as cooking and candle-making. Family life education teaches gender awareness and provides counseling and services for reproductive health. The Prerana program emphasizes men's shared responsibility in parenthood and sexual behavior, shared contribution to family income, health and nutrition, and prevention of violence against women. Since 1994, the program has included 1200 boys in 6 villages in New Delhi. Boys' enrollment is increasing; several young men have volunteered to become depot holders of contraceptive supplies in their villages. For example, one young man who was part of the Prerana program went on to be a depot holder and then a family planning promoter and counselor. He interacts with both young and older men. His contributions were well received by his village.

  20. Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya | Ndetei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools in particular and in Kenyan schools in general is not known. Knowledge of the extent of the problem is essential in developing effective interventions. Aim: To study the prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public ...

  1. The role of foreign and indigenous languages in primary schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the use of English and other African languages in Kenyan primary schools. English is a .... For a long time, the issue of the medium of instruction, in especially primary schools, has persisted in spite of .... mother tongue, they use this language for spoken classroom interaction in order to bring about.

  2. The Effect of Free Primary Education Policy on Late School Entry in Urban Primary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses W.; Oketch, Moses; Ezeh, Alex C.; Mutisya, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Late school entry is driven by several factors, one of the key ones being the cost barrier to schooling. Policies such as free primary education (FPE) that advocate for universal coverage are therefore partly aimed at removing the cost barrier. The Kenyan Government, like many in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), introduced FPE in 2003 with the aim of…

  3. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  4. Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ellen M H; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Kamathi, Eva Muthuuri; Owino, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet-based open-ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies vary widely. They include giving birth, adoption, running away, abortion, denial, and postponement until discovery. Young people were also queried about unplanned pregnancy resolution among their peers. Discourse analysis reveals competing social scripts on abortion. Florid condemnation of abortion acts in the hypothetical cases contrasts with more frank and sober description of peers' real life abortion behaviour. Students' language is compared with that found in official curricula. The rhetorical devices, moralizing social scripts and dubious health claims about abortion in students' online narratives mirror the tenor and content of their academic curricula as well as Kenyan media presentation of the issue. The need for factual information, dispassionate dialogue and improved contraceptive access is considerable.

  5. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-06-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.

  6. Sports injuries in adolescent boarding school boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, J H

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...

  7. Work–Family Balance Choices of Women Working in Kenyan Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Muasya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of women working in the formal sector in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased in recent years. The kinship networks are weakening, leading to a decline in the traditional forms of support for child care and housework. This study examined the work–family balance options of women working in Kenyan universities within the context of changing national domestic workers’ legislation. Data were collected by use of surveys in two universities. Results showed that as the cost of hiring domestic workers increased, women became indifferent in their choice between employing domestic workers and using daycare centers. Women with older children who employed day domestic workers were more likely to use daycare centers than women with younger children who employed live-in domestic workers. Women with young children in preschool and primary school found their universities less accommodating in helping them balance work and family demands. Employers perceived that the domestic workers’ legislation led to a drop in morale among domestic workers, and demands of pay raises as they became choosier and more inclined to search for better paying employers. It also resulted in a shift of work–family balance strategy for women who opted to hire domestic workers on an “as-needed” or “weekend basis.” Some women stopped hiring them altogether and instead started taking their young children to daycare centers. Cost and affordability determined the use of domestic workers. These women suggested that their employers should increase their job flexibility and put up subsidized daycare centers.

  8. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  9. Patterns of Language Preference Among Bilingual (Filipino-English) Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Heloise Marie L.; Morris, Robin D.

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of language preference in a simultaneous bilingual (Filipino-English) population was examined, including changes in the pattern of preference over time. Participants were 81 Filipino boys (Mean age=6 years, 2 months) recruited from two schools in the Philippines. A language preference checklist was completed by the parents of the…

  10. THE BULLYING PHENOMENON: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bullying phenomenon is characterized by aggression always unequal power and involves violence. This study aimed to identify the types of bullying (physical, verbal, psychological, material, virtual or sexual more prevalent in this population and compare bullying among adolescent males and females. We used a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Participants were 309 students, 142 males and 167 females, from 6th to 8th grade from two schools, one state and one municipal. These results show 27% of participants were involved in episodes of bullying and that the most prevalent type of bullying was verbal, being appointed for 92% of girls and 84% boys; followed by psychological, indicated by 70% of girls and 53% boys. Physical bullying, had 46% of female and 44% male reports, the material was mentioned by 27% of girls and 16% boys. On sexual bullying type was greatest difference between the sexes, suffered by 38% of girls and 16% boys. Only 13% of girls and 12% boys, mentioned suffer the virtual bullying. Corroborating research area, in this study the highest percentage of victims were female and different from the literature girls reported being verbally abused more for boys than for girls.

  11. The Invisible Boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Kevin Anthony; Jensen, Iben

    , the participants agreed that all students in their class are part of the community. Following the participants, a good class community is when ‘you do lots of things together’. However, as the interview progressed (after eight minutes), it became apparent that at least one student was isolated and stood outside...... the participant’s definition of ‘good community’. It seemed almost as if they had forgotten a particular student in the class, until a question refreshed their collective memory. Participants suddenly became aware that there is at least one student in their class who does not participate in any joint activities......, either in or outside school. The question about how a group of students can collectively forget that one student is isolated in the class must be raised. The aim of this thinking note is to explore the mechanisms around social stigma and attempt to shed more light on the issue surrounding the ‘invisible...

  12. What Kind of Boy Does Science? A Critical Perspective on the Science Trajectories of Four Scientifically Talented Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Webb, Angela W.; Archer, Louise; Taylor, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    The close association between science and masculinity has been widely discussed, yet few studies have focused on boys' negotiation with, and participation in, school science. This paper seeks to trouble monolithic notions of the link between science and masculinity, arguing that the "ideal science student" is a classed, racialized, and…

  13. Illuminating the "Boy Problem" from Children's and Teachers' Perspectives: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula Louise; Jones, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The apparent educational underperformance of boys has received phenomenal attention worldwide for many years. In the UK, it has led to various government reports and policies aimed at raising boys' achievement. This small-scale qualitative-interpretive pilot study, undertaken in one urban primary school in North Wales, reports the findings from…

  14. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  15. Boys' Literacy Development: Navigating the Intersection of Popular Culture, New Literacies, and High-Stakes Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Daniel; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prior scholarship suggests that many boys are disengaged from school-based literacy because they do not see its value or significance in their lives. In response, this study investigates the role of popular culture and new literacies in motivating adolescent boys within secondary English. Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy research,…

  16. Engaging Boys through Self-Reflection Using an Online Journaling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris; Deed, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here investigated whether Year 6 boys were engaged through the use of an online journaling tool. This journaling tool allowed the students to self reflect on their behaviour and affective reaction in an online environment. Case study methodology was used with twelve boys from a regional primary school in Victoria, during the one…

  17. The Relationship between the Perception of Own Locus of Control and Aggression of Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Lettie; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Aggression is increasingly seen in most parts of South African society. Aggressive behaviour of boys in secondary school often results from frustrations caused by perceived high expectations of others regarding the role, locus of control, and personality of boys. Locus of control plays an important role in a person's perception concerning a…

  18. More than Just a Punctuation Mark: How Boys and Young Men Learn about Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katherine R.; Kaestle, Christine E.; Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, peers, schools, and the media are the primary contexts for educating young people about sexuality. Yet girls receive more sex education than boys, particularly in terms of menstruation. Lack of attention to how and what boys learn about menstruation has consequences for their private understanding about the biology of reproduction and…

  19. Working-Class Boys, Educational Success and the Misrecognition of Working-Class Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the theory of institutional habitus by exploring the differing ways in which the institutional habitus of two schools in Belfast, Northern Ireland mediates the local habitus of working-class boys. All of the boys in this qualitative case study live in the same disadvantaged working-class community but attend two…

  20. A qualitative evaluation of hand drying practices among Kenyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Bobbie; Schilling, Katharine; Owuor, Mercy; Ogange, Lorraine; Quick, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one's mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans. We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand. Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza.

  1. A qualitative evaluation of hand drying practices among Kenyans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    Full Text Available Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one's mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans.We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand.Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza.

  2. Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.

    In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture

  3. The domestic turn : business processing outsourcing and the growing automation of Kenyan organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.E.; Graham, M.

    2015-01-01

    After observing the growth of the Indian and Filipino Business Processing Outsourcing sectors, Kenyan policy-makers and managers made substantial investments in international internet infrastructure and BPO marketing campaigns. While observers continue to discuss the sector in terms of its

  4. Polycentric Transformation in Kenyan Water Governance: A Dynamic Analysis of Institutional and Social‐Ecological Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCord, P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Baldwin, E.; Evans, T.

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2002, Kenyan water governance transitioned from a monocentric, top-down system to one exhibiting traits of polycentricity. In this paper, we investigate the changes made to water policy following the 2002 reform, outcomes produced in a collection of community- and catchment-level user

  5. Trauma in African women and children: a study of the Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma in African women and children: a study of the Kenyan experience as illustration of the phenomenon. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... This paper describes the effects of this type of globalization on Africans ...

  6. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural

  7. Writings of Lions: Narrative Inquiry of a Kenyan Couple Living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Miranda; Miller, Marianne McInnes

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we told the story of a Kenyan couple, B. and F., who has left Kenya and moved to Southern California. We followed a narrative inquiry framework, using Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) guidelines. We delineated core components of narrative inquiry research, as well as related the journey of B. and F., who have created dual lives in…

  8. The Experience of Patriarchy by Kenyan Women in the Pursuit of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machira, Mary Achieng

    2013-01-01

    Low enrollment of women in higher education is a problem in Africa, particularly in Kenya, where despite the government's introduction of affirmative action, female enrollment averages only 36.7% at public universities. This gender gap may be due to the patriarchal influence in Kenyan society, where the role of women is seen as child-bearing,…

  9. Physiological and molecular analysis of selected Kenyan maize lines for aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to maize production in many tropical and sub-tropical acid soil areas. The aim of this study was to survey the variation in Al tolerance in a panel of maize lines adapted for Kenya and look for novel sources of Al tolerance. 112 Kenyan maize accessio...

  10. The Status and Roles of Ghanaian and Kenyan Women: Implications for Fertility Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Adrienne; Smock, Audrey

    Kenya and Ghana provide interesting case studies of the theory that women who have access to roles other than mother and whose status does not depend largely or solely on the number of children they bear will have fewer children. Kenyan and Ghanaian women have among the highest desired and actual fertility in the world. They also, relatively…

  11. Christianity in Early Kenyan Novels: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's Weep Not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this, we read the two novels as attempts by the writer to project the trauma caused by and the tensions of Christianity among the colonized subjects as important influences in the formation and development of (post)colonial Kenyan subjects. Key Words: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Christianity, postcolonial, subjects.

  12. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research

  13. Sustainable growth of the Kenyan dairy sector : a quick scan of robustness, reliability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Corné J.; Omedo Bebe, Bockline; Lee, van der Jan; Kilelu, Catherine; Tonui, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of how the Kenyan dairy sector performs in three analytical domains: the robustness of the supply chains, the reliability of institutional governance and the resilience of the innovation system. Analysis is by literature review, stakeholder interviews and a

  14. Analysis of Influence of Sponsorship Career Function of Mentorship on Women's Leadership Advancement in Kenyan Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severina, Wambeti Njagi; Edabu, Paul; Kimani, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Women working in Kenyan universities should be provided with the many benefits of sponsorship, a mentorship function. Mentors should for example give their mentees challenging assignments which prepare them for top leadership positions. But it is possible that women may not be getting this support from their mentors. Therefore, the researcher did…

  15. Translingualism, Kenyan Hip-Hop and Emergent Ethnicities: Implications for Language Theory and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milu, Esther

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings of three prominent Kenyan hip-hop artists, Jua Cali, Abbas Kubaff, and Nazizi Hirji, as they theorize and construct emergent ethnicities vis-à-vis their translingual practices. Using in-depth phenomenological interviews, observations of their everyday language use, and analysis of their language choices…

  16. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  17. Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Erin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program.

  18. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  19. Classroom interaction and language learning among boys in coed and single-sex contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alfaro, Roberto Enrique

    2012-01-01

    This paper will address the differences and similarities in EFL interactive patterns of boys' learning in gender specific learning environments. The presentation will explore the findings of observational research conducted in coeducational and single-sex classrooms in two secondary schools in Costa Rica, namely Yorkin and New Hope schools. Data collection included class observation, interviews, surveys, questionnaires, photo ethnography and artifacts. The results revealed that boys in both c...

  20. A boy with bilateral SUNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuković Cvetković, Vlasta; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-01-01

    secondary causes should be searched for vigorously if there are bilateral symptoms. Despite a number of therapeutic trials, effective management for the majority of SUNA patients is not available at present. Management of SUNA is often difficult. Case We report the case of a young boy with bilateral SUNA...

  1. The Science of Little Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Jennifer; Gray, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Near the end of World War II, the United States dropped the first nuclear bomb ever used in warfare. The bomb was code named "Little Boy." The fission-type nuclear bomb exploded with the energy equivalent of approximately 13 kilotons of TNT. This article describes a 16 day model-based inquiry (MBI) unit on nuclear chemistry that…

  2. Why I Teach "Black Boy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahle, Benjamin

    1983-01-01

    Argues that Richard Wright's "Black Boy" is appropriate for ninth-grade students because it combines an exciting story of survival with effective prose, forces readers to try to understand their own experiences in the light of the protagonist's, and intimately involves students in such universal concerns as suffering, violence, and…

  3. Choosing to Compete: How Different are Girls and Boys?

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L. Booth; Patrick Nolen

    2009-01-01

    Using a controlled experiment, we examine the role of nurture in explaining the stylized fact that women shy away from competition. Our subjects (students just under 15 years of age) attend publicly-funded single-sex and coeducational schools. We find robust differences between the competitive choices of girls from single-sex and coed schools. Moreover, girls from single-sex schools behave more like boys even when randomly assigned to mixed-sex experimental groups. Thus it is untrue that the ...

  4. Grammar in Boys With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder and Boys With Fragile X Syndrome Plus Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra

    2018-04-17

    Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples. Convergent validity of a sentence imitation task with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar was examined in addition to divergent validity of the measures with nonverbal IQ and vocabulary comprehension and production. The boys with ASD outperformed the boys with FXS+ASD on the norm-referenced assessment of "be," and effect sizes indicate that the boys with ASD had better performance on past tense probes on the sentence imitation task and "do" on the norm-referenced assessment. The two measures of grammar had good convergent validity except for copula and auxiliary "be" and "do." Grammatical performance was not correlated with nonverbal IQ, and trends indicate a relationship between vocabulary and grammar. Despite being similar on mean length of utterance, there were group differences on grammatical performance. The sentence imitation task had good convergent validity with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar for the third-person singular and past tense probes and therefore could be an inexpensive and valid tool to use clinically for these populations. Future research should continue to refine this task, particularly for the probes with high rates of unscorable responses (i.e., "be" and "do").

  5. School Guidance and Counseling in Kenya: Historical Development, Current Status, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambu, Grace W.; Fisher, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the government's emphasis on guidance and counseling program implementation in Kenyan schools and a rapid increase in the number of trained school counselors, lack of standardized training curriculums, ethical standards, counseling models, and role ambiguity persist. This article reviews the historical development of guidance and…

  6. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  7. "We Don't Need No Education": Video Game Preferences, Video Game Motivations, and Aggressiveness among Adolescent Boys of Different Educational Ability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N =…

  8. Family and personal characteristics of aggressive Nigerian boys: differences from and similarities with Western findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, C C; Grantham-McGregor, S

    1998-11-01

    To identify the family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigerian elementary school boys and to compare the findings with previous ones from Western studies. Forty-seven aggressive boys from four elementary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were compared with 47 matched pro-social boys. Teacher rating and peer nomination were combined to select subjects. The subjects and their parents were given structured questionnaires to obtain information on possible risk factors for aggression. Compared with pro-social boys, it was found that significantly more aggressive boys came from polygamous families and crowded homes, had more siblings, received less parental affection, were more physically punished, less supervised at home, witnessed more domestic conflicts, did poorly at school, had poorer verbal intelligence and attributed malice more readily than pro-social boys. Logistic regression indicated that the independent family predictors of aggression were crowding, little paternal affection, and corporal punishment. The independent child predictors were biased attribution and poor school achievement. Corporal punishment at school was also an independent predictor of aggression. The family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigeria are similar to those found in Western studies except for the small contribution of family instability and overwhelming influence of corporal punishment in our sample. Models of intervention developed in the West may therefore be cautiously applied to Nigerian children.

  9. Philosophy of education and the Africanization of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of restructuring and Africanizing secondary school curriculum to accommodate the attributes of Kenyan philosophy of education together with African philosophical thinking is inevitable not only in Kenya, but also in the entire continent of Africa. Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MoEST, 2004: 21) ...

  10. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  11. Participation in leisure activities among boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a neural developmental disorder expressed in various life settings. Yet, previous studies have focused mainly on children's function in school and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to examine participation patterns in outside formal school activities among boys with ADHD compared to typical boys. Participants included 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. All participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Several aspects of participation were examined: diversity, intensity, enjoyment, place, and partners in 49 extra curricular activities. The findings indicate that boys with ADHD reported significant lower intensity rates of participation in most activity domains. Furthermore, boys with ADHD also reported higher diversity scores and lower enjoyment in 'formal' activities. Yet, no significant differences were found with regard to activity place and partners. These findings enhance the importance of providing therapy that refers to after school activities. Accordingly, CAPE can be useful for assessing boys with ADHD and planning appropriate intervention programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Harambee narratives: A rhetorical framing of the Kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses discourse on trade unionism contained in the coverage of Labour Day (May 1 celebrationsinone leading Kenyan daily national newspaper, The East African Standard, from 1966 to 2013. I assess slightly over fortyarticles qualitativelyusing rhetorical criticism. This is done by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. I chose rhetoricalcriticism of a news media corpusin order to explore how diverse power relations have been transformed into mechanisms that keep the Kenyan labour movement tolerable to the government of the day. The research identifies themes surfaced by and in the news coverage. The paper shows how diverse power relations are colonized and articulated into more general mechanisms that keeps the industrial population governable with minimal disruptions.

  13. Negative Impact of Troublesome Peer Interactions and Authoritarian Parenting Style on Academic Performance of a 15 year Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Samruddhi Karnik; Neha Sahasrabudhe

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by ...

  14. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communities in Kenya where cotton, tobacco, flowers and other horticultural crops are grown, with a view to developing strategies for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. 666 agric...

  15. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Olive, Lisa S; Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA) among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies. Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls) from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run), percent fat (DEXA), eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test) and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire) were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire) were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates. Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, pgirls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4%) but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, pphysical education (7.7 vs 8.4, pboys but not girls. Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting the gap in PA between boys and girls can be reduced. Strategies aiming to increase PA should be multicomponent and take into consideration that pathways to increasing PA are likely to differ among boys and girls.

  16. A Student-Led Global Health Education Initiative: Reflections on the Kenyan Village Medical Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Christopher; Asquith, Heidi; Wren, Tom; Mercuri, Stephanie; Brownlow, Sian

    2016-01-01

    The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-established strategies for the prevention of disease through workshops that are conducted in southern rural Kenya. These workshops are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of rural Kenyan communities, and are delivered to community leaders, as well as to adults and children within the wider community. Aside from the KVME Program’s emphasis on reducing the burden of preventable disease through health education, the positive impact of the KVME Program on the Program’s student volunteers also deserves consideration. Throughout the month-long KVME Program, student volunteers are presented with opportunities to develop their understanding of cultural competency, the social and economic determinants of health, as well as the unique challenges associated with working in resource-poor communities. Importantly, the KVME Program also represents an avenue through which global health leadership can be fostered amongst student volunteers. PMID:27190974

  17. A Second Chance to Dream: Initiating ODeL in Secondary School Re-Entry Programs for Young Adult Secondary School Dropouts the Case of Mumias District, Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musita, Richard; Ogange, Betty O.; Lugendo, Dorine

    2018-01-01

    The Kenyan education system has very limited re-entry options for learners who drop out before attaining secondary school certificate. It is very difficult to access training and or secure a job that requires at least secondary school education. This study examined the prospects of initiating Open and Distance e-Learning(ODeL) in re-entry…

  18. Young Boys Playing Digital Games. From Console to the Playground.

    OpenAIRE

    Pål Aarsand

    2010-01-01

    This article studies how digital games are part of the everyday lives of Swedish 6 to 7-year-old boys. The data consist of video recordings from two schools, two after-school centres and four homes. The focus is on how children engage in, organize and use digital games in face-to-face interaction. It is argued that digital game competence matters not only in front of the screen, but also in the playground. In addition, it is argued that what counts as game competence is negotiated in the peer...

  19. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  20. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  1. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  2. Parents' Views on Mixed and Single-Sex Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Hunter, Jay

    1993-01-01

    Reports on two studies of British parental attitudes toward coeducational and single-sex secondary schools. Finds few differences between the parents of primary school girls and boys who will attend secondary schools in the future. Also finds a large majority of boys' parents believe that social advantages accrue for boys educated with girls. (CFR)

  3. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  4. Capital, Agency, Family and the Diaspora: An Exploration of Boys' Aspirations towards Higher Education in Urban Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses factors impacting on boys' educational aspirations at two case-study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on boys' experience of their educational environment in relation to social, cultural and economic factors, which shapes the nature of their aspirations towards higher education. The study utilised Bourdieu's notion of…

  5. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  6. Exploring the Causes of Underachievement of African American Boys: A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rosetta

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative descriptive case study explores the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American boys in New York City public elementary schools. Numerous studies have been conducted at the middle school through college levels. However, very little is known about the underachievement phenomenon of fourth-grade African American…

  7. Moving Away from "Failing Boys" and "Passive Girls": Gender Meta-Narratives in Gender Equity Policies for Australian Schools and Why Micro-Narratives Provide a Better Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Denis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the move towards devolved modes of educational governance provides significant opportunities for feminist and pro-feminist constructionist research to impact on the types of "gender work" used by schools. Research-based understandings of gender in schools have been on the defensive in Australia and elsewhere…

  8. Principal leadership and its impact on student discipline in Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that principals frequently or sometimes involve other stakeholders, particularly teachers, students and to some extent parents, in the management of their schools They communicate clearly to students but frequently retain the final authority over most issues. The study found the existence of a significant ...

  9. kenyan indigenous languages in education: a world of potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these well documented findings on the benefits of using the learner's mother tongue as a language of instruction, the debate on the language of instruction has persisted not just in Kenya but in several African countries. In Kenya, English is used as a medium of instruction right from nursery school, or in some ...

  10. The Writing Skill in the Contemporary Society: The Kenyan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okari, Florence Mokeira

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the writing skill in the lower levels of learning in the contemporary society. The following areas of writing are highlighted: the writing programme and its goals, the basic methodology for writing tasks, broad groups of writing skills, the teaching of the writing skills in pre-primary and primary schools where…

  11. Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking

  12. The challenges of student affairs at Kenyan public universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and constituent colleges since 1994 and its adoption of policies encouraging rapid ..... at these institutions discussed withdrawing from school because they could not afford .... It is clear from our data that Kenya's ruling political party directly appoints ..... Kenya: Implications for access, equity and knowledge production.

  13. Physical fitness differences between prepubescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze in which physical capabilities boys and girls are closer or distant. An additional objective was to find which of the body fat, physical activity, and somatotype factors have a greater effect on prepubescent children's physical fitness. This was a cross-sectional study involving 312 children (10.8 ± 0.4 years). The physical fitness assessment employed sets of aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance. The boys presented higher values in all selected tests, except tests of balance and flexibility, in which girls scored better. Gender differences in the physical fitness were greatest in the explosive strength of upper (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.09) and lower limbs (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.08), although with a medium-size effect of gender, and smaller in the abdominal (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.007) and upper limbs (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.003) muscular endurance, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.001). The endomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the girls, and the ectomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.31) and mesomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the boys, had the high-sized effect on the physical fitness. The physical activity in the girls, and the endomorphic and body fat in the boys, did not have a significant effect. These findings can help in the planning of activities that take into account the success and motivation of both boys and girls and thus increase levels of physical activity and physical fitness at school. However, in prepubescent children, one cannot neglect the influence of genetic determinism, observed from the morphoconstitutional point of view.

  14. Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Boys' and girls' involvement in science learning and their self-efficacy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the significant differences in students' self-efficacy and their involvement in learning science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary school fifth graders, 499 junior high school eighth graders, and 1455 senior or vocational high school eleventh graders completed the students' questionnaire. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests compared the significant similarities and differences across school levels and genders. The initial findings were as follows: A sharp decline in boys' and girls' self-efficacy scores from elementary to secondary school levels; boys have significantly higher self-efficacy scores than girls at vocational and senior high school levels; students with more involvement in science learning presented significantly higher self-efficacy scores than those with less involvement. The significant discrepancies in terms of gender and age in students' self-efficacy and involvement in learning science need to be addressed. Implications and limitations are provided.

  16. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... another problem "down there"? Let's start with some definitions. You might have grown up calling it something ...

  17. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  18. Body Talk for Parents of Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses education about menstruation and girls' and boys' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's son. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  19. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amélie; Pihl, Robert O; Young, Simon N; Parent, Sophie; Bélanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Sutton, Rachel; Dubois, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure. Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years) with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered. Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter. The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  20. The relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Louw

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Effective leadership is critical to the survival and growth of organisations. For such leadership to be realised, organisational leaders need to be competent in transformational leadership, which is described as a situation in which the leader and followers empower and shape each other’s behaviour to attain a desired goal. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically test the relationship between transformational leadership competency and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks. Motivation for this study: In spite of the fact that indigenous banks have been performing better recently, their overall poor performance is cause for concern. This study was motivated by a desire to establish the extent to which the recent improvement is attributable to transformational leadership competency and effectiveness. It is also anticipated that this investigation can highlight aspects of leadership which require more attention in order to sustain improved performance. Research design, approach and method: The study utilised a survey method to collect both quantitative and qualitative data while probability and non-probability techniques were used to sample target population. With 494 respondents targeted in the study, 257 responses were received and analysed. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modelling with Cronbach’s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis and goodness-of-fit indices for analysis and for testing relationships. Main findings: The overall findings confirm that a strong relationship exists between transformational leadership competencies and leadership effectiveness among the leaders of the indigenous banks in Kenya. Practical/managerial implication: Based on the findings of this study, Kenyan indigenous banks are able to identify specific and essential transformational leadership competencies and leadership effectiveness attributes. Contribution: The study has identified that

  1. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  2. Anti-bacterial efficacy of alcoholic hand rubs in the Kenyan market, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missiani Ochwoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene is known to be effective in preventing hospital and community-acquired infections. The increasing number of hand sanitizer brands in Kenyan hospitals and consumer outlets is of concern. Thus the main aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial efficacy and organoleptic properties of these hand sanitizers in Kenya. Methods This was an experimental, laboratory-based study of 14 different brands of hand sanitizers (coded HS1-14 available in various retail outlets and hospitals in Kenya. Efficacy was evaluated using standard non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 as per the European Standard (EN. The logarithmic reduction factors (RF were assessed at baseline and after treatment, and log reduction then calculated. Ten and 25 healthy volunteers participated in the efficacy and organoleptic studies respectively. Results Four (28.6% hand sanitizers (HS12, HS9, HS13 and HS14 showed a 5.9 reduction factor on all the three bacteria strains. Seven (50% hand sanitizers had efficacies of <3 against all the three bacteria strains used. Efficacy on E. Coli was higher compared to the other pathogens. Three hand sanitizers were efficacious on one of the pathogens and not the other. In terms of organoleptic properties, gel-based formulations were rated far higher than the liquid based formulations brands. Conclusion Fifty percent (50% of the selected hand sanitizers in the Kenyan market have efficacy that falls below the World Health Organization (WHO and DIN EN 1500:2013. Of the 14 hand sanitizers found in the Kenyan market, only four showed efficacies that were comparable to the WHO-formulation. There is a need to evaluate how many of these products with <3 efficacy that have been incorporated into the health system for hand hygiene and the country’s policy on regulations on their usage.

  3. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  4. Developing a Peace and Conflict Resolution Curriculum for Quaker Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    In 2008-2009, a team of educators from George Fox University, in collaboration with a committee of teachers and administrators from selected Quaker secondary schools in western Kenya, developed the first draft of a peace and conflict resolution curriculum for Kenyan form one (ninth grade) students. This case study offers a model for developing a…

  5. Impact of Free Primary Education in Kenya: A Case Study of Private Schools in Kibera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Stanfield, James

    2008-01-01

    Free primary education (FPE) is widely assumed to be required to ensure that the poor gain enrolment. After the introduction of FPE (from January 2003) in Kenyan schools, huge increases in enrolment were officially reported. However, our research, conducted 10 months after the introduction of FPE in and around the informal settlement of Kibera,…

  6. The impact of playworks on boys' and girls' physical activity during recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-03-01

    School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity-especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys. Twenty-nine schools were randomly assigned to receive Playworks for 1 school year or serve as a control group. Postintervention physical activity data were collected via accelerometers and recess observations. Impacts were estimated separately for girls and boys using regression models. Girls in Playworks schools had significantly higher accelerometer intensity counts and spent more time in vigorous physical activity than girls in control schools. No significant differences based on accelerometer data were found for boys. A significant impact was also found on the types of activities in which girls engaged during recess; girls in the treatment group were less likely than those in the control group to be sedentary and more likely to engage in jumping, tag, and playground games. The current findings suggest that Playworks had a significant impact on some measures of girls' physical activity, but no significant impact on measures of boys' physical activity. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  7. A Study of EDI, Processes, Operations and How Employees are Motivated at a Kenyan Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Waheed Sultanali Muradali

    2009-01-01

    According to Brabston, L. and Porter, (2004) Information system (IS) and business strategy are essential facets in any organization particularly a bank, we are interested in this sector because it is a major component in Kenya‟s growing economy and so far hardly any research has been done on the efficiency of a Kenyan banks. This dissertation concentrates on a small service enterprise and how IS/IT as well as work motivation strategy can influence the business strategy; we also study how the ...

  8. The effects of energy taxes on the Kenyan economy: a CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semboja, H.H.H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper utilizes a computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the impact of the second oil price shock and consequent energy tax policies on the Kenyan economy. Simulations show that dramatic change in energy prices and consequent changes in domestic energy consumption generate sequential feedbacks in the production process and affect economic structures. Terms of trade deteriorate; the balance of payments deficit increases and national income falls. Energy import tariffs and a sales tax are effective policy instruments in controlling energy consumption and increasing government revenue. Both energy policies have net negative effects on other economics activities similar to those observed under the oil price shock. (author)

  9. Biomechanical factors associated with running economy and performance of elite Kenyan distance runners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Nassib; Louw, Quinette

    2018-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance. This systematic review was aimed at establishing up-to date quantitative synthesis of evidence on biomechanical factors associated with running economy and performance of elite Kenyan distance runners and to provide an algorithm for future research and coaching strategies. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted through June 2017. Quality appraisal was independently done by both reviewers using the STROBE checklist. Descriptive summaries and tables were used to illustrate biomechanical outcomes, mean differences and confidence intervals. Evidence from reviewed studies was graded according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) hierarchy for aetiological factors and meta-analysis was performed where applicable. Eight cross-sectional studies were included. The overall methodological score was moderate (58%). Elite Kenyan distance runners have significant longer gastroc-Achilles tendons compared to their counterparts while their shank length is not significantly longer. There is no certainty of evidence regarding the association between their characteristic unique profile of tall and slender bodies, low BMI and low body mass, short ground contact and flight times, greater forward lean torso and faster and greater forward leg swing with RE and performance. Our findings presents evidence on biomechanical factors associated with RE and performance of elite Kenyan distance runners. Despite these findings, there are a number of

  10. Multiple transitions and HIV risk among orphaned Kenyan schoolgirls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2011-03-01

    Why are orphaned girls at particular risk of acquiring HIV infection? Using a transition-to-adulthood framework, this study employs qualitative data from Nyanza Province, Kenya, to explore pathways to HIV risk among orphaned and nonorphaned high-school girls. It shows how simultaneous processes such as leaving their parental home, negotiating financial access, and relationship transitions interact to produce disproportionate risk for orphaned girls. The role of financial provision and parental love in modifying girls' trajectories to risk are also explored. A testable theoretical model is proposed based on the qualitative findings, and policy implications are suggested.

  11. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  12. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  13. [A historical perspective on the health of boys and male adolescents (1780-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the discourse on health, boys are emerging as a problem group. In contrast to girls who tended to be seen as fragile if not sickly, boys used to be thought of as strong and healthy. Gender-specific concepts stipulated much more exercise for boys, the masturbation discourse prevented a relaxed relationship to the own body. The paper first describes specific problems in the biography (babies, child labour, tuberculosis, school, fitness for military service) and their solutions up to the time of the Weimar Republic. During and after the two world wars school boys tended to be of poorer health than girls. The consequences of war affect the mental health of (half-) orphans gender-non-specifically up to the third generation. After 1945, attention to health concerns is rather restricted to the professional aptitude of mining trainees, health-related risk behaviour tends to be interpreted in terms of gender. Mothers sought medical advice slightly more frequently on behalf of boys up to puberty. Concerning the time between 1780 and 2010 inferior health is often noticeable in boys and male adolescents. This used to, and still does, apply to babies, child labour, industrial work and occupational accidents, conscription and direct consequences of war. It was mostly due to gender-specific separation of labour, but partly also to a higher risk preference. The gender-specific wider scope for exercise and sports up to the 1960s, in contrast, had a health-promoting effect.

  14. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Loneliness and Social Support in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Nielsen, Annette; Eriksen, Mette Elmose

    2010-01-01

    Loneliness and perceived social support were examined in 39 adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by means of a self-labeling loneliness measure, the UCLA Loneliness Scale (third version), and the Social Support Scale for Children. Twenty-one percent of the boys with ASD described...... themselves as often or always feeling lonely. Compared with 199 boys from regular schools in a national probability study, ASD was strongly associated with often or always feeling lonely (OR: 7.08, p social support...... from classmates, parents, and a close friend correlated negatively with loneliness in ASD. The study, therefore, indicates a high occurrence of loneliness among adolescent boys with ASD and points at perceived social support as an important protective factor....

  16. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed.

  17. Nurturing Environments for Boys and Men of Color with Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Yaros, Anna; Lowe, Ashley; McDaniel, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Boys and men of color are exposed to traumatic experiences at significantly higher rates than are other demographic groups. To understand and address the mental and behavioral health effects of trauma, including violent incidents, on this population, we review the literature showing the context for, outcomes of, and potential responses to trauma exposure. We present the existing research about the unique challenges and associated negative outcomes for boys and men of color, as well as identify the gaps in the literature. We present the potential nurturing responses by systems such as schools, law enforcement, and communities to trauma-exposed boys and men of color, and we describe evidence-based programs and practices that directly address trauma. Finally, we argue that, rather than using a deficit model, a model of optimal development can be used to understand how to support and protect boys and men of color through nurturing environments.

  18. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  19. Can insects increase food security in developing countries? An analysis of Kenyan consumer preferences and demand for cricket flour buns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    demand as this would determine the success of product development. In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of consumer demand for an insect-based food. We assessed the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts...

  20. MYD88 and functionally related genes are associated with multiple infections in a model population of Kenyan village dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Necesankova, M.; Vychodilova, L.; Albrechtová, K.; Kennedy, L. J.; Hlaváč, J.; Sedlák, K.; Modrý, David; Jánová, E.; Vyskočil, M.; Horin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 12 (2016), s. 1451-1463 ISSN 0301-4851 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Kenyan village dogs * immunity-related genes * associations * infectious diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2016

  1. Emergence of inter-identity alliances in struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mwathi Mati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution brought into alliances disparate movements from below, sections of middleclass, and factions of political, economic and religious elites, in challenging the government. The emergence of these alliances presents useful cases for examining the dynamic relationship and politics between these movements, and also for probing social movement theory. Specifically, given the centrality of identity consciousness in movements, how were intrinsic class, religious, gender, generational and ethnic identity interests, contestations and cleavages overcome to enable inter-identity alliances in these struggles? More critically, how relevant are the dominant social movement theories in explaining this phenomenon? Is theoretical straightjacketing useful for analysing movements with such diversity? Drawing from in-depth interviews and existing literature on Kenyan constitutional reform struggles, this paper illustrates how alliances between the different identities and movements were forged to allow for a common struggle. The paper further illustrates that while political opportunity structures explain certain aspects of this phenomenon, framing, civic education and community organising strategies were critical enablers for collective identity formation

  2. Information Sharing, Cooperative Behaviour and Hotel Performance: A Survey of the Kenyan Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Odari Namusonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing is the life blood of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving operational performance of supply chains has been widely acclaimed. However whether information sharing would result in improved performance in the context of the hospitality industry has not been empirically determined. This study sought to find out the role of information sharing on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\\supply chain departments of these hotels. Logarithmic transformations were used in conjunction with multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between information sharing, cooperative behaviour and hotel performance. The study concludes that information sharing in the Kenyan hospitality industry does not directly relate to hotel performance. Its relationship is mediated by cooperative behaviour (trust and attitude with supply chain partners. This suggests that information sharing is essential but insufficient by itself to bring significant performance improvements in hotels in the Kenyan hospitality industry. A possible reason for this is that this collaborative practice is highly dependent on information sharing capability, structure of the information as well as culture. Through quadrant analysis the study identifies and recommends the sharing of information about long term strategic plans and events such as entering new markets and acquiring a new customer base as an area of primary priority for improvement.

  3. A case for the revision of power engineering syllabi at Kenyan universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abungu, N.; Akumu, A. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Munda, J. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Power Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A summary of electrical power engineering education in Kenyan universities was presented. Industry expectations for power systems graduates were discussed. Despite rapid changes in electrical power industries around the world, electrical power engineering in Kenya has remained the same for several years. Curriculum changes were last initiated in the 1980s. Universities have not promoted power engineering and its importance to society, and misunderstandings have led to a lack of employment opportunities for graduates and low enrolment levels. Recent advances in artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic within power systems engineering are not currently taught at Kenyan universities. The deregulation of the power industry calls for a re-assessment of how power engineering is taught. Accidents related to poor engineering designs are relatively common in Kenya and have led to the loss of lives. Severe capacity shortfalls experienced in the country have led to a renewed interest in alternative sources of electricity generation. Environmental studies will help students appreciate the importance of using energy sources that do not degrade the environment. It was concluded that the introduction of new approaches to power engineering will result in increased interest from students. The establishment of industry-university collaborations was recommended, as well as active links with international universities. 12 refs.

  4. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  5. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan M Telford

    Full Text Available A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies.Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run, percent fat (DEXA, eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates.Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, p<0.001, 95%CI [1844, 2626]. Lower PA among girls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4% but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, p<0.001, CI [0.5,0.9], 44% lower eye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, p<0.001, CI [5.1,9.0], higher percent body fat (28% vs 23%, p<0.001, CI [3.5,5.7] and 9% lower perceived competence in physical education (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.001, CI [0.2,0.9]. Participation in extracurricular sport at either age 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls.Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting

  6. [Boys' health survey-between gender gap and information backlog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundl, S; Kranz, J; Rosellen, J; Steffens, C; Steffens, J

    2018-05-02

    Early detection examinations take place from birth to the age of 6 years. The youth screening is a continuation of the screening of the "U-series" and should be carried out between the age of 12-15 and 16-17, respectively. Afterwards adolescent girls have good contact with a gynecologist, but adolescent boys usually do not have a medical contact person who they can trust in. To evaluate the state of knowledge on boys' health, a 15-item comprehensive knowledge survey was conducted among ninth grade students at 7 secondary schools (Gymnasien) in North Rhine-Westphalia. The knowledge survey took place at three specified times (before, immediately after and approximately 3 months after adolescent sexual education classes). Only completed questionnaires were analyzed and evaluated in a gender-specific manner. Overall, 459 students participated from March-September 2017. Before sexual education instruction, about half of all questions were answered correctly by the students. Immediately after class, the proportion increased by a factor of 1.5 to a total of 79.24%. Then 2-3 months after the class, the percentage was 69.67%. Considering gender separately, this resulted in an increase of 15.32% for the female students and 16.99% for the male students. The knowledge survey reveals a need to catch up on facts on the subject of boys' health. Despite evidence of an increase in knowledge of both sexes after sexual education instruction, there is a gender gap. Hence, a preventive check-up especially for boys should be established and offered. Issues such as the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, options for vaccination against human papillomavirus, etc. should be actively addressed.

  7. Minimizing embarrassment: boys' experiences of pubertal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaming, D; Morse, J M

    1991-01-01

    As very little is known about boys' subjective and emotional experiences when going through puberty, the qualitative research method of grounded theory was used in this study to address the question: "What is the experience of the physical maturational changes in male adolescents?" A Basic Social Psychological Process emerged, Minimizing Embarrassment, with four stages: waiting for the change, noticing the change, dealing with the change, and feeling comfortable with the change. Boys developed expectations from listening to others, by looking at older males, and by wondering and imagining what the changes would eventually be like for them. After developing these expectations, they compared their physical changes to others and to their own expectations. If the boys felt they were different from their peers, they worried about this difference. They used strategies such as avoiding, pretending, and joking to avoid embarrassment or to deal with embarrassing situations. If the boys felt they were "normal," they accepted the fact that they were maturing properly.

  8. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered.Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter.The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  9. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures

  10. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error

  11. Problem Based Learning Technique and Its Effect on Acquisition of Linear Programming Skills by Secondary School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhanu, Shikuku Beatrice; Musasia, Amadalo Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The topic Linear Programming is included in the compulsory Kenyan secondary school mathematics curriculum at form four. The topic provides skills for determining best outcomes in a given mathematical model involving some linear relationship. This technique has found application in business, economics as well as various engineering fields. Yet many…

  12. Teaching Conflict Management Skills in Schools: Prerequisite for Peace and Achievement of Millennium Development Goals in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawo, Jane Irene A.; Wagah, Mical Ongachi

    2011-01-01

    The Kenyan society is experiencing a lot of conflicts, some with devastating effects such as deaths, starvation, disease and destruction. These normally arise out of difference between people. Secondary schools being part of the society have not been left out of this challenge as evidenced by mass media reports on strikes, demonstrations and…

  13. Financing Information Communication Technology Projects in Secondary Schools E-Learning: A Case of Mombasa County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangila, Violet Muyoka

    2015-01-01

    Information communication and technology (ICTs) has become common place entities in all aspects of life. Within the education sector, ICT has begun to have a special attention although not extensively as in other fields both globally and locally. Limited funds still presents a challenge in rolling out the e-school projects in Kenyan secondary…

  14. Status of Kenyan Coral Reef lagoons. Project Report to Kenya Wildlife Services, Kenya Karine and Fisheries Researoh Institute & Kenya"s Fisheries Department.

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, T.; Muthiga, N.; Obura, D.; Mutere, J.; Mwachireya, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the findings of Wildlife Conservation International's Coral Reef Conservation Project monitoring program of Kenyan coral reefs and suggest research and management plans for the coral reefs based on the findings.

  15. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  16. My Bluford High Boys: How a Book Club for Reluctant Readers Proved the Naysayers Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sara

    2009-01-01

    As a middle school librarian in Austin, Texas, the author has been running weekly book clubs for years, which covered many genres that appeal to a wide cross section of kids. When approached by a group of Latino boys from low-income families, the author was inspired to run a Bluford High book club for reluctant readers. The author shares how she…

  17. Peer Popularity and Peer Communication Patterns: Hyperactive versus Active but Normal Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    Classroom peer perceptions of 18 teacher-nominated hyperactive and 18 teacher-nominated active but normal elementary school-age boys were compared. Results indicated that hyperactives were significantly different from actives on all sociometric measures in that they were perceived more negatively. (Author/SB)

  18. Girls and Boys Gambling with Health and Well-Being in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tiina; Lintonen, Tomi; Joronen, Katja; Konu, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the associations among gambling frequency, health status, health risk behavior, and sexual risk-taking among eighth and ninth grade boys and girls (N?=?101,167). Methods: Data were obtained from the nationwide School Health Promotion Study conducted in Finland 2010 and 2011. Outcome measures were…

  19. "Dicks are for Chicks": Latino Boys, Masculinity, and the Abjection of Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Employing social constructivist theories and the concept of abjection from gender studies, this article examines how and why a group of low-income, USA-born Dominican and Puerto Rican middle-school boys constructed masculine identities by invoking and repudiating homosexuality. Ethnographic data from a 2.5-year study indicate that the abjection of…

  20. Examining Communicative Behaviors in a 3-Year-Old Boy Who Is Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The communication patterns of a 3-year-old boy who is blind were observed during 35 videotaped classroom sessions to determine if his echolalic responses varied according to school activity and message category. Analysis revealed that, although the child was expressive with adults, he had difficulty communicating with his peers and in producing…

  1. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  2. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Views of Fatherhood in the Context of the Changing Women's Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Despina; Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring how Greek adolescents understand the notion of fatherhood. One hundred and ten pupils (64 boys and 46 girls), who attended four high schools of the area of Thessaloniki, Greece, participated in the study; they were aged from 14- to 16-years. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were selected…

  3. The Impact of Playworks on Boys' and Girls' Physical Activity during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity--especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys.…

  4. Learning That "Gay Is Okay": Educators and Boys Re/Constituting Heteronormativity through Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on observations from sexual health workshops in an elementary school classroom in Vancouver, Canada and friendship pair interviews with four boys who attended the workshops. I examine how the educators organising the workshops constructed sexual health, highlighting their reliance on both a "gay is okay" and a…

  5. Problem Solving Strategies of Girls and Boys in Single-Sex Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Megan; Wiegert, Elaine; Threlkeld, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns in middle-grade boys' and girls' written problem solving strategies for a mathematical task involving proportional reasoning. The students participating in this study attend a coeducational charter middle school with single-sex classrooms. One hundred nineteen sixth-grade students' responses are analyzed by gender…

  6. Do boys and girls achieve different results?" Changes in physical activity and adiposity: acorda project

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Luísa; Silva, Gustavo; Lagoa, Maria João; Martins, Clarice; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Mota, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    School-based interventions show inconsistent results in reducing obesity-related problems. Most of intervention studies are targeting girls because they have shown lower rates of physical activity and higher prevalence of obesity. ! The aim of this study was to compare the changes observed in BMI, percentage of Body Fat, percentage of Trunk Fat and Moderate to Vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels between boys and girls engaged in a school-based intervention program.Significant im...

  7. History Teaching in Kenyan Secondary School, for Peace, Reconciliation and National Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang'ach, John Koskey

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of teaching history and government are: First, to demonstrate an understanding of how people and events of the past has influenced the ways in which people live and behave; Second, to appreciate the need for an importance of mutual responsibility; and Third, to develop a sense of patriotism and national pride. The paper seeks…

  8. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENTS SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN KENYAN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Muema Kalungu; Ruth W. Thinguri

    2017-01-01

    Modern technology has hit the world with a bug and Kenya has not been spared. Modern technology devices and applications use has gone up tremendously in last ten years with the adoption by both the young and the old growing day by day. People have incorporated technology in the way they communicate, entertain, learn and even how they socially relate with one another. Such a massive technology has brought with it challenges and opportunities. This study was aimed at critically analyzing impact...

  9. The Teaching of English Idioms in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Difficulties and Effective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathigia, Moses Gatambuki; Njoroge, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of idiomatic expressions is one of the primary challenges to learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) in multilingual contexts such as Kenya; yet, the learners are expected to use these expressions in their writing. The study on which this paper is based sought to assess the teaching of English idiomatic expressions in Kenyan…

  10. ‘Everyone has a secret they keep close to their hearts’: challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV infection at the Kenyan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upsurge in the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART has led to a significant increase in the survival of vertically acquired HIV infected children, many of whom are currently living into adolescence and early adulthood. However little if anything is known of the lived experiences and the challenges faced by HIV positive adolescents in the African context. We set out to investigate psychosocial challenges faced by HIV infected adolescents on the Kenyan coast. Methods A total of 44 participants (12 HIV-infected adolescents, 7 HIV uninfected adolescents, and 25 key informants took part in this qualitative study, using individually administered in-depth interviews. A framework approach was used to analyze the data using NVIVO software. Results We observed that the challenges faced by adolescents in rural Kenya could be placed into six major themes: poverty, poor mental and physical health, the lack of a school system that is responsive to their needs, challenges in how to disclose to peers and family members, high levels of stigma in its various forms, and challenges of medical adherence leading to the need for close monitoring. Conclusion In this African community, vertically acquired HIV-infected adolescents face a complex set of social, economic and medical challenges. Our study points to the urgent need to develop multisectorial intervention support programmes to fully address these challenges.

  11. The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Pan, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of the home and school environments in explaining the gender gap in disruptive behavior. We document large differences in the gender gap across key features of the home environment--boys do especially poorly in broken families. In contrast, we find little impact of the early school environment on non-cognitive…

  12. Access to pocket money and low educational performance predict tobacco use among adolescent boys in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sailesh; Sankara Sarma, P; Thankappan, K R

    2005-08-01

    Tobacco use is increasing among adolescents. We conducted this study to find prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among adolescent boys in Trivandrum city, Kerala. Using a two-stage cluster sampling technique, 1323 boys (12-19 years) were selected from 14 schools. Information on tobacco use, academic performance, pocket money, and other variables was collected using a questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were done to find associations between current use of tobacco and other variables. Prevalence of current tobacco use was 11.3% (95% CI 9.6-13.0). Current tobacco use was 2.9 times higher among older boys compared to younger boys (OR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.3), 2 times higher among boys whose fathers used tobacco (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), 2.9 times higher among boys whose friends used tobacco (OR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.1) compared to their counterparts, 3 times higher among boys securing poor (80% marks) grade (OR 3.0, CI 1.4-6.6), and 4 times higher among those who received pocket money compared to those who did not (OR 4.0, CI 2.2-7.4). Health programs to quit tobacco are suggested in schools with special emphasis on poor performers, those receiving pocket money, and those whose fathers and friends use tobacco.

  13. The cost of uncomplicated childhood fevers to Kenyan households: implications for reaching international access targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Abdisalan M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is the clinical hallmark of malaria disease. The Roll Back Malaria (RBM movement promotes prompt, effective treatment of childhood fevers as a key component to achieving its optimistic mortality reduction goals by 2010. A neglected concern is how communities will access these new medicines promptly and the costs to poor households when they are located in rural areas distant to health services. Methods We assemble data developed between 2001 and 2002 in Kenya to describe treatment choices made by rural households to treat a child's fever and the related costs to households. Using a cost-of-illness approach, we estimate the expected cost of a childhood fever to Kenyan households in 2002. We develop two scenarios to explore how expected costs to households would change if more children were treated at a health care facility with an effective antimalarial within 48 hours of fever onset. Results 30% of uncomplicated fevers were managed at home with modern medicines, 38% were taken to a health care facility (HCF, and 32% were managed at home without the use of modern medicines. Direct household cash expenditures were estimated at $0.44 per fever, while the total expected cost to households (cash and time of an uncomplicated childhood fever is estimated to be $1.91. An estimated mean of 1.42 days of caretaker time devoted to each fever accounts for the majority of household costs of managing fevers. The aggregate cost to Kenyan households of managing uncomplicated childhood fevers was at least $96 million in 2002, equivalent to 1.00% of the Kenyan GDP. Fewer than 8% of all fevers were treated with an antimalarial drug within 24 hours of fever onset, while 17.5% were treated within 48 hours at a HCF. To achieve an increase from 17.5% to 33% of fevers treated with an antimalarial drug within 48 hours at a HCF (Scenario 1, children already being taken to a HCF would need to be taken earlier. Under this scenario, direct cash

  14. Antiretroviral treatment interruptions induced by the Kenyan postelection crisis are associated with virological failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Marita; Diero, Lameck; Kemboi, Emmanuel; Mambo, Fidelis; Rono, Mary; Injera, Wilfred; Delong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Kaloustian, Kara W; Sidle, John; Buziba, Nathan; Kantor, Rami

    2013-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited. We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007-2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI. Two hundred and one patients were enrolled, median 2.2 years after conflict and 4.3 years on treatment. Eighty-eight patients experienced conflict-related TIs and 113 received continuous treatment. After adjusting for preconflict CD4, patients with TIs were more likely to have detectable VL, VL >5,000 and VL >10,000. Unplanned conflict-related TIs are associated with increased likelihood of virological failure.

  15. Pubertal development timing in urban Chinese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H-M; Chen, S-K; Chen, R-M; Zhu, C; Xiong, F; Li, T; Wang, W; Liu, G-L; Luo, X-P; Liu, L; Du, M-L

    2011-10-01

    We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18,807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2) ) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Unsuspected urological anomalies in asymptomatic cryptorchid boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappis, C.H.; Argianas, S.A.; Bousgas, D.; Athanasiades, E.; Pendeli Children's Hospital, Athens

    1988-01-01

    In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 ± SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99 mTc -DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly. (orig.)

  17. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  18. Impact of negative stereotypes about boys and influences on performance, motivation and group processes in the classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Latsch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, the academic performance of boys has not only increasingly become the focus of research but has also been widely discussed in the mass media (Weaver-Hightower, 2003). The key content of this discourse, which has attracted considerable public attention, is that boys have fallen behind academically, compared to girls. In contrast to the situation in pre-vious cohorts, they are therefore currently gaining school leaving certificates of a lower level than those gained by ...

  19. Academic Competence and Social Adjustment of Boys with Learning Disabilities and Boys with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of 31 elementary grade boys with learning disabilities and 52 boys with behavior disorders who either did or did not also display hyperactive behavior found significant differences between groups on the Classroom Behavior Inventory in three areas: Hostility versus Consideration, Extroversion versus Introversion, and Independence versus…

  20. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  1. Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of Anopheles larvae along the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Mbogo, Charles M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Nzovu, Joseph G; Githure, John I; Yan, Guiyun; Minakawa, Noboru; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C

    2007-03-01

    A study was conducted to characterise larval habitats and to determine spatial heterogeneity of the Anopheles mosquito larvae. The study was conducted from May to June 1999 in nine villages along the Kenyan coast. Aquatic habitats were sampled by use of standard dipping technique. The habitats were characterised based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat type. A total of 110 aquatic habitats like stream pools (n=10); puddles (n=65); tire tracks (n=5); ponds (n=5) and swamps (n=25) were sampled in nine villages located in three districts of the Kenyan coast. A total of 7,263 Anopheles mosquito larvae were collected, 63.9% were early instars and 36.1% were late instars. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by use of microscopy yielded 90.66% (n=2377) Anopheles gambiae Complex, 0.88% (n=23) An. funestus, An. coustani 7.63% (n=200), An. rivulorum 0.42% (n=11), An. pharoensis 0.19% (n=5), An. swahilicus 0.08% (n=2), An. wilsoni 0.04% (n=1) and 0.11% (n=3) were unidentified. A subset of the An. gambiae Complex larvae identified morphologically, was further analysed using rDNA-PCR technique resulting in 68.22% (n=1290) An. gambiae s.s., 7.93% (n=150) An. arabiensis and 23.85% (n=451) An. merus. Multiple logistic regression model showed that emergent plants (p = 0.019), and floating debris (p = 0.038) were the best predictors of An. gambiae larval abundance in these habitats. Habitat type, floating debris and emergent plants were found to be the key factors determining the presence of Anopheles larvae in the habitats. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered and most productive habitat type be given a priority in the mosquito abatement programme.

  2. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Peripheral Neuropathy Among Kenyans Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aabid; Laverty, Maura; Holzman, Robert S.; Valentine, Fred; Sivapalasingam, Sumathi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is common among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. We report the incidence of and risk factors for PN among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected Kenyan adults initiating ART. Methods. An inception cohort was formed of adults initiating ART. They were screened for PN at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year. We used the validated Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS) that includes symptoms and signs (vibration perception and ankle reflexes) of PN. Results. Twenty-two (11%) of 199 patients had PN at baseline screening. One hundred fifty patients without evidence of PN at baseline were followed for a median of 366 days (interquartile range, 351–399). The incidence of PN was 11.9 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9–19.1) and was higher in women than men (17.7 vs 1.9 per 100 person-years; rate ratio, 9.6; 95% CI, 1.27–72, P = .03). In stratified analyses, female sex remained statistically significant after adjustment for each of the following variables: age, CD4 cell count, body mass index, ART regimen, and tuberculosis treatment. Stratifying hemoglobin levels decreased the hazard ratio from 9.6 to 7.40 (P = .05), with higher levels corresponding to a lower risk of PN. Conclusions. HIV-infected Kenyan women were almost 10 times more likely than men to develop PN in the first year of ART. The risk decreased slightly at higher hemoglobin levels. Preventing or treating anemia in women before ART initiation and implementing BPNS during the first year of ART, the period of highest risk, could ameliorate the risk of PN. PMID:21844033

  3. Molecular Characterizations of Kenyan Brachiaria Grass Ecotypes with Microsatellite (SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Ondabu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria grass is an emerging forage option for livestock production in Kenya. Kenya lies within the center of diversity for Brachiaria species, thus a high genetic variation in natural populations of Brachiaria is expected. Overgrazing and clearing of natural vegetation for crop production and nonagricultural uses and climate change continue to threaten the natural biodiversity. In this study, we collected 79 Brachiaria ecotypes from different parts of Kenya and examined them for genetic variations and their relatedness with 8 commercial varieties. A total of 120 different alleles were detected by 22 markers in the 79 ecotypes. Markers were highly informative in differentiating ecotypes with average diversity and polymorphic information content of 0.623 and 0.583, respectively. Five subpopulations: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, Kitui, Kisii, Alupe, and Kiminini differed in sample size, number of alleles, number of private alleles, diversity index, and percentage polymorphic loci. The contribution of within‐the‐individual difference to total genetic variation of Kenyan ecotype population was 81%, and the fixation index (FST = 0.021 and number of migrant per generation (Nm = 11.58 showed low genetic differentiation among the populations. The genetic distance was highest between Alupe and Kisii populations (0.510 and the lowest between ILRI and Kiminini populations (0.307. The unweighted neighborjoining (NJ tree showed test ecotypes grouped into three major clusters: ILRI ecotypes were present in all clusters; Kisii and Alupe ecotypes and improved varieties grouped in clusters I and II; and ecotypes from Kitui and Kiminini grouped in cluster I. This study confirms higher genetic diversity in Kenyan ecotypes than eight commercial varieties (Basilisk, Humidicola, Llanero, Marandú, MG4, Mulato II, Piatá and Xaraés that represent three species and one three‐way cross‐hybrid Mulato II. There is a need for further

  4. Challenges and coping strategies of parents of children with autism on the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Joseph K; Newton, Charles R; Rimba, Kenneth K; Mapenzi, Rachel; Kihara, Michael; Vijver, Fonns V; Abubakar, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Research on the challenges of raising a child with autism is mostly conducted in Europe, North America and Australia, and has revealed that parents have to come to terms with living with a lifelong developmental disability. In addition, parents are faced with numerous concerns, such as caring burdens, poor prognosis, and negative public attitudes. Virtually no research has been conducted in Africa on this subject. Thirty-seven interviews and eight focus group discussions were conducted with parents of children with autism and professionals in regular contact with these parents from rural and urban counties of the Kenyan coast. The study investigated challenges faced by parents and how they cope with those challenges. A purposive-convenience sampling procedure was used in selecting the study participants. A digital recorder was used to record all the interviews and focus group discussions. Transcriptions were done in Swahili, translated into English, and then imported to the NVivo software program for content analysis. The results indicate that parents of children with autism on the Kenyan coast experience common challenges including stigma, lack of appropriate treatment, financial and caring burdens regardless of their religious and cultural backgrounds. Coping strategies applied by parents comprised problem-focused aspects that involve diet management and respite care, and emotion-focused aspects that consist of beliefs in supernatural powers, prayers and spiritual healing. This qualitative study reveals a range of challenges that could have significant impact when caring for a child with autism. Coping strategies applied by parents target the physical health of the child and the psychological wellbeing of the parent. Consideration of these outcomes is vital as they could impact the initiation of a community-based rehabilitation service delivery in rural settings where parents play an active role.

  5. Socio-cultural determinants of health-seeking behaviour on the Kenyan coast: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    Full Text Available Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development.Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem and c as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment.Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs.

  6. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 2. The nutrient contents of all meals chosen by a group of 8- to 11-year-old boys over 78 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test the abilities of the newly created smart card system to track the nutrient contents of foods chosen over several months by individual diners in a school cafeteria. From the food choice and composition of food data sets, an Access database was created encompassing 30 diners (aged 8-11 years), 78 days and eight nutrients. Data were available for a total of 1909 meals. Based upon population mean values the cohort were clearly choosing meals containing higher than the recommended maximum amounts for sugar and lower than the recommended minimum amounts of fibre, iron and vitamin A. Protein and vitamin C contents of meals chosen were well above minimum requirements. Over the 1909 meals, nutrient requirements were met 41% of the time. The system created was very effective at continually monitoring food choices of individual diners over limitless time. The data generated raised questions on the common practice of presenting nutrient intakes as population mean values calculated over a few days. The impact of heavily fortified foods on such studies in general is discussed.

  7. It’s harder for boys?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; A. Guerlain, Madeleine; B Andersen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story......, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS affected girls – which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering....... of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed...

  8. Cryptorchidism in boys with imperforate anus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Nielsen, Ole Henrik

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher was the incid......In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  10. Material girls and Material love: Consuming femininity and the contradictions of post-girl power among Kenyan schoolgirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use qualitative data to explore the practices engaged in by Kenyan schoolgirls to participate in modern consuming womanhood, as well as the contradictory implications of these practices for thinking about globalized mediated femininities and their enactment in resource-poor settings. The paper examines the centrality of consumption to valued modern femininity among young women around the world, as well as the structural reality of gendered access to income. I show how the cooptation of the materiality of romantic love and normative expectations of male provision in romantic relationships bridge the gap between consumption desires and economic realities among Kenyan schoolgirls in both powerful and problematic ways. The paper ends with a reflection of the implications of these findings for post-girl power, the post-feminist age and the re-inscription of patriarchy. PMID:28344428

  11. Transnational Terrorism in East Africa: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Recent Rise in Kenyan Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    vibrant coastal beach tourism industry that is at odds with the locally dominant Islamic religion and culture; the perception that the country’s...other large scale cross-border attack by Al- Shabaab was the July 2010 twin bombing of a popular sports bar and restaurant in the Ugandan capital...Kenyan nationals from neighboring countries, as the majority of them frequently travel by road to and from Kenya for business, leisure, and tourism , 35

  12. Objectively assessed recess physical activity in girls and boys from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2014-02-21

    The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.

  13. A self-categorization theory perspective on adolescent boys' sexual bullying of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Elysia; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2015-02-01

    This preliminary study applied Self-Categorization Theory (SCT) to the sexual bullying of high school girls by boys. Seventy-five Year 9 boys responded to vignettes portraying sexual bullying in which gender was a more or a less salient feature of the social context described. As predicted, boys were more likely to engage in sexual bullying when gender was more salient. Masculine sex role was not correlated with engagement in sexual bullying. Controlling for social desirability, pro-bullying attitude was predictive of such engagement, but only when the social context rendered gender less salient. This suggests the power of the perceived social context for determining which individual characteristics will gain expression. It is concluded that SCT is a promising avenue for advancing understanding of bullying, a field of research that has previously largely lacked a theoretical focus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Boy George Helsingi-Tallinna geikruiisil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Angel Café & Gayclub ja firmade Tallink ja Madrenalin Ltd korraldatavast geikruiisist Lovebot 2006 (30. apr.-1. mai), kus show-programmi peaesinejateks briti laulja Boy Gerry ja ameerika laulja Sherry Vine (Sherry Vine kontsert ka 29. apr. Tallinnas Angeli klubis)

  15. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  16. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  17. Cervical Synovial Sarcoma In a Young Boy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synovial sarcomas comprise about 8% of all tumours of somatic soft-tissues, and are the most common sar- comas of the 'hands and feet. Occasionally they may occur in the trunk, but they have rarely been reported in the neck. We present a case of cervical soft-tissue mass pro- ducing symptoms in a 12-year-old-boy.

  18. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  19. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W.; Janner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  2. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  3. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  4. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  5. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  6. Stature of boys post World War II migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulanicka, B; Gronkiewicz, L; Zietkiewicz, B

    1999-01-01

    Poland is a country with significant regional differences in socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological phenomena. This is partly due to its history; notably the division of Poland among three different countries and the change of the borders after the second World War. The latter caused massive migratory movements of population. Then from the territory which now constitutes one third of Poland, Germans were evicted and Poles settled. These, then new, Western and Northern Territories of Poland (WNTP) are still the most developed parts of Poland with better roads, better housing and easier access to medical service and schools. On the other hand, some of the statistical data concerning the health and lifestyle of the population of these parts of Poland are worse than the corresponding data concerning the rest of Poland. For example the rate of lung cancer, the rate of divorce, the rate of adolescence pregnancies, the rate of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are all higher in the WNTP. In 1955, a very comprehensive anthropological nationwide survey of school children was performed. Our findings based on this material exhibit a number of phenomena which might contribute to the explanation of these negative population data. We have observed that the boys born in various regions of pre-war Poland and settled with their parents in the new territories were of different height at the age of 7-18 years than those from the four other regions of Poland whose parents were not resettled. Also the average height of boys, those sons of the migrants who during post-war migration did not go to the west but settled in the central region of Poland, was greater than those who settled in the west of Poland. Our results indicate that among the migrants there was a considerable fraction of people who were physically weaker and less socially adapted in comparison to the rest of the Polish population and that these characteristics have been passed down to the subsequent

  7. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dreams about the future: How boys and girls perceive gender roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on original research in two Belgrade elementary schools the subjects were boys and girls from senior grades. These boys and girls were asked to answer a few questions about their future professions; that is, how do they imagine their lives in the future. More than half of the questioned girls expressed the desire to become models, actresses, singers or to be involved in some similar occupations from the world of entertainment. Their dreams about their future life totally exclude professions that require hard studying and serious academic preparation. The girls showed no interest in so-called "serious" occupations or, as a matter of fact, in traditional female jobs and roles. Boys, on the other hand, have various and diverse plans and dreams concerning their future occupations. In brief, the girls put emphasis on professions where the body and its appearance count, while the boys emphasize everything else. This paper is an attempt to answer the question of why it is that the majority of girls on the doorstep of adolescence see the fulfillment of their dreams in such a stereotyped, narrow frame of glamour and physical attractiveness. The paper points out to the existence of pop-culture patterns that so greatly influence the daily lives of these young girls, through media, school and public life in general. In such pop-culture that broadcasts a "Cover Girl" image, images that could encourage girls' other ambitions and interests almost do not exist.

  9. Negative Impact of Troublesome Peer Interactions and Authoritarian Parenting Style on Academic Performance of a 15 year Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samruddhi Karnik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.

  10. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakura, Chikahiko [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Hironori [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Shimane (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masanori [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  11. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Adachi, Masanori; Kim, Ok Hwa; Nishimura, Gen

    2007-01-01

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  12. Netduino home automation projects for lazy boys

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Netduino Home Automation Projects for Lazy Boys is written in a practical and friendly style. Reading this book will be an experience full of fun and learning as well.This book is ideally suited for someone who is interested in home automation, has some experience in C#, and has used a Netduino before but wants to explore more advanced topics. However, the book starts from the very basics so it can be picked up even by novices.

  13. Coding task performance in early adolescence: A large-scale controlled study into boy-girl differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eDekker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between boys and girls regarding efficiency of information processing in early adolescence. 306 healthy adolescents (50.3% boys in grade 7 and 9 (aged 13 and 15 respectively performed a coding task based on over-learned symbols. An age effect was revealed as subjects in grade 9 performed better than subjects in grade 7. Main effects for sex were found in the advantage of girls. The 25% best-performing students comprised twice as many girls as boys. The opposite pattern was found for the worst performing 25%. In addition, a main effect was found for educational track in favor of the highest track. No interaction effects were found. School grades did not explain additional variance in LDST performance. This indicates that cognitive performance is relatively independent from school performance. Student characteristics like age, sex and education level were more important for efficiency of information processing than school performance. The findings imply that after age 13, efficiency of information processing is still developing and that girls outperform boys in this respect. The findings provide new information on the mechanisms underlying boy-girl differences in scholastic performance.

  14. Vertus Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The academic model of this charter high school for boys in Rochester, New York has four pillars: 1) strong relationships, 2) personalized year-round academics, 3) character education, and 4) career preparation. The two-page grantee profiles from Next Generation Learning Challenges (NGLC) provide factual information about the secondary school and…

  15. School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 17939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We examine a program that enabled Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) in Kenya to hire novice teachers on short-term contracts, reducing class sizes in grade one from 82 to 44 on average. PTA teachers earned approximately one-quarter as much as teachers operating under central government civil-service institutions but were absent one day per week…

  16. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hazing, associated with initiation, aims at taking newcomers from novice status to a status of functional and acknowledged members of a new group. However, the process is often dangerous, injurious, and usually secretive. Hazing may occur as an unauthorised component of institutionally sanctioned orientation ...

  18. Students "At Risk": Stereotypes and the Schooling of Black Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how stereotypes operate in the social construction of African Canadian males as "at risk" students. Cultural analysis and critical race theory are used to explain how the stereotypes of the youth as immigrant, fatherless, troublemaker, athlete, and underachiever contribute to their racialization and marginalization…

  19. Hazing in orientation programmes in boys-only secondary schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hazing; learner safety and wellbeing; masculinity; orientation programmes; psychological theories; survey ... include humiliation, degradation, psychological, physical or sexual abuse and any other form of ... activities and will even lie about personal injury to prevent exposure – to disclose is to betray group ...... Adolescent.

  20. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…