WorldWideScience

Sample records for kazakstan export control

  1. Role of Non-Government Organizations in strengthening Kazakstan nuclear export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, L.; Prokhodtseva, T.

    2002-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGO) are the structures that were born by the time, the time when deep changes in our society led us to new trends in the all spheres of society development, to new decisions and, as a consequence, to new structural findings that where able to govern, to support and put into reality the new ideas the could not be inserted in the structure assemblies of the former society. All non-governmental organizations in Kazakhstan are younger than ten years old, but they already could be considered highly experienced, for intensity of their activity is rather high. The main advantages of NGOs are flexibility and independent source of ideas, basic data and policy assessment. There are several non-government organizations that are working in the field of non-proliferation and export control. Kazakhstan Nuclear Technology Safety Center (NTSC) is among them. Non-proliferation and export control is only a small part of activity that NTSC is involved in. Non-governmental organizations could be of several types: NGOs that are affiliated with university or institute, independent associations, quasi-governmental structures and various foundations. NTSC complementing efforts of Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC) in the field of non-proliferation and export control. The activity of NTSC in the field of non-proliferation includes: Holding conferences, seminars and workshops; Creating databases and reports; Develop proposal for legislation; Provide specialized training; Analyze data. NTSC is involved in a number of projects devoted to non-proliferation and export control. The following projects are supported by the US Department of Energy cooperation program on nuclear export controls for Russia and the Newly Independent States: System to review Kazakhstan exports (STROKE); Computerization of historical licensing data; Export control reference materials for Kazakhstan organizations; Additional Protocol. STROKE is a technical analysis database for

  2. Uranium and environment in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.; Bayadilov, E.; Zhelnov, V.; Akhmetov, M.; Abakumov, A.

    1997-01-01

    Kazakstan's data on uranium as a state report has been included for the first time in the Red Book. Therefore the report contains two large themes presented in Suggested Topics for Papers: Country report, based on the 1995 NEA/IAEA Red Book Questionnaire and environmental impact regulations. Kazakstan is considered as one of the world leaders on uranium supply. In Kazakstan there are many well known types of deposits but the main one is the sandstone-rollfront type. That type is represented by the group of deposits of the Syr-Darya uranium ore province. Deposits of that type include that main part of uranium ore of the Republic of Kazakstan and supply almost all of its uranium mining. At the large three enterprises the uranium is extracted by underground leaching. The mining method of uranium extraction is stopped. Because of the poor development of nuclear energy, Kazakstan's need for uranium is not very high. Presence of a large amount of cheap and technological uranium ores allow the Republic to export uranium. There are plans to increase uranium mining and perhaps to establish new mining facilities including joint-ventures. More than 50 uranium deposits are known in Kazakstan. During prospecting and exploitation of these deposits a large amount of rad wastes in the form of ore dumps and tailings were generated. They have a substantial influence on the environment. Moreover, near the sandstone-rollfront type uranium deposits the large amount of underground water has been contaminated by radionuclides. Special investigation of this phenomenon is necessary. In Kazakstan there are the rad waste disposal conception and contaminated earth recultivation regulations. At present ''The Rad Wastes Management Law'' is submitted for approval. (author). 2 figs

  3. Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control ampersand accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    The United States is one of several donor states providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for improving their systems for control of nuclear materials. Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy programs. Both countries have committed to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S. concerning development of state systems of control, accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials. As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards Division (now the DOE - Russia/NIS Nuclear Materials Security Task Force), technical specialists from several national laboratories, including Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia, as well as representatives of other U.S. Government organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination responsibilities for both countries. In support of agreements between the U.S. and Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is responsible for providing technical assistance and training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This assistance includes: (1) information systems for tracking and reporting the location of nuclear materials, (2) application of nuclear measurement techniques for verifying inventories, (3) material control and accounting (MC ampersand A) systems, and (4) physical protection (PP) systems. Site survey teams, including both MC ampersand A and PP experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine and Kazakstan. This paper summarizes activities to date and future plans

  4. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  5. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  6. Kazakstan on the way of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysanbaev, A.N.; Kosichenko, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The book is consists of collection of reports and recast articles from Republic seminar 'Sustainable development of Kazakstan: problems and perspectives' (Almaty, March 12-15, 1996) organised by Kazakstan Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy and Institute for Kazakstan development by financial support of European Union TACIS Programme). Economic, social, environmental, political, cultural and spiritual problems are analyzed for stability and sustainable development of the country, scientific and practical recommendation are given for improvement of internal and foreign policy of Republic Kazakstan. The book is intended for administration of state and non-governmental organizations, scientists, lecturers, graduates and students of Republic's higher education institutions, and the broad reading public as well. (author)

  7. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings.

  8. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  9. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  10. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  11. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  12. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  13. Support to the physical protection and accountancy for nuclear materials in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yu.; Yoshida, M.; Akutsu, M.; Takeda, H.

    1998-01-01

    The support programs for Republic of Kazakstan have been carried out for the purpose of establishing the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC). These support are based on the cooperation agreement for the elimination of nuclear weapons, that reached mutual agreement between both government of Japan and the Republic of Kazakstan in March, 1994, 1994. Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America have conducted the support for Kazakstan. Since there are many facilities to be supported such as fast reactors, fuel fabrication facilities and research facilities, items to be supported are coordinated and shared among the supporting countries. Japan has been carrying out the supporting tasks mainly for the fast breeder reactor facility, BN-350 and Atomic Energy Agency of Kazakstan (KAEA). PESCO Co., Ltd. is entrusted this supporting work from Technical Secretariat on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Former Soviet Union, and has conducted the support in the area of flow monitoring system, nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection, obtaining technical cooperation from Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation (PNC)

  14. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  15. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  16. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  17. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  18. United States assistance to Kazakstan in the area of nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittemore, G.; Mitchell, W.

    1996-01-01

    The US has agreed to pursue cooperative nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) programs with the Republic of Kazakstan. As part of this cooperation, a state system of control accounting and physical protection for nuclear materials is being developed. The US Department of Energy is providing assistance at the four nuclear sites in the Republic to enhance MPC and A systems, techniques, hardware, software, procedures, and training. US survey teams, which include both material control and accounting (MC and A) and physical protection experts, have visited four nuclear sites in Kazakstan. MPC and A assistance is being provided to the Ulba State Holding Company, the Institute of Atomic Energy at Kurchatov City and Ala Tau, and the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) BN-350 nuclear power plant in Aktau. At these sites, the facility staffs and DOE technical teams are working together to identify conditions not completely conforming with accepted international standards, as well as potential enhancements to correct such conditions. Design packages for enhancements at each of these facilities are prepared in collaboration with Kazakstani specialists. After agreement is reached on the specifications by the US and Kazakstan, MPC and A equipment is procured and installed. This paper summarizes the approach to the cooperative programs at these facilities, program status, and future plans

  19. 48 CFR 1825.1103-70 - Export control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799. The...

  20. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  1. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  2. NPT, export controls and nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Savita

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear trade has by and large remained unhampered vis-a-vis both the NPT as well as export control regulations. The NPT rules are regarded as insufficient, the guidelines appear to contravene the spirit of cooperation in trade and development between suppliers and recipients and there is no agreement among leading suppliers themselves on what constitutes the proper conduct of trade. Export control regimes are more or less too informal to be able to be implemented. The supplier states have to invariably depend on national legislations which again vary from country to country. The only common formal basis on which action can be taken is, therefore, the NPT, its loopholes notwithstanding. The idea of transparency, and supplier-recipient dialogue continues to be a myth and will continue to be so long as these regimes remain discriminatory, so long as some nations are more powerful than others by virtue of retaining nuclear weapons and superiority in nuclear technology and trade

  3. Export control training - Experience and pedagogical lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, P.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of the training offerings in export control within the framework of the International Nonproliferation Export Control Program. These courses are organized around 3 topics: licensing, enterprise outreach and enforcement. There are about 10 courses, a brief content of their curricula is given. The goal of these courses is not to make participants into export control experts or trade analysts, but enable them to properly take export controls into account. (A.C.)

  4. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  5. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  6. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Sun Do; Yang, Seung Hyo

    2011-01-01

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  7. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  8. 77 FR 37523 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...), respectively, that would implement various aspects of what has become known as the Export Control Reform... spirit and substance. BIS issued a notice soliciting public comment on streamlining its regulations...

  9. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ..., Director, Office of National Security and Technology Transfer Controls, by phone at (202) 482-0092 or by... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR...

  10. EXPORT CONTROLS: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, F

    1997-01-01

    This report examines the jurisdiction shift of two items, previously controlled by the State Department to the Department of Commerce, and the implications of this change to export licensing jurisdiction...

  11. Nuclear export criteria and controls in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the export licensing procedure and the modifications made to it under the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (NNPA) to achieve greater control over exports of nuclear material and facilities. Export licences from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are now required for certain items connected with nuclear plant construction and the procedure for obtaining the views of the Executive Branch have been formalised. The President is enabled to override the denial of an export licence by the NRC. Amongst the new criteria on the export licensing procedure added to the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, the NNPA provides that the IAEA Safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty are applicable to exported nuclear material or facilities, together with adequate physical protection measures. (NEA) [fr

  12. Implementation of the Nuclear Export Control at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jo; Lee, Byung-Doo; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Korea has joined multilateral export control regimes which include Wassenaar Arrangement(WA), Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG), Missile Technology Control Regime(MTCR) and Australian Group(AG), and their guideline and control lists are reflected in domestic legislation. Also, Catch-all control entered into force on 1 January 2003 in Korea. The frequency of the exports of product as a result of R and D and cooperation with other countries has been increased at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Therefore, this report describes the implementation status of a nuclear export control at KAERI and points out the practical issues

  13. The US program of technical assistance to the Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic of Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittemore, G.; Kuzmycz, G.; Caudill, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the summer of 1993, the US Department of Energy (US government) received a formal invitation from the Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic of Kazakstan (AEARK) to visit Kazakstan to prepare a program for US cooperation with the AEARK to improve material protection, control, and accounting (MPCA) at Kazakstani nuclear facilities. As a result of this visit, an agreement for such cooperation was prepared and a program plan was formulated. The Program Plan includes provisions for Technical Working Group meetings, a site survey of a Kazakstani nuclear facility for possible upgrades in MPCA, assistance to AEARK in the regulatory area, training courses to familiarize AEARK and nuclear facility personnel with US safeguards practices, and supply of US safeguards equipment. This cooperative program is funded by the Nunn-Lugar program and the Department of Energy. The program is coordinated with the International Atomic Energy Agency and similar programs of other donor countries (Sweden, Japan, and the United Kingdom). This paper summarizes accomplishments of the program to date and future plans

  14. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  15. Necessity of nuclear power engineering development in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.S.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.

    1996-01-01

    Kazakstan is a great land country. Mining and delivery of great coal amount to power facilities will require to rise prices for electrical power. High expenditures for energy will lead to rising prime cost of every industry production unit produced in the country. If all power supply in the country is obtained from solid fuel, than geographical factor would be a heavy weight for it economy that would be not able to produce competition able. There is no doubt, that Kazakstan coal power supply will be prevailing electric power source for a long period of future. But it is urgently necessary consider and develop alternative conceptions for development of young country. There are a number of favourable reasons for atomic power engineering development

  16. Hydrology and landscape structure control subalpine catchment carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent Jerald Pacific

    2009-01-01

    Carbon export from high elevation ecosystems is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Ecosystems in northern latitudes have become the focus of much research due to their potential as large sinks of carbon in the atmosphere. However, there exists limited understanding of the controls of carbon export from complex mountain catchments due to strong spatial and...

  17. A Study on the Export Control System at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. C.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Jung, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current non-proliferation regime requires strengthening the export control from Korea to foreign countries. This means that the ministries related to export control deeply emphasize the prohibition of the illegal proliferation in the domestic society as well as international society. The principle of export control for non-proliferation of WMD is to control the transfer of the strategic items/technology to the countries which intend to develop the WMD in accordance with the multilateral agreements of the Nuclear Supply Group (NSG), Wassenaar Agreement (WA), Austrian Group (AG) and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Among them, export controls at KAERI are deeply related to the guidelines of the NSG, an international nuclear export control regime. Since the new concept of an export system was launched in Jan. 2014, KAERI needs to consider new approaches to meet the requirement of the revised domestic law and regulation. To cope with this environmental change, this paper suggests new approaches to effectively conduct the export control at KAERI

  18. Export Controls: Controls Over the Export Licensing Process for Chemical and Biological Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...

  19. 78 FR 18814 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Controls Division, Office of Nonproliferation and Treaty Compliance by phone at (202) 482-3343 or by email... significant military or intelligence advantage to the United States. Immediate imposition of a license... accelerate orders of these items or attempt to have the items exported prior to the imposition of the control...

  20. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  1. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  2. 12 Ministries Control Rare Earth Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>"It is very natural to reserve rare earth as a strategic resource.Many countries do this,including China."On April 8,Sun Lihui,Vice Director of Metal Section of Chemicals Import & Export Commerce Chamber of China Minmetals Corporation told a reporter that as early as 2006,China has launched a strategic plan for rare earth,"but it was interrupted by the subsequent financial crisis."

  3. Agencies Should Assess Vulnerabilities and Improve Guidance for Protecting Export-Controlled Information at Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Commerce's and State's export control requirements and processes provide physical checkpoints on the means and methods companies use to export-controlled goods to help them ensure such exports...

  4. The status and latest issues on KAERI export control implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Park, Ho Jun; Kim, Hyun Jo; Ko, Han Suk; Lee, Byung Doo

    2010-01-01

    There are four informal non-proliferation arrangements which seek to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their missile delivery systems and the transfer of conventional weapons and dual-use technologies. The four arrangements are Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) on export controls for conventional arms and dual use goods and technologies, Nuclear Supplies Group(NSG), Missile Technology Control Regime(MTCR) and Australia Group(AG) on chemical and biological weapons materials. ROK participates in four arrangements to seek to encourage responsible practice in the trade of strategic goods and technologies. It is achieved through the implementation of export control list. MKE Notification (Ministry of Knowledge Economy Notification No. 2009-250) specifies those items and technologies subject to control. In this paper, the status and latest issues on KAERI export control implementation are described

  5. Implementation of safeguards at the Ulba Joint Stock Company, Fuel Fabrication Plant, UST-Kamenogorsk, Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.; Sprinkle, J.; Kuznetsov, B.; Andosov, V.; Grabelnikov, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Ulba Joint Stock Company Fuel Fabrication Plant (ULBA) produces VVER and RMBK fuel pellets. The facility has an annual capacity in excess of 1,000 metric tons with the pellets sold primarily to facilities in Russia for loading into rods and the production of fuel assemblies. The facility is part of a four plant complex at Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakstan. The Department of Energy (DOE) support for the enhancement of the facility Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) programs started with the initial site survey in September 1994. During 1994 a two-person team for the US provided on-site assistance as part of the facility preparation for the initial physical inventory used to determine the quantities present for the declaration statement by the Republic of Kazakstan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The DOE support program has been funded primarily through the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The management at the ULBA facility has demonstrated a commitment to developing a comprehensive Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Program and has assigned staff and resources to the MC and A program. The facility has developed the structure and framework for the MC and A system and has developed procedures in several key MC and A areas. Initially the facility staff had a limited understanding of the purposes of a MC and A program but, through the continuing work with the DOE technical Team, there are a large number of staff throughout the facility who understand MC and A requirements and are committed to implementation of the MC and A system

  6. Nuclear Export Control Policy in Korea - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsook

    2008-01-01

    The International community has been facing with the continued challenges for possession and proliferation of WMD over the past years. In addition, it is known that the terrorist groups are interested in acquiring WMD. The black market of WMD related materials and technologies show also the one of seriousness of our challenges. A number of international treaties, agreements and initiatives to control the proliferation of weapons of N, B, C and their delivery system have been existed to deal with these challenges, but their missions are challenged greatly in recent a series of nuclear issues by Iran and North Korea. The paper reviews the current international export control status and Korea export control system and policy. It also addresses some agenda to be done as future export control policy in Korea

  7. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan (NNC RK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    National Nuclear Centre is independent complex scientific and technical establishment of republic subordinate and it is attached to National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakstan. Date of foundation - 1993. General Director - Cherepnin Yu.S., Scientific leader - Takibaev Zh.S. In it structure there are Inst. of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Inst. of Atomic Energy, Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Inst. Geophysical Researches, Regional Medical and Diagnostic Centre, Research Labs. of BN-350 industrial reactor (scientific leadership), Joint-Stock Co., industrial and commercial enterprises, scientific services of former Semipalatinsk test site, geophysical observatories etc. The main goals of the NNC: a conversion of former Semipalatinsk test site and using of it scientific and technical potential in the national economy; a liquidation of nuclear weapon test consequences; a development of safe nuclear power engineering in Kazakstan; a fundamental and applied researches in the different fields of nuclear science and technology; a carrying out the inspection to nuclear weapon testing and non-satanical nuclear explosions on the test sites of other countries; a training of highly skilled specialists for nuclear power engineering, nuclear science and technology

  8. Application of U.S. export controls to DOE technical exchanges: New guidelines on export control and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisann, E.G.; Hollander, Z.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    As the Department of Energy's nuclear weapon's complex shrinks, concern regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology through the release of export-controlled equipment, materials and information has come to the fore. In November, 1994 Under Secretary Charles Curtis issued new guidelines on export control and nonproliferation. The new policies and procedures are designed to help Department of Energy Headquarters Offices, Operations Offices, Area Offices, laboratories and contractors implement a consistent and technologically sound policy regarding DOE transfers of unclassified equipment, materials and information that could adversely affect US nuclear nonproliferation objectives or national security. The DOE Export Control Division has developed a multi-faceted program of guidelines and training materials to sensitize DOE and DOE-contractors to their responsibilities and to teach them how to evaluate the proliferation risks of their activities

  9. Use a renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies in the the Republic Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of alternative power in Kazakstan is brought up. Wind-, hydro-, solar power, biogas installation can improve the Republic power base. The main directions of activity of A. Einstein International Power engineering Academy on involving renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies to Republic of Kazakstan's fuel-power balance is given. It should be noted that renewable power engineering usually handles reversible energy sources and reserved power cycles. (author)

  10. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Sun Do; Yang, Seung Hyo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  11. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control.

  12. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon

    2015-01-01

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control

  13. Current anthropogenes and issues of soil ecology of Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'gibaev, M.E.; Faizov, K.Sh.

    1996-01-01

    Information on ecological condition of soils on the Kazakhstan territory is cited. Loss of soils fertility because of erosion, deflation and pollution by heavy metals has been registered almost in all regions. Total soil degradation conducts to its desertification and landscape destabilization. In particular, in West Kazakstan there is nuclear site 'Kapustin Yar' functioned more than 45 years. On the site with total area of 1.4 mil. ha there were 29 nuclear explosions carried out (19-underground, 10-atmosphere), 29 000 missiles were set off as well. In the result the vast territory of top-soil is contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, residues of missiles fuels. Today underground cavities, formed after nuclear explosions on the Azgir site, have used as depositories for storage of high contaminated biologically dangerous radioactive substances

  14. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M

    1995-07-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Martin; Martinez Laso, L.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and use in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the os-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author)

  16. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Quality control and disinfestation of spices for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices in the world. Other than a few, all spices are grown in this country. The production is estimated at 2.6 million tonnes with an export of about 0.22 million tonnes valued around US $ 333 million. India's share in the world trade is over 40 % in quantity and 20 % in value. Many spices produced in India face quality problems as in other countries. For identifying quality produce, grade specifications have been introduced for all the important spices. With the liberalization of government controls, compulsory pre-shipment inspection has been withdrawn unless insisted by the buyer abroad. To meet the sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, the Spices Board has taken up a massive programme for upgradation of quality of Indian spices. Logo mark and Spice House Certificates are awarded to those spice exporting units having necessary infrastructure for assuring quality. By now, 6 units have been accredited to ISO 9000. Though different chemical and non-chemical treatments are available for improving hygienic quality, irradiation appears to be a reliable method. However, its wide application in the spice industry depends upon the conviction of the consumers of its safety. Because of the comprehensive programmes taken up for quality improvement of spices, India is confident of exporting spices meeting quality specifications prescribed by the importing countries. (author)

  18. US Export Controls and Technology Transfer Requirements: A UK Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    34 (La Franchi , 2006). Such requirements make it difficult for partners to participate and generate a large administrative burden on team members, who...if this critical impediment to enhanced cooperation is to be removed. The U.S. export control system is broken; its technology transfer rules ...Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www.jsf.mil/news/news2009.htm La Franchi , P. (2006, July 4). Australia demands JSF resolution. Flight International

  19. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  20. 76 FR 36986 - Export Controls for High Performance Computers: Wassenaar Arrangement Agreement Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... and export control standards. Croatia is a member of the Australia Group, the Nuclear Suppliers Group..., Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR Part 740 Administrative practice...

  1. Implementation of technical stage of ITER project in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkol'nik, V.S.; Shemanskij, V.A.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Skoz, E.Ya.; Nazarenko, L.I.; Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibaeva, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The main executors of ITER project in Kazakstan are: National nuclear Centre; National Joint-stock Co. of the enterprises on atomic engineering and industry (KATEP) and Science and Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of the Kazakh National Univ. Principle directions of Kazakhstan Republic works in 1996/97 under the ITER project is possible to formulate as follows: - irradiation test of materials on the BN-350 reactor; -continuation of in-pile experiments on determination of deuterium interaction parameters with beryllium samples, manufactured by Ulba Metallurgical Plant (KATEP), using Research Water Heterogeneous Reactor; - conducting of in-pile experiments on determination of hydrogen isotope permeation parameters through vanadium alloys using Research Water Heterogeneous Reactor. Conducting of out-pile experiments with beryllium, and vanadium alloys; - investigation of beryllium structure and properties in respect to hydrogen in condition, simulating gas impurities inventory, under thermal and neutron influence; -simulation of plasma disruption on divertor; -simulation of water steam interaction with beryllium; - determination of hydrogen permeation parameters for various materials with 'in situ' surface by electronic spectroscopy; -development of manufacturing technology of beryllium connections with copper alloys

  2. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Rok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries` experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan`s Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new.

  3. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Rok

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries' experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan's Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new

  4. Iodine prophylaxis around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Republic of Kazakstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Zakupbekova, Mairash; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Espenbetova, Maira; Ohashi, Toshinori; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the iodine deficiency status in the Semipalatinsk region that has been contaminated by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the period of the former USSR. Based on the Japan-Kazakstan joint project of adult cancer screening around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), from May to October 2002 spot urine specimens were collected at random in each village. Separately, children aged 5-15 years from around the SNTS were chosen at random and spot urine specimens were collected from them. Area contaminated by radioactive fallout around the SNTS, Republic of Kazakstan. A total of 2609 adults aged >40 years from 16 settlements in three regions and one city, and 298 children aged 5-15 years from two regions and one city. Median urinary iodine concentrations of adults and children in all regions were in the range of 116.0-381.7 and 127.7-183.0 microg l(-1), respectively. The highest prevalence of values 100 microg l(-1). In agreement with our previous studies, the urinary iodine concentration data showed no clear evidence of iodine deficiency around the SNTS. Kazakstan is geographically and nutritionally at moderate risk of iodine deficiency disorders without fortification or iodine replacement by iodised salt. The socio-medical prophylaxis against iodine deficiency has been successfully maintained in East Kazakstan.

  5. Import/Export Control for ITT in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Cheol; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Mun Ja [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The representatives of I/E (Import/Export) control in international society are NSG of nuclear fields, MTCR of missile fields, WA of conventional weapon fields and AG of bio-chemical fields. One of recent issues of the international I/E organizations is to strengthen ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer or Intangible Transfer of Technology). According to the ITT policy, ROK governments reinforced domestic I/E control for the non-proliferation of WMD through the Foreign Trade Law recently modified. There are international transfers of various kinds of items and technologies produced in KAERI as an integrated R and D institute in nuclear fields. In this study, KAERI is to develop a reasonable implementation methodology for the establishment of KAERI I/E control system to meet the requirements of the law. The main purpose of methodology development is to establish a frame of I/E control including ITT in KAERI. According to the methodology, KAERI held seminars twice for the public relations and education and prepared the regulation for I/E control. At present, KAERI is making a provision to check whether each R and D activity is related to the strategic item or technology. In the near future, KAERI will make efforts to get the CP license for effective implementation of I/E control of dual-use item/technology and follow up the changes of I/E control in nuclear field.

  6. 77 FR 72917 - Editorial Corrections to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AF62 Editorial Corrections to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration... corrects reference and typographical errors in the Commerce Control List (CCL) in the Export Administration... seven categories of the Commerce Control List (CCL) to correct spelling and typographical errors and...

  7. Export Controls: Export-Controlled Technology at Contractor, University, and Federally Funded Research and Development Center Facilities (D-2004-061)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The report discusses the steps DoD needs to take to identify unclassified export-controlled technology and to ensure that DoD contractors, universities, and Federally Funded Research and Development...

  8. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition

  9. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition of export

  10. Export Controls: Observations on Selected Countries’ Systems and Proposed Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    suspected violators of arms Investigates suspected criminal viol including potential export control v and dual-use export control lawse Source: GAO...those that present a strategic military conc substances, biological agents , and related items that could be used in the producti chemical and

  11. The formation of nuclear export control in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The controlling process of exporting and importing on Azerbaijan borders is being carried out by two state organizations. 1.Border Guard Department; 2.Azerbaijan State Customs Committee. The officers of these organizations have no enough necessary experience and knowledge dealing with the legal and illegal trafficking. There were not special educational institutions in order to train personals for both of these organizations made newly. So there's difference between the professions of the majority of the employees, that's why some of the employees follow the instructions linking to the normative documents while passing the border. When trafficking nuclear and dual-use items officially the controller and other employees should look through the list of all and know them how to behave and to make official, the characteristic parameters of the materials, and the instruction of monitoring. In order to realize all works pointed, the employees of Border Guard Department and Customs Control Check Points have to attend special courses. The employees of both organizations are frequently changed that's why studying courses are to be organized. The analysis of studying considered that will be realized shows mainly there may be two student groups. Mainly, the Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) as the expert laboratory takes part in. On the borders of Azerbaijan Republic the dual-use items and equipment having the type of isotope sources being utilized in the technological process are mainly being transported. In the materials presented the results and the solution of the problems dealing with realizing the controlling expert system of nuclear materials in the existing control checkpoints due to the international standards have been given

  12. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  13. The public health impact of nuclear weapons testing in Kazakstan. Report on a WHO expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Region of Kazakstan was subject to radioactive fallout from weapons testing which, it is alleged, has resulted in substantial exposure of the population and significant health effects. The Meeting, attended by experts in radiological science, reviewed the evidence from recent studies designed to establish the importance of these exposures to public health. The Meeting concluded that, in the most heavily exposed settlement, doses to individuals subject to the fallout were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than previously claimed. While there is need to confirm this result in other exposed settlements, the Kazakstan health authorities should be advised that health problems related to past exposures are not as great as previously thought and that, with existing agricultural practices, there is at present no threat to health. Changes in agricultural practices could cause a hazard from plutonium. (author)

  14. Act of 18 December 1987 relating to the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act controls the export of nuclear material and equipment and sensitive nuclear technology and services. In particular, it provides for strict controls and verification of certain exports. (NEA) [fr

  15. Synergy between Security and Safeguards in Uranium Concentrate Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumana, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a proposal to the government of Niger and all national institutions involved in the ISSAS and INSSERV Missions held in Niger to optimally coordinate they activities in nuclear field. It is essential to notice that Niger has significant nuclear activities, mainly in uranium prospecting, mining, milling, and export. In Niger, there are also many radioactive sources in non nuclear use. The safeguards agreement of Niger, infcirc/664, is in force since 16 February 2005 and its relating additional protocol since 2 May 2007. For the safeguards implementation in Niger, Government has requested to the IAEA an ISSAS Mission which was completed in February 2008. A main recommendation of this mission is to consider an overall plan for security measures and in this regards, an INSSERV Mission was completed in December 2008. Nuclear safeguards conclusions focus on correctness and completeness of declarations provided by operators. Nuclear security activities (prevention, detection and response) are useful contributions to confirm safeguards conclusions specially, a good detection strategy at national level can help to confirm the absence of undeclared activities in a country like Niger. Many governmental institutions are involved in nuclear activities and there are lacks of communication between them. Creating a synergy between safeguards and security can federate the mechanisms of control at national level and have impact in many aspects specially in (i) awareness of decision makers (ii) optimal use of the equipments (iii) organizing training activities and human resource management and (iv) designing national strategic plans. The institution which hosted the two IAEA consultative missions (Directorate of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Techniques-DUPTN for the ISSAS Mission and Civil Defence for INSSERV Mission) in consultation with other national institutions had to create a framework for this synergy. This framework must be submitted to the IAEA for observation and

  16. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  17. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  18. Development of a Prototype for the Export Control List Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GwanYoung

    2011-01-01

    The international society has concerned the possibility of a diversion with strategic items into the nuclear weapon development. So they have regulated those, and our country also has done it. Following a accomplishment of a UAE nuclear power plant export contraction in December, 2009 and a Jordan research reactor export contraction in March, 2010, thousands upon thousands of the strategic goods include the strategic technology will be supposed to transfer to UAE and Jordan. A lot of manpower in the government and the company concerned in addition to an enormous amount of time are needed so as to manage transferred items to UAE and Jordan efficiently. Accordingly, the Export Control List Management System has developed 1) to decrease the administrative time required about implementations such as the classification, the export license 2) and to plan the practical use of manpower 3) and to enhance a convenience of businesses, the government and a company concerned by the KINAC and the KOSTI. That system is scheduled to complete after June, and now a management of export items has done manually. This inconvenience can be solved by developing a prototype of the Export Control List Management System. Also an understanding of the Export Control List Management will be enhanced by doing it. A procedure of a system development and results will be presented in this paper

  19. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose.

  20. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo

    2014-01-01

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose

  1. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... failure to comply with a collection of information, subject to the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction... extension tubes; complete breech mechanisms; buckshot shotgun shells; except equipment used exclusively to...: 8A918 Marine Boilers. License Requirements Reason for Control: * * * Control(s) Country chart...

  2. Korean system of export control to support the commercial nuclear transfer to UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, the Republic of Korea won the contract to build 4 1,400 MW nuclear power reactors worth USD 20 billion in the UAE. The states-owned KEPCO will complete the turnkey project to the UAE including design, engineering, construction, nuclear fuel, operations, maintenance and technical support. Since sensitive nuclear technologies convertible to military purpose can be spread by the transfer of commercial nuclear power plant, it is essential prerequisite to implement nuclear export control tenaciously and effectively. About twenty years have passed since the Republic of Korea introduced export control system in domestic laws and regulations. Marking a major historical milestone in 2009 by ranking among global nuclear suppliers, the Korean government made a major step forward in export control framework to support its next nuclear export goal. (orig.)

  3. 78 FR 61743 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    .... Munitions List (USML) on the Commerce Control List (CCL), specifically aircraft, gas turbine engines, and... Controlled section, ``Hydraulic and fuel hoses, straight and unbent lines, fittings, clips, couplings, nutplates, and brackets;'' is corrected to read ``Hydraulic and fuel hoses, straight and unbent lines...

  4. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we've been and challenges ahead - Views of an engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ''dual-use'' controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective

  5. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we`ve been and challenges ahead -- Views of an engineer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, A.S.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ``dual-use`` controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective.

  6. Precipitation Pattern Controls on the Dynamics and Subsequent Export of Large Wood from River Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J.; Nakamura, F.; Chun, K.; Grant, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    In-stream large wood (LW) has a critical impact on the geomorphic and ecological character in river catchments, yet relatively little is known about variations in its dynamics and subsequent export in relation to different precipitation patterns and intensities. To understand these variations we used the annual volume of LW removed from 42 reservoirs in Japan and daily precipitation at or near the reservoir sites. Daily precipitation data were transformed into effective precipitation to evaluate trends in both current and antecedent precipitation, and these data were then used to explain basin variation in LW export. Model selection with generalized linear mixed models revealed that the precipitation pattern and intensity controlling LW export in small, intermediate, and large watersheds differed with latitude along the Japanese archipelago. LW export in small watersheds was well explained by effective precipitation greater than 120 mm, and showed little latitudinal variation. In contrast, LW export in intermediate and large watersheds was well explained by daily precipitation greater than 40 mm and 60 mm, respectively, and varied with latitude. In small watersheds with narrow channels and low stream discharges, mass movements (such as landslides and debris flows) are major factors in the production and transport of LW. Thus LW export in small watersheds appears to be regulated by the effective precipitation required to initiate mass movements, and shows little latitudinal change. In intermediate and large watersheds with wide channels and high stream discharges, heavy rainfall and subsequent floods regulate buoyant depth influencing the initiation of LW mobility, and thus control the amount of LW exported. In southern and central Japan, intense rainfall accompanying typhoons or localized torrential downpours lead to geomorphic disturbances, which produce massive amounts of LW delivery into channels. However, these pieces are constantly removed by high streamflows

  7. The National Implementation of Nuclear Export Controls: Developing a Best Practices Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viski, Andrea [European University Institute, Department of Law, Badia Fiesolana, S.Domenico di Fiesole, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The nuclear renaissance promises significant benefits to the international community, but also raises security challenges, particularly relating to the trade of nuclear materials and equipment. The objective of this paper is to examine how supply-side non-proliferation efforts can be strengthened by developing a best practices model for national nuclear export control implementation. In order to achieve this goal, nuclear export control measures identified by the 1540 Committee will be used as a framework from which a best practices model can be formed. Such a model concentrates specifically on national legislation and enforcement measures delineated by the Committee in order to bring countries in accordance with international law. Developing a best practices model seeks to deliver an ideal process for national export control law actualization in order to encourage the peaceful development of nuclear energy and develop the infrastructure and framework for precluding nuclear proliferation.

  8. Current status of investigations in the field of solid state science in central Kazakstan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuketaev, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations in the field of solid state science were initiated together with foundation of University in Karaganda. Historically general investigations in this field were conducted for scientific directions related to optical, luminescent and radiation properties of wide gap insulator. This activity was carried out according to appropriate plans of coordination counsels en-gaged in the physics of insulators, luminescent and radiation physics at the Academy of Science USSR and in the Committee on sciences and engineering of the Counsel of Ministers of the USSR. A number of works were coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Republic. Investigations in the field of solid state science, con-ducted in the Central Kazakstan and coordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering of Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences, can be currently distinguished according to scientific directions. Currently, the following scientific directions in the field of solid state science exist in the Central Kazakstan: influence of polymorph phase transitions on electron excitation in wide-gap crystals, radiation malformation and recombination, dielectric spectroscopy of crystals with hydrogen link, spectral and luminescent properties and energy migration processes in disordered and partly ordered systems of organic molecules. It is necessary to note that all investigated objects, described in this report, were recovered by investigators. That is, the relevant hardware is available

  9. Status of inventory, recycling, and storage of hazardous waste in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yermekbayeva, L. [Ministry of Ecology and Bioresources, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    1996-12-31

    Conditions associated with toxic and radioactive waste in the Republic of Kazakstan are discussed. At present, more than 19 billion tons of various wastes, including toxic, radioactive, and other hazardous waste, have accumulated in the country, and about 1 billion tons of waste are generated each year. Ecological legislation for toxic waste storage is being examined. However, the definition and classification of waste inventories are not finalized. Furthermore, the country does not have sites for salvaging, rendering harmless, or disposing of these wastes. Kazakstan also has problems with radioactive waste that are complicated by the activity at the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site. Here, nuclear explosions occurred because of economic and other reasons. In ecologically challenged regions, high levels of pollutants from chemical, toxic, industrial, and radioactive wastes and pesticides cause many diseases. These complex problems may be resolved by establishing a Governmental body to manage industrial and consumer waste, including toxic and radioactive waste, and also by developing legal and other regulations. 3 tabs.

  10. Impacts of U.S. Export Control Policies on Science and Technology Activities and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    coffee table. However, under the current export control regime, the stand was considered ‘ITAR hardware’ and we were required to have two security...should survive without an effective method for pruning items from the control lists when they no longer serve a significant definable national

  11. Export Controls and the Tensions between Academic Freedom and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel A. W.; Valdivia, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S.A., advocates of academic freedom--the ability to pursue research unencumbered by government controls--have long found sparring partners in government officials who regulate technology trade. From concern over classified research in the 1950s, to the expansion of export controls to cover trade in information in the 1970s, to current…

  12. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Control in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.; Prah, M.; Mikec, N.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with its internationally accepted obligations, the Republic of Croatia is actively implementing principles of non-proliferation and export control of nuclear materials and/or equipment. The article deals with treaties, conventions, agreements and other international arrangements that are creating certain obligation for Republic of Croatia related to nuclear non-proliferation. The most important are the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Protocol, the Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the NSG Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and NSG Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In addition the article describes a national regulative framework, the basis for conducting activities in nuclear material control, export control of dual-use items as well as non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction. Details are given about the Nuclear Safety Act, the Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, the Act on Export of Dual-Use Items, the Decree on the List of Dual-Use Items, the Law on Production, Repair and Trade in Arms and Military Equipment and the Decree specifying goods subject to export and import licenses. (author)

  13. Analysis of nuclear export control system and implementing international nonproliferation regime in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Ahn, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Min, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    China's exporting behaviour of nuclear items had been disconnected from the international non-proliferation regime such as IAEA safeguards and export control related with peaceful use of nuclear energy since 1970s. Especially, China had been one of principle suppliers of nuclear facility and technologies to Pakistan and Iran which had developed nuclear weapon programs. On the other hand, according to the rapid growth of economic scale after China began to open to the world, an active program for nuclear power plant as an electricity source had established. This means that China have surfaced as a big market to Korean nuclear industries. Regarding this, the paper dealt with the nuclear export control matters, i.e. the history of nuclear export control system and analyzed on background of enforcement of U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement that had been apolitical issue between U.S. and China. Prospects toward conforming its nuclear export policies, laws and regulations to international standards also analyzed in results

  14. Conceptual Design on the System Architecture of Intellectual Export Control System(IXCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Ho; Yang, Seung Hyo; Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The commodity classification is for identifying strategic commodity, and the export license is for verifying that exports have met the requirement by the national legislation following international obligations (i. e. NSG guidelines) Since 2008, the 'Nuclear Export Promotion Service (NEPS)' System has been used as a total IT system providing various functions for exporters and reviewers. However, reviewers who make the decisions for commodity classification and export license, may have difficulties caused by ambiguity of criteria. For example, it is not sure whether a CVCS (Chemical Volume Control System) of a certain nuclear reactor plant belongs to strategic commodity or not. The NEPS is a useful system helping users save their time, but it cannot provide solutions reducing ambiguity of each classification or license case. To solve these problems and provide more efficient ways to their decisions, various intelligent IT solutions are searched and studied. A functional architecture of IXCS is defined and designed conceptually. This conceptual design will be utilized to make database specification and to find the optimized artificial algorithm for review processes

  15. Effect of International Standards Certification on Firm-Level Exports: An Application of the Control Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunehiro Otsuki

    2011-01-01

    Growing number of firms in developing countries have earned certifications such as International Standards Organization (ISO) as it enhances reputation of their company or brand and attract buyers particularly in export market. This study evaluates the effect of international standards certification on firm's export performance in Europe and Central Asia by applying the control function approach with endogenous treatment effect to firm-level data. Certification is found to increase export sha...

  16. Dynamic characteristics of background seismic noise according to records of nuclear monitoring seismic stations in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.; Sinyova, Z.I.; Komarov, I.I.; Mikhailova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The seismic stations of Kazakstan, included into nuclear monitoring network (see fig.1) are equipped with broad hand seismometers; seismic data are recorded in digital format. All this allows to investigate spectral and time characteristics of seismic background noise in very large frequency diapason (more than 3-5 orders), for all three components of oscillation vector. The spectral density of background seismic noise for vertical and both horizontal components (fig.2) was calculated for all of the observation points. The regular features of structure of noise spectra, inherent for all of the studied observation points, as well as some features, specific for studied places were found. The curves of spectral noise density were compared with global noise model, determined by the data of Global Seismological Network (GSN)

  17. Determination of ionizing irradiation summary dose for animals of West Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsev, V.E.; Nasirov, R.N.; Gal'tseva, E.V.; Lebedev, Ya.S.; Bubnov, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    By mean of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry the accumulated radiation doses received animals near Azgyr and Tajsojgan nuclear test sites (West Kazakstan) were determined . In the work camel's two teeth (Tajsojgan) and cow's two teeth (from Azgyr and Tajsojgan test sites - accordingly) were used. Registration of EPR spectrum has been carried out on production-type EPR-spectrometer ESR-300 of Bruker firm under temperature 77 K. SHF power level is 5 MW. Constant magnetic field's modulation frequency was equal to 100 k Hz and modulation amplitude was equal to 3,2 Gs. Received data allow to make conclusion that all tested animals have got summary dose exceeded significantly a natural background radiation dose (1-1,5 μGy/y. Comparison of irradiation dose accumulated in both the front and back tooth walls testifies about predominance of hard γ-rays in the spectrum. 4 refs., 2 figs

  18. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  19. A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors Gregory Crabb, U.S. Postal Inspection Service Julia H...mail fraud, mail theft, identity theft, child exploitation, and prohibited mailings such as bombs and biological and chemical threats...April 2012. http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=10085 [Allen 2014a] Allen, Julia H., Crabb, Gregory; Curtis, Pamela D

  20. Reforming U.S. Export Controls Reforms: Advancing U.S. Army Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The author wishes to thank several anonymous and peer re- viewers as well as Alex Barnes, Rachel Bauman, Justin Blaszczyk, William Cardon ...is worth noting in that it requires, pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act, that: certification be provided to Congress prior to the granting of...security. Otherwise, approval cannot be granted until 15 days after Congress has re- ceived the certification for the manufacturing license or technical

  1. A study on improvement of export control system for the nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yang, Seung Hyo

    2012-01-01

    The Republic of Korea joined Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) in 1995 and became a major nuclear supplier both in name and reality by contracting the Project of UAE Braka Nuclear Power Plant(BNPP) in 2009 and the Project of Jordan Research and Training Reactor(JRTR) in 2010. And ROK is currently negotiating with several countries such as Finland and Vietnam for more projects, so it is expected to obtain more orders of commercial and research reactor. At this point of time, we found that it is difficult to apply individual export licensing system as it is for the big nuclear project such as BNPP and JRTR Project. Because the nuclear project in foreign country contains transfer of thousands of items and technical documents, including a considerable number of strategic items, issuing individual licenses for all items and documents can cause the inefficiency of the project. So, an appropriate export control system which can support such a project is necessary. In this study, we focused on how to improve the export control system to guarantee not only time efficiency but careful management of strategic goods

  2. A Study on the cooperation policy in multilateral nuclear control regimes and the advancing of national export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2004-08-01

    This study carried out the analysis of trends of the multilateral nuclear control in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the past trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Second, this study establishes the multilateral cooperation strategies for the effective cooperation in the process of strengthening the nuclear control regimes. Third, this study reviews the major agenda of nuclear control regimes and establishes national positions on each agenda. Fourth, this study also analyzes outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derives some factors to reflect national nuclear control system

  3. EXPORT CONTROLS: Rapid Advances in China's Semiconductor Industry Underscore Need for Fundamental U.S. Policy Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The United States controls the export of certain technology, including some of the equipment and materials used to make semiconductors, to sensitive destinations such as China for national security...

  4. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  5. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control

  6. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control.

  7. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises; Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit, Exportkontrolle und Exportfoerderung von Dual-Use-Guetern. Europaeische und deutsche Spagatuebungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-08-15

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  8. Correlations-Adjusted Export Market Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Joo La

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...

  9. Study on the efficient export control for the Intangible Transfer of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Choi, Sun-do; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Technical Data may take forms such as document, drawing, description, report, manual and instruction. And, it can be written or recorded on storage medium such as disk, tape and read-only memories. Technical assistance may take forms such as instruction, skill, training, working knowledge and consulting services. Technical data or assistance can be transferred by intangible manners such as an electronic means (e.g. email, internet, telephone or fax) and through the oral (e.g. seminar, meeting or workshop). Currently, ROK's export control regulation is not classified between the transfer of listed items (or general technology) and intangible transfer of technology (ITT). It may make a loop hole or cause inefficient implementation of export control. The purpose of this study is to suggest the efficient control method for ITT independent from item control method. From the result of this study, several main feathers in regulations of developed countries are drawn. First, they define that technical assistance (or support) is the object of permission. And, they have a clear distinction between resident and non-resident. Second, The UK and Germany do not control the technical assistance related to construction and operation of nuclear facilities for peaceful use, as long as technology does not transfer to recipient that has a nuclear proliferation concerns such as the DPRK, Iran or Pakistan.

  10. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality; Parlamentarische Kontrolle und Geheimhaltungsbeduerftigkeit bei Nuklearexporten. Zum Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 21. Oktober 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-03-15

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  11. Export control guide: Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and preparation of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also referred to as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), states in Article III, paragraph 2(b) that open-quotes Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide . . . equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.close quotes This guide was prepared to assist export control officials in the interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws and controls relating to the international Trigger List for irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, components, and materials. The guide also contains information related to the production of plutonium metal. Reprocessing and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle are described briefly; the standard procedure to prepare metallic plutonium is discussed; steps used to prepare Trigger List controls are cited; descriptions of controlled items are given; and special materials of construction are noted. This is followed by a comprehensive description of especially designed or prepared equipment, materials, and components of reprocessing and plutonium metal processes and includes photographs and/or pictorial representations. The nomenclature of the Trigger List has been retained in the numbered sections of this document for clarity

  12. Interactions between mRNA export commitment, 3'-end quality control, and nuclear degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libri, Domenico; Dower, Ken; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Several aspects of eukaryotic mRNA processing are linked to transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the mRNA export factor Sub2p suppresses the growth defect of hpr1 null cells, yet the protein Hpr1p and the associated THO protein complex are implicated in transcriptional el...... results show that several classes of defective RNPs are subject to a quality control step that impedes release from transcription site foci and suggest that suboptimal messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly leads to RNA degradation by Rrp6p....

  13. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O; Capote F, E; Carrazana G, J A; Zerquera, J T; Ramos V, O; Alonso A, D; Fernandez, I M; Caveda R, C A; Madrazo M, S; Barroso P, I [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  14. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests

  15. Regulating the Academic “Marketplace of Ideas”: Commercialization, Export Controls, and Counterintelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Krige

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two revolutions, not one, are transforming the research enterprise in American academia. One is the commercialization of research. The other is the regulation of research by the national security state that was accelerated by the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and focuses increasingly on the risk of sensitive knowledge leaking to China and other countries of concern. Commercialization temporarily restricts knowledge circulation to secure a patent for personal and institutional gain. Regulation controls the flow of knowledge to select foreign nationals using multiple instruments, including export controls, along with informal surveillance by the FBI. Ironically, the neoliberal urge to roll back the state and commercialize research in a competitive global knowledge economy exposes the American academic research system to the risk of “industrial” espionage and rolls out the regulatory apparatus of the national security state. Alongside offices of technology transfer on campus we now have offices of export control and compliance. Faculty and graduate students have accommodated themselves to this new situation, even while they regret it; many are concerned by the challenge that it poses to academic freedom, intellectual dynamism and political openness.

  16. Export Controls and Industry Outreach Mutual Benefits of Business - Government Partnerships (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation is intended to acquaint one and all with the strategy and benefits for developing a mutually contributory relationship between government and industry as a means to support and strengthen an effective nonproliferation export control regime. The study will provide background into the basis for development of multilateral regimes for export controls along with an overview covering the historical involvement of industry and their responsibility in dual-use research and development. The paper will then offer an examination of the unique composition and status of the dual-use industry which makes them vulnerable to the illicit diversion of their products and identify and discuss the recognized indicators of that process. The focus will then move toward explaining justification for establishing a close working relationship or partnership between industry and government and how the process of that partnership can deter access and opportunity for the illicit diversion of dual-use goods. Finally, in summation the presentation will highlight the mutual benefits that result from that relationship.(author)

  17. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  18. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  19. Anthroposphere theses of social and political ecology (for project of Kazakstan's agenda conception on the 21 century)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems, priorities and principles are considered for environmental safety and sustainable development in Kazakstan under the condition of transition period from standpoint of anthroposphere examination of problems of environment and socio-nature interaction. Complex problems include the common methodical aspects of management and required environmental safety and sustainable development aspects: natural and scientific (theses on bio spheric natural history); scientific and technical (theses on engineering ecology); human (theses of human ecology); social (theses of social, political, legal and economical ecology); theses on environmental safety, environmental management and marketing, and others. (author)

  20. A peptide export-import control circuit modulating bacterial development regulates protein phosphatases of the phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, M

    1997-08-05

    The phosphorelay signal transduction system activates developmental transcription in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis by phosphorylation of aspartyl residues of the Spo0F and Spo0A response regulators. The phosphorylation level of these response regulators is determined by the opposing activities of protein kinases and protein aspartate phosphatases that interpret positive and negative signals for development in a signal integration circuit. The RapA protein aspartate phosphatase of the phosphorelay is regulated by a peptide that directly inhibits its activity. This peptide is proteolytically processed from an inactive pre-inhibitor protein encoded in the phrA gene. The pre-inhibitor is cleaved by the protein export apparatus to a putative pro-inhibitor that is further processed to the active inhibitor peptide and internalized by the oligopeptide permease. This export-import circuit is postulated to be a mechanism for timing phosphatase activity where the processing enzymes regulate the rate of formation of the active inhibitor. The processing events may, in turn, be controlled by a regulatory hierarchy. Chromosome sequencing has revealed several other phosphatase-prepeptide gene pairs in B. subtilis, suggesting that the use of this mechanism may be widespread in signal transduction.

  1. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Infrasound Sensors to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration Regulations, and Related... control passive infrasound sensors because of their military and commercial utility. Items under this new... Thompson, Sensors and Aviation Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Telephone: (202) 482-4252...

  2. On The Export Control Of High Speed Imaging For Nuclear Weapons Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott Avery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altherr, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Since the Manhattan Project, the use of high-speed photography, and its cousins flash radiography1 and schieleren photography have been a technological proliferation concern. Indeed, like the supercomputer, the development of high-speed photography as we now know it essentially grew out of the nuclear weapons program at Los Alamos2,3,4. Naturally, during the course of the last 75 years the technology associated with computers and cameras has been export controlled by the United States and others to prevent both proliferation among non-P5-nations and technological parity among potential adversaries among P5 nations. Here we revisit these issues as they relate to high-speed photographic technologies and make recommendations about how future restrictions, if any, should be guided.

  3. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes

  4. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes.

  5. 75 FR 18029 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Export-Controlled Items (DFARS Case 2004-D010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... regulations and prescribes a contract clause to address those responsibilities. DATES: Effective Date: April 8... activities and communication between the parties to a potential contract, and to have the resulting contract... Government needs to convey to the universities the information that certain work is export-controlled. DoD...

  6. Variable flushing mechanisms and landscape structure control stream DOC export during snowmelt in a set of nested catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Kelsey G. Jencso; Brian L. McGlynn

    2010-01-01

    Stream DOC dynamics during snowmelt have been the focus of much research, and numerous DOC mobilization and delivery mechanisms from riparian and upland areas have been proposed. However, landscape structure controls on DOC export from riparian and upland landscape elements remains poorly understood. We investigated stream and groundwater DOC dynamics across three...

  7. Export Control and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base - Revised. Volume 1: Summary Report and Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    differentiating their products as “ITAR-free”, in the hopes that this can give them a leg up on US producers. To date this “marketing campaign” has...Inspectorate of Strategic Products Slovenia Ministry of Defence Slovakia Ministry of Economy United DTI Export Control Organization [Check] E-41

  8. GABAB receptor cell surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doly, Stéphane; Shirvani, Hamasseh; Gäta, Gabriel; Meye, Frank; Emerit, Michel-Boris; Enslen, Hervé; Achour, Lamia; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana; Kwon, Yang Seung; Armand, Vincent; Gardette, Robert; Giros, Bruno; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Mameli, Manuel; Darmon, Michèle; Marullo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are tightly regulated. For GABAB receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gate-keepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function. PMID:26033241

  9. The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

  10. Regular Workflow of the Customs on the Supervision and Control over the Import & Export Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Declaration & Management Article 25 of Customs Law prescribes that paper declaration form and electronic declaration form must be adopted in the Customs declaration formalities for the import & export goods.

  11. Export Controls: Implementation of the 1998 Legislative Mandate for High Performance Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    We found that most of the 938 proposed exports of high performance computers to civilian end users in countries of concern from February 3, 1998, when procedures implementing the 1998 authorization...

  12. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  13. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  14. Hydrologic control of nitrogen removal, storage, and export in a mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.O.; Baker, M.A.; Arp, C.D.; Kocha, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient cycling and export in streams and rivers should vary with flow regime, yet most studies of stream nutrient transformation do not include hydrologic variability. We used a stable isotope tracer of nitrogen (15N) to measure nitrate (NO3) uptake, storage, and export in a mountain stream, Spring Creek, Idaho, U.S.A. We conducted two tracer tests of 2-week duration during snowmelt and baseflow. Dissolved and particulate forms of 15N were monitored over three seasons to test the hypothesis that stream N cycling would be dominated by export during floods, and storage during low flow. Floods exported more N than during baseflow conditions; however, snowmelt floods had higher than expected demand for NO{3 because of hyporheic exchange. Residence times of benthic N during both tracer tests were longer than 100 d for ephemeral pools such as benthic algae and wood biofilms. Residence times were much longer in fine detritus, insects, and the particulate N from the hyporheic zone, showing that assimilation and hydrologic storage can be important mechanisms for retaining particulate N. Of the tracer N stored in the stream, the primary form of export was via seston during periods of high flows, produced by summer rainstorms or spring snowmelt the following year. Spring Creek is not necessarily a conduit for nutrients during high flow; hydrologic exchange between the stream and its valley represents an important storage mechanism.

  15. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    OpenAIRE

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We inv...

  16. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  17. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  18. 76 FR 35275 - Export Control Reform Initiative: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... (c)(2) destinations are: Albania, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Malta, Singapore, South Africa, and... Exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA) authorizes, with conditions, the export, reexport and transfer... BIS's workload and, without adequate preparation, could result in backlogs and delays. BIS is working...

  19. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... intelligence advantage to the United States, and are almost exclusively available from the United States. If an...--other than ``build-to-print technology''-- for the production or development of any types of the listed... not available for the export or reexport of software and technology (other than ``build-to- print...

  20. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  2. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  3. Precipitation patterns control the distribution and export of large wood at the catchment scale

    OpenAIRE

    Il Seo, Jung; Nakamura, Futoshi; Chun, Kun Woo; Kim, Suk Woo; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Large wood (LW) plays an important role in river ecosystems, but LW-laden floods may cause serious damage to human lives and property. The relationship between precipitation patterns and variations in LW distribution and export at the watershed scale is poorly understood. To explore these linkages, we examined differences in LW distribution as a function of channel morphologies in six watersheds located in southern and northern Japan and analysed the impacts of different precipitation pattern...

  4. Hydroclimatic control of sediment and metal export from a rural catchment in Northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    L. Palleiro; M. L. Rodríguez-Blanco; M. M. Taboada-Castro; M. T. Taboada-Castro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines sediment and metal (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) exportation at different time scales (annual, seasonal and event) during a three-year period (2005–2008) in the Mero River headwater, a rural catchment under humid temperate climate. Inter-annual differences were found both in annual loads and their distributions throughout the year. At annual scale, sediment and particulate metal loads followed the same trend as streamflow, while dissolved metals showed differe...

  5. Hydroclimatic control of sediment and metal export from a rural catchment in northwestern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palleiro, L.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines sediment and metal (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) exportation at different timescales (annual, seasonal and event) during a 3-year period (2005–2008) in the Mero River headwater, a rural catchment under humid temperate climate. Interannual differences were found both in annual loads and their distributions throughout the year. At annual scale, sediment and particulate metal loads followed the same trend as streamflow, while dissolved metals showed different pat...

  6. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  8. Uranium enrichment using gas centrifugation. An analysis focusing export control; Urananrikning med gascentrifugering. En analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defense Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has performed a study on uranium enrichment by gas centrifugation. The theory and principles of gas centrifugation is described in this report and relevant equipment used in the process has been identified. Different aspects of operating a gas centrifuge facility - and its indicators - are also presented. The separation efficiency and the flow of material through a centrifuge are very small, and therefore, a large number of centrifuges in cascades is needed to produce a larger amount of enriched uranium within a reasonable time. Countries with nuclear weapons ambitions often show an interest in gas centrifuges to produce weapons grade uranium - if they have managed to acquire the technology - because of the efficiency of the process and since it is relatively easy to conceal. Most equipment used in gas centrifuge facilities is under export control to prevent clandestine uranium enrichment. The Nuclear Suppliers' Group has compiled lists of nuclear related equipment and components that are of importance to export control. The control lists have also been included in the EU legislation.

  9. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  10. 78 FR 61873 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... entitled Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Military Vehicles; Vessels of War; Submersible...'' references by this rule will require exporters to spend substantially more time to determine the scope of the...

  11. Sensitive products and services in the light of the law of the European Union. Chances and limits of common EU export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, M.

    1995-01-01

    The invasion of Kuwait by the Iraq has made it very clear to the world at large that international exports of sensitive products and services is an urgent international problem. This war demonstrated the absurdity of the fact that the troups of the allied coalition under the roof of the UN had to fight against a military potential of Iraq that these nations themselves had been building up by trade with the Iraq in the years before, having sold not only weaponry but also other technical systems and equipment and technologies to which the term ''sensitive products and services'' applies. Having become aware of the international dimension of this problem, the approach to solutions starts from the following questions: How can the international community prevent unwanted support of political regimes or groups judged to be potentially aggressive in their efforts towards building up a dangerous military potential? What are the instruments to be implemented at an international level, and to which foreign relations, as for example trade relations, and to which objects of trade, shall these instruments and controls apply? These questions show the essential importance of the definition of ''dual-use products''. The book analyses and explains the current legal framework within the EU and the approaches elaborated by working groups and bodies of the EU for the purpose of establishing a Single European exports control system, presenting the survey in five main chapters entitled as follows: Rationale, outline conditions and characteristic features of export controls; Legal basis of export controls for sensitive products and services; Admissibility of national controls of the export of sensitive products and services within the EU; Common EU controls of exports to third countries; EU action and means for harmonization of controls of exports of dual-use products to countries not members of the EU. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Organizing export strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lojacono; M. Venzin

    2014-01-01

    The article unfolds as follows: after a brief introduction on the relevance of international trade and the characteristics of export strategies, we describe four distinct archetypes: export manager, centralistic export developer, export skimmer, integrated export developer.

  13. Regulations of 10 January 1989 relating to the implementation of control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology, laid down by the ministry of foreign affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These Regulations were made by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in pursuance of Act No. 93 of 18 December 1987 on the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology, in particular nuclear material, equipment, technology and services. The Regulations entered into force on 15 February 1989. That Ministry compiles lists of goods requiring an export licence or permission which also cover nuclear installations, material and equipment. The Regulations provide that the Ministry may require that an application for export of such goods, etc. be accompanied by a statement on the final use of the goods concerned (end-use statement) ascertaining that they will not be re-exported without the consent of the Norwegian authorities [fr

  14. Nonlinear and threshold-dominated runoff generation controls DOC export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, C.; Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2017-03-01

    We used a relatively simple two-layer, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model to simultaneously simulate streamflow and stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small lead and arsenic contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. The model procedure was informed by an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC, and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC processing based on stream DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. The parsimonious model (i.e., few calibrated parameters) showed the importance of nonlinear and rapid near-surface runoff generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time—as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity but exported less DOC (115 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 11 kg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to the equivalent but wetter period in 2014 (189 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 38 kg C ha-1 yr-1). The exceedance of a critical water table threshold (-10 cm) triggered a rapid near-surface runoff response with associated higher DOC transport connecting all available DOC pools and subsequent dilution. We conclude that the combination of detailed experimental work with relatively simple, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry models not only allowed the model to be internally constrained but also provided important insight into how DOC and tightly coupled pollutants or trace elements are mobilized.

  15. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  16. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  17. Accelerator-driven subcritical systems - An analysis with a focus on non-proliferation and export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per; Nielsen, Fredrik; Sunhede, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Weapons Related Issues at The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, as commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, conducted a study concerning Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems, ADS, with emphasis on non-proliferation and export control. An ADS looks at first glance like a traditional nuclear reactor, but the nuclear core is designed to always remain subcritical, both during normal and off-normal conditions. Neutrons are instead supplied by an external source in the form of an proton accelerator and a spallation target. This report gives a short walk-through to the physical processes that governs the neutron flux and reactivity in the core and how they are affected by the design of the core including the accelerator and spallation target. Furthermore is the results from reactor core simulations presented, where the isotopic nuclear fuel inventory has been studied as a function of burn up and initial configuration. Finally the report contains an analysis of the potential risks involved from the perspective of nuclear proliferation and exports. This study shows that ADS in the future could constitute a proliferation concern. The subsystems and components in question share design and materials with the equivalent components in traditional reactors with the exception of the proton accelerator and spallation target, which is unique for accelerator driven systems

  18. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  19. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members SUMMARY: The President's Export... their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with senior export control expertise and...

  20. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  1. Heme exporter FLVCR1a regulates heme synthesis and degradation and controls activity of cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. Methods We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Results Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. Conclusions In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. PMID:24486949

  3. Export regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr

  4. 685. Order amending the Order concerning the definition of goods whose export requires a permit in accordance with the Security Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The list of goods which may not be exported without a permit, in accordance with the Act of 1972 on security control, was amended by this Order. The amendment includes numerous items or equipment involving radiation or radioactive materials. It came into effect on 1 December 1990. (NEA)

  5. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... for foreign made ``military commodities'' that incorporate more than 10% U.S.-origin ``600 series... Military Training Equipment and Related Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the... longer warrant control under Category IX (Military Training Equipment and Training) of the United States...

  6. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... 1B608 that is ``specially designed'' for the ``production'' of rocket propellants; oxidizers or mixtures... would control equipment for the ``production'' of explosives and solid propellants, currently controlled...), this rule would move ``equipment'' for the ``production'' of explosives and solid propellants...

  7. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... that are generally: a. Characterized by high nickel, very low carbon content and use substitutional... the ``development'' of fly-by-wire control systems), 0E521 No. 6 (for ``technology'' for the...

  8. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This documented briefing is intended to provide options for U.S. policy that will enhance China's participation in the control of international transfers of destabilizing military or dual use technology...

  9. Hydrologic controls on the export dynamics of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in a lowland, headwater agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability controls eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, since P is generally the limiting nutrient to algal development. The contribution of diffuse P emission to surface waters is significant in intensively livestock farmed catchments as a result of high application rates of P-rich animal waste and subsequent enrichment of soils. This study investigates the transport dynamics of particulate phosphorus (PP), suspended sediments (SS), and dissolved phosphorus (DP) with the aim of elucidating the relationship between PP and DP transport mechanisms and water dynamics in lowland, headwater catchments. The selected catchment (Kervidy-Naizin catchment, France) is particularly suitable for this purpose as it benefits of a 5 years, high-frequency monitoring of PP and DP concentrations at its outlet, including data recovered both during base flow and storm periods, with the monitoring of more than 50 storm flow events. The data analysis includes interpretation of concentration-discharge relationships at the annual time scale and on an event basis, seasonal analysis of flood characteristics and empirical modeling. Annual DP and PP concentration-discharge relationships of interflood samples display a hysteretic pattern, with higher concentrations during the autumn and spring periods, and progressive decrease during winter. No hysteretic pattern is visible for interflood SS concentration, which follows a classical C=a*Qb relationship. During floods, the dynamic of PP export is similar to that of SS during most of the events: the concentration peak occurs during the rising limb of the hydrogram (clockwise hysteresis), suggesting a source close to or within the stream. The amplitude and the hysteresis' loop size for SS and PP are a function of maximum discharge and rate of change in discharge. On the contrary, there is a strong decoupling between DP and SS (and thus PP) during most of the floods (no significant correlation), with DP concentration peaks

  10. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... ECCN 3A611.c and .d should cover microwave monolithic integrated circuits and discrete microwave... and are not controlled. One commenter noted that placing monolithic microware integrated circuit power...: One commenter recommended removing the technical parameters for microwave monolithic integrated...

  11. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... rule and to avoid, to the extent possible, situations where transactions would require licenses from... align the CCL with the WAML and the Missile Technology Control Regime Equipment, Software and Technology..., which currently impose a license requirement for five countries. A license also would be required, in...

  12. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    .025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96 was associated...... with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 g Hg km(-2) yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred...... in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial...

  13. A study on strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime through the export control system of sensitive materials, equipment and technology related to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Mitsuru; Komizo, Yasuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The strengthened safeguards caused from safeguards experiences to Iraq and DPRK leads to the expansion of the IAEA's activities for verification of all nuclear activities as well as verification of nuclear material in the States. The purpose of the activities, of course, includes detection of undeclared exports and imports of specified equipment and non-nuclear material. The Additional Protocol to the agreements between States and the IAEA for the application of safeguards requires to the States to declare the exports and imports information regarding specified equipment and non-nuclear material corresponding to the export control list that is established by the nuclear suppliers group. The Additional Protocol also insists the IAEA's right to access to the location identified by the State to resolve a question related to the declarations. Recently, the IAEA detected the black market group of the sensitive materials, equipment and technologies relevant to the nuclear proliferation through the safeguards activities to Iran and Libya. International community stated deeply concerns to the indecent facts. This paper would discuss and propose the supplemental strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime by effective combination of the safeguards activities under additional protocol and the export control regime. (author)

  14. Safeguarding America's Critical Technologies (and Avoiding Personal Risk) An Introduction to Export Control and Critical Technology Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babcock, Wade

    2002-01-01

    .... Use of safes, secure buildings and rooms, proper handling, labeling and storage are all part of the day-to-day world of dealing with classified information but how much do you know about export...

  15. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  16. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. A case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B.I.; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kimura, Akiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. (author)

  17. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. A case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Gusev, B.I.; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kimura, Akiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. (author)

  18. On-stream analysis of iron ore and its potential for improving export quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An on-stream iron ore analyser has been developed in collaboration with Hamersley Iron Pty. Limited for determining the iron content of both lump (-30+6 mm particle size) and fines (-6 mm particle size) on conveyor belts. The analyser, which is called IRONSCAN, is based on pair production, and is now commercially available from Mineral Control Instrumentation Limited (MCI) in Adelaide. It can be mounted under existing conveyor belts with minimal modifications to the conveyor structure, and the presence of steel cables in the belt does not interfere once the analyser has been correctly calibrated. The analyser has been extensively tested on both lump and fines on the shiploading conveyor at Dampier, and typically the root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation between single IRONSCAN measurements and conventional chemical analyses is better than 0.5% Fe. It is currently being evaluated on - 150 mm ore from the primary crusher at Mount Tom Price, and initial results are encouraging. The principal advantage of IRONSCAN is that it provides rapid information on ore grades. But perhaps its greatest potential is at the primary crusher where conventional sampling and analysis is very expensive to implement. 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  20. The Impact of U.S. Export Control and Technology Transfer Regime on the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Project'A UK Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    David Moore; Peter Ito; Stuart Young; Kevin Burgess; Peter Antill

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) The research assessed the international impact of the U.S. export control and technology transfer regime, with a focus on the UK experience with the U.S. requirements as they relate to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and the impact on logistical support for the JSF fleet. UK government and industry representatives indicated agreement with the goals of U.S. policy, skepticism regarding the impact of those policies on effective project man...

  1. 77 FR 71213 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... correct a grammatical error in 6C992 by removing the word ``which'' and adding in its place the word... introductory portion of Category 2, Product Group E, and the introductory Notes to Category 5, Parts I and II... exporters, reexporters and transferors, stating the following: ``See Categories V and XIV of the United...

  2. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Israel to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter dated 13 July 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Israel providing information on Israel's nuclear export policies and practices. As requested by the Permanent Mission, the letter and document attached to it are reproduced herein for the information of Member States

  3. 75 FR 7548 - Amendments to the Select Agents Controls in Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 1C360 on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Commerce Control List (CCL) to reflect changes that the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ... Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant...

  4. Long-Term Observations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Paired-Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Que, Z; Seidou, O; Frey, S K; Lapen, D R

    2015-09-01

    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) regulates water and nutrient export from tile drainage systems. Observations of the effects of CTD imposed en masse at watershed scales are needed to determine the effect on downstream receptors. A paired-watershed approach was used to evaluate the effect of field-to-field CTD at the watershed scale on fluxes and flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of N and P during multiple growing seasons. One watershed (467-ha catchment area) was under CTD management (treatment [CTD] watershed); the other (250-ha catchment area) had freely draining or uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) (reference [UCTD] watershed). The paired agricultural watersheds are located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analysis of covariance and paired tests were used to assess daily fluxes and FWMCs during a calibration period when CTD intervention on the treatment watershed was minimal (2005-2006, when only 4-10% of the tile-drained area was under CTD) and a treatment period when the treatment (CTD) watershed had prolific CTD intervention (2007-2011 when 82% of tile drained fields were controlled, occupying >70% of catchment area). Significant linear regression slope changes assessed using ANCOVA ( ≤ 0.1) for daily fluxes from upstream and downstream monitoring sites pooled by calibration and treatment period were -0.06 and -0.20 (stream water) (negative values represent flux declines in CTD watershed), -0.59 and -0.77 (NH-N), -0.14 and -0.15 (NO-N), -1.77 and -2.10 (dissolved reactive P), and -0.28 and 0.45 (total P). Total P results for one site comparison contrasted with other findings likely due to unknown in-stream processes affecting total P loading, not efficacy of CTD. The FWMC results were mixed and inconclusive but suggest physical abatement by CTD is the means by which nutrient fluxes are predominantly reduced at these scales. Overall, our study results indicate that CTD is an effective practice for reducing watershed scale fluxes of stream water, N, and P

  5. Winter Ground Temperatures Control Snowmelt DOC Export From a Discontinuous Permafrost Watershed: A Multi-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    For discontinuous and continuous permafrost watersheds, the largest mass flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurs during the snowmelt period. During this time, available allochtonous organic carbon that has accumulated over the winter in frozen organic soils is rapidly flushed to the basin outlet. While this process has been observed now in many river systems of different size and location, there have been few inter-annual reports on the mass of DOC loss and the factors controlling its variability during freshet. Hydrological and DOC fluxes were recorded for the 2002, 2003 and 2006 snowmelt season with supplementary over-winter data for an 8 square kilometer sub-basin (Granger Basin) of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Granger Basin is an alpine catchment above treeline underlain with discontinuous permafrost (approximately 70 %) and has widespread surface organic soils up to 0.4 m in thickness. Pre-melt snow water equivalent varied widely throughout the basin, yet was greatest in 2006, followed by 2002 and 2003. Ground temperatures were notably colder throughout the 2003 winter compared with 2006 and 2002. For all years, discharge began in mid-May, and was a continuous event in 2002 and 2006. In 2003 four distinct melt-periods were observed due to rising and falling temperatures. During freshet, stream DOC concentration increased rapidly from 15 mg C/L on the first ascending limb of the hydrograph in each year. In 2003, DOC was largely flushed from the catchment several weeks prior to peak freshet. DOC concentration in wells and piezometers followed a similar pattern to streamflow DOC, with 2003 groundwater DOC concentrations less than 2002 and 2006. The total mass flux of DOC during freshet was 0.85, 0.45 and 1.01 g C/m2 for 2002, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Despite differences in pre-melt snow accumulation, the timing of melt and the volume of discharge, it appears that spring DOC export is largely controlled by over-winter ground

  6. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  7. Hydrological Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Export in a Coastal River System in Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Osburn, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from river catchments can influence the biogeochemical processes in coastal environments with implications for water quality and carbon budget. High flow conditions are responsible for most DOM export ("pulses") from watersheds, and these events reduce DOM transformation and production by "shunting" DOM from river networks into coastal waters: the Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC). Subsequently, the source and quality of DOM is also expected to change as a function of river flow. Here, we used stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations ([DOC]) along with DOM optical properties, such as absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and fluorescence excitation and emission matrices modeled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to characterize DOM source, quality and fluxes under variable flow conditions for the Neuse River, a coastal river system in the southeastern US. Observations were made at a flow gauged station above head of tide periodically between Aug 2011 and Feb 2013, which captured low flow periods in summer and several high flow events including Hurricane Irene. [DOC] and a350 were correlated and varied positively with river flow, implying that a large portion of the DOM was colored, humic and flow-mobilized. During high flow conditions, PARAFAC results demonstrated the higher influx of terrestrial humic DOM, and lower in-stream phytoplankton production or microbial degradation. However, during low flow, DOM transformation and production increased in response to higher residence times and elevated productivity. Further, 70% of the DOC was exported by above average flows, where 3-4 fold increases in DOC fluxes were observed during episodic events, consistent with PSC. These results imply that storms dramatically affects DOM export to coastal waters, whereby high river flow caused by episodic events primarily shunt terrestrial DOM to coastal waters, whereas low flow promotes in-stream DOM transformation and amendment with microbial DOM.

  8. Political risk and export promotion: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Christoph; Nestmann, Thorsten; Wedow, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Political risk represents an important hidden transaction cost that reduces international trade. This paper investigates the claim that German public export credit guarantees (Hermes guarantees) mitigate this friction to trade flows and hence promote exports. We employ an empirical trade gravity model, where we explicitly control for political risk in the importing country in order to evaluate the effect of export guarantees. The idea behind export promotion through public export credit agenc...

  9. Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmendjian, Loris; Loustau, Denis; Augusto, Laurent; Lafont, Sébastien; Chipeaux, Christophe; Poirier, Dominique; Abril, Gwenaël

    2018-02-01

    We studied the export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from forested shallow groundwater to first-order streams, based on groundwater and surface water sampling and hydrological data. The selected watershed was particularly convenient for such study, with a very low slope, with pine forest growing on sandy permeable podzol and with hydrology occurring exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff). A forest plot was instrumented for continuous eddy covariance measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and net ecosystem exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as CO2 fluxes. Shallow groundwater was sampled with three piezometers located in different plots, and surface waters were sampled in six first-order streams; river discharge and drainage were modeled based on four gauging stations. On a monthly basis and on the plot scale, we found a good consistency between precipitation on the one hand and the sum of evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater storage and drainage on the other hand. DOC and DIC stocks in groundwater and exports to first-order streams varied drastically during the hydrological cycle, in relation with water table depth and amplitude. In the groundwater, DOC concentrations were maximal in winter when the water table reached the superficial organic-rich layer of the soil. In contrast, DIC (in majority excess CO2) in groundwater showed maximum concentrations at low water table during late summer, concomitant with heterotrophic conditions of the forest plot. Our data also suggest that a large part of the DOC mobilized at high water table was mineralized to DIC during the following months within the groundwater itself. In first-order streams, DOC and DIC followed an opposed seasonal trend similar to groundwater but with lower concentrations. On an annual basis, leaching of carbon to streams occurred as DIC and DOC in similar proportion, but DOC export occurred in

  10. Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deirmendjian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC from forested shallow groundwater to first-order streams, based on groundwater and surface water sampling and hydrological data. The selected watershed was particularly convenient for such study, with a very low slope, with pine forest growing on sandy permeable podzol and with hydrology occurring exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff. A forest plot was instrumented for continuous eddy covariance measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and net ecosystem exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as CO2 fluxes. Shallow groundwater was sampled with three piezometers located in different plots, and surface waters were sampled in six first-order streams; river discharge and drainage were modeled based on four gauging stations. On a monthly basis and on the plot scale, we found a good consistency between precipitation on the one hand and the sum of evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater storage and drainage on the other hand. DOC and DIC stocks in groundwater and exports to first-order streams varied drastically during the hydrological cycle, in relation with water table depth and amplitude. In the groundwater, DOC concentrations were maximal in winter when the water table reached the superficial organic-rich layer of the soil. In contrast, DIC (in majority excess CO2 in groundwater showed maximum concentrations at low water table during late summer, concomitant with heterotrophic conditions of the forest plot. Our data also suggest that a large part of the DOC mobilized at high water table was mineralized to DIC during the following months within the groundwater itself. In first-order streams, DOC and DIC followed an opposed seasonal trend similar to groundwater but with lower concentrations. On an annual basis, leaching of carbon to streams occurred as DIC and DOC in similar proportion, but DOC export

  11. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  12. Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base. Volume 1. Summary Report, and Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    el que se aprueba el reglamento del comercio exterior de material de defensa y de doble uso • Ley Orgánica 12...export restrictions. A-63 S T P I 60 Supplying Other Primes • India (ISRO), Israel ( El -Opt, Israel Aircraft Industries), Japan...200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 A lg er ia Ar ge nt in a A us tra lia B el ar us Br az il C an ad a C hi le Eg yp t In do ne si a Ira n Is ra el

  13. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  14. A Study on Classification Cases in UAE BNPP Focused on Physical Breakdown Structure for the Establishment of Intelligent Export Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    NSG and the international society haven't suggested a clear standard for EDP, but recommended every member of NSG to establish their own standard and control strategic item export. As a result, it is hard to sustain objectivity and consistency in examining thousands of items and technologies related to nuclear power plants through the existing methods that classifies strategic items with limited human resources. Its long processing time may bring about a financial burden to the related companies as well. Accordingly, it is more required to establish Intelligent eXport Control System (IXCS) than ever before so that a great many of strategic items can be effectively processed. To provide basic data used to establish IXCS, this study analyzed classification cases of Braka Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) in UAE mainly focusing on Physical Breakdown Structure (PBS). Due to commercial reactors exported to UAE and research reactors exported to Jordan, the number of classification requests is rapidly increasing in Korea. Therefore, it is required to develop IXCS that can assist an efficient and consistent decision on a great many classification request. This system will be developed to present the possibility that items could be strategic through analyzing characteristics (e.g. name, function, use, purpose, duplication, relation to nuclear activities, etc.). The result in this study that analyzed the linkage between PBS code and items, one of characteristics (use) cited above, will be used as weighting factor to classify items for developing the system. (e. g. PBS code 431 has weighting factor 0.7.) In addition, it can be more efficient to sort items which are likely to be strategic among all requests before processing classification requests growing exponentially. It is concluded that the linkage between PBS code and items will be used as filtering factor to select items which could be strategic accordingly. Henceforth, it is plan to derive highly reliable statistical results

  15. China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2001-01-01

    .... Some critics opposed satellite exports to China, while others were concerned that the Clinton Administration relaxed export controls and monitoring of commercial satellites in moving the licensing...

  16. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy with reference to nuclear export control system, strategy toward IAEA, and NPT review conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Nam, Jang Soo; Lee, Han Myung

    1990-02-01

    The objectives of this study are follows: suggestion for i) our future nuclear development directions, ii) establishment of national export control system, iii) establishment of strategy toward IAEA, and suggestion of our standpoints toward the 4th NPT review conference. This study proposes the following; 1) It is desirable that nuclear power generation strategy is propelled under the premise of economics and proven technology. And international cooperation in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle should be reinforced. 2) It is recommened that nuclear export control system should be government-led. 3) Our country needs to make efforts in increasing the number of Korean staff in the IAEA, and to establish permanent mission which is wholly responsible for the IAEA affairs, and to construct a system which deals with nuclear foregin activities. 4) It is desirable that the basic position of our country toward the 4th NPT review conference should be : i) to urge parties to the NPT to conclude safeguards agreement with IAEA as early as possible, ii) to request nuclear suppliers to mitigate their nuclear technology for peaceful uses to nuclear developing countries, and iii) to urge nuclear weapon states to make further efforts for nuclear disarmament. (author)

  17. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  18. 75 FR 33989 - Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... section of Export Control Classification Number 2B001 and the other is in the Technical Note on Adjusted... language regarding certain performance criteria of turning machines covered by Export Control...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, that the Agreement Officer authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Recipient shall be responsible for obtaining...

  20. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Luohu District, Shenzhen, 518001, China. On January 26, 2011, in the U.S. District Court, District of... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Wu was convicted of illegally exporting...

  1. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chitron- US was convicted of illegally exporting... components designated on the U.S. Munitions List to China through Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007. In...

  2. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  3. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  4. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.225-70 - Export Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... writing, that the Contracting Officer authorizes it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining export licenses, if...

  6. 75 FR 842 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... People's Republic of China (PRC) in violation of U.S. export control laws by failing to obtain the proper... (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). Charge 1: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic Components to the... was done so that Shipper's Export Declarations, which are filed with the U.S. Government and which...

  7. 75 FR 33682 - Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AE93 Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration... review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings...

  8. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  9. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  10. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  11. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  12. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from traditi...

  13. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  14. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA) [fr

  15. 76 FR 80282 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... would require licenses from both the State Department and the Commerce Department. Following the... further align the CCL with the WAML and the Missile Technology Control Regime Equipment, Software and... antiterrorism (AT Column 1) controls, which currently impose a license requirement for five countries. A license...

  16. Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, R.; Berry, R.B.; Eras, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative examples of the MPC and A augmentation implemented at the MAEC

  17. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  18. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  19. 78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8175] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Aguirre, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political... conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative...

  20. 75 FR 13330 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6924] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, (202) 663-2980... criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative debarment...

  1. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  2. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  3. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  4. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  5. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  6. Power, leadership and control of the distribution companies in the export of fresh vegetables from Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Avilés Ochoa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A key concept in the construction of the paradigm of global value chains is governance, for its constitution the variables of power, leadership and control are essential. The research focuses on Sinaloa vegetable distributors in the U.S.A. market, which reveals the interaction between regions of different countries for the formation of a horticultural value chain. The result is an index that defines which of the actors, involved in the fresh produce trade, practices more governance.

  7. Effect of Acetic and Lactic Acid Mixtures on Control of Quarantine Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Exporting Cymbidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixture (MX of acetic acid (AA and lactic acid (LA was examined for its effectiveness in the control of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus contaminated in cymbidium culture medium. Nematode mortality in vitro was nearly 100% in AA and MX at the concentrations of 5.0-1.0% (pH 2.6 – 4.2 and in LA only at 5.0% (pH 3.5, but lowered at concentrations of 0.5-0.1% (pH 5.1-6.9 more significantly in LA than AA and MX. MX of most concentrations caused higher nematode mortality than the average response to AA and LA. All treatments of MX (0.5% and 0.25%, fosthiazate (standard and double concentrations and culture dilution of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 (107colony-forming units/ml reduced significantly the nematode populations in the cymbidium culture medium, compared to non-treatment control, with no significant difference among the treatments. No phytotoxicity occurred in all treatments. pH of the medium with the time after treatment and growths of 2-year-old cymbidium were not significantly different among treatments. Considering the safety and price of the organic acids, use of MX in the processes for culturing cymbidium may be a practically reliable and eco-friendly way in the control of the quarantine nematode in cymbidium.

  8. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  9. An exporter's checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englot, P.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists

  10. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Export-defective lamB protein is a target for translational control caused by ompC porin overexpression.

    OpenAIRE

    Click, E M; Schnaitman, C A

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of OmpC protein from an inducible plasmid vector reduced the amount of the precursor form of LamB protein in LamB signal sequence mutants. The stability of the precursor form of LamB protein was not affected, indicating that the effect of OmpC overexpression was on the synthesis of the precursor rather than on degradation. These results indicate that a functional signal sequence is not required on an outer membrane protein for it to be a target for translational control.

  12. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  13. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  14. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  15. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  16. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  17. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  18. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  19. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland - the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2015-08-01

    Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre)conditions favor their export. This study combines a 1-year monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge and DOC, iron, As and Pb stream concentrations. From these data, annual DOC, As, and Pb exports were calculated. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L-1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L-1 for As, and 1.3 to 12 μg L-1 for Pb, with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40 % of As and 43 % of Pb were exported during 10 % of the time with the highest discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of short-time, high-discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase in the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer becomes hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag behind in comparison to Pb. Our data indicate a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s-1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold, element concentrations do not further increase and discharge becomes diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are dependent on not only the amount of precipitation and discharge but also on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more

  20. PimT, an amino acid exporter controls polyene production via secretion of the quorum sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor in Streptomyces natalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Susana M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyenes represent a major class of antifungal agents characterised by the presence of a series of conjugated double bonds in their planar hydroxylated macrolide ring structure. Despite their general interest, very little is known about the factors that modulate their biosynthesis. Among these factors, we have recently discovered a new inducing compound (PI-factor in the pimaricin producer Streptomyces natalensis, which elicits polyene production in a manner characteristic of quorum sensing. Here, we describe the involvement of an amino-acid exporter from S. natalensis in modulating the expression of pimaricin biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Results Adjacent to the pimaricin gene cluster lies a member of the RhtB family of amino-acid exporters. Gene deletion and complementation experiments provided evidence for a role for PimT in the export of L-homoserine, L-serine, and L-homoserine lactone. Expression of the gene was shown to be induced by homoserine and by the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Interestingly, the mutant displayed 65% loss of pimaricin production, and also 50% decrease in the production of PI, indicating that PimT is used as PI-factor exporter, and suggesting that the effect in antifungal production might be due to limited secretion of the inducer. Conclusion This report describes the involvement of an amino acid exporter (encoded by pimT in the vicinity of the pimaricin cluster in modulating the expression of antibiotic biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. The discovery of the participation of amino acid exporters in a signal transduction cascade for the production of polyene macrolides is unexpected, and represents an important step forward towards understanding the regulatory network for polyene regulation. Additionally, this finding constitutes the first detailed characterization of an amino

  1. Information, Corruption, and Measures for the Promotion of Manufactured Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; CHUN-YAN KUO

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis in many developing countries on export-led growth policies that attract both domestic and foreign investment into activities that will increase exports. Many countries, however, have not achieved the desired response. Among other problems, investors often face foreign exchange controls, tariffs on imported inputs, and a costly system for the exemption or refund of sales inflow of foreign investment and prevented the expansion of export production and sales. T...

  2. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  3. Danish energy-sector exports. Products and consulting services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.C.

    2000-06-01

    Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out studies of Danish energy-sector exports. The latest results were published in the report, Energisektorens eksport. Produkter og raadgivning. Danish Energy Agency, September 1998. The present survey is an update of the earlier studies, and includes 1998 exports. As previously, the study, carried out in cooperation with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Danish Council of Consulting Architects and Engineers, is based on questionnaires sent to relevant companies. In addition, information has been obtained from companies that do not belong to these organisations. On the basis of the answers received, 58 Danish companies exported products to a value of approximately DKK 16,000 million, and 22 consulting firms exported consulting services to a value of approximately DKK 370 million. These exports of approximately DKK 16.5 billion accounted for 5% of all Danish exports in 1998. In comparison with 1996, energy-sector exports have risen by more than 40% in a period in which Danish exports in general have risen by an average of 8%. Energy sector exports provide employment for more than 18,000 persons in Denmark - approximately 17,500 employees in companies that export products, and approximately 600 persons in consulting firms. To this must be added a presumably significantly larger number of persons employed by sub-suppliers to the above companies computed by value, 80% of the exports come from relatively few companies, i.e. 13 companies with products, and five offering consulting services. Energy-sector exports fall within the following product areas: 1) Wind turbines (25%). 2) District heating and combined heat and power (CHP) (21%). 3) Energy savings and control (20%). 4) Oil and natural gas (13%). 5) Electricity plants and power supply (13%). 6) Other (8%). 67% of the exports go to Western Europe, 18% to Asia, 7% to Eastern and Central Europe, and 8% to other parts of the world. (EHS)

  4. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  5. The Need to Increase Regulatory Controls on Imports and Exports came from the Detection of an Argentine Import Containing Exceeding Pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, N.A.; Vidal, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    sticking take place. It is also necessary to make a feasibility study in order to establish a procedure that make it possible to verify from external radioactive measurement the activity consigned in shipments when importing and exporting. This would be of great help to perform the regulatory control of the incoming and outgoing radioactive material to and from any country. (authors)

  6. Discharge controls on the sediment and dissolved nutrient transport flux of the lowermost Mississippi River: Implications for export to the ocean and for delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Pratt, Thad C.

    2017-12-01

    Lagrangian longitudinal surveys and fixed station data are utilized from the lowermost Mississippi River reach in Louisiana at high and low discharge in 2012-2013 to examine the changing stream power, sediment transport capacity, and nitrate conveyance in this backwater reach of the river. Nitrate appears to remain conservative through the backwater reach at higher discharges (>15,000 m3/s), thus, nitrate levels supplied from the catchment are those exported to the Gulf of Mexico, fueling coastal hypoxia. At lower discharges, interaction with fine sediments and organic matter stored on the bed due to estuarine and tidal processes, likely elevates nitrate levels prior to entering the Gulf: a further 1-2 week long spike in nitrate concentrations is associated with the remobilization of this sediments during the rising discharge phase of the Mississippi. Backwater characteristics are clearly observed in the study reach starting at river kilometer 703 (Vicksburg) in both longitudinal study periods. Stream power at the lowermost station is only 16% of that at Vicksburg in the high discharge survey, and 0.6% at low flow. The high-to-low discharge study differential in unit stream power at a station increases between Vicksburg and the lowermost station from a factor of 3 to 47-50 times. At high discharge, ∼30% of this energy loss can be ascribed to the removal of water to the Atchafalaya at Old River Control. Suspended sediment flux decreases downstream in the studied reach in both studies: the lowermost station has 75% of the flux at Vicksburg in the high discharge study, and 0.9% in the low discharge study. The high discharge values, given that this study was conducted during the highest rising hydrograph of the water year, are augmented by sediment resuspended from the bed that was deposited in the previous low discharge phase. Examination of this first detailed field observation studies of the backwater phenomenon in a major river, shows that observed suspended

  7. The need to increase regulatory controls on imports and exports came from the detection of an Argentine import containing exceeding pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, Nicolas; Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    sticking take place. It is also necessary to make a feasibility study in order to establish a procedure that make it possible to verify from external radioactive measurement the activity consigned in shipments when importing and exporting. This would be of great help to perform the regulatory control of the incoming and outgoing radioactive material to and from any country. (author)

  8. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  9. Nuclear exporters cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1977-01-01

    Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution

  10. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  11. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of exportation. 19.38 Section 19.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Duty-Free Stores § 19.38 Supervision of exportation. (a) Sales...

  12. 19 CFR 18.45 - Supervision of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of exportation. 18.45 Section 18.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet ...

  13. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  14. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity at the inten......This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity...

  16. Regional Groundwater and Storms Are Hydrologic Controls on the Quality and Export of Dissolved Organic Matter in Two Tropical Rainforest Streams, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Oviedo-Vargas, Diana; Barnett, Emily; Dierick, Diego; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Genereux, David P.

    2018-03-01

    A paired-watershed approach was used to compare the quality and fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during stormflow and baseflow in two lowland tropical rainforest streams located in northeastern Costa Rica. The Arboleda stream received regional groundwater (RGW) flow, whereas the Taconazo stream did not. DOM quality was assessed with absorbance and fluorescence and stable carbon isotope (δ13C-DOC) values. RGW DOM lacked detectable fluorescence and had specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA254) and absorbance slope ratio (SR) values consistent with low aromaticity and low molecular weight material, respectively. We attributed these properties to microbial degradation and sorption of humic DOM to mineral surfaces during transport through bedrock. SUVA254 values were lower and SR values were higher in the Arboleda stream during baseflow compared to the Taconazo stream, presumably due to dilution by RGW. However, no significant difference in SUVA254 or SR occurred between the streams during stormflow. SUVA254 was negatively correlated to δ13C-DOC (r2 = 0.61, P runoff containing soil and throughfall C sources. Mean DOC export from the Taconazo stream during the study period was 2.62 ± 0.39 g C m-2 year-1, consistent with other tropical streams, yet mean DOC export from the Arboleda stream was 13.79 ± 2.07 g C m-2 year-1, one of the highest exports reported and demonstrating a substantial impact of old RGW from outside the watershed boundary can have on surface water carbon cycling.

  17. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  18. Export policy and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries with a nuclear programme are about a dozen according to information obtained by IAEA. They are a group hostile to any restriction imposed on nuclear technology export and consider that such restriction is contrary to the global concept of North/South co-operation which provides for transfer of advanced technology. In particular, they object to the fact that nuclear weapon states make use of Article 4 of the NPT. Industrialised countries are required to keep a balance between a regular and stable supply system and the assurance that exported nuclear installations and materials are placed under international control according to the IAEA Safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  19. Export and import. Conformity with regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    Since the division of the former US Atomic Energy Commission's tasks, the regulation and control of import and export of nuclear materials and equipment has become the responsability of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The import and export of nuclear fuels, equipment and reactors are therefore subject to prior licensing by the Commission. This requirement aims to guarantee that such activities will not create serious hazards for defense and national safety, and that the exported products will not be diverted from their peaceful uses. The relevant applicable legal provisions are based on the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and on the detailed regulations issued by the Commission. Under the pressure of public opinion, there is a current tendency to restrict these activities because of the hazards they present, in particular during transport, until the Commission has completed all the necessary studies. (NEA) [fr

  20. Non-linear, connectivity and threshold-dominated runoff-generation controls DOC and heavy metal export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Broder, Tanja; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils act as important carbon sinks, but they also release large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the aquatic system. The DOC export is strongly tied to the export of soluble heavy metals. The accumulation of potentially toxic substances due to anthropogenic activities, and their natural export from peat soils to the aquatic system is an important health and environmental issue. However, limited knowledge exists as to how much of these substances are mobilized, how they are mobilized in terms of flow pathways and under which hydrometeorological conditions. In this study, we report from a combined experimental and modelling effort to provide greater process understanding from a small, lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. We developed a minimally parameterized, but process-based, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model applied to simulate detailed hydrometric and biogeochemical data. The model was based on an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC-processing based on stream-DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data (not used for calibration as an independent model test) for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. We found that Pb and As mobilization can be efficiently predicted from DOC transport alone, but Pb showed a significant non-linear relationship with DOC, while As was linearly related to DOC. The relatively parsimonious model (nine calibrated parameters in total) showed the importance of non-linear and rapid near-surface runoff-generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time - as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity, but

  1. Cointegration and Causality Test Among Export, Import, and Foreign Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Subiyakto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rupiah exchange rate, import, and export are the important indicators in economy, including the Indonesia economy. The debate regarding the relationship among the exchange rate, import, and export has been persisting for several decades. Some researchers found that there is a relationship among those three and others explained that there is no correlation among them. The aim of this research is to obtain the empirical evidence of the causal relationship among the export, import, and foreign exchange rate by using the monthly data from January 2010 to April 2014. The export and import data are the export and import values in US dollar. The exchange rate data is the median exchange rates of the Indonesian Bank. The Johansen Cointegration Test and the Granger Causality Test are used to analyze the data. The research result shows that export and import have no causal relationship at five percent. Next, the foreign exchange rate influences the export and import at 10 percent level. The result indicates that the foreign exchange rate has small effects on the export and import. Based on the results, the government should control the balance of trade and should not make any policy that is based on the exchange rate values. Finally, it can be said that the exchange rate policy is not effective in increasing the exports and reducing the imports.

  2. Mesoscale Effects on Carbon Export: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cheryl S.; Long, Matthew C.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Moore, Jefferson K.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon export from the surface to the deep ocean is a primary control on global carbon budgets and is mediated by plankton that are sensitive to physical forcing. Earth system models generally do not resolve ocean mesoscale circulation (O(10-100) km), scales that strongly affect transport of nutrients and plankton. The role of mesoscale circulation in modulating export is evaluated by comparing global ocean simulations conducted at 1° and 0.1° horizontal resolution. Mesoscale resolution produces a small reduction in globally integrated export production (export production can be large (±50%), with compensating effects in different ocean basins. With mesoscale resolution, improved representation of coastal jets block off-shelf transport, leading to lower export in regions where shelf-derived nutrients fuel production. Export is further reduced in these regions by resolution of mesoscale turbulence, which restricts the spatial area of production. Maximum mixed layer depths are narrower and deeper across the Subantarctic at higher resolution, driving locally stronger nutrient entrainment and enhanced summer export production. In energetic regions with seasonal blooms, such as the Subantarctic and North Pacific, internally generated mesoscale variability drives substantial interannual variation in local export production. These results suggest that biogeochemical tracer dynamics show different sensitivities to transport biases than temperature and salinity, which should be considered in the formulation and validation of physical parameterizations. Efforts to compare estimates of export production from observations and models should account for large variability in space and time expected for regions strongly affected by mesoscale circulation.

  3. Export performance and investment in R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each...... other, and an empirical model is formulated in order to estimate which factors affect the firm's export. It is argued that besides R&D, firm size, wages and a number of other firm-specific factors controlling for risks are highly important for the export performance. In the empirical part of the paper...... the model is tested on a sample of 3,500 Danish firms. Using a FIML estimation form in order to deal with endogeneity problems between the R&D and export decisions of the firms, the computation clearly verifies the theoretical model put forward. Moreover, R&D is an important factor for being an exporting...

  4. Do R&D Investments Affect Export Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each...... other, and an empirical model is formulated in order to estimate which factors affect the firm's export. It is argued that besides R&D, firm size, wages and a number of other firm-specific factors controlling for risks are highly important for the export performance. In the empirical part of the paper...... the model is tested on a sample of 3,500 Danish firms. Using a FIML estimation form in order to deal with endogeneity problems between the R&D and export decisions of the firms, the computation clearly verifies the theoretical model put forward. Moreover, R&D is an important factor for being an exporting...

  5. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  6. 76 FR 52935 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... with all countries with which the United States has diplomatic or trading relations and of controlling... and Vice Chair. 2. Export Control Reform Update. 3. Presentation of Papers or Comments by the Public. 4. Review of Field Hearing. 5. Status of 2011 Workplan. 6. Discussion of 2012 Workplan. 7...

  7. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  8. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  9. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  10. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  11. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The Export Intensity of Foreign Affiliates in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2007-01-01

      Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure of their ......  Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure...... of their affiliates. We find that labour intensity and foreign control are the main explanatory variables for the export intensity of the affiliates. Given the overall rise in export intensity over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has become a more important mode...

  15. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil

  16. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  17. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  18. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  19. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  1. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  2. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  3. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  4. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  5. 76 FR 5236 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services. OMB Control Number: 1405... of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: Actual export of defense technical data and defense... DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services; OMB Control Number 1405-0157...

  6. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned out region of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and by complementation of Out- mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Out- mutants of Ecb168, which did not secrete pectate lyase into the culture medium, were obtained when deletions internal to either HindIII fragment were introduced into the genome of Ecb168 through marker exchange mutagenesis. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were complemented to the Out+ phenotype by introduction of the corresponding cloned HindIII fragment. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were less virulent than the Out+ parental strain on potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives inhibited the growth of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture, indicating that the uncharacterized antibiotic(s) responsible for antagonism was exported through an out-independent mechanism. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives reduced the establishment of large populations of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in wounds of potato tubers and suppressed tuber soft rot caused by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. PMID:16349316

  8. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  9. Communication of 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the IAEA concerning the establishment of the oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's export control on goods, technologies, materials and equipment related to nuclear and biological weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan enclosing a copy of the Gazette of Pakistan S.R.O. No.693(I)/2007, dated 11 July 2007, regarding the establishment of the Oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Materials and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004, including the formation and functioning of Strategic Export Control Division. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the enclosure thereto are circulated for the information of Member States

  10. The implications of uranium export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)

  11. The Wassenaar Arrangement and Russian High-Tech Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current military and political situation in the world raises the necessity of use by Russia of all existing tools to counter actions targeted against it. Participation of the country in international export control regimes, including the Wassenaar Arrangement (the WA, is one of these tools. Membership in the WA allows to Russia to maintain its international status, to contribute to strengthening of international stability, to ensure the non-targeting of this forum against the country, to participate in the development of decisions affecting its interests. Participation in the WA is also important from the view of modernizations of Russian economy towards transition to a new technological mode accompanied by emergence of new groups of innovative products and modification of existing ones. Control of crossing the country's borders by dual-use goods and services is one of conditions for carrying out their export. The Wassenaar Arrangement was established in 1995 to replace COCOM in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability. A huge work is carried out within the forum aimed at enhancing control over transfers of conventional weapons and high-tech dual-use goods. Russian export control system fully meets requirements of international export control regime, including the WA, and effectively functions. Export of the controlled goods from Russia or their transfer to foreign individuals and legal entities are possible only on the basis of decisions of the Export control Commission of the Russian Federation. The dilemma between the need to support exporters by reducing administrative barriers and the ensuring security interests of the country gain momentum in current stage of scientific-and-technological advance development.

  12. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  15. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  16. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  17. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  18. The Export Performance of MNE Affiliates in Polish manufacturing: 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    of the foreign affiliates. The results from panel estimations show that the export intensity of the affiliates has increased every year since 1994. The lowest level of export performance was recorded in science-based industries. Import intensity, labour intensity, wage level, scale economies and foreign control......Using a unique database containing trade (export and import) and industry variables (wages, employment, foreign capital share, investments, sales, etc.) of foreign affiliates in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, this paper analyses the determinants of the export performance...... are significant and positively associated to export performance, while investment activity is negatively related to the export performance of the affiliates. On the assumption that some industry variables are proxies for technology transfer, the results show that the increasing export orientation of foreign...

  19. Phases definition in marketing export process

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Dragan; Kokić Miljko

    2004-01-01

    The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action). The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed ...

  20. Topics in Productivity, Exporting and Outsourced Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Matthew Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...

  1. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  2. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  3. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  4. 76 FR 16353 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Exemption for Temporary Export of Chemical Agent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... assistance. Section (c)(3) is to be revised to remove what is in practice extraneous language. Subject to the... Administrative Procedure Act The Department of State is of the opinion that controlling the import and export of... comment and without prejudice to its determination that controlling the import and export of defense...

  5. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  6. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  7. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... sales prices and/or minimum target sales prices, and other terms of sales in the Export Markets... canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales for the Export... described below for the following Export Trade and Export Markets: Export Trade Products Shelf stable non...

  8. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...

  9. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  10. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  11. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  12. International cooperation in the field of export control as risk reduction instrument for both nuclear technologies spreading and nuclear ecological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.V.; Odejchuk, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper is noted, that it is necessary to develop international flexible procedures for control of potentially hazardous materials, averting illicit spreading and in that time are minimally limiting development of a trade-commercial partnership. Efforts on prevention of unendorsed mass destruction weapon development by terrorist groups must carrying out in two directions: material transactions and intangible transfers (technologies, qualified personnel). Now efforts of international regimes are focused on the material component. But is is necessary to develop mechanism universal for all world community, for control of intangible transfer and preventing of unapproved transfers of 'sensitive' technologies

  13. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  14. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  15. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  16. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  17. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  18. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  19. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  20. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  1. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  2. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Sharon K.; Mata, Miguel A.; Zhang, Liang; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. PMID:23872491

  3. From an accounting point of view of cost control challenges current export foreign trade enterprises%从会计成本控制的角度分析当前外贸企业出口挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲敏

    2016-01-01

    As a cost control basic functions of accounting personnel, has a very important impact on daily business operations and cost savings. At this stage of international development trend, especially foreign trade enterprises in the face of all kinds of domestic and foreign markets dynamic challenges of cost control means, methods, results and other concerns, naturally become the pursuit of sustainable development an important starting point. In the current paper the impact of various types of foreign trade enterprises business factors of cost control, such as raising the cost of human resources, marketing costs increased rapidly, energy price fluctuations as the analysis starting point for analysis, and strive to provide some advice to optimize trade and export policy opinion.%成本控制作为会计人员的基本职能,对企业的日常运营及成本节约具有极为重要的影响。现阶段在我国国际化发展的大趋势下,尤其是外贸企业在面对国内外市场的各类动态性挑战中,对成本控制的方式、方法、成效等关注,自然就成为企业谋求可持续发展的重要切入点。文中以当前影响外贸企业贸易成本控制的各类因素,如人力资源成本的提升、营销费用快速递增、能源价格波动等作为分析的切入点进行分析,力求为外贸企业出口策略的优化提供一定建议和意见。

  4. Exporting nuclear engineering and the government's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de

  5. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  6. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  7. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  8. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  9. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  10. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  11. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  12. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  13. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  14. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...

  15. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  16. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  17. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  18. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...

  19. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  20. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...

  1. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  2. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by...

  3. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...

  4. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  5. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...

  6. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  7. 76 FR 66693 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: November 16, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET) ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  8. 76 FR 9550 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: March 11, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  9. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  10. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  11. 22 CFR 124.3 - Exports of technical data in furtherance of an agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved in writing by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) and the technical data does not... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of technical data in furtherance of an... REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.3 Exports of technical data in...

  12. Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    (english) Core labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal, but applied very differently across countries. Compliance is much higher in high income countries. However, the causality between improved labour standards and economic growth remains a controversial issue. Export-led growth strategies might encourage developing countries to curb the process of standards improvement. In this way, they can raise the volume of their unskilled labour endowments (child and/or forced labour)...

  13. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  14. Information Interaction with IAEA on Nuclear Import and Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osokina, A.; Snytnikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers organizational aspects of nuclear import and export interaction between the Russian Federation and the Agency. Requirements of nuclear import and export in Russia, information submission procedure and forms are determined in RF Government Regulation No 973 from December 15th 2000. Particularly, according to these requirements Russian licenced organizations implementing nuclear import and export submit reports about appointed transfers to State Corporation 'Rosatom'. Regulations of State Corporation 'Rosatom' entrusted gathering and processing of reporting information and interaction with IAEA to FSUE 'SCC of Rosatom'. Regulations of reporting information interaction were developed by SCC and approved by State Corporation 'Rosatom'. Russian organizations send notifications to SCC using regulation electron or paper forms. Regulations determine information security measures in reporting process. Automated nuclear import and export accounting system developed by SCC provides data entering, keeping and processing, enables to choose and submit requested information in different formats. This system is integrated with State Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System. Also submitted information is regularly compared with customs declarations data to improve reliability and consistency of information. Generalized nuclear import and export data is using by Departments of State Corporation 'Rosatom' and transmitting to Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia in agreed forms. Summary information about international nuclear transfers is sending to IAEA according to INFCIRC/207. Reporting information is coordinating. Messaging with IAEA is realized by email using enciphering program. (author)

  15. Inhibiting cancer cell hallmark features through nuclear export inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingxiang; Chen, Xueqin; Zhou, Qiao; Burstein, Ezra; Yang, Shengyong; Jia, Da

    2016-01-01

    Treating cancer through inhibition of nuclear export is one of the best examples of basic research translation into clinical application. Nuclear export factor chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1; Xpo1 and exportin-1) controls cellular localization and function of numerous proteins that are critical for the development of many cancer hallmarks. The diverse actions of CRM1 are likely to explain the broad ranging anti-cancer potency of CRM1 inhibitors observed in pre-clinical studies and/or clinical trials (phase I-III) on both advanced-stage solid and hematological tumors. In this review, we compare and contrast the mechanisms of action of different CRM1 inhibitors, and discuss the potential benefit of unexplored non-covalent CRM1 inhibitors. This emerging field has uncovered that nuclear export inhibition is well poised as an attractive target towards low-toxicity broad-spectrum potent anti-cancer therapy.

  16. 75 FR 75963 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-9A001] Export Trade... Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-9A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce...: Accenture is now located in Chicago, IL, with controlling entity Accenture plc, Dublin, Ireland; AAR...

  17. Export promotion of horticultural crops | Babatola | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crops are inadequate and needs to be improved. Export of horticultural commodities are faced with constrains such as inappropriate production economics and technologies, absence of quality control management, inappropriate/inadequate marketing services among others. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol.

  18. Study on the establishment of effective nuclear export system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Koo; So, Dong Sup; Baik, Dae Hyun; Kwack, Eun Ho; Shin, Jang Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae.

    1997-02-01

    To improve Korean nuclear export control system, the modification of the present export license procedure for the nuclear equipment and materials and the classification of control items and their related technologies are required. And it is also necessary to make a database of the original countries who have the right of prior consent. For the efficient export control of LWR items to DPRK, it is desirable to manage the export license scheme of nuclear reactor facility as a total package, and to prepare a control regime for the retransfer of nuclear reactor component such as reactor coolant pump and nuclear fuel whose technologies are not self-reliant. It is especially essential to prepare a systematic procedure for the supply of nuclear equipment and materials to DPRK in order to meet international guidelines of NSG and others through an accord on the nuclear cooperation between Republic of Korea (ROK) and DPRK. The principal elements to be included in the accord are the range of cooperation, the restriction within the peaceful uses, prior consent right in case of retransfer of important nuclear reactor components and of storage, transfer and changes of nuclear fuels, application of safeguards to the supplied Trigger list items, physical protection of nuclear material, requirement of the return of nuclear equipment and materials, and restriction right for the suspension or termination of the agreement. (author). 40 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  19. 31 CFR 500.533 - Exportations, reexportations, and incidental transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.533 Exportations..., software, or technology (including technical data) from the United States or reexportation of U.S.-origin goods, software, or technology from a foreign country to any person in a designated foreign country or...

  20. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  1. The role of the USNRC in power reactor exports. Legal and procedural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    I. Background on the role of NRC in nuclear export activities. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, created in January 1975 to assume the licensing and regulatory responsibilities of the former Atomic Energy Commission, has final licensing authority over US nuclear reactor exports. Independent of direct Presidential control, the Commission gives great weight to Executive Branch views on national security and foreign policy issues. II. The nuclear export review process. Procedures for NRC review of nuclear export licence applications include referral to the Executive Branch for a co-ordinated expression of agency views; analysis of the record by the NRC staff; and final Commission licensing decision based on consideration of safeguards, agreements and understandings to assure that US exports will be used only for their intended peaceful purposes. III. NRC's proposed export/import licensing regulations. NRC has recently proposed to consolidate and simplify all of its export and import licensing provisions into a new Part 110 for the convenience of the public - both US and foreign. IV. Public participation in nuclear reactor export licensing. In the past two years, after formal requests by domestic and foreign interest groups, the NRC has developed procedures for direct public participation in its export licensing proceedings. V. Statutory licensing requirements. During the past two years, the NRC has refined and particularized the extremely general 'common defence and security' standard for export licences set forth in the 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Eight questions routinely posed to the Executive Branch in reviewing licence applications has given content to Commission export decisions. Recently enacted non-proliferation legislation gives congressional recognition to even more specific, mandatory nuclear export licensing criteria

  2. IPPSO raises Hydro exports in smog negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO) requested federal and provincial committees negotiating atmospheric emission standards to review Ontario Hydro's export wheeling plans. IPPSO alleges that Ontario Hydro is preparing to apply pressure on the Canadian export approval process, and is building up a major effort that will increase emissions, contrary to the objectives embodied in a number of environment protection projects such as the Ontario Smog Plan, The Federal-Provincial NOx Management Plan, the Strategic Options Plan, or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Draft NOx Protocol Negotiations. IPPSO alleges further that while Ontario Hydro is one of Canada's largest single emitter of greenhouse gases NOx, and SO 2 , and as a public sector corporation it should be the most amenable to serving the public good, the Corporation is doing exactly the opposite: it actively prevents production of electricity from less polluting sources. It is IPPSO's contention that Ontario Hydro's desire to control the Ontario market could come at significant cost to the environment

  3. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  4. Understanding China's renewable energy technology exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don

    2013-01-01

    China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.

  5. Will Exports Prevail over Austerity?

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Kazimierz Laski; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Sandor Richter; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2010-01-01

    The Central, East and Southeast European (CESEE) economies will experience on average a minor rebound of economic growth to 1% in 2010 which will speed up to 2.5% in 2011 and 3.5% in 2012. GDP growth will be higher in the CIS countries and in Turkey, about average in the Central European NMS and lower in the SEE countries and the Baltics. Growth is currently driven mostly by exports which should outweigh the dampening effects of the austerity measures. Whether the countries will actually bene...

  6. A perspective on energy exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, A.J.

    1983-06-01

    Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business

  7. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  8. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  9. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  10. Export Failure and its Consequences: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to argue that exporting is a risky endeavor and that there are consequences to export failure. Exporters pay high fixed costs to enter foreign markets, yet the majority will not export beyond one year. What happens to these exporters after they fail abroad? For these firms, exporting likely resulted in heavy profit losses. Despite this, trade literature often views exporting as a harmless exercise based on a simple cost-benefit analysis of foreign profits. ...

  11. Export dynamics and sales at home

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt

    2012-01-01

    How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...

  12. Vertical integration, disintegration and ability to export

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Giampaolo; Vici, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature on trade has emphasized the role of firms' heterogeneities in export performance and trade specialization of countries (Melitz, 2003; Melitz and Ottaviano, 2005). Exporting seems to be a strategy available only to most efficient and productive firms even in a framework with transport costs and no reciprocal dumping. We do not know much about the internal organization of these smarter companies which are exporting part of their production. However, from related theoretical (H...

  13. Nuclear exportation and importation - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author proposes to set up a working group which should be responsible for the compilation of laws, procedures, and national policies for the nuclear importation and exportation in the supplying and receiving countries. Shared international views would simplify the flow of imports and exports between the countries. The author describes the different phases of exportation and importation of nuclear material are processed in her country, Brazil. (CW) [de

  14. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  15. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  16. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  17. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCardle, J.J.

    1981-06-01

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  18. The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Boewer; Vasiliki Michou; Christoph Ungerer

    2014-01-01

    Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall. Using a rich dataset of bilateral value-added exports of goods and services of 39 exporters and 56 importers for 18 sectors, we first estimate that Greece exports ? less than what regular international trade patterns would predict on basis of Greek GDP, the size o...

  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  20. Export Margins, Price and Quantity of Belarus’s Export Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otamurodov Shavkat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.

  1. 75 FR 70905 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: December 9, 2010 at 9 a.m. (EST). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... trade and report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding U.S...

  2. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...] Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and.... SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for Veterinary Services animal quarantine and other..., organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification of plants...

  3. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Ali Amirnazmi, Register 63302-066, FCI... release and forfeit $81,277.37. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...

  4. Scheme to reward microgenerators exporting excess electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier

  5. Determinants of export demand and their stability in Ghana | Osei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the study examines the factors that determine export demand in Ghana for the period 1970 to 2011. Using Johansen cointegration methodology, export demand is cointegrated with real effective exchange rate, domestic export prices, world export prices and real world income. The export demand function exhibits ...

  6. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail or...

  7. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  8. Introduction to Technology Export License of Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hana; Lee, Chansuh; Shin, Donghoon

    2014-01-01

    In this regime, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) has authority on final decision making. And the Korea Institute of Nuclear nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has missions to review the classification and export licensing technically. In principle, classification and export licensing are applied and reviewed individually. However, the number of application for classification and licensing has increased geometrically in the last three years. This is largely a due to the contract that the Republic of Korea (ROK) has finalized to build the UAE Barakah Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) and Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR). This circumstance brought an administrative burden for the government and related institutes as well as stakeholders. This article introduces the law related to the 'Technology Export License of Nuclear Facility' which was developed and legislated to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of commodities classification and export licensing. This system could significantly reduce the licensing burden for transferring the technologies. However, the classification and license on this system are still requested when transferring the goods. Therefore, KINAC will continue to figure out the needs for the stakeholders and keep searching for solutions to problems inherent in the industry

  9. Introduction to Technology Export License of Nuclear Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hana; Lee, Chansuh; Shin, Donghoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this regime, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) has authority on final decision making. And the Korea Institute of Nuclear nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has missions to review the classification and export licensing technically. In principle, classification and export licensing are applied and reviewed individually. However, the number of application for classification and licensing has increased geometrically in the last three years. This is largely a due to the contract that the Republic of Korea (ROK) has finalized to build the UAE Barakah Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) and Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR). This circumstance brought an administrative burden for the government and related institutes as well as stakeholders. This article introduces the law related to the 'Technology Export License of Nuclear Facility' which was developed and legislated to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of commodities classification and export licensing. This system could significantly reduce the licensing burden for transferring the technologies. However, the classification and license on this system are still requested when transferring the goods. Therefore, KINAC will continue to figure out the needs for the stakeholders and keep searching for solutions to problems inherent in the industry.

  10. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  12. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  13. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  14. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  15. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... counsel, Gormley has indicated that he does not intend to contest BIS's decision to deny his export..., selling, delivering, storing, disposing of, forwarding, transporting, financing, or otherwise servicing in... Regulations that has been or will be exported from the United States, including financing or other support...

  16. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  17. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  18. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  19. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  20. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in...

  1. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  2. Export versus domestic market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs

  3. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the Secretary...

  4. Macroeconomic Effects of Export Demand in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Adesola Adesoye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of aggregate export demand in Nigeria using annual time series data between 1970 and 2013. The paper made use of the ordinary least square method to analyse the long-run relationship for the period under study. The empirical results confirm that there exists a unique and significant long-run equilibrium relationship among export volume, world income, crude oil price, domestic output, exchange rate and cost of doing business. The estimated results show that domestic income has the highest elasticity, followed by world’s output and cost of doing business, which all report positive relations. Other macroeconomic factors reported negative relationship with aggregate export volume. Thus, an important policy implication of our findings is that stabilizing Nigeria’s export earnings potential by counteracting the external factors that influence adversely the Nigerian exports such as crude oil price and cost of doing business.

  5. Exports and economic growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodly Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.

  6. Exporting nuclear engineering and the industry's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de

  7. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... to amend an Export [[Page 72325

  8. Gender and export activities of entrepreneurs in Spain; Gnero y actividad exportadora de los emprendedores en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Pernia, J. L.; Martiarena Arrizabalaga, A.; Pena Legazkue, I.

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the effect of gender on the propensity and intensity to export among early stage entrepreneurs, as well as the differences by gender on the factors explaining the export behaviour of entrepreneurs. The study sample includes 1.247 observations, representing entrepreneurs identified in the Global Entrepreneur ship Monitor (GEM) project over the 2005- 2006 period. Results show that, after controlling for a number of factors that determine export orientation, while there is no gender difference on the propensity to export, differences arise when the export intensity is tested. We find that some significant factors determining exporting activities of male entrepreneurs are non-significant for their female counterparts, and vice versa. (Author) 88 refs.

  9. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  10. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  11. How Important is Export-Platform FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...

  12. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  13. The export of China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The article first introduces the meaning of nuclear power export, and then analyses the advantages of China nuclear industry based on the status and development of this industry. At the same time. the collection of nuclear development for the next 30 years of several nations in south-east Asia, south Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America is compiled, which could be a valuable reference for foreseeing nuclear power export market. Finally, as the situation throughout the world is considered, some suggestions are made that what else could be done for future development and export. (author)

  14. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  15. The Competitiveness of Romanian Services Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Grigorovici

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania carried on significant progresses in its intercession to fetch up the gaps towards the European Union concerning the services compartment, the balance of those being of almost 10% from the total Romanian export, during the first semester of 2007. In 2006, the export of services increased with 45% comparatively to the year before, consolidating the status of our country as a services exporter. The IT left its mark on the structure and organizing method of the tertiary compartment and ameliorated the form in which the services were performed in the context of enhanced electronic transfers.

  16. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  17. 31 CFR 585.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). 585.205 Section 585.205 Money and Finance... exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including technical data or other information controlled for export...

  18. Has the Internet Increased Exports for Firms from Low and Middle-Income Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators have suggested that the internet is one of the forces driving globalization. This paper assesses one aspect of these claims, looking at whether internet access appears to affect the export performance using data from enterprises in low and middle-income economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The paper finds a strong correlation between exporting and internet access at the enterprise level. Moreover, this correlation remains after controlling factors that might affect ...

  19. Promoting exports in the energy technology area; Foerderung des Exports im Bereich der Energietechnologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W. [Fraunhofer Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion.

  20. Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export Performance of Firms in ... and for determining influence between interval level variables, respectively. ... Enhancing product adaptation and use of foreign strategic partnerships by ...

  1. Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  2. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open...; understanding best value in government procurement; de minimis reform; intellectual property protections in the...

  3. Safety and exportation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudray, M.; Perrais, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Safety problems arising from exportation are especially handled through the French exportation of PWR stations. Regulations differ widely from one country to another. However, very large use of American regulations is made and frequently there is a tendency to harden such or such clause in the quotation. Industry must be ready to give satisfaction to such demands of customers. Sometimes also, it is a mere duplication of French stations which is above all looked for. In that case, it is the problem of using French regulations abroad which arises. Desirable changes in examination proceedings are analyzed together with a French regulation effort aiming to make easier the promotion of their use abroad. Finally, safety may be a factor of success for exportation attempts. It is shown how useless some outbiddings may be, but also how, on the contrary, speeding up of research and development effort towards specific safety problems in case of exportation, is to be promoted [fr

  4. 1986 imports and exports of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft), on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety, of the imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples, and sealed emitters of more than 1850 GBq show an enormous increase by 152.7% of imports (on the basis of activity) and a decline by 19.5% of exports. In the category of imports, some 98% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Co-60, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, the imports of Co-60 have trebled. In the exports category, more than 95% of the total activity were made up of the H-3, Mo-99, and Ir-192 nuclides. In the category of sealed emitters, exports of Cs-137 experienced a fourfold increase over the level of the previous year. (orig.) [de

  5. An Export Promotion Policy after Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Korean government puts in place various export support policies after the financial crisis, Korean export is still in stagnation because the foreign-oriented economic conditions, such as the continual ripple effect of the Eastern Asia financial crisis and the American economy which is slowing down, are deteriorating. After the financial crisis, Korean trading circle considered the difficulties in financing and the buying of raw material to be the most important factors which blocked the export. This thesis first analyzed the change of the actual export results, then analyzed the policy the government brought forward as the solution of the difficulties in financing and raw material buying. Meanwhile, this thesis brought forward alternative policies like taking auto-rediscount and signing Free Trade Agreement with major trade states.

  6. How the Eximbank helps US nuclear exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The way in which the Export-Import Bank operates in support of the United States nuclear industry noting particularly its flexibility in responding to changing needs and budget constraints is described. (author)

  7. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  8. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  9. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  10. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  11. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  12. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  13. 77 FR 69591 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... meeting to deliberate on recommendations related to export expansion through streamlined consideration of.../peccomments.asp ) without change, including any business or personal information provided such as names...

  14. Renewables and exports: how Export Credit Agencies could help develop markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, G.; Salter, L.

    2002-01-01

    Future export markets for renewable energies have enormous potential, yet business-as-usual investment trends will not achieve that potential, write Giulio Volpi and Liam Salter. They examine the role that Export Credit Agencies - which have provided essential support for exports in the conventional energy business - could play in aiding the renewables sector, characterized as it is by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This new role will require certain reforms - but without those reforms the Export Credit Agencies will simply not be providing relevant services to new technologies and new market players. (author)

  15. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  16. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  17. 75 FR 29514 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... new Export Markets, such as advertising and trade shows. 6. ALCC may, for itself and on behalf of its...: a. Sales and marketing efforts, and activities and opportunities for sales of Export Product in Export Markets, including but not limited to selling strategies and pricing, projected demand for Export...

  18. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  19. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  20. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... system for collection of export data for the Department of State. In accordance with this subchapter U.S...

  1. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.470 Section 1493.470... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.470 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The...

  2. 9 CFR 322.3 - Transferring products for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  4. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  5. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported, unless...

  6. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.80 Section 1493.80... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103...

  9. How can we reduce phosphorus export from lowland polders? Implications from a sensitivity analysis of a coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Yan, Renhua

    2016-08-15

    Phosphorus (P) export from lowland polders has caused severe water pollution. Numerical models are an important resource that help water managers control P export. This study coupled three models, i.e., Phosphorus Dynamic model for Polders (PDP), Integrated Catchments model of Phosphorus dynamics (INCA-P) and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), to describe the P dynamics in polders. Based on the coupled models and a dataset collected from Polder Jian in China, sensitivity analysis were carried out to analyze the cause-effect relationships between environmental factors and P export from Polder Jian. The sensitivity analysis results showed that P export from Polder Jian were strongly affected by air temperature, precipitation and fertilization. Proper fertilization management should be a strategic priority for reducing P export from Polder Jian. This study demonstrated the success of model coupling, and its application in investigating potential strategies to support pollution control in polder systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY AT SMALL EXPORT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Di Diego Antunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the main internationalization strategies used by small manufacturers of hammocks. Our findings show that these export companies have up to 20 employees and their main internationalization strategy is exportation. This plan is carried out in 3 ways: indirect exportation, through trading companies; direct exportation, through sales performed in the companies and cooperative exportation, through a network of dealers in greater companies. Its was also verified that some organizations export up to 60% of their products while the vast majority does not even export 5% of it, turning primarily to the domestic market.

  11. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. A. Fontoura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses.

  12. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  13. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2003-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  14. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  15. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY AT SMALL EXPORT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Di Diego Antunes; Joysinett Moraes Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the main internationalization strategies used by small manufacturers of hammocks. Our findings show that these export companies have up to 20 employees and their main internationalization strategy is exportation. This plan is carried out in 3 ways: indirect exportation, through trading companies; direct exportation, through sales performed in the companies and cooperative exportation, through a network of dealers in greater companies. Its was also veri...

  16. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exports and experts:proliferation risks from the new Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Ironically, given the Cold War history and Western stereotypes about Soviet misbehavior, the long-standing experience of US-Soviet cooperation on nonproliferation may have made US policy-makers less attentive to, and less concerned about, signs of change in Soviet nuclear export policy. The breakup of the Soviet Union and the nuclear inheritance of its successor states belatedly focused Western attention on the proliferation risks posed by the disintegration of central authority. Most concern to date, however, has continued to emphasize the problems of nuclear command and control. But the nonproliferation threats associated with the unregulated export of sensitive nuclear material, technology, and equipment may be equally great, and present problems that are already real. At the same time, the new nation-building process in the Soviet successor states presents opportunities for expanding the NPT and international safeguards, containing the nuclear brain drain, promoting the cleanup of hazardous nuclear waste, enhancing international capabilities for monitoring proliferation, and building new communities of nonproliferation specialists. A rare occasion now exists for Western policy-makers to have a direct impact on the long-term nuclear export and non-proliferation behavior of the successor states to the Soviet Union. The speed and seriousness with which the West undertakes this task will largely determine how much ground, if any, will be lost from its decades-long effort to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons

  18. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most

  19. 75 FR 52929 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss... how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: September 16, 2010 at 9:30 a.m. (EDT). ADDRESSES... trade and report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding U.S...

  20. 78 FR 12719 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... deliberate on recommendations related to promoting the expansion of U.S. exports. Topics may include the Administration's ``Doing Business in Africa'' campaign, the need for nominations to the U.S. Export- Import Bank.../pec ) without change, including any business or personal information provided such as names, addresses...

  1. 75 FR 54857 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members; Date Extension Summary: The... Subcommittee will not be compensated for their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with...

  2. Superstar Exporters: An Empirical Investigation of Strategic Interactions in Danish Export Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    , product and destination. We also obtain detailed information on applied, preferential tariff protection from the MAcMap-HS6 database. We find evidence of strong negative competitive effects of entry: in the absence of strategic competitive effects, firms would be 54.3 percentage points more likely...... to export to a given market. Next, we run two counterfactual exercises. We show that failing to account for the strategic interaction among superstar exporters leads to: (i) overstating the probability that firms would start exporting to a market following tariff elimination by 8 percentage points; and, (ii......) overstating the probability that firms would stop exporting to a market if tariffs were imposed by 7.5 percentage points. We also show that competitive effects vary across export markets and competitors. This heterogeneity in the competitive effects implies that there exist multiple equilibria, both...

  3. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Final argument on regulation of electricity exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro addresses the request of the National Energy Board review that parties comment on the broader question of the need for federal regulation in electricity exports and the objectives which underlie the view expressed. Electricity exports benefit Canadian sellers and U.S. purchasers as well the Canadian economy in general. There is a clear consensus that these benefits exist and should be realized, but the evidence indicates that there is no consensus on how the benefits can best be distributed within Canada. The divergent views expressed by interested parties from across Canada clearly demonstrate the complexity associated with determining the overall Canadian interest and that there is a need for a balancing of these interests by a federal body. The regulation of electricity exports is clearly a matter of international commerce and Ontario Hydro submitted that the Constitution Act deems the province incompetent to regulate the export of electricity from Canada. Ontario Hydro submitted that a federal body is required in the regulation of electricity exports to protect the broader Canadian interest.

  5. Wood Export and Deposition Dynamics in Mountain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Anne Elizabeth

    Wood dynamics that store, transport, break down, and ultimately export wood pieces through watershed networks are key elements of stream complexity and ecosystem health. Efforts to quantify wood processes are advancing rapidly as technological innovations in field data collection, remotely sensed data acquisition, and data analyses become increasingly sophisticated. The ability to extend the temporal and spatial scales of wood data acquisition has been particularly useful to the investigations presented herein. The primary contributions of this dissertation are focused on two aspects of wood dynamics: watershed-scale wood export processes as identified using the depositional environment of a mountain reservoir, and wood deposition mechanisms in a bedrock-dominated mountain river. Three chapters present this work: In Chapter 1, continuous video monitoring of wood in transport revealed seasonal and diurnal hydrologic cycle influences on the variable rates at which wood transports. This effort supports the efficacy of utilizing continuous data collection methods for wood transport studies. Annual wood export data were collected via field efforts and aerial image analyses from New Bullards Bar Reservoir on the North Yuba River, Sierra Nevada, California. Examination of data revealed linkages between decadal-scale climatic patterns, large flood events, and episodic wood export quantities. A watershed-specific relation between wood export quantities and annual peak discharge contributes to the notion that peak discharge is a primary control on wood export, and yielded prediction of annual wood export quantities where no data were available. Linkages between seasonality, climatic components, and hydrologic events that exert variable control on watershed scale wood responses are presented as a functional framework. An accompanying conceptual model supports the framework presumption that wood responses are influenced by seasonal variations in Mediterranean-montane climate

  6. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  7. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  8. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  9. Should Australia mine and export uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, M.; Broadbent, Steve.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, the case for and against the mining and export of Australian uranium is discussed. For those in favour of uranium export, the nuclear energy, a source of energy which could bring a much needed boost to Australian export and employment, is being stifled by specious 'scare tactics' about the danger and misuse of uranium. It is also shown that uranium is the only feasible energy source, being cheaper, safer and cleaner when compared with other energy sources. Meanwhile, the opponents of nuclear energy, argue that uranium mining is environmentally destructive, is a danger to workers and residents health, it is bad for economy and it provides raw materials for nuclear weapons. 2 tabs

  10. Direct Evidence on Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Belderbos, Rene

    2014-01-01

    learning and export learning – an issue that has been ignored in prior studies. Learning from foreign customers is more prevalent than learning from foreign competitors. Firms’ underlying innovation strategy appears as an important moderator of the propensity to learn and of the relationship between......We examine first direct evidence on the occurrence of learning by exporting, using unique survey data for German innovating firms on the role of (foreign) customers and competitors as sources of ideas and impetus for innovation. Export intensive firms frequently benefit simultaneously from domestic...... learning and innovativeness. Firms adopting a strategy of technology leadership more often exhibit effective learning from diverse foreign customers and this learning is strongly associated with innovative sales – but mostly so if combined with domestic customer learning. In contrast, firms that have...

  11. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs

  12. Multiple Export Mechanisms for mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaleau, Mildred; Borden, Katherine L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear mRNA export plays an important role in gene expression. We describe the mechanisms of mRNA export including the importance of mRNP assembly, docking with the nuclear basket of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), transit through the central channel of the NPC and cytoplasmic release. We describe multiple mechanisms of mRNA export including NXF1 and CRM1 mediated pathways. Selective groups of mRNAs can be preferentially transported in order to respond to cellular stimuli. RNAs can be selected based on the presence of specific cis-acting RNA elements and binding of specific adaptor proteins. The role that dysregulation of this process plays in human disease is also discussed. PMID:26343730

  13. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  14. Energy efficiency and exporting: Evidence from firm-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Jayjit; Yasar, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    While exporting firms and non-exporters have been compared across several dimensions, empirical comparisons on the basis of environmental performance are relatively few. Moreover, analyzing the environmental implications of firm-level exports is not trivial due to non-random selection into exporting. In this light, we examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency by resorting to an instrumental variables strategy based on a differencing approach (Pitt and Rosenzweig, 1990). Utilizing data from Indonesia, we find (i) exporting to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity) and (ii) concerns over endogeneity of exporting status to be relevant. - Highlights: • We examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency. • We employ cost share equations, firm-level data from Indonesia, and an instrumental variables strategy. • Exporting is found to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity).

  15. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Charnaud

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins.

  16. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; Dixon, Matthew W. A.; Nie, Catherine Q.; Chappell, Lia; Sanders, Paul R.; Nebl, Thomas; Hanssen, Eric; Berriman, Matthew; Chan, Jo-Anne; Blanch, Adam J.; Beeson, James G.; Rayner, Julian C.; Przyborski, Jude M.; Tilley, Leann; Crabb, Brendan S.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins. PMID:28732045

  17. Forecasting of exported volume for brazilian fruits by time series analysis: an arima/garch approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdinardo Moreira Barreto de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to offer econometric forecasting models to the Brazilian exported volume fruits, with a view to assisting the planning and production control, also motivated by the existence of a few published papers dealing with this issue. In this sense, it was used the ARIMA/GARCH models, considering, likewise, the occurrence of a multiplicative stochastic seasonality in these series. They were collected 300 observations of exported net weight (kg between Jan/1989 and Dec/2013 of the following fruits: pineapple, banana, orange, lemon, apple, papaya, mango, watermelon, melon and grape, which selection criteria was its importance in the exported basket fruit, because they represented 97% of total received dollars, and 99% of total volume sold in 2010, of a population about 28 kinds of exported fruits. The results showed that it was not only observed the existence of a 12 month multiplicative seasonality in banana and mango. On the other hand, they were identified two fruits groups: (1 those which are continuously exported, and (2 those which have export peaks. On the quality of the models, they were considered satisfactory for six of the ten fruits analyzed. On the volatility, it was seen a high persistence in banana and papaya series, pointing to the existence of a structural break in time series, which could be linked to the economic crises happened in the last 17 years.

  18. Quantifying export production in the Southern Ocean: Implications for the Baxs proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Maria T.; Mills, Rachel A.; Planquette, HéLèNe; Pancost, Richard D.; Hepburn, Laura; Salter, Ian; Fitzgeorge-Balfour, Tania

    2011-12-01

    The water column and sedimentary Baxs distribution around the Crozet Plateau is used to decipher the controls and timing of barite formation and to evaluate how export production signals are recorded in sediments underlying a region of natural Fe fertilization within the Fe limited Southern Ocean. Export production estimated from preserved, vertical sedimentary Baxs accumulation rates are compared with published export fluxes assessed from an integrated study of the biological carbon pump to determine the validity of Baxs as a quantitative proxy under different Fe supply conditions typical of the Southern Ocean. Detailed assessment of the geochemical partitioning of Ba in sediments and the lithogenic end-member allows appropriate correction of the bulk Ba content and determination of the Baxs content of sediments and suspended particles. The upper water column distribution of Baxs is extremely heterogeneous spatially and temporally. Organic carbon/Baxs ratios in deep traps from the Fe fertilized region are similar to other oceanic settings allowing quantification of the inferred carbon export based on established algorithms. There appears to be some decoupling of POC and Ba export in the Fe limited region south of the Plateau. The export production across the Crozet Plateau inferred from the Baxs sedimentary proxy indicates that the Fe fertilized area to the north of the Plateau experiences enhanced export relative to equivalent Southern Ocean settings throughout the Holocene and that this influence may also have impacted the site to the south for significant periods. This interpretation is corroborated by alternative productivity proxies (opal accumulation, 231Paxs/230Thxs). Baxs can be used to quantify export production in complex settings such as naturally Fe-fertilized (volcanoclastic) areas, providing appropriate lithogenic correction is undertaken, and sediment focusing is corrected for along with evaluation of barite preservation.

  19. Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry

    2011-09-29

    This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An

  20. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  1. In Vitro Reconstitution of Functional Type III Protein Export and Insights into Flagellar Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Tatsumi, Chinatsu; Namba, Keiichi; Minamino, Tohru; Imada, Katsumi

    2018-06-26

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) forms the functional core of injectisomes, protein transporters that allow bacteria to deliver virulence factors into their hosts for infection, and flagella, which are critical for many pathogens to reach the site of infection. In spite of intensive genetic and biochemical studies, the T3SS protein export mechanism remains unclear due to the difficulty of accurate measurement of protein export in vivo Here, we developed an in vitro flagellar T3S protein transport assay system using an inverted cytoplasmic membrane vesicle (IMV) for accurate and controlled measurements of flagellar protein export. We show that the flagellar T3SS in the IMV fully retains export activity. The flagellar hook was constructed inside the lumen of the IMV by adding purified component proteins externally to the IMV solution. We reproduced the hook length control and export specificity switch in the IMV consistent with that seen in the native cell. Previous in vivo analyses showed that flagellar protein export is driven by proton motive force (PMF) and facilitated by ATP hydrolysis by FliI, a T3SS-specific ATPase. Our in vitro assay recapitulated these previous in vivo observations but furthermore clearly demonstrated that even ATP hydrolysis by FliI alone can drive flagellar protein export. Moreover, this assay showed that addition of the FliH 2 /FliI complex to the assay solution at a concentration similar to that in the cell dramatically enhanced protein export, confirming that the FliH 2 /FliI complex in the cytoplasm is important for effective protein transport. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is the functional core of the injectisome, a bacterial protein transporter used to deliver virulence proteins into host cells, and bacterial flagella, critical for many pathogens. The molecular mechanism of protein transport is still unclear due to difficulties in accurate measurements of protein transport under well-controlled conditions in

  2. Main health risks associated with Moroccan fishery products exported to European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The export of fishery products constitutes a very significant axis of the exchanges with certain countries, especially the countries of the European Union (EU. In Morocco, the exported fish products are controlled by the veterinarians of the National Office of the Health Security of Food products (NOHSF according to a procedure which is based on documentary control, identity and physical control and possibly analytical control. This control is complemented by monitoring plans. Currently, the product control has become a more demanding task due to the significant volume of fish production, the lack of means and human resources, hence the need for a novel approach to the control of fishery products based on risk analysis, which involves the establishment of appropriate controls aiming at guaranteeing that the products are safe. The objective of this work is the hierarchization of the main health risks associated to the fishery products exported to EU countries by Morocco. This approach is based on an overall analysis and statistical analysis using principal components analysis (PCA of the health profile of the notifications of the Rapid Alert System for the foodstuffs and feeding stuffs (RASFF from 1981 to 2015. This work allowed the development of a criticality matrix which specifies the health profile of species of products exported to EU countries via Morocco according to species, of danger and type of product. The control of fishery products based on risk analysis is a very important approach for the Moroccan competent authority.

  3. A mechanistic model of an upper bound on oceanic carbon export as a function of mixed layer depth and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Export production reflects the amount of organic matter transferred from the ocean surface to depth through biological processes. This export is in large part controlled by nutrient and light availability, which are conditioned by mixed layer depth (MLD. In this study, building on Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, we derive a mechanistic model of an upper bound on carbon export based on the metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration as a function of MLD and temperature. We find that the upper bound is a positively skewed bell-shaped function of MLD. Specifically, the upper bound increases with deepening mixed layers down to a critical depth, beyond which a long tail of decreasing carbon export is associated with increasing heterotrophic activity and decreasing light availability. We also show that in cold regions the upper bound on carbon export decreases with increasing temperature when mixed layers are deep, but increases with temperature when mixed layers are shallow. A meta-analysis shows that our model envelopes field estimates of carbon export from the mixed layer. When compared to satellite export production estimates, our model indicates that export production in some regions of the Southern Ocean, particularly the subantarctic zone, is likely limited by light for a significant portion of the growing season.

  4. US coal industry seeks export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Problems encountered in the expansion of the USA export market for coal are discussed, including: lack of port facilities to handle bulk coal shipments; inadequate rail facilities and the already high costs; and delays caused by complex legislation. Solutions to the problem of ports are suggested, and also the advantages of coal export expansion with respect to industry as a whole and unemployment. Details of projects on the Canton Railroad and the terminal in Baltimore are given. Views of the American Association of Port Authorities on navigation are expressed.

  5. ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GARMENT EXPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mina

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese garment export sector. The Chinese garment industry has been an economic pillar ever since the open-door policy and economic reforms of the country took effect in 1979. Earnings from apparel exports have been a major source of foreign revenue. The industry has thus developed and played a vital role in the growth of China?s foreign trade and economic development although some signs of slackened vigour have been revealed recently. To assess the threats and opport...

  6. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  7. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task......The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control...

  8. Advancing understanding of the fluvial export of organic matter through high-resolution profiling of dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Drew, S.; Gilvear, D.; Murray, H.; Heal, K.

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying the natural variation (complexity) of a system remains an enduring scientific challenge in better understanding controls on surface water quality. This characterisation is needed in order to reveal controlling processes, such as dilution, and also to identify unusual load profiles. In trying to capture that natural variation we still rely largely on concentration time series (and associated export budgets) generated from manual spot sampling, or from samples collected by autosamplers - approaches which are unlikely to provide the high temporal resolution of parameter concentration required. Now however, advances in sensor technology are helping us address this challenge. Here we present detailed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export profiles from a small upland river (9.4 km sq.), generated since June 2011 by semi-continuous logging of UV-vis absorption (200-750 nm, every 2.5 nm) every 30 minutes. Observed increases in the concentration of the DOC, [DOC], in freshwaters have prompted significant research to understand the cause and consequences of increased export: higher levels of DOC require additional water purification of potable sources; increased aquatic export may represent a reduction in terrestrial C-soil sequestration; changes in light penetration can affect the heterotrophic / autotrophic balance in surface waters and this has consequences for the food web structure; increased aquatic export may also result in increased carbon dioxide evasion. Additionally, C export is often linked to nutrient export: we have observed statistically significant stoichiometric relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations, thus understanding better this parameters offers insight into export of other nutrient and the source of material from which these dissolved compounds are produced; this may be particulate. Our Scottish study site is interesting because there are multiple processes that can contribute to DOC and other nutrient

  9. 78 FR 61951 - Order Making Denial of Export Privileges Applicable to a Related Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ..., BIS engaged in communications with Loong through his representative, while never receiving an answer... are controlled for anti-terrorism reasons, from a U.S. company without informing that company of the... required to export to Iran items subject to control for anti-terrorism reasons, including items listed...

  10. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  12. 78 FR 58995 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... computers from the United States to Iran in violation of the embargo imposed upon that country by the United... submission from Kazerani. Based upon my review and consultations with BIS's Office of Export Enforcement... at the time of his conviction. Accordingly, it is hereby Ordered I. Until January 30, 2018, Iman...

  13. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using...

  14. Know-how and nuclear exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, A.

    1978-01-01

    The concrete content of nuclear know-how is defined, and the present position as to the exchange of know-how is discussed. The new forms which may be taken by this know-how are considered and the results which may be expected from a know-how transfer (both for the exporting and the importing countries) are related [fr

  15. France intends to raise electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotelueschen, M.; Boiteux.

    1986-01-01

    In this interview with the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Electricite de France (EdF), the promotion of nuclear power in France, the chances on the export sector, and the structure of electric power supply are discussed and compared with the situation in West Germany. (UA) [de

  16. Subcellular sites for bacterial protein export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, Nathalie; Tjalsma, Harold; Buist, Girbe; Stepniak, Dariusz; Meijer, Michel; Veenhuis, Marten; Westermann, Martin; Müller, Jörg P.; Bron, Sierd; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Jongbloed, Jan D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Most bacterial proteins destined to leave the cytoplasm are exported to extracellular compartments or imported into the cytoplasmic membrane via the highly conserved SecA-YEG pathway. In the present studies, the subcellular distributions of core components of this pathway, SecA and SecY, and of the

  17. Subcellular sites for bacterial protein export.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campo, N.; Tjalsma, H.; Buist, G.; Stepniak, D.; Meijer, M.; Veenhuis, M.; Westermann, M.; Muller, J.P.; Bron, S.; Kok, J.; Kuipers, O.P.; Jongbloed, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Most bacterial proteins destined to leave the cytoplasm are exported to extracellular compartments or imported into the cytoplasmic membrane via the highly conserved SecA-YEG pathway. In the present studies, the subcellular distributions of core components of this pathway, SecA and SecY, and of the

  18. Exporting vector muscles for facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.D.; Butz, Andreas; Kruger, Antonio; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Olivier, Patrick; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method of exporting vector muscles from one 3D face to another for facial animation. Starting from a 3D face with an extended version of Waters’ linear muscle system, we transfer the linear muscles to a target 3D face.We also transfer the region division, which is used

  19. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions of o...

  20. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES... government, a benefit does not exist if the Secretary determines that the activities consist of general...