WorldWideScience

Sample records for kentucky coal refuse

  1. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  2. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  3. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  4. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  5. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  6. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  7. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  8. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  9. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  10. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  11. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  12. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  13. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  14. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  15. Use of wet FGD material for revegetation of an abandoned acidic coal refuse pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Wet FGD material has a neutralizing potential of 15% CaCO 3 . These properties may make it a beneficial amendment for revegetation of hyper-acidic coal refuse. In greenhouse and field experiments, coal refuse (pH = 2.5) was amended with wet FGD (300, 500, and 700 tons/acre). Amendment with FGD was as effective as agricultural lime (AL) in increasing refuse pH and decreasing soluble Al and Fe. Addition of compost to the FGD further increased pH and decreased soluble Al and Fe. Downward transport of Ca was greater with FGD than AL, but FGD did not increase leachate concentrations of S. Amendment with FGD increased refuse, leachate and plant tissue concentrations of B. Other trace elements were not increased by FGD. In the greenhouse, plant growth was similar with AL and FGD except during the first three months when AL produced more growth than FGD. The initial growth suppression by FGD was likely due to high soluble salts, and possibly by high B concentrations. During the first year of the field experiment plant growth was greater with FGD than with AL. In both the field and greenhouse experiments compost increased plant growth when combined with FGD. These experiments show revegetation of toxic coal refuse and improvement in drainage water quality is possible by amendment with FGD. Revegetation success will be improved by combined amendment with FGD and compost

  16. Reclamation technology development for western Arkansas coal refuse waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Coal mining has been an important industry in the Arkansas River Valley Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) of western Arkansas for more than 100 yr., most of it with little regard for environmental concerns. Almost 3,640 ha. of land affected by surface coal mines cover the seven-county area, with less than 1,200 ha. currently in various stages of operation or reclamation. Since only the active mining sites must now be reclaimed by law, the remaining 2,440 ha. of abandoned land remains at the mercy of natural forces. Little topsoil exists on these sites and the coal wastes are generally acidic with a pH in the 4.0-5.5 range. Revegetation attempts under these conditions generally require continued maintenance and retreatment until an acceptable cover is achieved. If and when an acceptable vegetative cover is established, the cost frequently approaches $7,400/ha. ($3,000/acre). In an effort to resolve these issues and provide some direction for stabilizing coal waste lands, the US Department of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Boonville, Arkansas, received a Congressional Pass through administered by the US Bureau of Mines, to support a 5-yr. revegetation study on the coal mine spoils of western Arkansas. This paper reports the results through the spring of 1994 on that portion of the study dealing with the establishment of blackberries as a cash crop on coal mine spoils

  17. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  18. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  19. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  20. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  1. The geo-environmental design of a coal refuse impoundment in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The coal refuse impoundment discussed was one of the first permitted under new regulatory standards within the State of Illinois. The new standards go beyond the geotechnial stability of the structure and must address the groundwater quality of the area and the impact of the impoundment on the groundwater system. The geotechnial design of the coal refuse impoundment dam and associated structures had its own particular challenges such as: 1) the construction of the structure over mined workings; 2) the close proximity of seismically active fault zones; and 3) the embankment configuration being controlled by the material balance of the mine refuse. The implementation of the groundwater protection plan included: 1) incorporating the groundwater quality standards and sampling protocols of several state agencies while the standards were being drafted; 2) sampling of the potential sources of groundwater impact; 3) establishing background levels; and 4) establishing the groundwater class. An initial groundwater transport model was developed and used as the basis for recommending a groundwater monitoring design in place of constructing a soil or synthetic liner. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Influence of liming and topsoil thickness on vegetative growth and leachate quality on acidic coal refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.S.; Daniels, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Coal waste materials inhibit direct vegetation establishment due to adverse physical and chemical properties, particularly low water retention and high potential acidity. The Moss No. 1 coal refuse pile is located in Dickenson County, Virginia, and was idled in the late 1980's with little topsoil resource available for final closure. The refuse was acidic (Total-S = 0.38%; pH = 3.6), black, high (70%) in coarse fragments, and had a low water holding capacity (4.5% in 6.0 over a two-year period, which resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than the control plots. All topsoil treatments resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than plots treated with lime only due to improved surface soil physical and chemical properties. A topsoil treatment of 60 cm gave the thickest vegetative cover and biomass yield. Such a treatment, however, would be cost-prohibitive at this location. Application of 27 Mg/ha of lime to the refuse surface along with 15 cm of topsoil produced acceptable two-year vegetative cover and biomass, and appeared to be the optimal treatment for this particular situation. Both liming and topsoil had no affect on leachate pH and the electrical conductivity in leachates collected below the plots. This suggests that surface revegetation will have little effect on the quality of water draining through the pile, so long term water treatment requirements may not be reduced by successfully revegetating the pile surface

  3. Petrology, Palynology, and Geochemistry of Gray Hawk Coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian in Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Hower

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents recently collected data examining the organic petrology, palynology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal bed. From the Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian substage, Gray Hawk coal has been mined near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky portion of the Central Appalachian coalfield. While the coal is thin, rarely more than 0.5-m thick, it has a low-ash yield and a low-S content, making it an important local resource. The Gray Hawk coal palynology is dominated by Lycospora spp., and contains a diverse spectrum of small lycopods, tree ferns, small ferns, calamites, and gymnosperms. The maceral assemblages show an abundance of collotelinite, telinite, vitrodetrinite, fusinite, and semifusinite. Fecal pellet-derived macrinite, albeit with more compaction than is typically seen in younger coals, was observed in the Gray Hawk coal. The minerals in the coal are dominated by clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite, illite, and to a lesser extent, pyrite, quartz, and iron III hydroxyl-sulfate, along with traces of chlorite, and in some cases, jarosite, szomolnokite, anatase, and calcite. The clay minerals are of authigenic and detrital origins. The occurrence of anatase as cell-fillings also indicates an authigenic origin. With the exception of Ge and As, which are slightly enriched in the coals, the concentrations of other trace elements are either close to or much lower than the averages for world hard coals. Arsenic and Hg are also enriched in the top bench of the coal and probably occur in pyrite. The elemental associations (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, Cr/Th-Sc/Th indicate a sediment-source region with intermediate and felsic compositions. Rare metals, including Ga, rare earth elements and Ge, are highly enriched in the coal ashes, and the Gray Hawk coals have a great potential for industrial use of these metals. The rare earth elements in the samples are weakly fractionated or are characterized by heavy

  4. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Zimmerman, C.A.; Dvorak, A.J.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot/root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil; however, more vigorous growth occurred on lime-amended gob than on fly ash-amended gob. Significant differences (rho < 0.05) in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations which have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  5. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  6. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  7. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  8. Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2-9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  10. The use of coal refuse bike substratoun in cultivate techniques without soils; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Sustratos en Cultivos sin Suelo 2 Fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Coal refuse poses several problems as regards both their storage and environmental impact: landscape alteration, pollution, high costs, an increasing difficulty in finding appropriate places for storage, etc. Therefore, the companies HUMOSA, HORPLASA and the C. S. I. C. Centre for Environmental Sciences carried out a joint study financed by OCICARBON. This study, completing other ones carried out previously, was aimed at determining the use as both a soilless medium for growing other vegetables than tomatoes and a basic component for container gardening. Then, based on previous experiments, two types of coal refuse were selected: coal refuse from dumps and burnt coal refuse. The characterization of the coal refuse was carried out and the investigation-line was established: (I) the adaption of techniques and know-how obtained up to that moment to the production of kidney beans faba de la granja, green beans and pepper; (II) to study the possibilities of coal refuse as basic components of substrates for container gardening of decorative outdoor plants different from the already investigated conifers in order examine thoroughly the cultivation techniques and, in particular, the methods of fertilization by irrigation. Exhaustive controls were carried out with both types of cultivation using as reference other cultivations with conventional substrates. The results obtained proved that coal refuse can be used as soilles growing medium for vegetables and for container gardening of decorative plants.

  11. The use of coal refuse as construction aggregates; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Aridos en Construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this project was to carry out a study which would allow us to determine the nature and properties of coal refuse for its possible use as construction aggregates: roadbeds concrete, bituminous meagres, etc. and to establish criteria of acceptability, placing, and quality control. Two types of refuse, considered to be representative, were chosen (one black and one red) and various trials were performed at a grinding and classifying plant for the obtention of granular materials. The results of these trials determined the most appropriate plant treatment for each type of refuse and established the margin of acceptability, criteria of acceptability, and quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal refuse for use as construction aggregates. Laboratory testing with both types of refuse mixed with binders (cement, emulsions) were carried out. At the same time, real scale tests, through the construction of concrete slabs in local roads and in trial areas, using the proportions of aggregates and cement that are customary in the area, and also by varying the cement content, substituting it for airborne ash from the thermal La Pereda power station were also performed. From the results obtained, it can be deduced that coal refuse can be used as granular material for roadbeds in different ways: stabilised as gravel-cement, in the form of gravel emulsion, as gravel slag, or by itself. As far as its use in concrete manufacture, it is limited to marginal works. With regard to its decorative use in gardening, it is being used in various town halls in Asturias and Cantabria. (Author)

  12. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. II. Inhibition in run of mine refuse under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and benzoic acid effectively inhibits iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in coal refuse and prevents the conversion of iron pyrite to sulfate, ferric iron, and sulfuric acid, thereby significantly reducing the formation of acidic drainage from coal refuse. The inhibitors were effective in a concentration of 1.1. mg/kg refuse, and data indicate that the SLS was in excess of the concentration required. The treatment was compatible with the use of lime for neutralization of acid present prior to inhibition of its formation.

  13. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  14. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow at the Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site, near Terre Haute, Ind., was mined for coal from 1948 to 1963. Subsurface coal was cleaned and sorted at land surface, and waste material was deposited over the native glacial till. Approximately 2.7 million cubic yards of waste was deposited over 159 acres (92.3 hectares) in tailings ponds and gob piles. During 1993, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, improved the site by grading gob piles, filling tailings ponds, and covering the refuse with a layer of glacial drift. During 2008, the Division of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a cooperative investigation to characterize the hydrogeology of the site and construct a calibrated groundwater flow model that could be used to simulate the results of future remedial actions. In support of the modeling, a data-collection network was installed at the Green Valley site to measure weather components, geophysical properties, groundwater levels, and stream and seep flow. Results of the investigation indicate that (1) there is negligible overland flow from the site, (2) the prevailing groundwater-flow direction is from northeast to southwest, with a much smaller drainage to the northeast, (3) there is not a direct hydraulic connection between the refuse and West Little Sugar Creek, (4) about 24 percent of the groundwater recharge emerges through seeps, and water from the seeps evaporates or eventually flows to West Little Sugar Creek and the Green Valley Mine Pond, and (5) about 72 percent of groundwater recharge moves vertically downward from the coal refuse into the till and follows long, slow flow paths to eventual dischage points.

  16. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  17. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  18. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. 1. Preliminary experiments in controlled shaken flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes of pH and sulfate concentration in high-sulfur coal refuse slurries are used as measurements of microbial pyrite oxidation in the laboratory. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS), benzoic acid (BZ) and combinations of SLS plus BZ and ABS plus BZ effectively inhibited formation of sulfate and acid when added in concentrations greater than 50 mg/l to inoculated 20 or 30% coal refuse slurries. Here 25 mg/l concentrations of SLS, ABS and ABS plus BZ stimulated acid production. Formic, hexanoic, oxalic, propionic, and pyruvic acids at 0.1% concentrations were also effective inhibitors. Four different lignin sulfonates were only slightly effective inhibitors at 0.1% concentrations. It was concluded that acid formation resulting from microbial oxidation in high-sulfur coal refuse can be inhibited. 22 references.

  19. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  20. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Engle, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Stracher, Glenn B. [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO{sub 2} peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO{sub 2} and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg{sup 0}, in excess of 500 and 2100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. (author)

  1. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin R.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M.K.; Engle, Mark A.; Blake, Donald R.; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 μg/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 μg/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns.

  2. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  3. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  4. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  5. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  6. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  7. Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels

  8. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  10. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  11. 78 FR 11796 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... --$2,000 per acre and each fraction thereof for operations on previously mined areas. --$3,500 per acre... program (``the Kentucky program'') for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under the Surface... the amount of the performance bond for each surface coal mining and reclamation operation is...

  12. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  13. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Dick, W. A. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  14. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  15. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  16. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  17. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  18. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  19. Synthetic fuels development in Kentucky: Four scenarios for an energy future as constructed from lessons of the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musulin, Mike, II

    The continued failure of synthetic fuels development in the United States to achieve commercialization has been documented through the sporadic periods of mounting corporate and government enthusiasm and high levels of research and development efforts. Four periods of enthusiasm at the national level were followed by waning intervals of shrinking financial support and sagging R&D work. The continuing cycle of mobilization and stagnation has had a corresponding history in Kentucky. To better understand the potential and the pitfalls of this type of technological development the history of synthetic fuels development in the United States is presented as background, with a more detailed analysis of synfuels development in Kentucky. The first two periods of interest in synthetic fuels immediately after the Second World War and in the 1950s did not result in any proposed plants for Kentucky, but the third and fourth periods of interest created a great deal of activity. A theoretically grounded case study is utilized in this research project to create four different scenarios for the future of synthetic fuels development. The Kentucky experience is utilized in this case study because a fifth incarnation of synthetic fuels development has been proposed for the state in the form of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) to utilize coal and refuse derived fuel (RDF). The project has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology program. From an examination and analysis of these periods of interest and the subsequent dwindling of interest and participation, four alternative scenarios are constructed. A synfuels breakthrough scenario is described whereby IGCC becomes a viable part of the country's energy future. A multiplex scenario describes how IGCC becomes a particular niche in energy production. The status quo scenario describes how the old patterns of project failure repeat themselves. The fourth scenario describes

  20. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  1. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  2. Identifying sources of respirable quartz and silica dust in underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzel, Steven J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that the source of respirable silica dust in underground coal mines is typically the immediate top or bottom lithology adjacent to the mined seam, not mineral matter bound within the mined coal bed. Geochemical analyses were applied in an effort to identify the specific source rock of respirable quartz dust in coal mines. The analyses also demonstrate the compositional changes that take place in the generation of the respirable dust fraction from parent rock material. All six mine sites were mining coal with relatively low mineral matter content, although two mines were operating in the Fire Clay coal bed which contains a persistent tonstein. Interpretations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and K concentrations strongly suggest that the top strata above the mined seam is the primary source of mineral dust produced during mining. One site indicates a mixed or bottom source, possibly due to site specific conditions. Respirable dust compositional analyses suggest a direct relationship between the quantity of mineral Si and the quantity of quartz Si. A similar relationship was not found in either the top or bottom rocks adjacent to the mined seam. An apparent loss of elemental Al was noted in the respirable dust fraction when compared to potential parent rock sources. Elemental Al is present in top and bottom rock strata within illite, kaolinite, feldspar, and chlorite. A possible explanation for loss of Al in the respirable dust samples is the removal of clays and possibly chlorite minerals. It is expected that removal of this portion of the Al bearing mineral matter occurs during rock abrasion and dust transport prior to dust capture on the samplers. (author)

  3. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  4. Developing a byproduct materials information system for the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Kentucky has numerous coal-fired, electric generating facilities and, as a result, there are abundant byproduct materials being produced from these facilities that have environmental, engineering, and economic potential as materials for use in common...

  5. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  6. 76 FR 44279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Station WPKE-FM, Coal Run Kentucky, from Channel 276A to Channel 221C3. DATES: Effective August 1, 2011... 221C3 at Coal Run, Kentucky, are 37-23-57 NL and 82-23-42 WL, and for Channel 276A at Clinchco, Virginia...

  7. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Public meetings for views and comments on the conduct of the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Solicitation---Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 30, 1991 and Louisville, Kentucky, November 12, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Two public meetings were convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in October and November 1991 in order to obtain views, comments, and recommendations with regard to the forthcoming Clean Coal Technology V solicitation. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided on the background to the CCT solicitation and the public meetings, and how the meetings were conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at teach of the meetings, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. The report also includes a compilation of the written comments that were received. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data and transcripts for opening and closing plenary sessions. (VC)

  9. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  10. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  11. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and south Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. 205 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  13. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  14. Hubungan Antara Gaya Hidup Dan Pemilihan Merek Lokal Atau Merek Luar Negeri (Survei Pada Ayam Bakar Wong Solo Vs Kentucky Fried Chicken)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Budhi; Febrianto, Awang

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo) or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken). Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1) the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2) respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3) Survey was conducted in the form of direct...

  15. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  17. Review of the potential for utilizing washery refuse in N. S. W. and Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, K M

    1977-06-01

    The growing importance attached to the environment, coupled with the increasing quantities of coal refuse resulting from expanded coal production has highlighted the problem of coal refuse disposal and provided the necessary impetus to find uses for the by-product, which will eventually be regarded as a fuel and engineering material rather than a waste. Potential areas of use will be as a fuel; as a potential fuel replacement and raw material additive for brick manufacture; as a raw material for lightweight aggregate manufacture; as a construction material; for agricultural purposes, or a number of other areas of special use. The successful marketing of coal refuse will depend on an in-depth technical market analysis being carried out, followed by practical research and a comprehensive product examination and identification program being undertaken.

  18. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  19. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  20. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. Palynologic and petrographic intervals in the upper Pennsylvanian McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Helfrich, C.T.; Williams, D.A. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1994-07-01

    The McLeansboro Group in the Western Kentucky coal field spans the upper Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) and the Missourian and Virgilian series (Stephanian). Significant features of the McLeansboro Group are the marine zones over most of the coals and paleochannels, which are the only disruptions to the continuity of other lithologies. Patoka Formation (lower Missourian) coals are dominated by tree fern spores with lesser amounts of sphenopsids, ferns and cordaites spores. Only the No. 15 coal bed exceeds 80% vitrinite: the vitrinite content of the No. 16 coal bed is less than 72%. The Bond formation (upper Missourian) represents a distinct floristic interval, with a greater diversity of plant groups than in the Patoka Formation. The coals generally exceed 80% vitrinite. The Mattoon Formation (Virgillian) coals have a variety of palynomorph assemblages. The low-sulfur Geiger Lake coal bed is dominated by tree fern spores, with important contributions from other ferns and sphenopsids. Similar to the underlying tree fern interval vitrinite contents are less than 80%. The uppermost Mattoon coals are dominated by tree ferns and are notable in being the only coals more than 1 m thick in Stephanian portion of the section, with the top coal being 4.3 m thick. The uppermost coals generally contain more than 80% vitrinite. The palynologic/petrographic intervals appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Stephanian, which was itself drier than the Westphalian D. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hydroseeding on anthracite coal-mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Ross Writer

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of selected species of legumes, grasses, and trees hydroseeded on anthracite coal-mine spoils in a slurry of lime, fertilizer, and mulch. Hydroseeding failed on coal-breaker refuse, but was partially successful on strip-mine spoils.

  4. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  5. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains other supporting information, along with quality assurance documentation and safety and test plans. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kentucky single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  8. Electricity privatisation and the Scottish coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.

    1988-09-01

    In the run up to the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) is involved in a battle for power with British Coal's Scottish area over the price of its coal, the bulk of which has been purchased by the SSEB in recent years. The SSEB has been trying to persuade British Coal to bring its prices down to those currently available on the world market. This would require a reduction of some 30%. The SSEB has backed up its requests by threatening to import more foreign coal if British Coal refuses to comply.

  9. Annual Report FY2011: Establishment of a Laboratory for Biofuels Research at the University of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Crofcheck, Czarena [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2011-12-21

    This project is aimed at the development of the biofuels industry in Kentucky by establishing a laboratory to develop improved processes for biomass utilization. The facility is based at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and constitutes an open laboratory, i.e., its equipment is available to other Kentucky researchers working in the area. The development of this biofuels facility represents a significant expansion of research infrastructure, and will provide a lasting resource for biobased research endeavors at the University of Kentucky. In order to enhance the laboratory's capabilities and contribute to on-going biofuels research at the University of Kentucky, initial research at the laboratory has focused on the following technical areas: (i) the identification of algae strains suitable for oil production, utilizing flue gas from coal-fired power plants as a source of CO2; (ii) the conversion of algae to biofuels; and (iii) thermochemical methods for the deconstruction of lignin. Highlights from these activities include a detailed study of bio-oil production from the fast pyrolysis of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.) and the application of pyrolytic gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to the characterization of high lignin biomass feedstocks.

  10. Establishment of a Laboratory for Biofuels Research at the University of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Crofcheck, Czarena [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2013-03-29

    This project was aimed at the development of the biofuels industry in Kentucky by establishing a laboratory to develop improved processes for biomass utilization. The facility is based at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and constitutes an “open” laboratory, i.e., its equipment is available to other Kentucky researchers working in the area. The development of this biofuels facility represents a significant expansion of research infrastructure, and will provide a lasting resource for biobased research endeavors at the University of Kentucky. In order to enhance the laboratory's capabilities and contribute to on-going biofuels research at the University of Kentucky, initial research at the laboratory has focused on the following technical areas: (i) the identification of algae strains suitable for oil production, utilizing flue gas from coal-fired power plants as a source of CO2; (ii) the conversion of algae to biofuels; and (iii) the development of methods for the analysis of lignin and its deconstruction products. Highlights from these activities include the development of catalysts for the upgrading of lipids to hydrocarbons by means of decarboxylation/decarbonylation (deCOx), a study of bio-oil production from the fast pyrolysis of algae (Scenedesmus), and the application of pyrolytic gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to the characterization of high lignin biomass feedstocks.

  11. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W; Brunne, T; Hiller, A [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  12. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  13. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is capable of being done after consideration of cost, logistics, and available technology. The fact... COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan...

  14. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of being done after consideration of cost, logistics, and available technology. The fact that one... COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan...

  15. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  16. Study into the status of co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and household refuse in coal-fired power stations. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stand der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm, Hausmuell und Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Scheurer, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Seifert, H.; Richers, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer technische Chemie - Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2000-03-01

    The co-combustion of wastes in power stations is an additional option for the thermal treatment of certain waste materials and thus for complying with the specifications of the German TA-Siedlungsabfall (technical directive on disposal of municipal solid waste). The present investigation compiles the status of knowledge about co-combustion of sewage sludge, biomass and selected waste materials in coal-fired power stations. The results are meant to provide extensive assistance to evaluate the processes and thus to contribute to sort out uncertainties, both on the part of power plant operators and of the authorities. Based on the information acquired, the report shall point out the gaps in knowledge, the further need for research and development and the need for action conerning the authorities. By enquiries at disposal enterprises, power station operators as well as authorities, the literature work was completed and a comprehensive view of the current situation in Germany elaborated. The report points out the legal conditions of co-combustion and supplementary fuel potentials, presents the process engineering of co-combustion, and examines the obstacles encountered during the technical conversion, the environmental questions, and the potential for co-combustion of the above materials in existing power stations. The electrical power sector is subject to strong changes due to the liberalisation of the energy market. The pressure on costs has increased and the periods available for planning are shorter. On the one hand, this arouses an increased interest in co-combustion of waste materials because of possible additional payments for the wastes. On the other hand, however, initiatives in this respect are counteracted by high investments costs necessary for the introduction of co-combustion with the existing high environmental standards. What is more, the competitive situation reduces the exchange of experience between the power station operators. Co-combustion of sewage

  17. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  18. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5 to...

  19. Mandated Preparation Program Redesign: Kentucky Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents a chronicle of events spanning a decade in Kentucky that led to state policy changes for principal preparation and details the response to those mandated changes by professors at the University of Kentucky. Professors' collaborative efforts resulted in a new teacher leadership program and redesigned principal certification…

  20. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  1. Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann

    1990-01-01

    Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

  2. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table or...

  3. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Bahali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  4. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  5. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  6. Archived data management system in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Archived Data User Service (ADUS) was added to the national ITS architecture in 1999 to enable multiple uses for ITS-generated data. In Kentucky, ARTIMIS and TRIMARC are collecting volume, speed, occupancy, length-based classification, and incident d...

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  8. Nursing Manpower Licensed in Kentucky, 1979-1981. Kentucky Nursing Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Data on nurses licensed in Kentucky for 1979-1981 are presented, as part of the Kentucky Nursing Education Project. Information is provided on: licensure status, home state/district/county, employment status, employment state/district/county, field of employment in nursing, position, highest educational level attained, age, sex, marital status,…

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  10. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  13. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert van Leeuwen; Marli Huijer

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed

  14. [Refusal of nursing care, the legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The refusal of nursing care forms part of the freedom offered to anyone wanting to refuse, consciously and knowingly, any form of nursing care such as washing, the taking of medication or hospitalisation. However, limits are fixed by law as well as by case law. Are we totally free in the expression of our will? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Projections of Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption in Kentucky through 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Das, Paritosh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    NREL has used the dGen (Distributed Generation Market Demand Model) to project the adoption of distributed Photovoltaics in Kentucky through 2040. This analysis was conducted by the STAT Network at the request of the Kentucky Energy Office.

  16. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report includes an analysis of traffic accident data in Kentucky for the years of 2003 through 2007. A primary objective of this study was to determine average accident statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of ...

  17. Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

  18. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    . Paleontologists and stratigraphers of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated closely with the program. Paleontologic studies were concentrated in the Ordovician of central Kentucky, the Pennsylvanian of eastern and western Kentucky, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic of westernmost Kentucky. In addition to financial support, the Kentucky Geological Survey provided economic data, stratigraphic support, and drillhole records to the field offices. Geologists of the State Survey made subsurface structural interpretations, constructed bedrock topography maps, and mapped several quadrangles. Some of the problems encountered were the inadequacy of much of the existing stratigraphic nomenclature, the uneven quality of some of the mapping, and the effects of relative isolation on the professional development of some of the geologists. The program cost a total of $20,927,500. In terms of 1960 dollars, it cost $16,035,000; this compares with an original estimate of $12,000,000. Although it is difficult to place a monetary value on the geologic mapping, the program has contributed to newly discovered mineral wealth, jobs, and money saved by government and industry. The maps are used widely in the exploration for coal, oil and gas, fluorspar, limestone, and clay. The maps are also used in planning highways and locations of dams, in evaluating foundation and excavation conditions, in preparing environmental impact statements, and in land-use planning.

  19. Arsenic and mercury partitioning in fly ash at a Kentucky power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaporn Sakulpitakphon; James C. Hower; Alan S. Trimble; William H. Schram; Gerald A. Thomas [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2003-08-01

    Coal and fly ash samples were collected from a 500-MW unit at a Kentucky power plant, with the objective of studying the distribution of arsenic, mercury, and other trace elements in fly ash. The coal feed was low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous central West Virginia coal. The plant produced a relatively low-carbon fly ash. In contrast to power plants with high-mercury feed coal, the fly ashes from the lower-mercury feed coal had low mercury values, generally not exceeding 0.01 ppm Hg. Mercury capture by fly ash varies with both the amount and type of carbon and the collection temperature; mercury capture is more efficient at lower temperatures. Arsenic in the feed coal and in the flue gas is of concern to the utility, because of the potential for catalyst poisoning in the selective catalytic reduction system (in the planning stage at the time of the sampling). Arsenic is captured in the fly ash, increasing in concentration in the more-distant (from the boiler) reaches of the electrostatic precipitator system. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Hospitalization patterns associated with Appalachian coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Ahern, Melissa M; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2007-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the volume of coal mining was related to population hospitalization risk for diseases postulated to be sensitive or insensitive to coal mining by-products. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2001 adult hospitalization data (n = 93,952) for West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania, merged with county-level coal production figures. Hospitalization data were obtained from the Health Care Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample. Diagnoses postulated to be sensitive to coal mining by-product exposure were contrasted with diagnoses postulated to be insensitive to exposure. Data were analyzed using hierarchical nonlinear models, controlling for patient age, gender, insurance, comorbidities, hospital teaching status, county poverty, and county social capital. Controlling for covariates, the volume of coal mining was significantly related to hospitalization risk for two conditions postulated to be sensitive to exposure: hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The odds for a COPD hospitalization increased 1% for each 1462 tons of coal, and the odds for a hypertension hospitalization increased 1% for each 1873 tons of coal. Other conditions were not related to mining volume. Exposure to particulates or other pollutants generated by coal mining activities may be linked to increased risk of COPD and hypertension hospitalizations. Limitations in the data likely result in an underestimate of associations.

  1. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  2. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  3. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  4. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  6. FY 2000 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems as part of the international project for coal utilization measures. Feasibility study on supporting introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems in Vietnam (Model project for introduction of advanced coal preparation systems); 2000 nendo kokusai sekitan riyo taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kodo sentan system donyu model jigyo kanosei chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in Vietnam, aimed at solving the environmental pollution problems resulting from use of coal by demonstrating and disseminating the Japan's environmental technologies in the Southeast Asian countries. The feasibility study was conducted for the Cua Ong Coal Preparation Enterprise, which has the largest coal preparation capacity in Vietnam and port facilities. It is treating raw coal from 10 coal mines for classification and preparation, and shipping coal of various types that meet the standards for domestic use and export. The survey results point out that unrecovered coal remains in waste water discharged from the coal preparation plants to pollute the sea area, and that quantity of the refuse increases because of the unrecovered coal it contains. The environmental technologies needed to introduce include modification to variable wave pattern type jigging separator, refuse height measuring instrument and automatic controller, circulating heavy medium gravimeter, highly functional settling pond, and flocculent facilities. (NEDO)

  7. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  8. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  9. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  10. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  11. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  13. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  14. East Kentucky Bioenergy Capacity Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. Michael [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States); Montross, Michael [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Mark, Tyler [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    When you look across the landscape of Kentucky you will find a very diverse topography. In the western portions of the state you will find fertile and gently rolling soils that are prime land for traditional row crop production. As you move east towards the Appalachian Mountains the terrain becomes increasing roughed and less productive soils. One of the primary objectives of Morehead State University is to serve the eastern Kentucky population of Kentucky. Fitting within that mission is identifying new opportunities for people living in this region. With the passing of the Renewable Fuels Standard in 2005 there was a focus put on the production of biomass crops that can be used in the production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol. The majority of US ethanol production is derived from corn. The eastern portion of Kentucky is not well suited for corn production, but might be a location for other biomass crops to be produced. Additionally, many farmers in the region were looking for alternative crops to tobacco that might be well suited for the region.

  15. 76 FR 50436 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... instructions; or Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier: Joseph L. Blackburn, Field Office Director, Lexington Field Office... Office. Joseph L. Blackburn, Field Office Director, Lexington Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, 2675 Regency Road, Lexington, Kentucky 40503, (859) 260-3900. Carl E. Campbell...

  16. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  17. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  18. Medication Refusal: Resident Rights, Administration Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Danielle R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-12-01

    Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.

  19. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  20. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  8. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  10. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  12. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  13. 75 FR 51119 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Loans): Madison, Mason, Rowan. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kentucky: Bath... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc...

  14. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  15. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  16. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  17. Risk Management Education for Kentucky Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how an agricultural and farm risk management education program, known as Annie’s Project, was adapted from a midwestern focus to meet the diversity of Kentucky agriculture and shares the results of a longer-term evaluation of the Kentucky program. The Annie’s Project program is geared specifically to the needs of farm women. The program adaption process, which began in late 2006, is detailed from inception through pilot testing to the full launch of the program. Over a four year period, the Kentucky Annie’s Project program reached 425 farm women in 41 of Kentucky’s 120 counties. The evaluation draws on the results of a questionnaire mailed to program participants 18 months to 5 years after programming. Participants reported statistically significant gains in all topical areas representing agricultural risk management education, including production, human resources, marketing, legal, and financial. Key actions which occurred as a result of participating in the program included increasing confidence in management abilities, reviewing personal/farm insurances policies, developing a network of peers and professionals, and using financial statements.

  18. Kentucky DOE EPSCoR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, Eric; Stencel, John [no longer with UK

    2011-09-13

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program supports two research clusters. The Materials Cluster uses unique equipment and computational methods that involve research expertise at the University of Kentucky and University of Louisville. This team determines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials and examines the dominant mechanisms involved in the formation of new self-assembled nanostructures. State-of-the-art parallel computational methods and algorithms are used to overcome current limitations of processing that otherwise are restricted to small system sizes and short times. The team also focuses on developing and applying advanced microtechnology fabrication techniques and the application of microelectrornechanical systems (MEMS) for creating new materials, novel microdevices, and integrated microsensors. The second research cluster concentrates on High Energy and Nuclear Physics. lt connects research and educational activities at the University of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University and national DOE research laboratories. Its vision is to establish world-class research status dedicated to experimental and theoretical investigations in strong interaction physics. The research provides a forum, facilities, and support for scientists to interact and collaborate in subatomic physics research. The program enables increased student involvement in fundamental physics research through the establishment of graduate fellowships and collaborative work.

  19. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  20. Co-combustion of waste with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Lopes, H.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study of cocombustion of waste with coal is described. Various wastes (biomass, sludge, and refuse derived fuel) were burned with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor. Conditions that prevent segregated combustion, reduce production of nitrogen oxides, and attain high combustion efficiency were studied. The effects of variations in air staging in the riser, mixing of air with volatiles, coal/biomass ratio, methods of feeding biomass, and temperature are described. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  2. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  3. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  4. [Professionals' training and refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    A patient's refusal of nursing care concerns the caregivers. Future professionals must be prepared for it and student nurses are trained to deal with such situations. It is also important to empower patients and support them in their choice. This article presents the example of the Haute École Robert Schuman in Libramont, Belgium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of fouling in refuse waste incinerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van M.C.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-side fouling of waste-heat-recovery boilers, caused mainly by the deposition of particulate matter, reduces the heat transfer in the boiler. The fouling as observed on the tube bundles in the boiler of a Dutch refuse waste incinerator varied from thin and powdery for the economizer to thick and

  6. Method of gamma transmission analysis for controlling the hydraulic transport of raw coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.; Boessow, E.; Fanger, H.U.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of the methods for measuring gamma absorption developed at GKSS to be used for the analysis of conweyer flows of water/coal/refuse mixtures has been studied. As only the absorption properties of the refuse are essentially different from those of water the refuce is detected with higher accuracy than the coal. In this way the sensitivity of the gamma transmission analysis method agrees with the fact that in coal mining the critical mining parameters are influenced by refuse. The results of the investigations indicate that for measuring times of about 10 sec, accounting for realisitic variations of the chemism of the refuse, the volume shares can be determined with an accuracy of about +- 4.7 V/O of coal and about +- . 5 V/O of refuse. The measuring arrangement for the drift velocity is capable to record also the size and the number of the refuse lumps. The methods described therefore are well suited for controlling an optimal conveying operation. (orig.) [de

  7. Test installation for studying erosion-corrosion of metals for coal washing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, G. R.; Dingley, W.; Wiles, C. T.

    1979-02-15

    A test installation was constructed for investigating erosion-corrosion of metals by coal-water slurries. Erosion-corrosion tests of mild steel panels were conducted using slurries of alundum, quartz, washed coal and coal refuse. Wear rates were found to depend on type of abrasive, particle size and water conductivity and were reduced by cathodic protection and inhibitors. Cathodic protection of mild steel in coal slurries containing sulphate ion reduced wear by 90% and 86% for stationary and rotating panels, respectively. This study has demonstrated that the successful application of corrosion control techniques would reduce metal wastage in coal washing plants. The test installation is considered suitable for developing the techniques.

  8. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  9. Process for producing a fuel suitable for degassing from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzberger, J

    1975-11-20

    Utilization of the heat energy of refuse in waste incineration plants is time-consuming and expensive due to high investment and operation costs. The inventor recommends to process the refuse to a sterile, handy and storable fuel. For this propose the refuse should be crushed, kneaded and pressed. The briquettes produced in this way should be dried.

  10. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  11. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  12. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  13. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  14. Primary care pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine refusal in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan

    2011-03-01

    An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.

  15. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  16. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  17. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of... directs the port director to refuse delivery of the shipment, the shipment shall be refused delivery and...

  18. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2004 through 2008. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of crashe...

  19. Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2012 through 2016. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  20. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2009 through 2013. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  1. Kentucky's Individualized Kindergartens: A State Network Design for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B.; Cansler, D. P.

    The KIK (Kentucky Individualized Kindergartens) project, a collaborative project between Kentucky's Department of Education and the Chapel Hill (NC) Training-Outreach project, is designed to serve high risk children. KIK provides early identification of high risk kindergarteners, development of individualized education programs, and implementation…

  2. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  3. University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Search Help Research Our Expertise University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research | An Equal Opportunity University All Rights Remediation Power Generation CAER TechFacts CAER Factsheets CAER Affiliations Research Contacts Publications

  4. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  5. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Kentucky Supplement (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    FEDERAL INSECTICIDE , FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) Kentucky Supplement Derfmitions The following definitions are taken from the Kentucky...Hedge- nettle s Stellaria 1ongifolia Switchwort s Streptopus roseus Twisted Stalk e Styrax grandifolia Storax s Sullivantia sullivantii Sullivant’s

  6. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  7. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  8. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  9. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  10. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  11. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  12. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  13. Closing Kynect and Restructuring Medicaid Threaten Kentucky's Health and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles B; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2017-08-01

    Following passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States, the Kentucky Health Benefit Exchange, Kynect, began operating in Kentucky in October 2013. Kentucky expanded Medicaid eligibility in January 2014. Together, Kynect and Medicaid expansion provided access to affordable health care coverage to hundreds of thousands of individuals in Kentucky. However, following the Kentucky gubernatorial election in 2015, the newly inaugurated governor moved to dismantle Kynect and restructure the Medicaid expansion, jeopardizing public health gains and the state economy. As the first state to announce both the closure and restructuring of a state health insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion, Kentucky may serve as a test case for the rest of the nation for reversal of ACA-related health policies. This article describes Kynect and the Kentucky Medicaid expansion and examines the potential short-term and long-term impacts that may occur following changes in state health policy. Furthermore, this article will offer potential strategies to ameliorate the expected negative impacts of disruption of both Kynect and the Medicaid expansion, such as the creation of a new state insurance marketplace under a new governor, the implementation of a private option, and increasing the state minimum wage for workers. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  14. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  17. Whole-coal versus ash basis in coal geochemistry: a mathematical approach to consistent interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Hower, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Several standard methods require coal to be ashed prior to geochemical analysis. Researchers, however, are commonly interested in the compositional nature of the whole-coal, not its ash. Coal geochemical data for any given sample can, therefore, be reported in the ash basis on which it is analyzed or the whole-coal basis to which the ash basis data are back calculated. Basic univariate (mean, variance, distribution, etc.) and bivariate (correlation coefficients, etc.) measures of the same suite of samples can be very different depending which reporting basis the researcher uses. These differences are not real, but an artifact resulting from the compositional nature of most geochemical data. The technical term for this artifact is subcompositional incoherence. Since compositional data are forced to a constant sum, such as 100% or 1,000,000 ppm, they possess curvilinear properties which make the Euclidean principles on which most statistical tests rely inappropriate, leading to erroneous results. Applying the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation to compositional data allows them to be represented in Euclidean space and evaluated using traditional tests without fear of producing mathematically inconsistent results. When applied to coal geochemical data, the issues related to differences between the two reporting bases are resolved as demonstrated in this paper using major oxide and trace metal data from the Pennsylvanian-age Pond Creek coal of eastern Kentucky, USA. Following ilr transformation, univariate statistics, such as mean and variance, still differ between the ash basis and whole-coal basis, but in predictable and calculated manners. Further, the stability between two different components, a bivariate measure, is identical, regardless of the reporting basis. The application of ilr transformations addresses both the erroneous results of Euclidean-based measurements on compositional data as well as the inconsistencies observed on coal geochemical data

  18. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  19. Vaccine refusal - what we need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes

    2018-04-12

    Opposition to vaccines is not a new event, and appeared soon after the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in the late 18th century. The purpose of this review is to educate healthcare professionals about vaccine hesitancy and refusal, its causes and consequences, and make suggestions to address this challenge. A comprehensive and non-systematic search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, and ScieLo databases from 1980 to the present day, using the terms "vaccine refusal," "vaccine hesitancy," and "vaccine confidence." The publications considered as the most relevant by the author were critically selected. The beliefs and arguments of the anti-vaccine movements have remained unchanged in the past two centuries, but new social media has facilitated the dissemination of information against vaccines. Studies on the subject have intensified after 2010, but the author did not retrieve any published studies to quantify this behavior in Brazil. The nomenclature on the subject (vaccine hesitancy) was standardized by the World Health Organization in 2012. Discussions have been carried out on the possible causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal, as well as on the behavior of families and health professionals. Proposals for interventions to decrease public doubts, clarify myths, and improve confidence in vaccines have been made. Guides for the health care professional to face the problem are emerging. The healthcare professional is a key element to transmit information, resolve doubts and increase confidence in vaccines. They must be prepared to face this new challenge. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D; Schieder, T

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  4. Development of Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    ven though Kentucky has undertaken many initiatives to improve specific aspects of incident management, there has never been a plan that establishes an overall framework for a systematic, statewide, multi-agency effort to improve the management of hi...

  5. DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a high polyploidy, apomictic, self-incompatible, perennial grass, Kentucky bluegrass has such complex genetic architecture that conducting standard Mendelian genetic selection is currently impossible. One large hurdle is the inability to differentiate true hybrids from other apomictic progenies....

  6. Evaluation of Kentucky's "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report was to document the results of the "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign in Kentucky. The campaign involved a combination of earned media, paid media, and enforcement. : The evaluation of the campaign included documenting th...

  7. Intelligent transportation systems business plan for Kentucky : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents a Business Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. The purpose of the Business Plan is to define ITS projects that are planned for implementation from 2002 through 2007. The list of projects contained withi...

  8. Differences between "refusers" and "non-refusers" in a psychological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    Administered the ABV (Amsterdam Biographical Questionnaire) and the LOS (Leadership Concept Scale) to 98 students. The directions indicated that the Ss need not comply with the requirement to complete the LOS. 21 Ss failed to avail themselves of this permission and were labeled "refusers" (A). Their

  9. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  10. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  11. Infiltration barrier demonstration at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1983-01-01

    At the 1982 DOE LLWMP meeting, the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet presented a history of the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Facility, its status, and current Commonwealth activities leading toward stabilization and decommissioning. Information was presented at that time on the purpose of the DOE Trench Moisture Barrier Demonstration Grant and the early phases of construction and implementation. In this paper, final construction and implementation of the trench moisture barrier demonstration are discussed. Data including trench water level measurements, lateral liquid flow in experimental sections, and soil moisture measurements are presented and discussed. The Paper is completed with a brief discussion of remediation activities currently being implemented at Maxey Flats. 9 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  12. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...... and environmental considerations associated with the superior goal of sustainable development. In the EU regulative complex developments in normative and legal regulation of social and environmental requirements to member-states' performance have co-existed with tough requirements to ensure open competition...... in public authorities contracting. In the latest edition of the procurement directive it has been clarified that public authorities' commitment of private service-providers to social and environmental requirements by contracting is perfectly legitimate. At national level the municipalities when contracting...

  13. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  14. Smoke-free legislation and charitable gaming in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, M K; Hahn, E J

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effect of municipal smoke-free laws in Kentucky on gross and/or net revenues from charitable gaming activities. Between January 2000 and June 2007, 13 Kentucky communities implemented smoke-free legislation; only three specifically exempted charitable gaming facilities and compliance in several communities was not consistent. Kentucky is a tobacco-growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the United States. A fixed-effects time series design to estimate the impact of municipal smoke-free laws on charitable gaming. 13 Kentucky counties that implemented smoke-free laws during the study period of January 2000 through June 2007. All charitable gaming facilities in 13 counties in which a smoke-free ordinance was enacted during the study period. Gross and net revenues from charitable gaming activities in each county for each quarter of the study period, obtained from the Kentucky Department of Charitable Gaming. When controlling for economic variables, county-specific effects and time trends using a robust statistical framework, there was no significant relation between smoke-free laws and charitable gaming revenues. Municipal smoke-free legislation had no effect on charitable gaming revenues. No significant harm to charitable gaming revenues was associated with the smoke-free legislation during the 7.5-year study period, despite the fact that Kentucky is a tobacco-producing state with higher-than-average smoking rates.

  15. Investigation of pyrite as a contributor to slagging in eastern bituminous coals. Quarterly progress report 9, October 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryers, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this program is to examine slags formed as a result of firing coals with varying concentration levels, size distribution, and orientation of pyrite with regard to mineral matter in the coal in a laboratory furnace. The program tasks are: (1) selection of eight candidate coals; (2) chemical characterization of the coal samples and identification of the pyrite size, distribution, and orientation with respect to other mineral matter and concentration levels; (3) testing of the candidate coals in a laboratory furnace; (4) chemical and physical characterization of the slag and fly ash samples created by the impurities in the coal sample; (5) influence of coal beneficiation on furnace slagging; and (6) analysis of data and identification of parameters influencing the contribution of pyrite to slagging problems. Washing of the Upper Freeport coal from Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was completed by the last quarter of 1983. The washed product was characterized for mineral content, and a combustion test was performed. Kentucky No. 9 from Henderson County, Kentucky, selected as the sixth coal to be investigated, was characterized using size and gravity fractionation techniques and was combusted in the laboratory furnace to evaluate its slagging and fouling potential. The remaining two coals to be characterized and combusted were identified as Illinois No. 5 and Lower Kittanning from Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 80 figures, 27 tables.

  16. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  19. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  20. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because the...

  1. School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary B.

    Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

  2. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  3. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  4. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...

  5. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet : annual assessment of customer needs and satisfaction : mail survey report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, both through its own quality initiative and a statewide 'Empower Kentucky' campaign, has a commitment to achieve new levels of quality in the development, construction and maintenance of highways. In order to gage...

  6. Kentucky Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a peer exchange hosted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) and the Kentucky Office of Highway Safety (KOHS) on June 16-17, 2015, in Frankfort, KY. The event included peer representatives from the Georgia Department of...

  7. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  9. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  12. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  13. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  14. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  16. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  17. 20 CFR 401.70 - Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals of refusals to correct records or refusals to allow access to records. 401.70 Section 401.70 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... also inform you that you have a right to file a statement of disagreement with the decision. Your...

  18. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  19. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  20. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  1. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Consuelo Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%. Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P<0.01, which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P<0.01. High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years.

  2. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  3. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  4. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  7. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  9. Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment: Case Studies and Ethical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Brenner, Jay M; Kraus, Chadd K; McGrath, Norine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Informed consent is an important component of emergency medical treatment. Most emergency department patients can provide informed consent for treatment upon arrival. Informed consent should also be obtained for emergency medical interventions that may entail significant risk. A related concept to informed consent is informed refusal of treatment. Patients may refuse emergency medical treatment during their evaluation and treatment. This article addresses important considerations for patients who refuse treatment, including case studies and discussion of definitions, epidemiology, assessment of decisional capacity, information delivery, medicolegal considerations, and alternative care plans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  11. Performing coolness: smoking refusal and adolescent identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, E W; Fitzgerald, L J; Abel, G M

    2002-04-01

    The implications of smoking refusal for personal identity style were studied through conversations in six small focus groups or dyads of 13- and 14-year-old non-smokers from an urban New Zealand secondary school. The approach to analyzing their talk was informed by notions of 'performativity' and 'social space' to focus on the connections between identity and social relations. Smoking emerged as a key signifier of power and status. It was salient at both top and bottom ends of the social hierarchy depending upon the competence displayed in smoking as part of a larger ensemble of personal deportment and behavior. Being a non-smoker therefore inevitably carried connotations of being 'average' or 'in the middle', presenting non-smoking adolescents with the problem of accrediting themselves against superior 'smoker cool' groups. A discourse analytic approach was used to examine the resources and strategies participants brought to bear on this 'problem', which was then seen to be solved differently by boys and girls. Boys could establish alternatives to 'smoker cool' through physical activity, girls had little recourse but to accept their inferior status. The implications of this for health education and promotion are discussed.

  12. Refuse derived fuel potential in DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Combustible waste fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) which can not be easily separated or sorted, reused or recycled, may have a high calorifiv value (CV) that can be used in a fuel for energy recovery. The objective of this study was to explore the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) potential of municipal solid waste from DKI Jakarta to produce electricity and to promote it to be socially and politically acceptable. For this purpose, 24 sampels of RDF were taken from Bantargebang, cabonized, molded and pressed to be briquette. All samples were analized for moisture, ash, and calorific value in the physical and chemistry Laboratory of ITB Bandung. The analysis of calorific value (CV) shows the CV difference of 1815.8 cal/g between the briquettes (8051.25 cal/g) and the RDF (9867.12 cal/g. The total waste DKI which can be used as briquettes 5253 ton / day or equivalent with 49154115 kWh / day. If the efficiency of electricity production from RDF was 25%, then Jakarta is able to generate electricity from RDF of 12288529 kWh / day or as much as energy needed by 573,480 middle-class households with energy needs of 642.84 kWh/month.

  13. Application of EREP, LANDSAT, and aircraft image data to environmental problems related to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R.; Wier, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were used to study coal mining sites within the Eastern Interior Coal Basin (Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky), the Appalachian Coal Basin (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania) and the anthracite coal basins of northeastern Pennsylvania. Remote sensor data evaluated during these studies were acquired by LANDSAT, Skylab and both high and low altitude aircraft. Airborne sensors included multispectral scanners, multiband cameras and standard mapping cameras loaded with panchromatic, color and color infrared films. The research conducted in these areas is a useful prerequisite to the development of an operational monitoring system that can be peridically employed to supply state and federal regulatory agencies with supportive data. Further research, however, must be undertaken to systematically examine those mining processes and features that can be monitored cost effectively using remote sensors and for determining what combination of sensors and ground sampling processes provide the optimum combination for an operational system.

  14. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inconsistent with the employee's health, whether such refusal was made in good faith and based on medical..., as appropriate, also consider the following: (1) Whether the railroad made a good faith determination...

  16. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  17. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  18. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  19. Jehovah's Witnesses and autonomy: honouring the refusal of blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the scriptural and theological reasons given by Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) to refuse blood transfusions. Julian Savulescu and Richard W Momeyer argue that informed consent should be based on rational beliefs and that the refusal of blood transfusions by JWs is irrational, but after examining the reasons given by JWs, I challenge the claim that JW beliefs are irrational. I also question whether we should give up the traditional notion of informed consent.

  20. [The refusal of nursing care by the families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Claude; Fisher, Marion

    2016-10-01

    Caregiving is complex. While it is not easy to admit that the process can be refused by the patient, it is no easier when it is refused by the patient's family. Accepting this fact is however an essential stage in the relational and care processes. The family must therefore be supported by professionals in order to be able to make an enlightened choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Refusal of treatments by an adult cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Sarah; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Block, Véronique; Metzger, Maude; Salleron, Julia; Charles, Cécile; Adam, Virginie

    2018-03-01

    Refusal of treatment questions the treatment's adequacy as well as the quality of the care relationship. A rigorous analysis of these situations is necessary in order to respect the patient's fundamental right to decide for him/herself while preventing a potential loss of chance. This paper proposes practical guidelines for assessment and management of the refusal of treatment by adult cancer patients. The French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-Oncology formed a task force that applied a consensus methodology to draft guidelines. We propose five guidelines: (1) be informed of the conditions most often associated with refusal of treatment so as to reinforce adequate support measures; (2) understand the complexity of the process of refusal and accurately identify what is precisely refused; (3) apply an approach of systematic analysis to refusal, to try and increase the possibilities of finding an agreement while reinforcing the respect of the patient's position; (4) establish a legal procedure to address refusal of treatment that safeguards the stakeholders when no accord can be found; and (5) know the indications for ethical collective decision-making. A systematic assessment procedure of treatment refusal is necessary in order to ensure that all the physical, psychological and contextual aspects of it are taken into account, and to provide patients with the best treatment possible. The setting of good care relationship, the improvement of communication skills training and of comprehensive multidisciplinary care are all crucial elements in the prevention of these situations. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Severance taxes on coal and uranium in the sunbelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, M.; Peprah, I.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses recent developments in subnational severance taxes on coal and uranium in the Sunbelt states (Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Texas, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Virginia) and presents a brief evaluation of the likely impact of these taxes both on residents of energy-importing states and upon national energy aims in general. We have assumed that federal government objectives concerning the role of coal and uranium in satisfying future energy needs will continue to be those detailed in the October 1978 compromise energy package enacted by Congress and signed by President Jimmy Carter and outlined by the president in a series of energy policy pronouncements in 1979 and 1980

  3. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  4. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  5. Factors related to treatment refusal in Taiwanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.

  6. Pervasive refusal syndrome. Three German cases provide further illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Thomas; Ball, Juliane; Preiss, Maike; Haberhausen, Michael; Warnke, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J

    2011-09-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) has been proposed as a new diagnostic entity among child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by a cluster of life-threatening symptoms including refusal of hood intake, decreased or complete lack of mobilization, and lack of communication as well as retreat from normal life activities. Active refusal to accept help as well as neglect of personal care have been core features of PRS in the limited number of cases reported in the last decade. There have, however; been cases with predominantly passive resistance, indicating the possibility that there may be a continuum from active refusal to passive resistance within PRS. Postulating this continuum allows for the integration of "depressive devitalization" -- a refusal syndrome mainly characterized by passive resistance -- into the concept of PRS. Here, three case vignettes of adolescent patients with PRS are presented. The patients' symptomatology can be allocated on this continuum of PRS. PRS and dissociative disorders are compared in greater detail and contrasted within this discussion of differential diagnoses at the poles of such a continuum. PRS is a useful diagnosis for cases involving symptoms of predominating refusal and retreat which cannot satisfactorily be classified by existing diagnostic categories, and which can mostly clearly be separated from dissociative disorder.

  7. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  8. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  9. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  10. Kentucky Career and Technical Teacher Education Programs/Ongoing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Ed; Stubbs, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    What is Career and Technical Education (CTE)? How does one identify and recognized strong CTE educational programs? And after one has answers to the first two questions, how does one successfully align CTE teacher education (CTTE) programs across large institutions such as colleges within universities, or in Kentucky's endeavor within universities…

  11. Selling “Performance” Assessments with Inaccurate Pictures from Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Innes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new white paper from Ace Parsi and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning,” has a discussion on Page 7 about supposed success of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS used in that state from 1992 to 1998. This discussion paper explains the numerous problems with that description. The Kentucky-related comments in the Parsi/Darling-Hammond paper claim a basis in a technical report titled “Commonwealth Accountability and Testing System: 2007–08 Technical report, Version 1.2” created by Measured Progress in 2009. Unfortunately, the Kentucky Department of Education recently redesigned its web site and this technical report is no longer online. However, if the report actually does show the information attributed to it by Parsi and Darling-Hammond, that information is incorrect. Of course, as a closeout epitaph of yet another failure, Kentucky’s now failed Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, which succeeded the failed KIRIS system, the 2007-08 technical report may not have received an appropriate level of attention to detail. The comments below are referenced to reports issued during or shortly after the events occurred and are known to this long-time Kentucky resident to present an accurate picture.

  12. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  13. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Kentucky. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  14. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  15. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project, 1998-1999. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP) focused on two broad areas: (1) readiness for kindergarten; and (2) promotion of language and literacy in the classroom and at home. Key findings include the following: (1) most children who were ineligible because of family income status successfully transitioned to kindergarten; (2) several…

  16. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  17. The Fiscal Impact of the Kentucky Education Tax Credit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of a proposal to create a personal tax credit for educational expenses and a tax-credit scholarship program in Kentucky. It finds that the actual fiscal impact of the program would be much less than its nominal dollar size, due to the reduced public school costs resulting from migration of students from public…

  18. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  19. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  20. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  1. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  2. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  3. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  5. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  6. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  7. Situation testing: the case of health care refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, C; Couralet, P-E

    2011-04-01

    Situation testing to assess physicians' refusal to provide healthcare is increasingly used in research studies. This paper aims to explain the relevance and limits of this method. Conducted in 2008-2009, this study was designed to assess the rate of healthcare refusal among several categories of private practitioners toward patients covered by the French public means-tested complementary health insurance (CMUc) when they requested a first appointment by phone. The other objectives were to study the determinants of healthcare refusal and assess the method. The study was conducted on a representative sample of Paris-based dentists and physicians in five categories: general practitioners, medical gynecologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and dentists. The method was based on two protocols. In the first scenario, an actor pretended to be a CMUc beneficiary and, in the second one, he did not give information about his health coverage but hinted at a low socioeconomic status. The two protocols were compared and procedures checking the relation between refusal and CMUc coverage were implemented in each of them. In the scenario in which the patient declared being a CMUc beneficiary, the results showed different refusal rates depending on the type of practitioner, physician, or dentist, their specialty, and whether or not, they charge more than the standard set fee. In the second scenario, refusal rates were much lower. The comparison of the two protocols seems to confirm the existence of discrimination based on CMUc affiliation rather than patients' socioeconomic status. The discussion presents the limits of situation testing, which remains an experimental instrument because it does not observe reality but reveals behaviors in situation. The findings cannot be extrapolated and are limited in time. The statistical analysis is only valid if the procedure followed is precise and applied consistently using a preset scenario. In addition, the discriminatory nature of the

  8. Flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of the Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths

  10. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  13. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  14. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  15. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  16. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate effects on the anaerobic digestion of refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasali, G.B.; Senior, E.; Watson-Craik, I.A. (Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (UK). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory column and bottle cultures were used to examine the efficacy of NaHCO{sub 3}additions (1%, 2.5% and 5% w/v) to promote the solid-state refuse fermentation. Buffering capacity increase, by addition of 2.5% NaHCO{sub 3}, equivalent to 84 mg NaHCO{sub 3} g dry weight refuse{sup -1}, promoted both acidogenesis and methanogenesis, with the latter accelerating by a factor of six, compared with glass-distilled water controls. Increased addition, with 5% NaHCO{sub 3}, however, mediated partial suppression of methanogenesis and acidogenesis with cation toxicity the most likely cause. Promotion of the refuse fermentation by NaHCO{sub 3} addition, therefore, necessitates careful control of the concentration applied. (author).

  18. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  19. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  20. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  1. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  2. [Maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery, stillbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  4. The equity of school facilities funding: Examples from Kentucky.

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Glenn; Lawrence O. Picus; Allan Odden; Anabel Aportela

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality. In general one could tentatively conclude that Kentucky’s capital-funding system was reasonably equitable unti...

  5. HUBUNGAN ANTARA GAYA HIDUP DAN PEMILIHAN MEREK LOKAL ATAU MEREK LUAR NEGERI (SURVEI PADA AYAM BAKAR WONG SOLO VS KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Haryanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken. Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1 the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2 respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3 Survey was conducted in the form of direct structured intervew. These conditions were intended to get data acuracy. Logit regression was utilized to predict the influence of independent variable on depen¬dent variables. The analysis indicated that consumer who had fashion conscious life style preferred to buy foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken, the health conscious life style preferred on local brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo, leadership life style preferred on foreign brand, caring life style preferred on local brand, and extrovertion life style preferred on foreign brand. In this study, implications of the results were also discussed.Key words: life style, local brand, foreign brand, caring life style, leadership life style, extrovertion life style.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh gaya hidup pada kemungkinannya dalam membeli merek domestic (ayam Bakar Wong Solo atau merek luar negeri (Kentucky Fried Chicken. Metode sampling konveniens dipilih untuk mengambil 250 responden, yang diikuti dengan kriteria (1 responden berniat membeli Ayam Bakar Wong Solo dan KFC, (2 responden mempunyai kebebasan untuk menerima atau menolak sebagai responden, (3 survei dilakukan melalui wawancara langsung secara terstruktur. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan keakurasian data penelitian. Regresi Logistik dilakukan untuk memprediksi hubungan antar dua variabel seperti yang dihipotresiskan. Hasilnya mengindikasi bahwa konsumen yang mempunyai gaya hidup pemerhati mode cenderung membeli merek

  6. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  8. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  9. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Kentucky, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, forest resources management, geologic resource assessment and hazards mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. “Kentucky from Above,” the Kentucky Aerial Photography and Elevation Data Program (http://kygeonet.ky.gov/kyfromabove/), provides statewide lidar coordination with local, Commonwealth, and national groups in support of 3DEP for the Commonwealth.

  11. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  14. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  15. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  16. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  17. SRC-I solvent refined coal demonstration facility, Daviess County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This volume of the Environmental Information Document on SRC-I contains appendices I-P. Information is provided for the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement. Title listings of the appendices are: meteorology and air quality reports, December 1978 and March 1979; sound; economic, social, and cultural features; historical/architectural survey; archeological reports, 1979 and 1980; potential for burial and preservation of fossils; and alternate sites.

  18. Does Employer Monopsony Power Increase Occupational Accidents? The Case of Kentucky Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Shulamit Kahn

    1991-01-01

    A popular argument for safety regulations is that workers accept dangerous jobs because they have "no choice," or, in other words, because they have few or no alternative employment opportunities. This argument is considered in a game-theoretic framework. Because simultaneous-entry models do not yield pure-strategy equilibria, this paper develops a sequential-entry model to analyze the effect of additional firms on occupational safety. Within the context of the particular functional specifica...

  19. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  20. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  1. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  4. Magnetometric Studies of Catalyst Refuses in Nanocarbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIt is shown that magnetometry can be employed as an effective tool to control the content of a ferromagnetic constituent in nanocarbon materials. We propose a thermochemical treatment protocol to achieve extensive cleaning of the source nanocarbon materials from ferromagnetic refuses.

  5. [Refusal of personal hygiene care and nursing responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyé, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Situations of patients refusing personal hygiene care are frequent. Sources of difficulties and questioning for caregivers, they can lead to maltreatment. In order to avoid this pitfall, it is essential to support the teams in their approach around representations of caregiving and nursing responsibility.

  6. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from town refuse, there are wastes from agriculturally based industries especially ... depends on careful control of the 3T's (time, temperature and turbulence). ... These activities cause serious public health risks ... The modifications to the old bottle incinerators were developed by carefully assessing the failure modes.

  7. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  8. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M J

    1991-09-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  9. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. ... Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping ... citizenry has roles to play in adopting more suitable solutions to this problem.

  10. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    OpenAIRE

    Borel , Marie; Veber , Benoit; Villette-Baron , Karen; Hariri , S.; Dureuil , Bertrand; Hervé , Christian

    2009-01-01

    International audience; It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  11. [Refusal of care and respect of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Marie-Fleur

    Patients receive numerous care procedures which they may refuse for physical and/or psychological reasons, even if, sometimes, the consequences for them can be dramatic. Faced with this situation, caregivers are helpless. Only ethical reflection centred on their responsibility and their humanity can guide them towards the suitable attitude to adopt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  13. Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some Selected Cities In Nigeria. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... This study assessed the level of environmental pollution in the nation by focusing on the degree of accumulation of house – hold wastes, industrial scraps or wastes, ...

  14. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  15. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  17. Othermotherwork: "Testimonio" and the Refusal of Historical Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Christine

    2018-01-01

    This paper is an "ofrenda" (offering), a "testimonio" (testimony) of the healing power of reconstituting severed relationships and reconstructing agentic creation stories in the pathology of soul-wounds where pictures and "cuentos" serve to mend genealogical traumas. This paper is a refusal of neglecting traumas, it…

  18. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  19. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  20. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  1. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    stations. Flow-adjustment procedures were used with these techniques at all stations to remove the effects of streamflow on water-quality variability. Flow adjustments were used for all constituents, except temperature. A decreasing trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent; whereas, an increasing trend indicates an increase in concentration and potential degradation in water quality. Trend results varied statewide by station and by physical property and water-quality constituent. The results for all stations and all physical properties and water-quality constituents examined had at least one statistically significant (p-value <0.05) increasing or decreasing trend during the specified period of record. Water temperature and concentrations of dissolved oxygen had no significant decreasing trends at any station. Water temperature had one significant increasing trend at the South Fork Cumberland River near Blue Heron station. Specific conductance and concentrations of hardness had one significant decreasing trend at the South Fork Cumberland River near Blue Heron station. pH also had a significant decreasing trend at the Mud River near Gus station. Concentrations of total suspended solids had 1 increasing trend at the Kentucky River at High Bridge station and 10 decreasing trends with 5 of those stations located in the Cumberland River Basin. Major ions analyzed for trends included chloride and sulfate. Concentrations of chloride at the 37 stations had increasing trends at 15 stations, decreasing trends at 3 stations, and no significant trend in concentration over time at 19 stations. Most of the increasing trends in concentrations of chloride are located in the northern part of Kentucky, possibly indicating an increase in the use of road salts for road deicing and (or) the result of resource extraction (oil, gas, and coal). Increasing trends of sulfate concentrations were detected at seven stations, all located in the Appalachian

  2. Demonstration of the Viability and Evaluation of Production Costs for Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamshad, Kourosh [Coaltek Incorporated, Tucker, GA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project was split into four main areas, first to identify the best combination of coal and biomass, second, create and test lab quantity of preferred combinations, Third, create a sizeable quantity for larger scale handling and consuming analysis and fourth, to provide analysis for a commercial scale production capacity. Samples of coal and biomass were collected. Five coals, representing the three major coal ranks, were collected including one bituminous, two sub-bituminous, and two lignite samples. In addition, three square bales (~50 lbs/bale) each of corn Stover and switch grass were collected with one bale of each sample processed through a hammer mill to approximately -5 mesh. A third sample of sawdust was collected once experimentation began at the University of Kentucky. Multiple combinations of coal and biomass; coal, biomass, with biomass binder, were tested until a formulation was identified that could meet the requirement criteria. Based on the results of the binderless briquetting evaluations, the CS/Sub-bit combinations was selected for extended evaluation at a 10% biomass addition rate while the WS/Bitum combination was selected for extended evaluation at a 30% biomass-addition rate. With the final results of the selection process complete, the CoalTek continuous production pilot plant in Tucker GA was outfitted with the specialized blending equipment and two 1/4 ton production runs of biomass and binder subbituminous coal briquettes were completed. These briquettes were later used for a calorific test burn at the University of North Dakota. The first formulation included subbituminous coal, corn stover and a corn starch binder the second formulation included subbituminous coal, wheat stover and corn starch binder.

  3. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Ordovician strata exposed in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon Whitney; Peterson, Warren Lee; Swadley, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ordovician formations above the Lexington Limestone crop out in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky and along the Cumberland River and its tributaries. The formations are all conformable and in places intertongue and intergrade. The major Ordovician units above the Lexington Limestone in the Blue Grass region are: The Clays Ferry Formation, the Kope Formation, the Garrard Siltstone, the Fairview Formation, the Calloway Creek Limestone, the Grant Lake Limestone, the Ashlock Formation, the Bull Fork Formation, and the Drakes Formation. The Clays Ferry Formation is made up of subequal amounts of fossiliferous limestone and shale and minor siltstone; the Clays Ferry is as much as 300 ft thick and intertongues with the Lexington Limestone and the Kope Formation. The Kope Formation resembles the partly equivalent Clays Ferry but has a higher shale content (60-80 percent) and thicker layers of shale; the Kope, as much as 275 ft thick, is mostly restricted to the northern part of the State. The Garrard Siltstone, which consists of very calcitic siltstone and minor shale, overlies the Clays Ferry Formation in the southeastern part of the Blue Grass region; the Garrard, as much as 100 ft thick, feathers out into the upper part of the Clays Ferry in southern central and northern east-central Kentucky. The Fairview Formation is characterized by even-bedded limestone interlayered with nearly equal amounts of shale and minor siltstone. The Fairview crops out in the northern part of the Blue Grass region, where it generally overlies the Kope Formation or the Garrard Siltstone; it grades southward into the Calloway Creek Limestone. The Calloway Creek contains more limestone (generally at least 70 percent) and is more irregularly and thinner bedded than the Fairview. The Grant Lake Limestone is composed of nodular-bedded limestone (70-90 percent), interlayered and intermixed with shale; it overlies the Fairview Formation in the northern part of the Blue Grass region and the Calloway

  4. Impact of interventions for patients refusing emergency medical services transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, J; Hollander, J E; Henry, M C; Sciammarella, J; Stapleton, E; Gentile, D

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a documentation checklist and on-line medical control contact on ambulance transport of out-of-hospital patients refusing medical assistance. Consecutive patients served by four suburban ambulance services who initially refused emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the hospital were prospectively enrolled. In phase 1 (control phase), all patients who initially refused medical attention or transport had an identifying data card completed. In phase 2 (documentation phase), out-of-hospital providers completed a similar data card that contained a checklist of high-risk criteria for a poor outcome if not transported. In phase 3 (intervention phase), a data card similar to that used in phase 2 was completed, and on-line medical control was contacted for all patients with high-risk criteria who refused transport. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients transported to the hospital. A total of 361 patients were enrolled. Transport rate varied by phase: control, 17 of 144 (12%); documentation, 11 of 150 (7%); and intervention, 12 of 67 (18%) (chi-square, p = 0.023). Transport of high-risk patients improved with each intervention: control, two of 60 (3%); documentation, seven of 70 (10%); and intervention, 12 of 34 (35%) (chi-square, p = 0.00003). Transport of patients without high-risk criteria decreased with each intervention: control, 15 of 84 (18%); documentation, four of 80 (5%); and intervention, 0 of 33 (0%) (p = 0.0025). Of the 28 patients for whom medical control was contacted, 12 (43%) were transported to the hospital, and only three of these 12 patients (25%) were released from the ED. Contact with on-line medical control increased the likelihood of transport of high-risk patients who initially refused medical assistance. The appropriateness of the decreased transport rate of patients not meeting high-risk criteria needs further evaluation.

  5. Refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Khan, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the refusal of dialysis amongst patients of chronic kidney disease presenting for the first time for dialysis in uremic condition. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Place and Duration of the Study: Outpatient department of Nephrology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from 1 st Jan 2012 to 31 st December 2012. Patients and Methods: Patients of CKD due to any cause presenting with uremia for the first time for dialysis were included in the study. History and physical examination was done and demographic data was collected in pre designed form. Patients were offered for dialysis while explaining to them the advantages of getting and disadvantages of not getting dialysis. Patient's response on the offer was recorded and the reason for the refusal were noted. Results: According to the criteria 150 patients were included in the study. Most of the patients were male 92 (61.3%) and illiterate 78 (52.0%). Major cause of CKD was diabetes mellitus 58 (38.7%) followed by hypertension 38 (25.3%). Mean age of the patients was 42.59 ± 13.72 year and income of themost of the patients 126 (84%) was less than US$100/-month. Most of the patients 126 (77.0%) were asked about the need of dialysis in less than three months, 61 (41.3%) offered for the first time and amongst them 85 (54.0%) were offered dialysis already. Majority of the patients 101 (67.3%) refused dialysis when it was offered to them for the first time. Major reason of the refusal was fear of dialysis procedure in 76 (76%) patients followed by treatment by spiritual 14 (14%) and alternative ways and others 11 (11 %). Middle age persons refused dialysis significantly. (author)

  6. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  7. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  8. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  10. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  11. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  12. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  13. 76 FR 2361 - Atmos Energy-Kentucky/Mid-States Division; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-77-000] Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division; Notice of Baseline Filing January 5, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid- States Division submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  14. Defining perennial, intermittent and ephemeral channels in eastern Kentucky: application to forestry best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Svec; R. K. Kolka; J. W. Stringer

    2003-01-01

    In Kentucky stream classification is used to determine which forestry best management practice (BMP) to apply in riparian zones. Kentucky defines stream classes as follows (Stringer and others 1998): a) perennial streams that hold water throughout the year, b) intermittent streams that hold water during wet portions of the year, and c) ephemeral channels that hold...

  15. 76 FR 29796 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Refuse Piles and Impounding... to submit annual reports and certification on refuse piles and impoundments to the agency and to keep...

  16. Social Skills, Competence, and Drug Refusal Efficacy as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which assertiveness and related social skills, personal competence, and refusal efficacy predict alcohol involvement in adolescents. Males were at higher risk for poor refusal skills and reported higher alcohol involvement. Youth characterized by poor social skill development reported lower refusal efficacy, lower grades,…

  17. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Leiden, H.A. van; Weimar, W.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  19. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refunded if the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  20. Academic Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in Mathematics and School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Sanmartín, Ricardo; Vicent, María; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparicio-Flores, M. Pilar; García-Fernández, José M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: to analyze the mean differences scores in mathematic self-attributions based on school refusal and to verify its predictive capability on high scores in school refusal. The Sydney Attribution Scale and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised were administered to 1078 Spanish students (50.8% boys) aged…

  1. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  2. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  3. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  4. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  5. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  6. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  7. Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ian Gilmour; Silvia O' Connor; Colin A.J. Dick; C. Andrew Miller; William P. Linak [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CD1 mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 {mu}g of ultrafine ({lt}0.2 {mu}m), fine ({lt}2.5 {mu}m), and coarse ({gt}2.5 {mu}m) coal fly ash from a combusted Montana subbituminous coal, and of fine and coarse fractions from a combusted western Kentucky bituminous coal. After 18 hr, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar fluid was assessed for cellular influx, biochemical markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The responses were compared with saline and endotoxin as negative and positive controls, respectively. On an equal mass basis, the ultrafine particles from combusted Montana coal induced a higher degree of neutrophil inflammation and cytokine levels than did the fine or coarse PM. The western Kentucky fine PM caused a moderate degree of inflammation and protein levels in bronchoalveolar fluid that were higher than the Montana fine PM. Coarse PM did not produce any significant effects. In vitro experiments with rat alveolar macrophages showed that of the particles tested, only the Montana ultrafine displayed significant cytotoxicity. It is concluded that fly ash toxicity is inversely related with particle size and is associated with increased sulfur and trace element content. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Emissions from co-combustion of wood and household refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.J.; Peterson, F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the emissions produced in a 20 kW experimental boiler burning a combination of wood and household refuse. The wood content ranged form 10 to 50%. Direct sampling with Tenax adsorbent was used to cover a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The measurements also included unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously with a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The main emphasis was placed on the effect of wood on VOC emissions. The results showed that as the wood content increased from 10 to 50%, there was a roughly linear increase in emissions of total VOCs. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions also increased. These results suggest that household refuse is a good substitute for wood as a boiler fuel, as it has a similar calorific value but fewer emissions. (Author)

  9. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  10. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Schweighardt, F K; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, W J; Shridharani, K

    1980-09-01

    Additional data on the pyrite catalysis of liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal are presented. The liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal was significantly catalyzed by the presence of pyrite. Coal conversion, oil yield and preasphaltene conversion all increased when pyrite was added. An increase in hydrocarbon gas make accompanied by a higher hydrogen consumption were also observed. The higher activity in the presence of pyrite could be utilized by running the liquefaction step at milder conditions which would mean a lower gas make. Although we had heard reports that sulfur elimination from the SRC was improved by use of pyrite, our data showed only very small changes. Nitrogen removal from the solvent, however, was definitely observed. At 850/sup 0/F nitrogen in the oil product went from 1.61 to 1.12 on adding pyrite. This increased nitrogen removal was also seen in the added ammonia yields. Kentucky number 9 coal also responded very well to the presence of pyrite. Conversions and oil yields increased while the hydrocarbon yields decreased at both temperatures that were tested, i.e., 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Hydrogen consumptions also increased. In the screening program the results from testing a number of materials are reported. None of the zeolites gave any significant improvement over coal itself. The iron, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt rich materials had significant activity, all 85 to 90% conversion with high oil yields.Among materials specifically reported this period the clays failed to show any significant catalytic effect.

  11. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky (final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-07

    A contract was awarded in June 1976 for the installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system at 2400 Watteroon Trail, Louisville, Kentucky. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to the existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq ft office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offered a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site. The two systems are described in detail and information on the data acquisition system is included.

  12. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. [Refusal of care in the intensive care: how makes decision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M; Veber, B; Villette-Baron, K; Hariri, S; Dureuil, B; Hervé, C

    2009-11-01

    Decision-making bringing to an admission or not in intensive care is complex. The aim of this study is to analyze with an ethical point of view the making decision process leading to the refusal and its consequences. It is proposed a setting in prospect through the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, respect for autonomy, justice, and the Leonetti law. Prospective study in surgical reanimation at the University Hospital of Rouen over 9 months (November 2007-September 2008). Systematic collection for each non-admitted patient of the general characters, the methods of decision making, immediate becoming and within 48 h Constitution of two groups: patients for whom an admission in intensive care could be an unreasonable situation of obstinacy, and patients for whom an admission in reanimation would not be about unreasonable if it occurred. One hundred and fifty situations were analyzed. The potentially unreasonable character of an admission does not involve necessarily a refusal of care in intensive care. The question of the lack of place and equity in the access to the care is real but relative according to the typology of the patients. The research of the respect of the autonomy of the patient is difficult but could be facilitated. The Leonetti law does not appear to be able to be a framework with the situation of refusal of care in intensive care. It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.

  14. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  15. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  16. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  17. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  18. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  19. A narrative review of studies of refusal of psychotropic medication in acute inpatient psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Bowers, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper offers a narrative review of the 22 studies of medication refusal in acute psychiatry. Because of varied definitions of medication refusal, diverse methodologies and few rigorous studies, it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions on the average rate of refusal of psychotropic medications in acute psychiatry. However, it is clear that medication refusal is common and leads to poor outcomes characterized by higher rates of seclusion, restraint, threats of, and actual, assaults and longer hospitalizations. There are no statistically significant differences between refusers and acceptors in gender, marital status and preadmission living arrangements. Although no firm conclusions on the influence of ethnicity, status at admission and diagnosis on refusal, the refusers are more likely to have higher number of previous hospitalizations and history of prior refusal. The review indicates that staff factors such as the use of temporary staff, lack of confidence in ward staff and ineffective ward structure are associated with higher rates of medication refusal. Comprehensive knowledge of why, and how, patients refuse medication is lacking. Research on medication refusal is still fragmented, of variable methodological quality and lacks an integrating model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  1. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  2. Consent and assessment of capacity to decide or refuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Owena

    Consent protects the right of patients to decide what happens to them. Before any medical intervention, adults must give valid consent, which must be voluntary, informed and given free of undue influence. When consent is being obtained, patients must be informed about the intervention, why it is being done and its risks; information they are given must be recorded. Every effort should be made to explain the issues in terms that the patient can understand and by providing support and aids to communicate. Consent can be expressed, where patients say they consent or put it in writing, or implied, where a healthcare professional infers from their behaviour that they consent. While different types of consent are valid, some are evidence of stronger proof in court that valid consent has been given. Competent adults have the right to refuse treatment, regardless of the reasons they give for refusal and even if the refusal will result in death; clinicians must respect their decision. In some circumstances-such as when an unconscious person is admitted as an emergency-healthcare professionals can make decisions on behalf of patients, and must do so in patients' best interests.

  3. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  4. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  5. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  6. Bucket elevator linkage for coarse coal washer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.

    1985-09-03

    A continuous bucket elevator used in a method of separating coal according to its size and for cleaning refuse material from the coal in a Baum-type jigging apparatus wherein each bucket is connected to the adjacent bucket by a link received by a roll pin held by a bushing at each end in each bucket and the flange of a plate which is centrally welded to the bucket and has portions biased outwardly therefrom which merge into further portions having openings for receiving the roll pins, the diameter of the aligned openings in the further part, in the bushings, and in intervening link and the diameter of the roll pins being such so as to restrict wear due to the abrasive nature of the material being handled so that all components of the elevator wear out at about the same time and need not be replaced until after two or three cycles of use, each cycle being normally for seven and ten months.

  7. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  8. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  9. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  10. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  11. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  13. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  14. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  15. Heroin and fentanyl overdoses in Kentucky: Epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Costich, Julia F; Bunn, Terry L; Luu, Huong; Singleton, Michael; Hargrove, Sarah L; Triplett, Jeremy S; Quesinberry, Dana; Ralston, William; Ingram, Van

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky. Fentanyl- and heroin-related overdose death rates increased across all age groups from years 2011 to 2015 with the highest rates consistently among 25-34-year-olds. The majority of the heroin and fentanyl overdose decedents had histories of substantial exposures to legally acquired prescription opioids. Law enforcement drug submission data were strongly correlated with drug overdose ED and mortality data. The 2016 crude rate of heroin-related overdose ED visits was 104/100,000, a 68% increase from 2015 (62/100,000). More fentanyl-related overdose deaths were reported between October, 2015, and September, 2016, than ED visits, in striking contrast with the observed ratio of >10 to 1 heroin-related overdose ED visits to deaths. Many fatal fentanyl overdoses were associated with heroin adulterated with fentanyl; fentanyl and other synthetic drugs. In order to inform coordinated public health and safety responses, drug overdose surveillance must move from a reactive to a proactive mode, utilizing the infrastructure for electronic health records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  17. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  18. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  19. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  20. Separation of harmful impurities from refuse derived fuels (RDF) by a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, B; Mrotzek, A; Wirtz, S

    2014-02-01

    In firing systems of cement production plants and coal-fired power plants, regular fossil fuels are increasingly substituted by alternative fuels. Rising energy prices and ambitious CO2-reduction goals promote the use of alternative fuels as a significant contribution to efficient energy recovery. One possibility to protect energy resources are refuse-derived fuels (RDF), which are produced during the treatment of municipal solid, commercial and industrial waste. The waste fractions suitable for RDF have a high calorific value and are often not suitable for material recycling. With current treatment processes, RDF still contains components which impede the utilization in firing systems or limit the degree of substitution. The content of these undesired components may amount to 4 wt%. These, in most cases incombustible particles which consist of mineral, ceramic and metallic materials can cause damages in the conveying systems (e. g. rotary feeder) or result in contaminations of the products (e. g. cement, chalk). Up-to-date separation processes (sieve machine, magnet separator or air classifier) have individual weaknesses that could hamper a secure separation of these particles. This article describes a new technology for the separation of impurities from refuse derived fuels based on a rotating fluidized bed. In this concept a rotating motion of the particle bed is obtained by the tangential injection of the fluidization gas in a static geometry. The RDF-particles experience a centrifugal force which fluidized the bed radially. The technical principle allows tearing up of particle clusters to single particles. Radially inwards the vertical velocity is much lower thus particles of every description can fall down there. For the subsequent separation of the particles by form and density an additionally cone shaped plate was installed in the centre. Impurities have a higher density and a compact form compared to combustible particles and can be separated with a high

  1. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  2. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  3. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  4. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  5. Refusal of medical treatment in the pediatric emergency service: analysis of reasons and aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Halil, Halit; Gürsoy, Cüneyt; Çifci, Atilla; Özgün, Seher; Kodaman, Tuğba; Sönmez, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Refusal of treatment for acutely ill children is still an important problem in the emergency service. When families refuse medical treatment for their acutely ill children, healthcare professionals may attempt to provide information and negotiate with the family concerning treatment refusal and its possible adverse outcomes, and request consent for refusal of medical treatment. There is insufficient data about refusal of treatment in our country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of treatment refusal in the pediatric emergency service. We collected data recorded on informed consent forms. During a 2-year-study period, 215 patients refused treatment recommended by acute health care professionals. The majorty of patients were in the 0-2 year age group. Hospitalization was the type of treatment most commonly refused; restrictions regarding family members staying with their children during hospitalization and admission to another hospital were the major reasons for refusal of treatment. Clarifying the reasons for treatment refusal may help us to overcome deficiencies, improve conditions, resolve problems and build confidence between healthcare providers and service users, increasing users' satisfaction in the future.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  7. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  8. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  9. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  10. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  11. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  12. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  14. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  15. Linking Compensation and Health Surveillance Data Sets to Improve Knowledge of US Coal Miners' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Cohen, Robert A; Blackley, David J; Laney, Anthony S; Storey, Eileen; Halldin, Cara N

    2017-10-01

    Increase knowledge of US coal miners' respiratory health by linking data from the black lung benefits program (BLBP) and the coal workers' health surveillance program (CWHSP). BLBP claims data from 2000 through 2013 was linked to CWHSP data from 1970 through 2016. Overall, 273,644 miners participated in CWHSP, 37,548 in BLBP, and 22,903 in both programs. Median age of miners at their time of first/only participation in CWHSP was 28 and 32 years, respectively. BLBP claimants were older (median age 59). Thirty-nine percent of BLBP claimants had not participated in CWHSP. The relative contributions of states to participation differed between CWHSP and BLBP. For example, Kentucky miners accounted for 18% of CWHSP participants, but 36% of BLPB participants. Many BLBP claimants never appeared in CWHSP, indicating missed opportunities for secondary prevention.

  16. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  17. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  18. Stop on construction of fast breeder at Kalkar refused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The application of a plaintiff was refused by the verdict of the High Court for North Rhine-Westphalia of 16.6.1978, which would have restored the delaying effect of his application against the defendant Minister of the Land (his opponent) on the first part licence of the Kalkar nuclear power station. The plaintiff had to bear the costs of the proceedings, including extra legal costs of the co-defendant nuclear power company. The value of the object of the case was set at DM 10,000. This means that construction can continue. The most important reasons for turning down the application are given. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  1. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  2. Application of information technology to transportation logistics and security at Northern Kentucky University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    This research grant provided the opportunity to research and deploy beneficial transportation technologies to support transit needs. Working with the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK), solutions were developed that can apply to transit ag...

  3. Seismic evaluation and ranking of embankments for bridges on and over the parkways in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study represents one of the Seismic Evaluation of Bridges on and over the Parkways in Western Kentucky investigative series. The effort is focused on the seismic vulnerability of bridge embankments against slope instability and liquefaction pote...

  4. Psychotropic Medication Refusal: Reasons and Patients′ Perception at a Secure Forensic Psychiatric Treatment Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide O Adelugba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens can undermine the effectiveness of medications. This study was conducted to determine the demographic profile of forensic psychiatric inpatients refusing medications and to identify the reasons for refusal. Data were collected through interviews using a questionnaire including Drug Attitude Inventory-10. Medication refusal was more common among Aboriginals (68%, n = 34 than Caucasians (32%, n = 16 and was highest among the patients 21-30 years of age (44%, n = 22. Antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder featured prominently among patients refusing medications. The main reasons for medication refusal were inconvenience (34%, n = 17 followed by side effects (22%, n = 11, ineffective medication (20%, n = 10, illness-related (16%, n = 8, and no reasons (8%, n = 6. Antipsychotic medications topped the list of the major classes of medications refused followed by Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers.

  5. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  6. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  7. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  8. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  9. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  10. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizer, Ayal A., E-mail: aaaizer@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Parekh, Arti [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Simon P. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen, Paul L. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  11. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Hu, Jim C.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life

  12. Safety on North Carolina and Kentucky trout farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsanya, T J; Durborow, R M; Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Thompson, S L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe work-related safety hazards, injuries, and near-injury events (close calls) that occurred on trout farms in North Carolina and Kentucky. An interview instrument was used to collect information on occupational hazards, injuries, and near-injury events that resulted from work-related activities. Trout farmers reported occupational hazards including falling live tank lids, slippery surfaces on hauling trucks, lifting strains, falls from raceway walls and walkways, needlesticks while vaccinating fish, allergies, hypothermia/drowning, falls from cranes, chemical exposure, fire/explosions related to oxygen exposure, and electrical contact with overhead power lines. This study also reports solutions suggested by farm safety researchers or used by farmers to prevent the safety hazards found on trout farms.

  13. Physical properties of Kentucky's AML landslides: Case studies analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Vallejo, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Once an abandoned mined land (AML) landslide occurs and is identified as an emergency, engineers must rapidly implement a slope stabilization design. Correct slope remediation solutions are generally derived from well-executed geotechnical examinations. This paper summarizes a large body of geotechnical data compiled by the US office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) from AML landslides in eastern Kentucky. Special attention is placed on the examination of subsurface failures, phreatic water levels, soil profiles, and soil composition information from numerous borehole exploration programs. Strength properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Laboratory-determined soil shear strength values were found to be higher than those inferred from stability analysis. This suggests that postfailure determinations of the phreatic surface may be largely inappropriate when used in stability analysis or that laboratory-measured shear strengths are ineffective in replicating in situ colluvium/spoil slope properties

  14. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  15. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  16. Economic effects of Ohio's smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the Ohio statewide smoke-free law is associated with economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky counties that lie on the border between the two states. In November 2006, Ohio implemented a comprehensive statewide smoke-free law for all indoor workplaces. A feasible generalised least squares (FLGS) time series design to estimate the impact of the Ohio smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties. Six Kentucky and six Ohio counties that lie on the border between the two states. All reporting hospitality and accommodation establishments in all Kentucky and Ohio counties including but not limited to food and drinking establishments, hotels and casinos. Total number of employees, total wages paid and number of reported establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services, 6 years before Ohio's law and 1 year after. There is no evidence of a disproportionate change in economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky border counties relative to their non-border counterparts. There was no evidence of a relation between Ohio's smoke-free law and economic activity in Kentucky border counties. The law generated a positive influence on wages and number of establishments in Ohio border counties. The null result cannot be explained by low test power, as minimum changes necessary in the dependent variables to detect a significant influence are very reasonable in size. Our data add to the large body of evidence that smoke-free laws are neutral with respect to the hospitality business across jurisdictions with and without laws.

  17. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  18. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  19. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  20. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  1. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  3. Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Montuclard, Luc; Timsit, Jean-François; Reignier, Jean; Desmettre, Thibault; Karoubi, Philippe; Moreau, Delphine; Montesino, Laurent; Duguet, Alexandre; Boussat, Sandrine; Ede, Christophe; Monseau, Yannick; Paule, Thierry; Misset, Benoit; Carlet, Jean

    2005-04-01

    To identify factors associated with granting or refusing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, to analyze ICU characteristics and triage decisions, and to describe mortality in admitted and refused patients. Observational, prospective, multiple-center study. Four university hospitals and seven primary-care hospitals in France. None. Age, underlying diseases (McCabe score and Knaus class), dependency, hospital mortality, and ICU characteristics were recorded. The crude ICU refusal rate was 23.8% (137/574), with variations from 7.1% to 63.1%. The reasons for refusal were too well to benefit (76/137, 55.4%), too sick to benefit (51/137, 37.2%), unit too busy (9/137, 6.5%), and refusal by the family (1/137). In logistic regression analyses, two patient-related factors were associated with ICU refusal: dependency (odds ratio [OR], 14.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-38.25; p refused patients, and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.28-1.75) for later-admitted patients. ICU refusal rates varied greatly across ICUs and were dependent on both patient and organizational factors. Efforts to define ethically optimal ICU admission policies might lead to greater homogeneity in refusal rates, although case-mix variations would be expected to leave an irreducible amount of variation across ICUs.

  4. Toilet refusal syndrome in preschool children: do different subtypes exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Justine; Equit, Monika; El Khatib, Diana; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Toilet refusal syndrome (TRS) is a common, benign disorder in toddlers defined by the use of diapers and refusal of toilet for defaecation, but has not been described systematically in preschool children yet. The aim of the study was to analyse and identify possible subgroups of TRS. Retrospective analysis of all of the consecutive children with TRS presented as outpatients in a clinic for elimination disorders. Patients had received a detailed paediatric and child psychiatric assessment, including the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire. Three typical case vignettes are presented of TRS with constipation, oppositional defiant disorder, and sibling rivalry. Twenty-five children (10 boys) with a mean age of 5.2 (3.4-7.3) years were included-representing 2.5% of all of the children (n = 1001) presented. They had high rates of constipation (60%) and elimination disorders (24%-44%). Child psychiatric International Classification of Diseases-10th Edition disorders were common (40%) and heterogeneous, with significantly more boys affected, but no differences between children with and without constipation. This study shows that TRS occurs also in older preschool (and even school) children. At this later age, it is associated with constipation and behavioural disorders. The case vignettes show differences in therapy and may represent different subgroups of TRS. TRS is associated with constipation, elimination disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Owing to this variety of comorbid disorders, different therapeutic approaches are needed. A general screening for behavioural symptoms is recommended.

  5. Energy from refuse by bioconversion, fermentation and residue disposal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Liebman, J C

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion of organic refuse to CH/sub 4/ by anaerobic fermentation is 1 mechanism by which the energy in urban waste can be reclaimed. Laboratory studies were made to determine the rate and amount of gas production at various operating temperatures. The dewatering characteristics of the spent fermentation slurry were evaluated. The spent solids can be dewatered to a sufficiently low moisture content such that incineration is self-sustaining. The incineration system was evaluated to determine the possible energy recovery from the spent cake. A process for treating the liquid blowdown from the system was developed. A mathematical simulation of the total system was constructed to evaluate performance under various operating conditions. A plant processing 908 tons of refuse/day will produce 3905 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//hr. Recovery of just CH/sub 4/ provides a 32.6% efficiency of energy recovery. This efficiency can be increased to 63.4% if steam from the incinerator can be sold.

  6. Constructive and Destructive Aspects of Refusal from Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna A. Gulyaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of refusal from communication in terms of its positive and negative impact, both on the communicative process, and interpersonal relationships in general. It has been analyzed several aspects of the failure to communicate with positive communication position. The identification of constructive or destructive potential was carried out on the basis of three parameters such as productivity/ unproductive conflict resolution with the help of avoiding communication, the choice of an optimum way of non-communication and its role in the communication process on the basis of the functions performed by them. Failure to communicate is often perceived negatively and is considered an inefficient form of communication, so it does not allow to solve interpersonal conflicts. This article discusses the circumstances where refusal from communication advocates an effective way to avoid conflict. In situations where the termination of communication is inevitable, a fundamental factor for the positive, harmonious form of communication acts interrupting the communication process. Functioning in the communicative space, failure to communicate can either destroy an interaction and relationship between the partners, and regulate the communication process by guiding in the right direction, coordinating the behavior of communication.

  7. Refusal of implant supported mandibular overdentures by elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Janice S; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe; Mojon, Phillippe; Rosberger, Zeer; Feine, Jocelyne; Thomason, J Mark

    2011-03-01

      The aim of this study was to gain greater in-depth understanding of why elderly patients who are currently dissatisfied with conventional dentures decline implant treatment.   There is strong evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials to support the use of implant-supported overdentures for the restoration of the edentulous mandible. However, whilst recruiting for randomised clinical trials, researchers have found that a high proportion of potential subjects decline participation, despite the removal of financial constraints.   The study adopted a qualitative approach to provide a rich and deep understanding of people's reasons for refusal. Data were collected through focus group interviews in a two-centre study based in Montreal, Canada and Newcastle, UK. A semi-structured interview schedule was used and iteratively developed as analysis identified themes from previous focus groups. Transcripts of focus groups were coded and emergent themes determined.   Two main themes emerged; patients' fear and anxiety (relating to the pain of surgery, complications of the procedure and immediate post-surgical denture use), and the appropriateness of the procedure in an elderly person.   Fears of pain, complications and social embarrassment, exacerbated by age, are important factors that help explain refusal of implants by elderly patients. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Rationality, religion and refusal of treatment in an ambulance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate

    2013-09-01

    In their recent article, Erbay et al considered whether a seriously injured patient should be able to refuse treatment if the refusal was based on a (mis)interpretation of religious doctrine. They argued that in such a case 'what is important…is whether the teaching or philosophy used as a reference point has been in fact correctly perceived' (p 653). If it has not been, they asserted that this eroded the patient's capacity to make an autonomous decision and that therefore, in such cases, it is the role of the healthcare professional (HCP) to 'assist patients to think more clearly and rationally' (p 653). There are, however, a number of problems with the reasons why Erbay et al suggest we should help patients to rationalise their decisions and how HCPs should go about this. In this article, the author explores some of their main arguments regarding consent and rationality (particularly in relation to religious beliefs), as well as Erbay et al's normative claim that HCPs have an obligation to promote autonomy by helping patients to come to a 'rational' decision. Ultimately, the author agrees that the (temporary) solution to the dilemma presented in this scenario (which was to insert an intravenous cannula into the patient in order to allow an infusion of fluids in the event that he changed his mind) seemed both pragmatic and ethically permissible. However, it is suggested that the arguments which underpin this conclusion in Erbay et al's article are largely unsound.

  9. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  10. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  11. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  13. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  14. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  15. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  16. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  17. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  18. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  19. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  20. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  1. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  2. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  3. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region's energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990

  4. Central Nervous System Disease, Education, and Race Impact Radiation Refusal in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirayu G; Stavas, Mark; Perkins, Stephanie; Shinohara, Eric T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29.0% of patients who did not refuse radiation therapy died from their cancer, at a median of 17 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 17-18 mo). On multivariable analysis, central nervous system (CNS) site, education, and race were associated with radiation refusal. The odds ratio for radiation refusal for patients with CNS disease was 1.62 (P=0.009) as compared with patients without CNS disease. For patients living in a county with ≥10% residents having less than ninth grade education, the odds ratio for radiation refusal was 1.71 (P=0.008) as compared with patients living in a county with education. Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native, and American Indian races had an odds ratio of 2.12 (P=0.002) for radiation refusal as compared with black or white race. Although the radiation refusal rate in the pediatric cancer population is low, we show that CNS site, education level, and race are associated with a significant difference in radiation refusal.

  5. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  7. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  8. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  9. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-06-01

    This report covers results from both tubing-bomb experiments and continuous PDU runs. The following materials were evaluated in the PDU on Elkhorn No. 2 coal from Floyd County, Kentucky: Molybdic oxides; iron oxide; pyrite; pyrite/iron oxide mixture, and iron sulfate impregnation. A base case liquefaction run was also made for direct comparison. All of the above materials were examined at both 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Tubing-bomb experiments are reported on pyrite, red mud, sodium sulfide and organic compounds of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, chromium and lead. Significant conclusions were drawn on the catalysis by different materials. Especially significant was the higher level of activity resulting from impregnation versus particle incorporation of the catalyst in the system. Impregnation of coal decreased the hydrocarbon gases yield and increased oil yield. Hydrogen consumption was significantly reduced by impregnation. Addition of molybdic oxide containing 90% MoO/sub 3/ and 10% silica to coal liquefaction reaction mixture had the following effect: coal conversion increased, oil yield increased by more than a factor of two at both temperatures, hydrogen consumption increased, solvent/oil fraction showed substantial increase in hydrogen content, and molybdenum in the resulting liquefaction residue was apparently transformed into an amorphous material. A more thorough evaluation of completely sulfided molybdenum will be made to see if its activity increases. In the tubing-bomb experiments organic compound of molybdenum showed the highest activity for coal conversion and oil production. Significant synergism was noted between red mud and sodium sulfide in the coal liquefaction reaction.

  10. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  11. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  12. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  13. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  14. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  15. Genetic lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky spreading in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Magdalena; Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Le Hello, Simon; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-10-25

    The purpose of the study was to define genetic diversity of reptilian Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Kentucky isolates and their epidemiological relations to the ones from poultry, food, and environmental origin in Poland. Between 2010 and 2012 twenty-four S. Kentucky isolates derived from snakes (N=8), geckos (N=7), chameleons (N=4), agamas (N=1), lizard (N=1), and environmental swabs taken from reptile exhibition (N=3) were identified. They were characterized with antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentration testing, XbaI-PFGE and MLST typing. The profiles compared to S. Kentucky available in BioNumerics local laboratory database (N=40) showed 67.3% of relatedness among reptile isolates. Three genetic lineages were defined. The first lineage gathered 20 reptile isolates with 83.4% of similarity and wild-type MICs for all antimicrobials tested but streptomycin in single case. The remaining three reptilian and one post-exhibition environment S. Kentucky isolates were clustered (87.2%) with isolates originating from poultry, mainly turkey, food, and environment and presented variable non-wild type MICs to numerous antimicrobials. The third S. Kentucky lineage was composed of two isolates from feed (96.3%). The results suggest diverse sources and independent routes of infection. Most of the isolates belonged to reptile-associated clones spread both horizontally and vertically. Simultaneously, PFGE profiles and MLST type indistinguishable from the ones observed in poultry point out carnivore reptiles as possible vector of infection with multidrug and high-level ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC≥8 mg/L) S. Kentucky. Public awareness and education are required to prevent potential reptile-associated S. Kentucky infections in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Transfusion Refusal and the Shifting Limits of Multicultural Accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMichelis, Carey

    2017-12-01

    The refusal of blood products by Jehovah's Witness patients has provoked court proceedings, social science research, and contemporary fiction, all of which emphasize a seemingly intractable conflict between religious and secular ways of being. This article takes a different approach, focusing instead on the space that Witness patients have carved out for their accommodation in a major pediatric research hospital. Using discourse analysis and interview data, I map the way moralizing discourses surrounding Witness families have shifted over the past 70 years alongside advancements in bloodless medicine. I argue that Witnesses have helped to enable their present accommodation and recognition by marshaling particular forms of economic, human, and social capital, and consider whether their success might be attainable by other treatment-resisting patient groups. Thus, this article explores the shifting limits of multicultural accommodation and the conditions that make understanding, collaboration, and compromise possible.

  18. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  19. Renouncement of renal replacement therapy: withdrawal and refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrade Moura Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Renouncement of renal replacement therapy (RRT is a medical dilemma. This review covers the concept, the magnitude, the prognosis, and discusses strategies and management approaches about this subject in patients with CKD and AKI. Evidence suggests that refusal is more frequent and carries a more guarded prognosis than withdrawal of RRT. When RRT is not expected to be beneficial in terms of survival or quality of life, conservative treatment and palliative care are alternatives. We review the historical evolution of guidelines about renouncement of RRT and palliative care, and highlight the absence of specific recommendations in Brazil. However renouncement of RRT may be ethically and legally accepted in Brazil, as the right to a dignified death. Longer life expectancy, economic pressures, and greater awareness will require a more detailed discussion about indications and sustainable use of RRT, and possibly the elaboration of national guidelines.

  20. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  1. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  2. Treatment guidelines for primary nonretentive encopresis and stool toileting refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B R; Marcus, B A; Pitner, S L

    1999-04-15

    Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency. An organic cause for nonretentive encopresis is rarely identified. The medical assessment is usually normal, and signs of constipation are noticeably absent. A full developmental and behavioral assessment should be made to establish that the child is ready for intervention to correct encopresis and to identify any barriers to success, particularly disruptive behavior problems. Successful interventions depend on the presence of soft, comfortable bowel movements and addressing toilet refusal behavior. Daily scheduled positive toilet sits are recommended. Incentives may be used to reinforce successful defecation during these sits. A plan for management of stool withholding should be agreed on by the parents/caretakers and the family physician before intervention.

  3. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiaoli; Zhao Youcai

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic

  4. Treatment for School Refusal among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…

  5. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  6. 24 CFR 3282.354 - Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submittal of false information or... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Primary Inspection Agencies § 3282.354 Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information. The submittal of false information or the refusal to submit information required...

  7. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  8. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  9. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  11. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, H Roeline W; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these patients, and with three relatives of patients who had died after a request was refused and four physicians of these patients. Interviews were conducted at least 6 months after the refusal. A wish to die remained in all patients after refusal, although it sometimes diminished. In most cases patient and physician stopped discussing this wish, and none of the physicians had discussed plans for the future with the patient or evaluated the patient's situation after their refusal. Physicians were aware of patients' continued wish to die. Patients who are refused EAS may subsequently be silent about a wish to die without abandoning it. Open communication about wishes to die is important, even outside the context of EAS, because if people feel unable to talk about them, their quality of life may be further diminished. Follow up appointments after refusal could give patients the opportunity to discuss their feelings and physicians to support them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best interests of the child are paramount, and should the child unreasonably refuse to consent to life-saving treatment, the Minister of Social Development may give consent for such treatment in terms of the Children's Act. Otherwise, should a parent, guardian, caregiver or healthcare provider believe that such a refusal ...

  13. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  14. Behavioral treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. Methods A behavioural treatment package was

  15. Behavioural treatment of severe food refusal in five toddlers with developmental disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young children with developmental disabilities are at risk of food refusal. In case of severe food refusal, children are being fed by nasal or gastrostomy tube. Behavioural treatment may be effective in establishing oral food intake. METHODS: A behavioural treatment package was

  16. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. Methods: In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these

  17. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that insulin refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems.

  18. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  19. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nichon E; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; van Leiden, Hendrik A; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2009-11-01

    Conversion of potential organ donors to actual donors is negatively influenced by family refusals. Refusal rates differ strongly among countries. Is it possible to compare refusal rates in order to be able to learn from countries with the best practices? We searched in the literature for reviews of donor potential and refusal rates for organ donation in intensive care units. We found 14 articles pertinent to this study. There is an enormous diversity among the performed studies. The definitions of potential organ donors and family refusal differed substantially. We tried to re-calculate the refusal rates. This method failed because of the influence caused by the registered will on donation in the Donor Register. We therefore calculated the total refusal rate. This strategy was also less satisfactory considering possible influence of the legal consent system on the approach of family. Because of lack of uniform definitions, we can conclude that the refusal rates for organ donation can not be used for a sound comparison among countries. To be able to learn from well-performing countries, it is necessary to establish uniform definitions regarding organ donation and registration of all intensive care deaths.

  20. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…